Sample records for blowout preventers

  1. 30 CFR 250.516 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance.


    ... Well-Completion Operations § 250.516 Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. (a... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. 250.516 Section 250.516 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen


    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. PMID:21889767


    Jozsef Szepesi


    Full Text Available Described is horizontal drilling in the world and data on such activity in Hungary. Results show that there is an increase of such activity in spite of complex problems in drilling and completion of horizontal wells. Since these wells are often drilled in partialy exhausted hydrocarbon fluid reservoirs with slightly over-balanced or even with under-balanced conditions, there is an increased danger of blowouts. Prevention methods and suggested procedures are elaborated.


    Jozsef Szepesi


    Described is horizontal drilling in the world and data on such activity in Hungary. Results show that there is an increase of such activity in spite of complex problems in drilling and completion of horizontal wells. Since these wells are often drilled in partialy exhausted hydrocarbon fluid reservoirs with slightly over-balanced or even with under-balanced conditions, there is an increased danger of blowouts. Prevention methods and suggested procedures are elaborated.

  5. Reliability Analysis of Blowout Preventer Systems: A comparative study of electro-hydraulic vs. all-electric BOP technology

    Drægebø, Elisabeth


    A blowout preventer (BOP) is a large valve used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells. It serves as an important barrier against blowouts. Excessive downtime on the BOP is a problem for drilling companies worldwide, which causes increased costs and delays for everyone involved in a drilling project. The background for this thesis is Odfjell Drilling’s experience with downtime on the BOP during drilling operations on board their mobile offshore drilling units. The downtime and as...

  6. Reliability Analysis of the Electrical Control System of Subsea Blowout Preventers Using Markov Models

    Liu, Zengkai; Liu, Yonghong; Cai, Baoping


    Reliability analysis of the electrical control system of a subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack is carried out based on Markov method. For the subsea BOP electrical control system used in the current work, the 3-2-1-0 and 3-2-0 input voting schemes are available. The effects of the voting schemes on system performance are evaluated based on Markov models. In addition, the effects of failure rates of the modules and repair time on system reliability indices are also investigated. PMID:25409010

  7. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Holand, P.


    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. Flamingwagon: Athey Wagon braves heat to aid oilpatch blowout response

    Leschart, M.


    Construction of an Athey wagon by Key Safety Ltd at the company's Red Deer, Alberta facilities is announced. At present, the wagon is awaiting only the installation of its fire-prevention system to be ready for action. The last such blowout response equipment was built in Alberta 40 years ago, and when Crestar Energy lost control of a horizontal sour well during a recent drilling in the Little Bow area, a unit built in 1954 and housed in a museum at the Leduc No. 1 historic site in Devon, Alberta, had to be pressed into service to deal with the emergency. While Athey wagons are not always essential to the blow-out control process, the addition of this new piece of well control safety equipment is welcome news, especially in the light of the new knowledge gained, and innovative processes and procedures developed by Canadian companies fighting oil field fires in Kuwait after the Gulf War.

  9. Risk assessment for SAGD well blowouts

    Worth, D.; Alhanati, F.; Lastiwka, M. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Crepin, S. [Petrocedeno, Caracas (Venezuela)


    This paper discussed a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) pilot project currently being conducted in Venezuela's Orinoco Belt. A risk assessment was conducted as part of the pilot program in order to evaluate the use of single barrier completions in conjunction with a blowout response plan. The study considered 3 options: (1) an isolated double barrier completion with a downhole safety valve (DHSV) in the production tubing string and a packer in the production casing annulus; (2) a partially isolated completion with no DHSV and a packer in the production casing annulus; and (3) an open single barrier completion with no additional downhole barriers. A reservoir model was used to assess the blowout flowing potential of SAGD well pairs. The probability of a blowout was estimated using fault tree analysis techniques. Risk was determined for various blowout scenarios, including blowouts during normal and workover operations, as well as blowouts through various flow paths. Total risk for each completion scenario was also determined at 3 different time periods within the production life of the well pair. The possible consequences of a blowout were assessed using quantitative consequence models. Results of the study showed that environmental and economic risks were much higher for the open completion technique. Higher risks were also associated with the earlier life of the completion strings. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 19 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the Customer Satisfaction Index for Wellhead Blowout Preventers of China's Petroleum Industry--A new method based on PLS%中国石油井口防喷器用户满意指数测评 --基于偏最小二乘法

    张鹏; 胡启国; 韩侠; 张斌


    This paper establishes an evaluation model of the customer satisfaction index for the wellhead blowout preventers of China's petroleum industry based on evaluation models of the customer satisfaction index at home and aboard, and by considering the consuming situation in China and the features of the China's petroleum industry. For the existence of: (1) multiple correlations among the factors in the model; (2) the variables need to be explained, but that are hard to observe; (3) the customer satisfaction degree of observation variables appears the shape of skewness or two or three peaks, the correlations between the satisfaction index and its factors cannot be described by common multiple regression. This paper uses a partial least squares (PLS) method based on principal components and typical correlative analysis to solve the problem. When PLS is used in the model of the customer satisfaction index of the wellhead blowout preventers, the latent variables and the explanation degree coefficient of the manifest variable to the corresponding latent variables are estimated by PLS path analysis, and the influencing coefficient among the latent variables in the model is estimated by PLS regression analysis. PLS is also be used to calculate and analyze the model and disclose the correlations among the structural variables as well as the correlation between structural variables and its corresponding observation variables, evaluating results of which provide useful information for petroleum industry to improve the product quality and to the enhancement of the customer satisfaction to the product.


    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event


    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Firenze, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Poletto, Giannina [INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Sterling, Alphonse C., E-mail: [Space Science Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Al 35812 (United States)


    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  13. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be constructed in a manner to allow functioning in a normal manner without burnout or blowout....

  14. Twist in a polar blowout jet

    Jun-Chao Hong; Yun-Chun Jiang; Jia-Yan Yang; Rui-Sheng Zheng; Yi Bi; Hai-Dong Li; Bo Yang


    It is well known that some coronal jets exhibit helical structures and untwisting.We attempt to inspect the origin of twist in a blowout jet.By means of multiwavelength and multi-angle observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A),we firstly report a polar untwisting jet that is a blowout jet which leads to a jet-like coronal mass ejection.From the viewpoint of SDO,the jet shows clear untwisting behavior and two jet-spires.However,from the viewpoint of STEREO-A the jet actually comes from the whiplike prominence eruption and is followed by a white-light jet.Our observations indicate that twist in blowout jets may result from the erupting mini-prominences/minifilaments in the jet base.

  15. Gas Well Blowout Kills 243 People


    @@ At least 243 people have been killed and scores of others poisoned in a devastating blowout at a natural gas field in Southwest China's Chongqing municipality on December 24. The accident happened at the Chuandongbei gas field in Kaixian county of Chongqing municipality.

  16. Organized investigation expedites insurance claims following a blowout

    Various types of insurance policies cover blowouts to different degrees, and a proper understanding of the incident and the coverage can expedite the adjustment process. Every well control incident, and the claim arising therefrom, has a unique set of circumstances which must be analyzed thoroughly. A blowout incident, no matter what size or how severe, can have an emotional impact on all who become involved. Bodily injuries or death of friends and coworkers can result in additional stress following a blowout. Thus, it is important that all parties involved remain mindful of sensitive matters when investigating a blowout. This paper reviews the definition of a blowout based on insurance procedures and claims. It reviews blowout expenses and contractor cost and accepted well control policies. Finally, it reviews the investigation procedures normally followed by an agent and the types of information requested from the operator

  17. Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Pruess, Karsten; Pan, Lehua; Finsterle, Stefan; Moridis, George J.


    In response to the urgent need for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondo well MC252-1 blowout, we assembled a small team and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using the TOUGH2 codes over two weeks in mid-2010. The conceptual model included the oil reservoir and the well with a top boundary condition located at the bottom of the blowout preventer. We developed a fluid properties module (Eoil) applicable to a simple two-phase and two-component oil-gas system. The flow o...

  18. Gastric blow-out: komplikation efter fedmekirurgi

    Torrens, Ayoe Sabrina; Born, Pernille Wolder; Naver, Lars


    Laparoscopic gastric bypass is the most common type of surgery for morbid obesity in Denmark. The most frequent late complications after gastric bypass are ulcer, internal hernia and stenosis. Two cases of stenosis of the bileopancreatic limb with gastric blow-out are described. Urgent diagnosis...... with computed tomography and acute surgical treatment is vital as the complication can lead to gastric necrosis, pancreatitis, biliary stasis, sepsis and multi-organ failure within a very short time. Prompt contact to specialized surgeons is advocated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Nov...

  19. Quantitative assessment of blowout data as it relates to pollution potential

    This paper reports on a large blowout database that has been developed. It has been analyzed for various trends and quantitative data relating to blowouts and pollution. Pollution from blowouts is a rate occurrence and has a low probability. However, when an event occurs, it may involve large spill volumes. Blowout trends have been analyzed for some well control purposes. Techniques to mitigate pollution damage from an offshore blowout are presented

  20. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Jason P. Wilke


    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.


    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop Hα macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T ∼ 104 - 105 K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  2. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Qingzhang Chen


    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  3. Oil deposition modeling for surface oil well blowouts

    Belore, R. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); McHale, J. [Alaska Clean Seas, Anchorage, AK (United States); Chapple, T. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK (United States)


    A project was conducted by Alaska Clean Seas to determine the likely fallout zone from a surface oil or gas well blowout, under specific conditions and blowout characteristics, for spill response planning purposes. A surface oil and gas blowout can cause a plume of oil droplets into the atmosphere near the discharge site. The place and rate at which the oil will fall to the ground depends on the following parameters: (1) the height to which the oil is propelled, (2) the size of the oil drops, and (3) the prevailing wind speed. A modeling method was presented for estimating the fallout width and rate as a function of distance from the source, for the range of oil and gas flows likely to occur in the Alaska North Slope operations. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. Oil deposition modeling for surface oil well blowouts

    A project was conducted by Alaska Clean Seas to determine the likely fallout zone from a surface oil or gas well blowout, under specific conditions and blowout characteristics, for spill response planning purposes. A surface oil and gas blowout can cause a plume of oil droplets into the atmosphere near the discharge site. The place and rate at which the oil will fall to the ground depends on the following parameters: (1) the height to which the oil is propelled, (2) the size of the oil drops, and (3) the prevailing wind speed. A modeling method was presented for estimating the fallout width and rate as a function of distance from the source, for the range of oil and gas flows likely to occur in the Alaska North Slope operations. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  5. 30 CFR 250.515 - Blowout prevention equipment.


    ... power source, independent from the primary power source, with sufficient capacity to close all BOP... remote BOP-control station and one BOP-control station on the rig floor. (5) A choke line and a kill line... 250.515 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND...

  6. Serum albumin is an important prognostic factor for carotid blowout syndrome

    Carotid blowout syndrome is a severe complication of head and neck cancer. High mortality and major neurologic morbidity are associated with carotid blowout syndrome with massive bleeding. Prediction of outcomes for carotid blowout syndrome patients is important for clinicians, especially for patients with the risk of massive bleeding. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011, 103 patients with carotid blowout syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into groups with and without massive bleeding. Prognostic factors were analysed with proportional hazard (Cox) regressions for carotid blowout syndrome-related prognoses. Survival analyses were based on the time from diagnosis of carotid blowout syndrome to massive bleeding and death. Patients with massive bleeding were more likely to have hypoalbuminemia (albumin1000 cells/μl, P=0.041) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.010) were important to prognosis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (P=0.007), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>250 U/l; P=0.050), local recurrence (P=0.022) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.038) were related to poor prognosis in carotid blowout syndrome-related death. In multivariate analysis, best supportive care and hypoalbuminemia were independent factors for both carotid blowout syndrome-related massive bleeding (P=0.000) and carotid blowout syndrome-related death (P=0.013), respectively. Best supportive care and serum albumin are important prognostic factors in carotid blowout syndrome. It helps clinicians to evaluate and provide better supportive care for these patients. (author)

  7. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of Los Alamos National Laboratory Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Jason P. Wilke


    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  8. Bow-tie model for offshore drilling blowout accident%海上钻井井喷事故的蝴蝶结模型

    薛鲁宁; 樊建春; 张来斌


    blowout prevention and control or mitigation measures. Finally, by applying the Deepwater Horizon blowout accident into this model, its effectiveness on analyzing offshore drilling blowout accident was verified.

  9. Modeling Blowouts During Drilling Using STAMP and STPA

    Budde, Silje Frost


    The focus of this master thesis has been on modeling the risk of blowouts during drilling using System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) and System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The world and technology are changing, but these changes are not reflected in our safety engineering approaches. Many of the basic assumptions of traditional techniques no longer hold for complex, high-technical systems being built today. STAMP is a new model based on systems theory rather than relia...

  10. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    Gohlke, Julia M.; Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy


    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives:...

  11. Positron acceleration in doughnut wakefields in the blowout regime

    Vieira, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis


    Most important plasma acceleration results were reached in the so called bubble or blowout regime. Although ideally suited for electron acceleration, it has been recognized that non-linear regimes are not adequate to accelerate positrons. New configurations enabling positron acceleration in non-linear regimes would therefore open new research paths for future plasma based collider configurations. In this work, we explore, analytically and through 3D OSIRIS simulations, a novel configuration for positron acceleration in strongly non-linear laser wakefield excitation regimes using Laguerre-Gaussian laser drivers to drive doughnut shaped wakefields with positron focusing and accelerating fields. We demonstrate that positron focusing-fields can be up to an order of magnitude larger than electron focusing in the spherical blowout regime. The amplitude of the accelerating fields is similar to the spherical blowout. Simulations demonstrate laser self-guiding and stable positron acceleration until the laser energy has been exhausted to the plasma. Other realisations of the scheme, using two Gaussian laser pulses, will also be explored. FCT Grant No EXPL/FIS-PLA/0834/2012 and European Research Council ERC-2010-AdG Grant No. 267841.

  12. Management of diplopia in patients with blowout fractures

    Osman Melih Ceylan


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the management outcomes of diplopia in patients with blowout fracture. Materials and Methods: Data for 39 patients with diplopia due to orbital blowout fracture were analyzed retrospectively. The inferior wall alone was involved in 22 (56.4% patients, medial wall alone was involved in 14 (35.8% patients, and the medial and inferior walls were involved in three (7.6% patients. Each fracture was reconstructed with a Medpore® implant. Strabismus surgery or prism correction was performed in required patients for the management of persistent diplopia. Mean postoperative follow up was 6.5 months. Results: Twenty-three (58.9% patients with diplopia underwent surgical repair of blowout fracture. Diplopia was eliminated in 17 (73.9% patients following orbital wall surgery. Of the 23 patients, three (7.6% patients required prism glasses and another three (7.6% patients required strabismus surgery for persistent diplopia. In four (10.2% patients, strabismus surgery was performed without fracture repair. Twelve patients (30.7% with negative forced duction test results were followed up without surgery. Conclusions: In our study, diplopia resolved in 30.7% of patients without surgery and 69.2% of patients with diplopia required surgical intervention. Primary gaze diplopia was eliminated in 73.9% of patients through orbital wall repair. The most frequently employed secondary surgery was adjustable inferior rectus recession and <17.8% of patients required additional strabismus surgery.

  13. Dune field reactivation from blowouts: Sevier Desert, UT, USA

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.


    Dune field reactivation (a shift from vegetated to unvegetated state) has important economic, social, and environmental implications. In some settings reactivation is desired to preserve environmental values, but in arid regions reactivation is typically a form of land degradation. Little is known about reactivation due to a lack of published records, making modeling and prediction difficult. Here we detail dune reactivations from blowout expansion in the Sevier Desert, Utah, USA. We use historical aerial photographs and satellite imagery to track the transition from stable, vegetated dunes to actively migrating sediment in 3 locations. We outline a reactivation sequence: (i) disturbance breaches vegetation and exposes sediment, then (ii) creates a blowout with a deposition apron that (iii) advances downwind with a slipface or as a sand sheet. Most deposition aprons are not colonized by vegetation and are actively migrating. To explore causes we examine local sand flux, climate data, and stream flow. Based on available data the best explanation we can provide is that some combination of anthropogenic disturbance and climate may be responsible for the reactivations. Together, these examples provide a rare glimpse of dune field reactivation from blowouts, revealing the timescales, behaviour, and morphodynamics of devegetating dune fields.

  14. Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas.

    Oldenburg, Curtis M; Freifeld, Barry M; Pruess, Karsten; Pan, Lehua; Finsterle, Stefan; Moridis, George J


    In response to the urgent need for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondo well MC252-1 blowout, we assembled a small team and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using the TOUGH2 codes over two weeks in mid-2010. The conceptual model included the oil reservoir and the well with a top boundary condition located at the bottom of the blowout preventer. We developed a fluid properties module (Eoil) applicable to a simple two-phase and two-component oil-gas system. The flow of oil and gas was simulated using T2Well, a coupled reservoir-wellbore flow model, along with iTOUGH2 for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The most likely oil flow rate estimated from simulations based on the data available in early June 2010 was about 100,000 bbl/d (barrels per day) with a corresponding gas flow rate of 300 MMscf/d (million standard cubic feet per day) assuming the well was open to the reservoir over 30 m of thickness. A Monte Carlo analysis of reservoir and fluid properties provided an uncertainty distribution with a long tail extending down to 60,000 bbl/d of oil (170 MMscf/d of gas). The flow rate was most strongly sensitive to reservoir permeability. Conceptual model uncertainty was also significant, particularly with regard to the length of the well that was open to the reservoir. For fluid-entry interval length of 1.5 m, the oil flow rate was about 56,000 bbl/d. Sensitivity analyses showed that flow rate was not very sensitive to pressure-drop across the blowout preventer due to the interplay between gas exsolution and oil flow rate. PMID:21730177

  15. Environmental implications of a gas well blowout in northwest Louisiana - A case study

    Oil and gas exploration in northern Louisiana has been ongoing since the 1920s. During this time occasional blowouts have occurred which have impacted the environment. In March, 1994, a Sligo Field well experienced an unusual blowout in that the event propagated to the surface through an adjacent abandoned well. While drilling through the fractured Thompson-Pettet interval at a depth of 5000 feet, a pressure kick, caused by a loss of drilling fluids, occurred. The well control devices activated and prevented loss of the well. However, the pressure front moved up the well's uncased annulus until reaching the base of the cemented surface casing where it dispersed laterally in the Nacatoch formation at a depth of approximately 1000 feet. This was the uppermost portion of the uncased hole. The pressure front propagated through the Nacatoch until it encountered the poorly cemented annulus of the abandoned Hardman No. 1 well, located approximately 300 feet to the south of the drilling location. After moving up the annulus of the Hardman No. 1 well and charging the fresh water sands of the Wilcox system, local residential water wells and the drilling rig's water supply well became flowing artesian. Several hours later sand and fluids began erupting, creating a large cavity on the outside of the casing surrounding the Hardman No. 1 well. The artesian impact lasted approximately four days until the pressure front dissipated. Subsequent sampling of the rig supply well determined the well to be contaminated with benzene, a known human carcinogen. The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, in conjunction with the operator, is currently investigating the extent of contamination with the goal of ensuring the health of the local residents and the protection of the environment

  16. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin


    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  17. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture.

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin


    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  18. Carotid artery blowout producing massive hematemesis in the emergency department

    Harrison K Borno; Richard J Menendez; John C Chaloupka; Michael T Dalley; David A Farcy


    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a rare and fatal complication which arises from patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. The incidence of CBS is rare and not commonly seen by emergency physicians. We review a case of a 68-year-old woman with a history of laryngectomy and chemo-radiation therapy presenting with massive oral bleeding and hypotension. Her course and treatments are highlighted, literature referring to CBS are described and we reintroduce the approach of managing such a patient in the emergency department.

  19. Analysis of blowout fractures using cine mode MRI

    By observing conventional CT and MRI images, it is difficult to distinguish extension failure from adhesion, bone fracture or damage to the extraocular muscle, any one of which may be the direct cause of the eye movement disturbance accompanying blowout fracture. We therefore carried out dynamic analysis of eye movement disturbance using a cine mode MRI. We put seven fixation points in the gantry of the MRI and filmed eye movement disturbances by the gradient echo method, using a surface coil and holding the vision on each fixation point. We also video recorded the CRT monitor of the MRI to obtain dynamic MRI images. The subjects comprised 5 cases (7-23 years old). In 4 cases, we started orthoptic treatment, saccadic eye movement training, convergence training and fusional amplitude training after surgery, with only orthoptic treatment in the 5 th case. In all cases, fusion area improvement was recognized during training. In 2 cases examined by cine mode MRI before and after surgery, we observed improved eye movement after training, the effectiveness of which was thereby proven. Also, using cine mode MRI we were able to determine the character of incarcerated tissue and the cause of eye movement disturbance. We conclude that it blowout fracture, cine mode MRI may be useful in selecting treatment and observing its effectiveness. (author)

  20. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))


    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  1. Case history: blowout at an LPG storage cavern in Sweden

    Hamberger, Ulrika


    A ''blowout'' occurred when an additional well was drilled to secure sufficient water pressure at an underground LPG storage cavern in September 1989. The leak was stopped after 12 hours. By grouting through the drill rod, it was possible to fill up the cavity around the drill bit. It was then possible to grout the hole up to ground level. The 48,000 m{sup 3}-capacity underground storage, which is located in Karlshamn on the south coast of Sweden, has been in operation since April 1990. Storage is accomplished under hydrostatic water conditions. The storage cavern is placed at such a depth so as to guarantee a sufficient groundwater pressure above the whole storage. A ''curtain'' of drill holes, which efficiently spread the groundwater, is placed above the cavern. The groundwater was carefully observed in wells during the excavation period and these observations continue. (author).

  2. Clinical features and MRI findings of blow-out fracture

    Precise anatomical understanding of orbital blow-out fracture lesions is necessary for the treatment of patients. Retrospectively, MRI findings were compared with the clinical features of pure type blow-out fractures and the efficacy of MRI in influencing a decision for surgical intervention was evaluated. Eighteen child (15 boys, 3 girls) cases were evaluated and compared with adult cases. The patients were classified into three categories (Fig.1) and two types (Fig.2) in accordance with the degree of protrusion of fat tissue. The degree of muscle protrusion also was divided into three categories (Fig. 3). Both muscle and fat tissue were protruding from the fracture site in 14 cases. Fat tissue protrusion alone was found in 3 cases. In contrast, no protrusion was seen in one case. The incarcerated type of fat prolapse was found in 40% of cases, while muscle tissue prolapse was found in 75% of patients. Marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle was observed in 11 patients. There was good correlation of ocular motor disturbance and MRI findings. Disturbance of eyeball movement was observed in all patients with either incarcerated fat tissue or marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle. In contrast, restriction of eyeball movement was rare in cases of no incarceration, even if the fracture was wide. Deformity or marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle demonstrated in MRI may suggest damage an adhesion to the muscle wall. When MRI reveals incarceration or severe prolapse of fat tissue, or deformity and marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle, surgical intervention should be considered. (author)

  3. Reactivation of supply-limited dune fields from blowouts: A conceptual framework for state characterization

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.


    Aeolian dune fields mantle the Earth in both vegetated (stable) and unvegetated (active) states. Changes in state are poorly understood; in particular, little is known about reactivation (devegetation) from a vegetated state. Available evidence indicates that dune reactivation can be driven by changes in aridity, increased wind speed, fire, biogenic disturbance, human disturbance, or a combination of the previous. How these controls fit together and define the reactivation potential of dune fields is presently unknown. Here we develop a framework to describe reactivation potential for a specific case: presently vegetated, supply-limited dune fields that develop blowouts under a unidirectional wind. We first define a conceptual model of blowout expansion, and then split the functions of vegetation in a stable dune field into: (i) maintenance of a protective skin, and (ii) blowout suppression. We model reactivation as disturbance breaking through the protective skin, which forms a blowout that is either (i) suppressed by colonizer species, or (ii) capable of advancing downwind and reactivating part of the dune field. The capacity for disturbance to break through the protective skin is a function of disturbance magnitude, area, and resistance of the skin. The blowout suppression capacity of a dune field is a function of sediment flux, blowout depth (related to geomorphology), and colonizer species vitality. By plotting a given dune field with two variables (protective skin breach rate and blowout suppression capacity) we define four states: (i) stable, (ii) blowout dominated, (iii) reactivating, or (iv) stable but disturbance susceptible. We reinforce the conceptual model with qualitative examples and discussion of experiments on grassland-stabilized dunes in Canada. Overall, our framework provides a starting point for quantifying the reactivation potential of vegetated dune fields.

  4. Morphology and Sediment Transport Dynamics of a Trough-Blowout Dune, Bodega Marine Reserve, Northern California

    Jorgenson, D.; Dunleavy, C. J.; Smith, M. E.


    Blowout dunes are a primary mechanism for transporting sand within vegetated coastal dune systems. Understanding the fine-scale variation in sediment transport within these systems is critical to predicting their formation and migration. Previous investigations of a coastal dune system located at the Bodega Marine Reserve, on the Sonoma Coast of Northern California have indicated that aeolian sand flux in unvegetated sand is ~450x greater than in vegetated areas. To better understand sand flux and its relationship with wind speed, direction and precipitation, we deployed an array of 12 sand traps within a single blowout area adjacent to the BOON marine climatology station. The blowout is trough- shaped, approximately 50 meters long and 15 meters wide. Its main 'fairway' is 5-10 meters below the surrounding beach grass (Ammophila)-covered land surface. Surface sediment within the blowout is fine-grained to granule-sized lithic to sub-lithic sand, and is coarsest in the center. Dune sediment in the Bodega Marine Reserve has been transported by aeolian processes from Salmon Creek Beach to the NW. Within the blowout, typical bedforms include 15-25 cm-wavelength, ~10 cm high sinuous to lingoid ripples arranged perpendicularly to the dominant wind direction (~280 degrees). An 8-10 meter-high mound at the downwind end has accumulated due to the trapping of sand flux by vegetation. Sediment flux across the studied blowout was sampled monthly over a 10-month period of 2013-2014. Sand traps were constructed using modified PVC cylinders, and are 0.5 meter high and 0.3 meter in diameter, with a 0.74-micron mesh screen. Based on measured sand flux, the sites can be categorized into three groups-axial, medial, and peripheral. Rates increase downwind within the blowout. Inter-site sand flux variability within unvegetated locations of the blowout is greater than two orders of magnitude. Axial sites, which experience the greatest sand flux, occur on the edge of the blowout adjacent

  5. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.


    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  6. An integrated model for prediction of oil transport from a deep water blowout

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a jet/plume is increasingly important as offshore oil development proceeds into deeper water and as concern over the possibility of blowouts increases. This paper presented a modified oil spill trajectory and fates model which made allowances for the prediction of the transport of oil from a deep water oil/gas blowout including hydrate formation/decomposition. The advective and dispersive transport of particulates in oil generated during a blowout were also included. The three components of this model were: (1) a blowout model, which predicts the plume centerline velocity, buoyancy, half width and trapping height, (2) a three-dimensional particle model, and (3) a surface spill model. Comparative evaluations between gas bubble driven plumes and model predictions were conducted to verify the model. A series of sensitivity studies were conducted at a blowout release depth of 1750 m to determine the impact of density gradient, entrainment coefficient and gas to oil ratio on the predictions of the plume radius and centerline velocity versus distance from the release and the plume trapping height. It was determined that in most cases the plume is trapped within 60 m of the release depth. The availability of the water to form hydrates is one of the principal process that controls plume dynamics. 48 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  7. Current concepts on the management of orbital blow-out fractures.

    Koornneef, L


    Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of orbital blow-out fractures has been controversial in the past. In the 1950s it was advocated that all blow-out fractures be treated surgically based on the conception that extraocular muscles were blown out and trapped in the fracture hole, causing double vision and enophthalmos. Gradually, however, a shift to a more conservative approach occurred, probably because of the complications of surgery, the disappointing results in improvement of motility and enophthalmos, and the growing evidence of spontaneous improvement of double vision. This article analyzes the literature chronologically and blends this analysis with the results of a new anatomical approach to the human orbit. New theories on the mechanism of blow-out fractures are postulated. No longer is entrapment of muslces in a blow-out fracture held responsible for the severe motility problems; rather it is viewed as caused by a dysfunction of the entire motility apparatus in the fracture region. Consequently, conventional surgical treatment, repairing the orbital floor only, seems to have lost its theoretical foundation and a conservative approach is advocated until microsurgical techniques become more readily avaliable to treat the sequelae of blow-out fractures at their origin. PMID:7137815

  8. LES of combustion dynamics near blowout in a realistic gas-turbine combustor

    Esclapez, Lucas; Nik, Medhi B.; Ma, Peter C.; O'Brien, Jeff; Carbajal, Serena; Ihme, Matthias


    Driven by increasingly stringent emission regulations, modern gas turbines operate at lean conditions to reduce combustion chamber temperature and NOx emissions. However, as the combustor operates closer to the lean blow-out (LBO) limit, flame stabilization mechanisms are weakened, which increases the risk for complete flame blowout. To better understand the LBO-process, large-eddy simulations of the combustion dynamics near blowout are performed in a realistic two-phase flow combustor. An unstructured incompressible Navier-Stokes solver is used in combination with a Lagrangian dispersed phase formulation. Flame dynamics near and at LBO conditions are studied to identify the role of the liquid fuel composition, spray evaporation, and complex flow pattern on the LBO limit.

  9. Global properties of symmetric competition models with riddling and blowout phenomena

    Giant-italo Bischi


    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of chaos synchronization, and the related phenomena of riddling, blowout and on–off intermittency, are considered for discrete time competition models with identical competitors. The global properties which determine the different effects of riddling and blowout bifurcations are studied by the method of critical curves, a tool for the study of the global dynamical properties of two-dimensional noninvertible maps. These techniques are applied to the study of a dynamic market-share competition model.

  10. One-side riddled basin below and beyond the blowout bifurcation

    Yang, H. L.


    In this Rapid Comunication we report a phenomenon of a one-side riddled basin where one side of the basin of attraction of an attractor on an invariant subspace (ISS) is globally riddled, while the other side is only locally riddled. This kind of basin appears due to the symmetry breaking with respect to the ISS. This one-side riddled basin can even persist beyond the blowout bifurcation, contrary to the previously reported riddled basins which exist only below the blowout transition. An experimental situation where this phenomenon can be expected is proposed.

  11. Prevention

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  12. The effect of gas and oil well blowout emissions on livestock in Alberta

    Poisoning caused by emissions from sour gas well or oil well blowouts is not acute because the gases are diluted by the atmosphere before they reach livestock. Exposure may last a month or more and may produce a syndrome indistinguishable from common disorders of flu, malaise, mood change, and in the case of animals, lack of production or decreased production. Little information is available on the composition of releases from well blowouts, which may change due to concurrent reactions with oxygen and photodecomposition. Effects on livestock observed to results from sour gas plant emissions (mostly sulfur dioxide) include runny eyes in cattle, loss of production, diarrhea and abortion. Blowout emissions may contain oxidant gases as well as hydrogen sulfides. These products irritate mucous membranes, and can lead to pink eye. Respiratory problems may include upper respiratory tract infections, and may produce susceptibility to secondary pneumonia. Abortion, infertility and congenital effects are areas of concern. It is considered unlikely that hydrogen sulfide can cause such effects, however carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide, both present in sour gas blowouts, are known to have effects on the fetus. Effects on production and performance are unknown, and it is postulated that amounts of sulfur deposition are insufficient to cause nutrient deficiencies. Psychological reactions are suggested to explain some of the adverse effects of exposure to sour gas. 1 ref

  13. Corrigendum to "Dune field reactivation from blowouts: Sevier Desert, UT, USA" [Aeolian Res. 11 (2013) 75-84

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.


    This corrigendum corrects an error made in the flux calculations in 'Dune field reactivation from blowouts: Sevier Desert, UT, USA'. The corrected data differ only slightly from the original publication and do not affect the conclusions of the paper.

  14. Spatial-temporal evolution of aeolian blowout dunes at Cape Cod

    Abhar, Kimia C.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Gares, Paul A.


    This paper explores historical evolution of blowouts at Cape Cod National Seashore (CCNS), USA - a site that hosts one of the world's highest densities of active and stabilized blowouts. The Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Moving Polygons (STAMP) method is applied to a multi-decadal dataset of aerial photography and LiDAR to extract patterns of two-dimensional movement and morphometric changes in erosional deflation basins and depositional lobes. Blowout development in CCNS is characterized by several geometric (overlap) and movement (proximity) responses, including: i) generation and disappearance, ii) extension and contraction, iii) union or division, iv) clustering and v) divergence by stabilization. Other possible movement events include migration, amalgamation and proximal stabilization, but they were not observed in this study. Generation events were more frequent than disappearance events; the former were highest between 1985 and 1994, while the latter were highest between 2000 and 2005. High rates of areal change in erosional basins occurred between 1998 and 2000 (+ 3932 m2 a-1), the lowest rate (+ 333 m2 a-1) between 2005 and 2009, and the maximum rate (+ 4589 m2 a-1) between 2009 and 2011. Union events occurred mostly in recent years (2000-2012), while only one division was observed earlier (1985-1994). Net areal changes of lobes showed gradual growth from a period of contraction (- 1119 m2 a-1) between 1998 and 2000 to rapid extension (+ 2030 m2 a-1) by 2010, which is roughly concurrent with rapid growth of erosional basins between 2005 and 2009. Blowouts extended radially in this multi-modal wind regime and, despite odd shapes initially, they became simpler in form (more circular) and larger over time. Net extension of erosional basins was toward ESE (109°) while depositional lobes extended SSE (147°). Lobes were aligned with the strongest (winter) sand drift vector although their magnitude of areal extension was only 33% that of the basins. These

  15. Probabilistic blowout risk in former disputed area southeast in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea.

    Johnsen, Silje


    The maritime delimitation in the former disputed area between Norway and Russia was agreed upon in 2011. It is therefore probable that the area will be opened for petroleum exploration in the near future. A blowout represents one of the most severe threats associated with petroleum exploration. This thesis has investigated the risk involved with such an activity through a case study, by considering geology and well specific conditions for this area. Currently, no wells have been drilled in th...

  16. Orbital blow-out fractures: correlation of preoperative computed tomography and postoperative ocular motility.

    Harris, G. J.; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K


    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although the management of orbital blow-out fractures was controversial for many years, refined imaging with computed tomography (CT) helped to narrow the poles of the debate. Many orbital surgeons currently recommend repair if fracture size portends late enophthalmos, or if diplopia has not substantially resolved within 2 weeks of the injury. While volumetric considerations have been generally well-served by this approach, ocular motility outcomes have been less than idea...

  17. Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization and Blowout in a Reacting Turbulent Hydrogen Jet in Cross-Flow

    Kolla, H.; Grout, R. W.; Gruber, A.; Chen, J. H.


    The mechanisms contributing to flame stabilization and blowout in a nitrogen-diluted hydrogen transverse jet in a turbulent boundary layer cross-flow (JICF) are investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed chemistry. Non-reacting JICF DNS were performed to understand the relative magnitude and physical location of low velocity regions on the leeward side of the fuel jet where a flame can potentially anchor. As the injection angle is reduced from 90{sup o} to 70{sup o}, the low velocity region was found to diminish significantly, both in terms of physical extent and magnitude, and hence, its ability to provide favorable conditions for flame anchoring and stabilization are greatly reduced. In the reacting JICF DNS a stable flame is observed for 90{sup o} injection angle and, on average, the flame root is in the vicinity of low velocity magnitude and stoichiometric mixture. When the injection angle is smoothly transitioned to 75{sup o} a transient flame blowout is observed. Ensemble averaged quantities on the flame base reveal two phases of the blowout characterized by a kinematic imbalance between flame propagation speed and flow normal velocity. In the first phase dominant flow structures repeatedly draw the flame base closer to the jet centerline resulting in richer-than-stoichiometric mixtures and high velocity magnitudes. In the second phase, in spite of low velocity magnitudes and a return to stoichiometry, due to jet bending and flame alignment normal to the cross-flow, the flow velocity normal to the flame base increases dramatically perpetuating the blowout.

  18. Evolution of bubble size distribution from gas blowout in shallow water

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Loney, Norman; Geng, Xiaolong


    Gas is often emanated from the sea bed during a subsea oil and gas blowout. The size of a gas bubble changes due to gas dissolution in the ambient water and expansion as a result of a decrease in water pressure during the rise. It is important to understand the fate and transport of gas bubbles for the purpose of environmental and safety concerns. In this paper, we used the numerical model, VDROP-J to simulate gas formation in jet/plume upon release, and dissolution and expansion while bubble rising during a relatively shallow subsea gas blowout. The model predictions were an excellent match to the experimental data. Then a gas dissolution and expansion module was included in the VDROP-J model to predict the fate and transport of methane bubbles rising due to a blowout through a 0.10 m vertical orifice. The numerical results indicated that gas bubbles would increase the mixing energy in released jets, especially at small distances and large distances from the orifice. This means that models that predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) should account for this additional mixing energy. It was also found that only bubbles of certain sizes would reach the water surfaces; small bubbles dissolve fast in the water column, while the size of the large bubbles decreases. This resulted in a BSD that was bimodal near the orifice, and then became unimodal.

  19. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.


    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1610 - Blowout preventer systems and system components.


    ... design that it can be run through the BOP stack installed at the bottom of the kelly. A wrench to fit... fit the drill pipe in use. (c) Working pressure. The working-pressure rating of any BOP shall exceed... floor to fit all connections that are in the drill string. A wrench to fit the drill-string safety...

  1. 30 CFR 250.616 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.


    .... Variable bore pipe rams must be pressure tested against the largest and smallest sizes of tubulars in use (jointed pipe, seamless pipe) in the well. (b) The BOP systems shall be tested at the following times: (1... stuck pipe or pressure-control operation and remedial efforts are being performed. The tests shall...

  2. ROV: improving remotely operated vehicle (ROV) intervention capabilities for blowout preventer override systems

    Lazar, Stephen [Christopher S. Mancini, Tomball, TX (United States)


    Events during 2010 have focused attention on increased ROV/BOP Intervention capabilities and standardization of BOP/ROV interfaces in the oil and gas offshore industry. Currently no enforced set standards for ROV intervention panels or manifold types for use on BOP Override systems are specified. The industry offers multiple configurations at present. This abstract will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various configurations in existence, trending toward suggested industry standards taking shape as requirements in the near term. Standards for the offshore industry or a set specification must be made to increase safety and functionality of BOP control systems. To date, ROV override capabilities have been added to existing engineered BOP systems. BOP designed closing times were not a critical consideration, only that the access was there to allow for ROV override. Increased ROV flow and pressure capabilities: no current minimum flow requirements for Emergency BOP Override pumps are established. Based on stack valving and configuration, a minimum, 7 gpm may be required to shift valving fully to allow BOP operator function. IADC/API minimum requirements may be proposed at 10 gpm at 3000psi. Based on shear pressures exceeding 3000psi, pressures of 5000psi should be considered. Current intervention skids/pump capabilities will be required if ROVs must achieve API 16D BOP minimum closing times. Remote or isolated accumulation for increased intervention capabilities offers possibilities when ANY ROV of opportunity can trigger a function (such as small inspection type ROVs). Increased volumes will be required. This is critical in functioning stack rams with an ROV of opportunity to achieve API 16D closing times. We now understand that higher flows and pressures are required along with standardization of stab types. Current recommendations: API 17H Hi-Flow manifolds should be added to essential ROV overrides. ROV skids will have a minimum requirement of 10gpm at 3000psi, but should have capabilities to achieve 5000psi and carry enough fluid volume to perform sub sea BOP ram function. Also, any additional isolated accumulator volume would be tied to ANY ROV of opportunity to override the BOP in an emergency situation. (author)

  3. A small-scale eruption leading to a blowout macrospicule jet in an on-disk coronal hole

    We examine the three-dimensional magnetic structure and dynamics of a solar EUV-macrospicule jet that occurred on 2011 February 27 in an on-disk coronal hole. The observations are from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). The observations reveal that in this event, closed-field-carrying cool absorbing plasma, as in an erupting mini-filament, erupted and opened, forming a blowout jet. Contrary to some jet models, there was no substantial recently emerged, closed, bipolar-magnetic field in the base of the jet. Instead, over several hours, flux convergence and cancellation at the polarity inversion line inside an evolved arcade in the base apparently destabilized the entire arcade, including its cool-plasma-carrying core field, to undergo a blowout eruption in the manner of many standard-sized, arcade-blowout eruptions that produce a flare and coronal mass ejection. Internal reconnection made bright 'flare' loops over the polarity inversion line inside the blowing-out arcade field, and external reconnection of the blowing-out arcade field with an ambient open field made longer and dimmer EUV loops on the outside of the blowing-out arcade. That the loops made by the external reconnection were much larger than the loops made by the internal reconnection makes this event a new variety of blowout jet, a variety not recognized in previous observations and models of blowout jets.

  4. Clinical usefulness of helical CT three-dimensional images in blow-out fractures

    Since the bone of the orbital floor is very thin, it was previously impossible to visualize bone deficits and bone fracture lines of the orbital floor accurately in three-dimensional (3D) CT images. Since the analytical ability of CT and 3D image reconstitution have improved, however, CT imaging of thin bone has become possible. We used CT photography and 3D image reconstruction in 19 cases before surgery to correct blow-out fracture. We used the Toshiba Corporation helical CT system (X-Vigor, version 5.0A) and filmed an area 3-4 cm wide in the orbital region, mainly on the orbital floor. The X-Tension workstation (Toshiba) was used for 3D image reconstruction. All cases were filmed in 0.5-mm slices. CT scanning time was approximately 60 seconds. There were very few artifacts in the 3D images. Small bone deficits and minute bone fracture lines could be observed on the 3D images, and it was also possible to change the visual angle. The CT images were faithful, their reliability was good, and they were clinically useful. In 8 cases in which a silicon sheet was used for reconstruction of the orbital floor, 3D images were also used for postoperative evaluation. The silicon sheets used to reconstruct bone deficits could be selectively viewed on the image and their condition determined 3D CT images are therefore considered useful in both pre- and postoperative evaluation of blow-out fractures. We have utilized these 3D CT images in the evaluation of zygomatic bone and other facial fractures in addition to blow-out fractures. (author)

  5. The rise and fall of methanotrophy following a deepwater oil-well blowout

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Meile, C.D.; Hunter, K. S.; Diercks, A. R.; Asper, V.; V. J. Orphan; Tavormina, P L; Nigro, L. M.; Battles, J. J.; Chanton, J.P.; Shiller, A. M.; Joung, D-J.; Amon, R.M.W.; Bracco, A.; Montoya, J. P.


    The blowout of the Macondo oil well in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 injected up to 500,000 tonnes of natural gas, mainly methane, into the deep sea1. Most of the methane released was thought to have been consumed by marine microbes between July and August 20102, 3. Here, we report spatially extensive measurements of methane concentrations and oxidation rates in the nine months following the spill. We show that although gas-rich deepwater plumes were a short-lived feature, water column con...

  6. Investigating the dynamics of combustion-driven oscillations leading to lean blowout

    The dynamics of combustion-driven thermoacoustic oscillations for a ducted laminar premixed flame has been investigated in lean equivalence ratio conditions. Combustion instability appears in the system as acoustic pressure and flame surface oscillations following a Hopf bifurcation. Further change in the control parameter leads to subsequent bifurcations, causing a rich dynamical behavior such as quasi-periodic and intermittent burst oscillations to appear in the system. During the burst oscillation phase, the system dynamics resembles the flame blowout phenomenon, which is of interest in practical combustion applications. (paper)

  7. Footprint of Deepwater Horizon blowout impact to deep-water coral communities

    Fisher, Charles R.; Hsing, Pen-Yuan; Kaiser, Carl L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Roberts, Harry H.; Shedd, William W.; Cordes, Erik E.; Shank, Timothy M.; Berlet, Samantha P.; Saunders, Miles G.; Larcom, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, James M.


    The Deepwater Horizon blowout released more oil and gas into the deep sea than any previous spill. Soon after the well was capped, a deep-sea community 13 km southwest of the wellhead was discovered with corals that had been damaged by the spill. Here we show this was not an isolated incident; at least two other coral communities were also impacted by the spill. One was almost twice as far from the wellhead and in 50% deeper water, considerably expanding the known area of impact. In addition,...

  8. From Blowout to Stalemate——China's Housing Market in 2007


    @@ As 2007 comes to an end, China's housing market is preparing for another controversial year.Increasingly restrictive macro-control policies and growing public concern have pushed China's housing market through the initial rise in price over the last couple years, a price blowout at the middle of this year, and finally the current stalemate between sellers and buyers. The end of 2007 has witnessed falling house prices in major cities,like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. It seems that the inflexion of housing prices is right in front of us.Now, let's review some big events from 2007's housing market.

  9. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong


    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  10. Impacts of an oil well blowout near Trecate, Italy on ecological resources

    An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted after the February 1995 blowout of an oil well near Trecate, Italy to quantify injuries to terrestrial and aquatic biological resources from effects of oil and habitat changes. Avian surveys were conducted on a surrogate area near Varallino to estimate species and numbers potentially exposed to oil and displaced by habitat alteration in the affected area. Of the 43 avian species observed, 20 are considered protected by European Community laws. The most abundant species were passero domestico, fringuello, cornacchia grigia, rondine, piccione torraiolo, and cardellino. These species likely suffered the greatest losses due to inhalation of volatile aromatics, dermal loading of oil, and/or habitat loss in the affected area. Based on CHARM model outputs, inhalation exposures to volatile aromatics and oil aerosols occurred above LOELs for all receptors within 2 km of the blowout. The most significant exposure pathway to large birds was dermal loading, which likely exceeded LC50 levels within 900m of the well. Terrestrial insects seldom contained detectable levels of PAHs, consistent with their shorter life span and residence time in the contaminated area. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in dike vegetation, frogs, and benthic invertebrates. Ingestion exposures of woodmice to PAHs exceeded toxic reference levels at one site and mice had EHQ = >1 at soil PAH concentrations >4.2 mg/kg. Based on known body burdens causing narcotic response, neither fish nor benthic invertebrates experienced toxic consequences from exposure to PAHs in irrigation canal sediments

  11. The persistence of large-scale blowouts in largely vegetated coastal dune fields

    Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Smyth, Thomas; Jackson, Derek; Davidson-Arnott, Robin; Smith, Alexander


    Coastal dunes move through natural phases of stability and instability during their evolution, displaying various temporal and spatial patterns across the dune field. Recent observations, however, have shown exceptionally rapid rates of stability through increased vegetative growth. This progressive vegetation colonisation and consequent loss of bare sand on coastal dune systems has been noted worldwide. Percentage reductions in bare sand of as much as 80% within just a few decades can been seen in examples from South Africa, Canada and Brazil as well as coastal dune sites across NW Europe. Despite these dramatic trends towards dune stabilisation, it is not uncommon to find particular examples of large-scale active blowouts and parabolic dunes within largely vegetated coastal dunes. While turbulence and airflow dynamics within features such as blowouts and other dune forms has been studied in detail within recent years, there is a lack of knowledge about what maintains dune mobility at these specific points in otherwise largely stabilized dune fields. This work explores the particular example of the 'Devil's Hole' blowout, Sefton Dunes, NW England. Approximately 300 m long by 100 m wide, its basin is below the water-table which leads to frequent flooding. Sefton Dunes in general have seen a dramatic loss of bare sand since the 1940s. However, and coinciding with this period of dune stabilisation, the 'Devil's Hole' has not only remained active but also grown in size at a rate of 4.5 m year-1 along its main axis. An exploration of factors controlling the maintenance of open bare sand areas at this particular location is examined using a variety of techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) airflow modelling and in situ empirical measurements of (short-term experiments) of wind turbulence and sand transport. Field measurements of wind parameters and transport processes were collected over a 2 week period during October 2015. Twenty three 3D ultrasonic

  12. Findings of a retrospective survey conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout to determine if the natural occurrence of bovine abortions and fetal anomalies increased

    A survey was conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout of October 1982 to determine if the incident changed the number and type of bovine abortions and abnormal bovine feti submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from the blowout area. The records of the total number of bovine feti submitted were compared between three areas to determine if there was a significant difference between the areas closer to the well site and the larger total area. No changes or trends could be ascribed to the well blowout. 2 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    Wang, Qiang


    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  14. Correlation between orbital volume on CT and enophthalmos in blow-out fracture

    Objective: To explore the evolution of orbital volume on CT and enophthalmos in patients with blow-out fracture, to study the relationship between orbital volume change and degree of enophthalmos, and to compare the accuracies of CT and Hertel in evaluating the degree of the enophthalmos. Methods: 40 patients with unilateral blow-out fracture of single eye were selected and divided into early stage group (22 cases, within three days, without enophthalmos) and late stage group (18 cases, over two weeks, with enophthalmos). In early stage group, the orbital volumes were measured with CT. The time and degree of enophthalmos were observed in the first second and third week after injury. In late stage group, the orbital volumes were measured with CT. The degree of enophthalmos was measured with both Hertel exophthalmometer and CT. All measurements were using their normal orbital as controls. Statistic analysis was carried out with SPSS 17.0, including the paired t test, Chi-square test, correlation analysis and linear regression. Results: 1 The orbital volumes of 40 patients with blow-out fracture were significantly increased comparing with those of normal controls. 2 In the early stage group, there were significant differences in presence of enophthalmos between the first week and the other two weeks. 3 In the early stage group, the orbital volumes were not significantly different among the three time points. 4 There was significant linear correlation between the enlargement of orbital volume and the degree of enophthalmos. The linear regression equation of enophthalmos (y) and the enlargement orbital volume (x) was: y=0.057+0.829x (P<0.01), with each 1.0 cm3 enlargement in the orbital volume causing approximately 0.886 mm enophthalmos. 5 In the later stage group, the degree of the enophthalmos measured on CT was significantly higher than that of Hertel in (1.53±0.73 mm). Conclusions: 1 Enophthalmos usually appears after the second week of injury. 2 The edema of

  15. Study of slagging in and blowout of P-59 boiler furnace screens during the burning of Moscow-area coal

    Guzenko, S.I.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Serebryanikov, N.I.; Panchenko, V.F.; Meelak, Kh.O.; Khaikin, I.B.; Perevezentsev, V.P.


    The operation of the burners of the P-59 boilers at the Ryazan GRES, burning Moscow area brown coal, is characterized by intense slagging of the LRP screens, especially in the zone of maximum heat formation, causing a particularly severe screen cleaning problem. The thermal efficiency of screen cleaning by steam blowout using OM-0.35 devices is low even with intense use (every 2 hours), which is accompanied by dangerous steam-ash erosion of the tubes. Water blowout of the LRP (lower radiative part) of the P-59 boiler with four long-range M-3A devices is rather effective. Under conditions of intense formation of deposits on the screens of the lower radiative part of P-59 boilers they cannot be brought up to an operationally clean state using known cleaning methods.

  16. Survey of Common Practices among Oculofacial Surgeons in the Asia-Pacific Region: Management of Orbital Floor Blowout Fractures

    Koh, Victor; Chiam, Nathalie; Sundar, Gangadhara


    A web-based anonymous survey was performed to assess common practices of oculofacial surgeons in the management of traumatic orbital floor blowout fractures. A questionnaire which contained questions on several controversial topics in the management of orbital floor fractures was sent out via e-mail to 131 oculofacial surgeons in 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A total response rate of 58.3% was achieved from May to December 2012. The preferred time for surgical intervention was with...

  17. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Hickman, Stephen H.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Mooney, Walter D.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Nelson, Philip H.; Mayer, Larry A.; Weber, Thomas C.; Moran, Kathryn; Peter B. Flemings; McNutt, Marcia K.


    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluat...

  18. Field investigation finding of long term effects in Alberta livestock exposed to acid forming emissions: Survey following the Lodgepole blowout

    The effects of the Amoco Dome Brazeau River (Lodgepole) sour gas well blowout of October 1982 on livestock are reviewed. For 26 days the well was not on fire, with condensate falling on the area immediately surrounding the well site, while during the 41 days the well was burning, sour gas and condensate underwent combustion in the intense fire. Many local residents noted problems with their farm animals during the blowout period. A study was undertaken to evaluate opinions and attitudes of livestock producers about the long-term effects of the Lodgepole blowout. Contact was made with producers in the area of concern, and a worksheet was developed to aid in the collection of data. Information gathered was based on producer records, auction sale tickets, sales receipts and memory. Twenty livestock producers were interviewed, representing 1,700 head of beef cows, 40 dairy cows and 21 sows. Concerns expressed by producers included birth weight, birth defects or stillbirth, scours and problem calves, poor growth, open or dry cows, abortions, late calves, poor growth in replacement heifers, abnormal hair, and abnormal breeding. 1 tab

  19. Self-Sealing Shells: Blowouts and Blisters on the Surfaces of Leaky Wind-Blown-Bubbles and Supernova Remnants

    Pittard, Julian


    Blowouts can occur when a dense shell confining hot, high pressure, gas ruptures. The venting gas inflates a blister on the surface of the shell. Here we examine the growth of such blisters on the surfaces of wind-blown-bubbles (WBBs) and supernova remnants (SNRs) due to shell rupture caused by the Vishniac instability. On WBBs the maximum relative size of the blister (R_bstall/R) is found to grow linearly with time, but in many cases the blister radius will not exceed 20 per cent of the bubble radius. Thus blowouts initiated by the Vishniac instability are unlikely to have a major effect on the global dynamics and properties of the bubble. The relative size of blisters on SNRs is even smaller than on WBBs, with blisters only growing to a radius comparable to the thickness of the cold shell of SNRs. The small size of the SNR blowouts is, however, in good agreement with observations of blisters in the Vela SNR. The difference in relative size between WBB and SNR blisters is due to the much higher speed at whic...

  20. Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Hsieh, Paul


    This report describes the application of a computer model to simulate reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Reservoir and fluid data used for model development are based on (1) information released in BP's investigation report of the incident, (2) information provided by BP personnel during meetings in Houston, Texas, and (3) calibration by history matching to shut-in pressures measured in the capping stack during the Well Integrity Test. The model is able to closely match the measured shut-in pressures. In the simulation of the 86-day period from the blowout to shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure at the well face declines from the initial reservoir pressure of 11,850 pounds per square inch (psi) to 9,400 psi. After shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure recovers to a final value of 10,300 psi. The pressure does not recover back to the initial pressure owing to reservoir depletion caused by 86 days of oil discharge. The simulated oil flow rate declines from 63,600 stock tank barrels per day just after the Deepwater Horizon blowout to 52,600 stock tank barrels per day just prior to shut in. The simulated total volume of oil discharged is 4.92 million stock tank barrels. The overall uncertainty in the simulated flow rates and total volume of oil discharged is estimated to be + or - 10 percent.

  1. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  2. Trigger of a blowout jet in a solar coronal mass ejection associated with a flare

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Huadong; Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun


    Using the multi-wavelength images and the photospheric magnetograms from the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory}, we study the flare which was associated by the only one coronal mass ejection (CME) in active region (AR) 12192. The eruption of a filament caused a blowout jet, and then an M4.0 class flare occurred. This flare was located at the edge of AR instead of in the core region. The flare was close to the apparently "open" fields, appearing as extreme-ultraviolet structures that fan out rapidly. Due to the interaction between flare materials and "open" fields, the flare became an eruptive flare, leading to the CME. Then at the same site of the first eruption, another small filament erupted. With the high spatial and temporal resolution H$\\alpha$ data from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the \\emph{Fuxian Solar Observatory}, we investigate the interaction between the second filament and the nearby "open" lines. The filament reconnected with the "open" lines, forming a new system. To our knowledge, the deta...

  3. Dynamic study of ocular movement with MR imaging in orbital blow-out fracture

    Operative indications for orbital blow-out fracture (OBF) remain controversial. One of the major sources of this controversy is that an accurate diagnosis of ocular movement disturbances can not be made by conventional procedures such as the Hess screen test, traction test, or CT scan. Disturbances in ocular movement resulting from OBF can occur not only with entrapment of the extraocular muscle but also with intraorbital bleeding, edema, and/or a variety of other unclear factors. To obtain a more accurate diagnosis and to assist in the choice of treatment, ocular movement was examined using orbital 'cine mode' MR imaging. MR images were obtained in multiple phases of vertical and horizontal ocular movements by using the 'fast SE' capabilities of the SIERRA, GE-YMS MR scanner (1.5 Tesla, superconductive). The fixed eye method was applied to two normal volunteers and to patients with 'pure' OBF. Five marks for binocular fixation were affixed to the inner wall of the gantry: one at the primary position and four at secondary positions. While keeping the subject's eye focused on each of these marks for about 30 sec, MR images (head coil) of the axial view and bilateral oblique sagittal view along the optic nerve were carried out. In the normal volunteers, a good demonstration of smooth movement of the eye ball, extraocular muscles, and the optic nerve could be obtained. In the OBF patients, it was clearly observed that the disturbance in ocular movement was caused by poor extension of the external ocular muscles, specifically the inferior rectus muscle in the orbital floor fracture, and the internal rectus muscle in the medial wall fracture. These observations suggested that dynamic orbital imaging with MR would be extremely valuable in the assessment of disturbances of ocular movement in OBF. (author)

  4. Endovascular therapeutic occlusion following bilateral carotid artery bypass for radiation-induced carotid artery blowout. Case report

    A patients with breast cancer received radiation therapy to the upper chest wall. Twenty-two years later, she presented with repeated severe bleeding through a left lower neck ulcer. She was taken to surgery for hemostasis, which was not successful because the carotid artery was surgically inaccessible. To manage for explosive carotid blowout, we performed common carotid artery ligation and endovascular coil embolization after contralateral-external-carotid to ipsilateral-common-carotid artery bypass with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. The patients has experienced no ischemic events or bleeding since this treatment. (author)

  5. Survey of Common Practices among Oculofacial Surgeons in the Asia-Pacific Region: Management of Orbital Floor Blowout Fractures.

    Koh, Victor; Chiam, Nathalie; Sundar, Gangadhara


    A web-based anonymous survey was performed to assess common practices of oculofacial surgeons in the management of traumatic orbital floor blowout fractures. A questionnaire which contained questions on several controversial topics in the management of orbital floor fractures was sent out via e-mail to 131 oculofacial surgeons in 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A total response rate of 58.3% was achieved from May to December 2012. The preferred time for surgical intervention was within 2 weeks for adult patients, porous polyethylene implant was the most popular choice, and most surgeons preferred the transconjunctival approach. Postoperatively, diplopia was the most commonly encountered complication and most oculofacial surgeons reviewed their patients regularly for up to 12 months. We report the results of the first survey of oculofacial surgeons within the Asia-Pacific region on the management of orbital floor blowout fractures. Compared with previous surveys (from year 2000 to 2004), the duration to surgical intervention was comparable but there was a contrasting change in preferred surgical approach and choice of orbital implant. PMID:25136408

  6. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced carotid blowout syndrome. Report of two cases

    Carotid Blowout Syndrome (CBS), or Carotid Artery Rupture (CAR), is a delayed complication with potentially fatal consequences occurring after the implementation of radiotherapy on head and neck tumors. In this report we describe two patients received endovascular treatment for severe hemorrhagic CBS developing 36 and 2 years, respectively, after radiotherapy. Both patients survived and responded positively to treatment. Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman found with minor hemorrhage near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, 36 years after neck irradiation. She experienced frequent hemorrhagic events during the following years. Six years after the initial discovery of bleeding, she experienced massive hemorrhage, lapsed into shock, and was admitted to an Emergency Room. Connective tissue around the carotid artery was largely exposed due to neck skin defect. After hemorrhage was halted by manual compression, transient hemostasis was achieved with coil embolization of the aneurysm presumed to be the source of bleeding. Recurrent hemorrhage developed two weeks later with unraveled coil mass extrusion. Parent artery occlusion was performed by endovascular trapping, achieving permanent hemostasis. Case 2 presented massive nasal bleeding originating from the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery, 2 years after having been treated with heavy particle irradiation for olfactory neuroblastoma. Ischemic tolerance was confirmed by balloon occlusion test. Based on previous experiences, the bleeding was immediately halted by endovascular trapping. Both patients were subsequently discharged, free of new neurological symptoms. Emergent hemostatic treatment is required in CBS developing severe hemorrhage. However, within irradiation fields, temporal embolization devices hardly lead to complete resolution. This is due to the deteriorated condition of the vascular wall incapable to enduring the expansion power of coils, stents or balloons. Bypass grafting is also

  7. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.


    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  8. Was the extreme and widespread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    Vonk, S.M.; Hollander, D.J.; Murk, A.J.


    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates

  9. Real-Time Control of Lean Blowout in a Turbine Engine for Minimizing No(x) Emissions

    Zinn, Ben


    This report describes research on the development and demonstration of a controlled combustor operates with minimal NO, emissions, thus meeting one of NASA s UEET program goals. NO(x) emissions have been successfully minimized by operating a premixed, lean burning combustor (modeling a lean prevaporized, premixed LPP combustor) safely near its lean blowout (LBO) limit over a range of operating conditions. This was accomplished by integrating the combustor with an LBO precursor sensor and closed-loop, rule-based control system that allowed the combustor to operate far closer to the point of LBO than an uncontrolled combustor would be allowed to in a current engine. Since leaner operation generally leads to lower NO, emissions, engine NO, was reduced without loss of safety.

  10. Fibrillar Chromospheric Spicule-Like Counterparts to an EUV and Soft X-Ray Blowout Coronal Jet

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louise K.; Moore, Ronald L.


    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/SOT, EIS, and XRT, with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From EUV and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool (approximately 50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale approximately 30" originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin (approximately 1") ejections, at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45", leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of "type II" spicules, approximately 100 kilometers per second, and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity approximately 50 kilometers per second, similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. (2010). Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggests that a sub-population of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger-scale erupting magnetic jets. A different sub-population of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  11. A peculiar blow-out fracture of the inferior orbital wall complicated by extensive subcutaneous emphysema: A case report and review of the literature

    Blow-out fracture of the orbit is a common injury. However, not many cases are associated with massive subcutaneous emphysema. Even fewer cases are caused by minor trauma or are associated with barotrauma to the orbit due to sneezing, coughing, or vomiting. The authors present a case of blow-out fracture complicated by extensive subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema that occurred without any obvious traumatic event. A 43-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a painful right-sided exophthalmos that he had noticed in the morning immediately after waking up. The patient also complained of diplopia. Physical examination revealed exophthalmos and crepitations suggestive of subcutaneous emphysema. The eye movements, especially upward gaze, were impaired. CT showed blow-out fracture of the inferior orbital wall with a herniation of the orbital soft tissues into the maxillary sinus. There was an extensive subcutaneous emphysema in the head and neck going down to the mediastinum. The patient did not remember any significant trauma to the head that could explain the above mentioned findings. At surgery, an inferior orbital wall fracture with a bony defect of 3×2 centimeter was found and repaired. Blow-out fractures of the orbit are usually a result of a direct trauma caused by an object with a diameter exceeding the bony margins of the orbit. In 50% of cases, they are complicated by orbital emphysema and in 4% of cases by herniation of orbital soft tissues into paranasal sinuses. The occurrence of orbital emphysema without trauma is unusual. In some cases it seems to be related to barotrauma due to a rapid increase in pressure in the upper airways during sneezing, coughing, or vomiting, which very rarely leads to orbital wall fracture. Computed tomography is the most accurate method in detecting and assessing the extent of orbital wall fractures

  12. Application of fine managed pressure drilling technique in complex wells with both blowout and lost circulation risks

    Ling Yan


    Full Text Available Fractured carbonate reservoirs are susceptible to blowout and lost circulation during drilling, which not only restricts drilling speed, but also poses big threat to well control. Moreover, there are few technical means available to reconstruct pressure balance in the borehole. Accordingly, the fine managed pressure drilling was used in the drilling of Well GS19 in the Qixia Formation with super-high pressure and narrow density window, which is a success: ① back pressure in the annular spaces will be adjusted to maintain a slightly over-balanced bottom-hole hydraulic pressure, and fluid level in the circulation tank will be kept in a slight dropping state to ensure that natural gas in the formation would not invade into the borehole in a massive volume; ② inlet drilling fluid density will be controlled at around 2.35 g/cm3, back pressures in the annular be maintained at 2–5 MPa, and bottom-hole pressure equivalent circulation density be controlled at 2.46–2.52 g/cm3; ③ during managed pressure drilling operations, if wellhead pressure exceeds or expects to exceed 7 MPa, semi-blind rams will be closed. Fluids will pass through the choke manifold of the rig to the choke manifold specifically for pressure control before entering gas/liquid separators to discharge gas; ④ during tripping back pressure will be kept at less than 5 MPa, volume of injected drilling fluid will be higher than the theoretical volume during tripping out, whereas the volume of returned drilling fluid will be higher than the theoretical volume during the out-tripping. This technique has been applied successfully in the drilling of the Qixia Formation, Liangshan Formation and Longmaxi Formation with a total footage of 216.60 m, as a good attempt in complicated wells with both blowout and lost circulation risks, which can provide valuable experiences and guidance for handling similar complexities in the future.

  13. Preventing stroke

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... live a longer, healthier life. This is called preventive care. An important way to help prevent stroke ...

  14. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout.

    Hickman, Stephen H; Hsieh, Paul A; Mooney, Walter D; Enomoto, Catherine B; Nelson, Philip H; Mayer, Larry A; Weber, Thomas C; Moran, Kathryn; Flemings, Peter B; McNutt, Marcia K


    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating this hazard required analyses of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, seafloor bathymetry, sediment properties, geophysical well logs, and drilling data to assess the geological, hydrological, and geomechanical conditions around the Macondo Well. After the well was successfully capped and shut in on July 15, 2010, a variety of monitoring activities were used to assess subsurface well integrity. These activities included acquisition of wellhead pressure data, marine multichannel seismic profiles, seafloor and water-column sonar surveys, and wellhead visual/acoustic monitoring. These data showed that the Macondo Well was not leaking after shut in, and therefore, it could remain safely shut until reservoir pressures were suppressed (killed) with heavy drilling mud and the well was sealed with cement. PMID:23213217

  15. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio


    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  16. Preventing stroke

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  17. Delayed Development of Brain Abscesses Following Stent-Graft Placement in a Head and Neck Cancer Patient Presenting with Carotid Blowout Syndrome

    We describe the delayed development of intracranial abscesses following emergent treatment with a covered stent-graft for carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) in a patient with head and neck cancer. The patient presented with hemoptysis and frank arterial bleeding through the tracheostomy site. A self-expandable stent-graft was deployed across a small pseudoaneurysm arising from the right common carotid artery (RCCA) and resulted in immediate hemostasis. Three months later, the patient suffered a recurrent hemorrhage. CT of the neck demonstrated periluminal fluid around the caudal aspect of the stent-graft with intraluminal thrombus and a small pseudoaneurysm. Subsequently, the patient underwent a balloon test occlusion study and endovascular sacrifice of the RCCA and right internal carotid artery. MRI of the brain demonstrated at least four ring-enhancing lesions within the right cerebral hemisphere consistent with intracranial abscesses that resolved with broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage.

  18. Research on Pressure Retaining Technology of Hydraulic Blowout Preventer System%液压防喷系统的保压技术研究



    三级保压技术实现了世界首创,目前国内国外还没有对需要保压的系统使用三级保压技术,属于创造发明技术.三级保压技术解决了带压作业中的核心关键技术问题,提高了整个系统的可靠性,推进了带压作业技术的发展,降低了成本、延长了设备的使用寿命.它的社会效益远大于经济效益.%The three stage pressure retaining technology achieved world's first, and currently, three stage pressure retaining technology is still not be used in system which needs pressure retaining at home and abroad, which belongs to invention technology. The technology solves key technical issues in operation under pressure, improves overall system reliability, promotes technical development of operation under pressure, and reduces costs, extends working life of equipments. Its social benefits are much larger than its economic benefits.

  19. Rape prevention

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual assault and STDs. In: Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2010;17(59)(RR-12):90- ...

  20. Characteristics of lean blowout limit for backward step-stabilized flame with centrifugal force effect%离心条件下后台阶贫油熄火特性

    李林; 林宇震; 郭新华; 孙强


    Using the centrifugal force effect of a whirl flow through a curved pipe to simulate the working conditions in the rotor combustion system, this thesis investigated the effect of the geometric parameters on lean blowout limit of spray combustion for the backward step flame holder. On the basis of a curved flow channel experiment rig, a backward step flame holder was designed with variable geometric parameters. The geometric parameters include: the height, length and distance between backward step and wall surface. The effect of these three geometric parameters on the lean blowout limit of spray combustion was investigated. Test results indicate that, the height and length have great effect on flame blowout limit. With the increase of the height and length, the lean blowout limit decreases;but the distance between backward step and wall surface has little effect on flame blowout limit. For each backward step flame holder, while centrifugal force effect increases, the flame lean blowout limit is reduced and flameout range is broadened. This research work has laid a foundation for investigation of spray combustion on the rotor combustion system.%利用气流通过弯管产生的离心效应来模拟高速旋转的工况,研究高位后台阶火焰稳定器的关键几何参数对液雾燃烧贫油熄火特性的影响.通过控制后台阶高度,台阶板长度,后台阶到上壁面的距离三个几何参数,考察它们对后台阶火焰稳定器贫油熄火特性的影响.试验得到的结果表明在离心条件下,后台阶高度和台阶板长度对贫油熄火特性的影响较大,随着后台阶高度和台阶板长度的增加,贫油熄火极限降低,范围拓宽;而后台阶到上壁面的距离对贫油熄火特性影响很小;对于同一个后台阶而言,随着离心力的增加,后台阶火焰稳定器的贫油熄火极限也降低,熄火范围拓宽.

  1. Drowning Prevention

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  2. Preventing Addiction.

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  3. Poison Prevention

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  4. Preventing Suicide

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  5. Preventing Falls

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  6. Preventative Maintenance.

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  7. Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowout injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (jet-ski).

    Freeman, Michael D; Everson, Todd M; Kohles, Sean S


    Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (± 9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (± 5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches. PMID:22925030

  8. Evaluation of the outcomes of endovascular management for patients with head and neck cancers and associated carotid blowout syndrome of the external carotid artery

    Aim: To evaluate factors related to the technical and haemostatic outcomes of endovascular management in patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) associated with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) of the external carotid artery (ECA). Materials and methods: Between 2002 and 2011, 34 patients with HNC with CBS involving branches of the ECA underwent endovascular therapy. Treatment included embolization with microparticles, microcoils, or acrylic adhesives. Fisher's exact test was used to examine demographic features, clinical and angiographic severities, and clinical and imaging findings as predictors of endovascular management outcomes. Results: Technical success and immediate haemostasis were achieved in all patients. Technical complications were encountered in one patient (2.9%). Rebleeding occurred in nine patients (26.5%). Angiographic vascular disruption grading from slight (1) to severe (4) revealed that the 18 patients with acute CBS had scores of 2 (2/18, 11.1%), 3 (3/18, 16.7%), and 4 (13/18, 72.2%). The 16 patients with impending and threatened CBS had scores of 1 (1/16, 6.25%), 2 (5/16, 31.25%), and 3 (10/16, 62.5%; p = 0.0003). For the 25 patients who underwent preprocedural computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations within 3 months of treatment, the agreement between clinical and imaging findings reached the sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values for recurrent tumours (1, 0.7143, 0.7826), soft-tissue defect (0.9091, 0.3333, 0.2424), and sinus tract/fistula (0.4737, 0, 0.4286). Conclusion: Endovascular management for patients with CBS of the ECA had high technical success and safety but was associated with high rebleeding rates. We suggest applying aggressive post-procedural follow-up and using preprocedural CT/MRI to enhance the periprocedural diagnosis

  9. Preventive analgesia

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik


    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive...

  10. Tuberculosis Prevention

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention TB is an airborne disease and ... patients. Many people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) do not get sick or spread the ...

  11. HIV Prevention


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. Carotid blowout syndrome in pharyngeal cancer patients treated by hypofractionated stereotactic re-irradiation using CyberKnife: A multi-institutional matched-cohort analysis

    Background and purpose: Although reirradiation has attracted attention as a potential therapy for recurrent head and neck tumors with the advent of modern radiotherapy, severe rate toxicity such as carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) limits its potential. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors of CBOS after hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and patients: We conducted a matched-pair design examination of pharyngeal cancer patients treated by CyberKnife reirradiation in four institutes. Twelve cases with CBOS were observed per 60 cases without CBOS cases. Prognostic factors for CBOS were analyzed and a risk classification model was constructed. Results: The median prescribed radiation dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions with CyberKnife SBRT after 60 Gy/30 fractions of previous radiotherapy. The median duration between reirradiation and CBOS onset was 5 months (range, 0–69 months). CBOS cases showed a median survival time of 5.5 months compared to 22.8 months for non-CBOS cases (1-year survival rate, 36% vs.72%; p = 0.003). Univariate analysis identified an angle of carotid invasion of >180°, the presence of ulceration, planning treatment volume, and irradiation to lymph node areas as statistically significant predisposing factors for CBOS. Only patients with carotid invasion of >180° developed CBOS (12/50, 24%), whereas no patient with tumor involvement less than a half semicircle around the carotid artery developed CBOS (0/22, 0%, p = 0.03). Multivariate Cox hazard model analysis revealed that the presence of ulceration and irradiation to lymph nodes were statistically significant predisposing factors. Thus, we constructed a CBOS risk classification system: CBOS index = (summation of risk factors; carotid invasion >180°, presence of ulceration, lymph node area irradiation). This system sufficiently separated the risk groups. Conclusion: The presence of ulceration and lymph node irradiation are risk factors of CBOS. The CBOS index

  13. Bullying Prevention

    Kemp, Patrice


    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  14. Prevent Pneumonia


    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  15. Preeclampsia prevention

    Vitorino Modesto Santos


    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are developing countries where pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders and associated conditions constitute major concerns in public health area. Calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid used by pregnant adolescents had preventive effect on PE, but the prevention did not occur with utilization of calcium alone. After implementation of Colombian prenatal care program based on the bio-psychosocial model, maternal mortality and the rate of PE reduced in 23% and 22%, respectively. Late postpartum eclampsia, is the onset of seizuress more than 48 hours, but less than four weeks after delivery. This severe condition may occur without antecedent of PE. Lower maternal mortality due to preeclampsia/ eclampsia can follow implementation of prenatal programs based on BPSM, and use of calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid

  16. Cholera Prevention and Control

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  17. 基于模糊故障树方法的钻井平台井喷概率计算%Probability Calculation of Blowout of Drilling Platform Based on Fuzzy Fault Tree Method

    董海波; 顾学康


      基于模糊理论,提出了一种定量风险评估方法——模糊故障树方法。查阅历史数据库或者借助专家判断,给出故障树模型中各基本事件发生可能性的模糊数表示。考虑到不同专家意见之间可能存在的差异,给出了处理专家意见的运算法则及确定专家权重的理论方法。以半潜式钻井平台发生井喷为顶事件,构建了故障树模型,依据给出的模糊故障树理论模型,计算得到半潜式平台在钻进或固井过程中发生井喷的概率。%Based on fuzzy theory, a quantitative risk assessment method called fuzzy fault tree analysis is presented. By referring to risk database or by dint of expert judgements, this paper presents occurrence possibility of each basic event in the fault tree model which is expressed in the form of fuzzy numbers. Since each expert may have a different opinion, this paper developes an algorithm to aggregate expert opinion and a method to determine the importance weight of expert opinion. This paper constructs fault tree model on blowout of semi-submersible drilling platform. According to fuzzy fault tree analysis method, the probability of blowout is calculated during drilling or cementing on a semi-submersible drilling platform.

  18. Preventive maintenance

    The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

  19. 特大井喷H_2S扩散的数值模拟分析%Numerical simulation analysis of H_2S diffusion in a catastrophic gas blowout accident: A case study of Kai

    练章华; 周兆明; 王辉; 李孝军; 林铁军


    含H_2S气体的高压井喷是一个非常复杂的扩散问题,涉及多组分气体的混合、运移、扩散、气象条件以及复杂的地形空间影响.为此,采用可行的计算流体动力学(CFD)对这一复杂的大空间流场问题进行了数值模拟研究,根据重庆开县特大井喷事故现场三维地貌等高线数据建立了井喷H_2S扩散的CFD流场计算的有限元模型,结合当时气象条件,用Fluent软件的UDF功能编写了边界问歇风速的函数,数学模型中采用了适合于预测大气流动的大涡模拟运动方程,将CFD有限元模型和建立的数学模型用Fluent软件的解算器,对H_2S气体的扩散和运移规律进行了详细的数值模拟研究,获得了H_2S气体在该井场周围山谷地形的积聚、运移规律以及风向对气云扩散的影响,获得了H_2S和CH_4两种气体扩散的时空分布云图.模拟结果和事故现场调查结果一致.%The high-pressure blowout with H_2S is a complex problem of diffusion, involving gas mixture, gas movement, dispersion, and the influences by the meterological condition and complex topography. Therefore, a numerical simulation was carried out on the study of large-space flow field by the viable computational fluids dynamics (CFD). A finite element method was built up on the CFD flow field by the H_2S diffusion of a gas blowout according to the 3D topographic.contour data of this serious gas blowout occurred in Kai County of Chongqing. Then based on the meterological condition when this accident hap-pened, a function of boundary intermittent wind speed was written with the function of UDF in the ANSYS-Fluent software, a motion equation of Large Eddy Simulation adaptable to air flow forecast was used in the mathematical model, and the CFD finite element method and the mathematical model were input to the Fluent-CFD software calculator to simulate the laws of H_2S dif-fusion and movement. The results from simulation were shown as follows:(1) How

  20. 眼眶爆裂性骨折年龄因素与临床及影像学特点分析%The correlation analysis among age and clinical and imageological characteristics for orbital blow-out fractures

    赵亮; 孙丰源; 唐东润; 潘叶


    Objective To analyze and compare the clinical and imageological characteristics of or- bital blow-out fractures between juvenile and adult,and analyze the correlation between clinical manifestations and imageological characteristics.Help the clinicians to analyze patients,conditions roundly and carefully and make reasonable treatment proposals.Methods Collected 75 patients with isolated orbital blow-out fracture whom clinical and imageological materials were completed from October 2006 to December 2008.All patients were divided into two groups:juvenile (≤18 years old,20 Cases) and adult (19-56 years old,55 cases).The ill history,clinical and imageological characteristics and the operative findings of all the cases were summarized. Meanwhile.statistical analysis was made.Results The main:reasons of orbital fractures were fall and violence in juvenile group and that in adult group were vehicle accident and violence.The difference of constituent ratio about gender and involved eyes between two groups had no statistical significance(P>0.05).The severity of enophthalmos in juvenile group was lower than in adult group (P0.05);青少年组术前双眼眼球突出度差值小于成年组(P<0.05);青少年组伤后出现恶心、呕吐症状的构成比高于成年组(P<0.05);两组受累眶壁之间的构成比差别有统计学意义(P<0.05);青少年组骨折区呈裂缝状或阀门样表现的构成比高于成年组(P<0.05);青少年组发生肌肉嵌夹的构成比高于成年组(P<0.05);青少年组手术见肌肉呈深紫色改变的构成比高于成年组(P<0.05).结论 青少年及成年人BOF的临床及影像学特点存在明显差异,结合临床及影像学特点综合分析对于评估患者病情及预后,及时准确地制定治疗方案有较大意义.

  1. Lung Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    ... Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & Resources Featured Topic: Electronic Aggression Funded ...

  3. Prevent Back Pain

    ... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  6. Hazards and prevention of fluky mind in well-control operation%井控过程中侥幸心理的危害与预防



    随着石油工业的发展,井喷失控的危害逐渐被认识到,预防井喷成为钻井工作的头等大事。钻井井控设备愈加完善,使得井控工作的薄弱环节表现在人为意识上,侥幸心理已经成为井控过程中的巨大安全隐患。本文详细分析了侥幸心理的表现形式和危害,研究了预防侥幸心理的方法,提出自动化和智能化钻井技术与互联网信息处理技术的完美结合,可以全面监控钻井工作,防止井喷失控事故的发生。%With the development of petroleum industry, serious harm of Blowout is gradually known by human, and the well-control precaution become the first importance of drilling work.Compared with the excellent BOP equip-ments, the people's action sometimes comes out in a weak situation.Based on analyses of danger and its character-istics induced by fluky mind, some methods to prevent fluky mind are proposed, and it is emphasized that thor-oughly combination between the Drilling automatic & intelligence and Information Processing Internet can compre-hensively monitor the drilling program and forbid Blow-out occurrence.

  7. Operational verification of a blow out preventer utilizing fiber Bragg grating based strain gauges

    Turner, Alan L.; Loustau, Philippe; Thibodeau, Dan


    Ultra-deep water BOP (Blowout Preventer) operation poses numerous challenges in obtaining accurate knowledge of current system integrity and component condition- a salient example is the difficulty of verifying closure of the pipe and shearing rams during and after well control events. Ascertaining the integrity of these functions is currently based on a manual volume measurement performed with a stop watch. Advances in sensor technology now permit more accurate methods of BOP condition monitoring. Fiber optic sensing technology and particularly fiber optic strain gauges have evolved to a point where we can derive a good representation of what is happening inside a BOP by installing sensors on the outside shell. Function signatures can be baselined to establish thresholds that indicate successful function activation. Based on this knowledge base, signal variation over time can then be utilized to assess degradation of these functions and subsequent failure to function. Monitoring the BOP from the outside has the advantage of gathering data through a system that can be interfaced with risk based integrity management software and/or a smart monitoring system that analyzes BOP control redundancies without the requirement of interfacing with OEM control systems. The paper will present the results of ongoing work on a fully instrumented 13-½" 10,000 psi pipe ram. Instrumentation includes commonly used pressure transducers, accelerometers, flow meters, and optical strain gauges. Correlation will be presented between flow, pressure, acceleration signatures and the fiber optic strain gauge's response as it relates to functional verification and component level degradation trending.

  8. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat ...

  11. Research Areas: Prevention

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  13. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    ... Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: DPP ... to Remember Hope through Research Availability The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major multicenter clinical research ...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  15. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you ... during sex. Return to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites ...

  16. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep ...

  17. Preventing Eye Injuries

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Histoplasmosis Risk and Prevention

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  20. Waste prevention action nets

    Corvellec, Hervé; Czarniawska, Barbara


    Although waste prevention is considered the best possible waste management option in the European waste hierarchy model, it is unclear what constitutes waste prevention. To address this lack of clarity, this text presents an analysis of four Swedish case studies of waste prevention: a waste management company selling waste prevention services; the possibility offered to Swedish households to opt out of receiving unaddressed promotional material; a car-sharing program; and a re-...

  1. Prevention IS Care


    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  2. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Shingles Prevention & Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

  3. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  4. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H


    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  5. Prevention Of Stroke

    Nagaraja D


    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  6. [Prevention of osteoporosis].

    Dambacher, M A; Kissling, R; Neff, M


    The European Parliament presented June 10th in Brussels the 'Osteoporosis Report in EU--Means for Prevention'. It was emphasized that in the EU more than 3500 million Ecu have to be spent for hospitalization and that more than 500,000 hospitals beds are being used by osteoporotic patients. According to some calculations this number will double within the next 50 years. The EU has set up eight steps to be considered, e.g. have densitometric measurements available for persons with high risk and have these measurement paid by the insurances to further finance and support research for the very important areas of prevention and treatment. One distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of osteoporosis. Primary prevention aims at reaching at adolescent age a peak bone mass as high as possible. Secondary prevention aims at reducing bone loss peri- and postmenopausal. The tertiary prevention with manifest osteoporosis aims at preventing fractures. Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures. In addition to drugs such as vitamin D/calcium, vitamin D metabolites and bisphosphonates it is very important to create 'a fall-proof home'. Also very useful are hip protectors. PMID:9865147

  7. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Eremin O.V.


    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  8. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    Caldwell, Dawn


    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...

  9. Preventing food allergy

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep;


    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  10. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy


    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  11. Youth Violence Prevention

    María Loreto Biehl


    This document is one of a series of technical notes that describe the nature and magnitude of violence in the region, its causes and effects, and how it can be prevented and controlled. The notes provide useful information on designing programs and policies to prevent and deal with violence. This technical note discusses youth violence prevention issues. Increasing violence among young people is a particularly alarming problem in the region. Youth are at a higher risk of being victims and per...

  12. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  13. Prevent Blindness America

    Advocacy Our Partners Prevent Blindness in your State Search Site Your Sight Your Sight What's Your Risk of a Vision Problem? Signs of Eye Problems ... School Your Child's Glasses Wearing Contact Lenses Prevent Blindness and Children's Vision Protecting Your Child's Eyes from ...

  14. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Bartalena, Luigi


    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  15. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    ... in a variety of roles take action to prevent suicide. These resources are available free of charge for you to reproduce and distribute in your workplace or community. The Role of High School Teachers in Preventing Suicide The Role of High ...

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer!


    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  17. Prevention dependence of marihuana

    VOJTĚCHOVÁ, Jiřina


    This diploma thesis finds out, confronts knowledge and experience with drugs at the pupils. It characterizes drug addiction, its emergence and reasons. It deals with the problems of drug prevention, their possibilities and practices applied at schools. It describes laws about using drugs. And the survey shows that the primary prevention of using marihuana cannot be underestimated.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)


    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel


    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  20. Can I Prevent Acne?

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  1. Preventing Child Abuse

    Alvy, Kerby T.


    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  2. Prevention of preterm birth.

    Flood, Karen


    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  3. Traditional preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D


    prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or...... conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment...

  4. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M


    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the


    Akula Annapurna


    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... wheelchair seat cushion? What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “ ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    ... wheelchair seat cushion? What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “ ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  8. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  9. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  10. Treating and Preventing Burns

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  11. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  12. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  13. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Household Safety: Preventing Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > Household Safety: ... and often contain small parts. Make sure small refrigerator magnets are out of your child's reach. Check ...

  14. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  15. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    ... gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control When a person is infested with scabies mites ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  16. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  17. Building in Prevention

    Troelsen, Jens

    Health interventions can be seen as initiatives that seek to prevent the emergence and development of impaired public health. Initiatives made in the area of prophylaxis can be experienced as anything from direct invasions of personal freedom to small traffic bumps on the roads. In this spectrum...... this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural change in the population as a whole but also to reduce the negative consequences of a stigmatising health...... discourse. To get an overall view of the effects of physical, structural preventive action, the second half of this chapter presents a model that, with its theoretical basis, may provide guidance in the compilation of new preventive strategies. This leads onto a concluding discussion of the ways in which...

  18. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Kalafat, John


    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  19. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Hayati Fatemeh


    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  20. Polyp Prevention Trial

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  1. Prevention in practice

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul;


    BACKGROUND: This paper is a summary document of the Prevention in Practice Conference and Special Supplement of BMC Oral Health. It represents the consensus view of the presenters and captures the questions, comments and suggestions of the assembled audience. METHODS: Using the prepared manuscripts...... for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in...... practice, how diseases could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...

  3. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  4. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman


    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  5. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Kew, Michael C


    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  6. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    Alimadad, Azadeh


    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  7. Bunch modulation in LWFA blowout regime

    Vyskočil, Jiří; Klimo, Ondřej; Vieira, J.; Korn, Georg

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2015 - (Ledingham, K.; Esarey, E.; Spohr, K.; Schroeder, C.; McKenna, P.; Gruner, F.; Bolton, P.), "95141E-1"-"95141E-7" ISBN 978-1-62841-635-0. ISSN 0277-786X. [Laser Acceleration of Electrons, Protons, and Ions III and Medical Applications of Laser-Generated Beams of Particles III. Praha (CZ), 13.04.2015-15.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA MŠk EE. Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron injection * bunch modulation * LWFA Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  8. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    ... disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about ... well-being. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevent heart disease? Once you reach menopause, your ovaries stop making ...

  9. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  10. Pollution prevention for process engineers

    Richardson, P.E.; Scheiner, B.J.; Lanzetta, F. Jr. [eds.


    Topics covered at the conference include: concepts and policies of pollution prevention; acid mine drainage; water treatment; pollution prevention - energy minerals; precious metal processing; applications of biotechnologies; emerging technologies for pollution prevention; and fertilizer industry.

  11. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    ... About . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  12. Use of SLAB View for simulation of natural gas diffusion in blowouts of sour gas well%SLAB View 软件在含硫天然气井井喷泄漏扩散模拟中的应用

    罗钦; 赵煜晖; 廖柯熹; 向方倩; 周东


    This paper describes the SLAB heavy gas dispersion modeling and uses SLAB View to simulate the H2 S diffusion process and hazardous areas in a sour gas well blowouts .It identifies the influence range of H2 S cloud cluster at specified concentration averaging time ,the time w hen the H2 S cloud cluster of specified concentration reaches the furthest distance ,and the furthest diffuse distance in wind direction .The comparison shows that SLAB View offers an easier and faster option to simu‐late leakage and diffusion process during sour gas well blowouts on flat terrains ,and therefore it is a useful tool for the prediction of the diffusion consequence and influence range .%介绍了SLAB重气泄漏扩散模型,并运用SLAB View 软件模拟了某含硫气井发生井喷事故 H2 S云团的扩散过程和危害区域,得出了H2 S云团在指定浓度平均时间下的影响范围,以及指定浓度 H2 S云团出现在最远距离的时间和最远下风向扩散距离。结果表明,SLAB View 软件能方便、快速地模拟平坦地形下含硫天然气井喷泄漏扩散过程,预测事故泄漏扩散后果和影响范围。

  13. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David


    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation. PMID:17630936

  14. Prevention of food allergy

    Halken, S


    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  15. Prevention, family, and community.

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis


    The "Prevention, Family, and Community" session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on "Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction," and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on "Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery." Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania. PMID:25264416

  16. Primary Prevention With Statins

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G;


    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... population studied, 42% were eligible for statin therapy according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk assessment and cholesterol treatment guidelines approach, versus 56% with the trial-based approach and 21% with the hybrid approach. Among these statin...... prevention of ASCVD with statins was superior to the trial-based and hybrid approaches. Our results indicate that the ACC/AHA guidelines will prevent more ASCVD events than the trial-based and hybrid approaches, while treating fewer people compared with the trial-based approach....

  17. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  18. Prevention of Football Injuries


    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...

  19. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian


    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  20. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  1. Prevention, family, and community

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; DALEY, DENNIS


    The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: ...

  2. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  3. Novel preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D;


    , including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although...

  4. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza


    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.). PMID:25287552

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... how is it treated? What's the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...

  6. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    ... to stretch their limits and learn sportsmanship and discipline. But any sport also carries the potential for injury. By knowing the causes of sports injuries and how to prevent them, you can help make athletics a positive experience for your child. Kids can be particularly ...

  7. [Can we prevent preeclampsia?].

    Ghesquière, Louise; Clouqueur, Elodie; Garabedian, Charles; Tsatsaris, Vassili; Houfflin-Debarge, Veronique


    Preeclampsia (PE), a specific complication of pregnancy, is one of the most frequent causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, PE risk calculation algorithms allowing early detection of PE in the first trimester of pregnancy have been described. The aim of early detection would be to rapidly introduce an effective preventive treatment. The aim of our work is to study the different preventive treatments through the literature. Aspirin has some efficiency and reduces the risk of PE from 10 to 24%. It is most effective when the dose exceeds 75mg and when introduced before 16 gestational age. Early introduction of aspirin mainly prevents severe and preterm PE. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and vitamin D appear to be promising therapy for PE but further research is required. Calcium administered at 1g/day reduces the risk of PE especially to patients with low baseline calcium intake. A low dose of calcium could also reduce the risk of PE but this must be confirmed. Other preventive measures (antioxidants, nitric oxide, progesterone, rest, exercise) do not reduce the incidence of PE. PMID:27013262

  8. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    ... Veterans Ayuda en Español Help for International Callers Bullying Help For Someone Else Help Someone Else Online Help for Deaf My3 App Get Involved Promote Materials Web Banners Awareness Ribbons Logos Prevention Week Volunteer Center Locator Reasons to Call How ...

  9. Injury Prevention Research


    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  10. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H


    mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have...


    Narra Gopal


    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  12. Preventing School Violence

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena


    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  13. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Beer, W. Nicholas


    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  14. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Scheans, Patricia


    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described. PMID:26803094

  15. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria


    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  17. Prevent and "British Values"

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet


    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  18. Bullying Prevention for Kids


    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  19. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Raspe, Heiner


    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  20. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Colthurst, Tom


    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  1. Preventing Skin Cancer


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  2. Stroke: secondary prevention

    Lip, Gregory YH; Kalra, Lalit


    Prevention in this context is the long-term management of people with previous stroke or TIA, and of people at high risk of stroke for other reasons, such as atrial fibrillation. Risk factors for stroke include: previous stroke or TIA; increasing age; hypertension; diabetes; cigarette smoking; and emboli associated with atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, or MI.

  3. [Prevention in regional policy].

    Masi, M; Caponetti, A


    Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

  4. Prevention of nuclear war

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  5. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    Friedman, R.B. (Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Richmond (USA))


    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references.

  6. Preventing HIV infection.

    Coates, T J; Collins, C


    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  7. Improved methods for reliability assessments of safety-critical systems: An application example for BOP systems

    Pinker, Remi


    The failure of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig's blowout preventer has been pointed to as one of the main causes of the Macondo accident on April 10th 2010. The blowout preventer system is one the most important safety barriers in a hydrocarbon well. The accident has created a demand for improved methods of assessing the reliability of blowout preventer systems. The objective of this master thesis is to propose improvements to current reliability assessment methods for complex safety criti...

  8. Prevention and drug treatment.

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda


    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  9. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Jack TIMOFTE


    The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  10. Prevention of criticality accidents

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

  11. Prevention of Gestational Diabetes

    Callaway, Leonie K.; Colditz, Paul B.; Byrne, Nuala M; Lingwood, Barbara E.; Rowlands, Ingrid J; Foxcroft, Katie; McIntyre, H. David; ,


    OBJECTIVE To examine the feasibility of an individualized exercise program to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in obese pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study was a pilot randomized controlled trial with obese pregnant women (intervention group, individualized exercise program [n = 25]; control group, usual care [n = 25]). Average weekly energy expenditure (MET hours per week and kilocalories per week) of exercise-specific activity was assessed during pregnancy using...

  12. Prevention of CSA

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.


    Thirty child abuse prevention programme evaluation studies were selected according to a set of methodological criteria following an extensive manual and computer literature search. Targets for intervention in 17 studies were children; in 3 were parents; in 4 were teachers; and in 6 studies multisystemic programmes were evaluated where some combination of children, parents and teachers were targeted for intervention. From a review of the 30 studies it was concluded that child abuse...

  13. Prevention of Physicians’ Suicide

    Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran


    Suicide rate in physicians has been reported to be higher than general population or other academics. Previous studies found that 85-90% of people who commit suicide had been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorder. Suicide prevention is the key element in lowering the numbers of physicians who destroy themselves and end their lives each year. It is needed to provide some educational programs to increase physicians’ awareness of warning signs of suicidal ideation such as observable s...




    Currently, business ethics and integrity of top managers and employees are often under a big question, so we cannot rely on them. Non-compliant behavior of top management and employees related to fraud and corrupt practices lead to huge financial losses, loss of reputation and litigations. Incidents of internal fraud and embezzlement are happening in every business imaginable. Fraud prevention solutions we recommend are the fundamental for corporate financial compliance. All stakeholders must...

  15. Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation

    Russo, Nicola


    Background: Despite the favourable effects of new therapeutic approaches during the acute phase of cardiac diseases and consequent favourable short-term outcomes, post-acute management and long term prognosis still remain unsatisfactory. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidisciplinary treatment with established beneficial effects for the vast majority of cardiac patients and universally considered an important aspect of secondary prevention. Although it has been shown to reduce both morbid...

  16. Prevention of cold injuries

    Tipton, Mike


    On the 19th and 20th May 2005, civilian and military scientists, medical officers, engineers and other personnel from NATO and Partners for Peace countries met in Amsterdam, The Netherlands for a Human Factors and Medicine Panel Specialist's meeting (HFM-126/RSM) on the "Prevention of Cold Injuries". The meeting was organized by the Human Factors and Medicine Panel in close collaboration with TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands and the Royal Netherlands Navy (RLN). The meeting comprised two 45...

  17. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E


    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:25838784

  18. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

  19. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  20. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  1. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  2. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    ... Lice - Body Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Body lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  3. Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

    ... Prevention Text Size Print Bookmark Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention People with diabetes are prone to having ... complication is so severe that surgery, and occasionally amputation, may become necessary. Poor blood flow. In diabetes, ...

  4. Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle and taking ... risk for heart disease may help you prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). These steps include: Following a heart healthy ...

  5. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  6. 针刺对爆裂性眶壁骨折致眼球运动障碍的疗效分析%Curative effect analysis of acupuncture on eye movement disorders caused by orbital blowout fracture

    周凌云; 刘青松; 刘巧英


    OBJECTIVE To observe the acupuncture effect on extra ocular muscle points for eye movement disorders of burst orbital wall fracture. METHODS Sixty eye movement disorder patients with blowout orbital wall fracture were randomly divided into two groups:treatment group (30 cases) selected points on extra ocular muscle, depending on the type of orbital wall fracture, 1 time a day, retaining needle for 30 minutes, 15 days as a course, 2 courses each patient, and conventional drug treatment were given at the same time;Control group (30 cases) was only given routine drug treatment. Before and after treatment, eye movement disorder rating and the corresponding scope of corneal limbus mobile were observed. RESULTS 1.Treatment group: the scope of corneal limbus mobile before treatment, inward moving(4.80±3.01) mm, rebound(3.40±2.50) mm, depression(4.40±1.54) mm;the scope of corneal limbus mobile after treatment , inward moving (7.47±2.26) mm, rebound (4.70±1.74) mm, depression (5.47±0.78) mm. Control group:the scope of corneal limbus mobile before treatment, inward moving (5.17±2.78) mm, rebound (3.17±2.49) mm, depression (4.53±1.41) mm;the scope of corneal limbus mobile after treatment , inward moving (6.17 ±2.56) mm, rebound (3.57 ±2.27) mm, depression (4.70 ±1.26) mm. We compared them within groups, both groups had statistically significance (P<0.001); Comparing between the two groups after treatment, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). 2.The eye movement disorder rating of treatment group:before treatment, level 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 eyes number respectively 0, 5, 17, 8 eyes;after treatment , level 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 eyes number respectively 11, 13, 1, 5 eyes; Control group before treatment, level 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 eyes number respectively 0, 6, 17, 7 eyes, after treatment , level 0, Ⅰ,Ⅱ,ⅢandⅣeyes number respectively 4, 13, 6, 7 eyes. Two groups after treatment eye movement disorder improved. Comparison between the two groups after treatment, the

  7. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  8. Risk and Prevention of Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  9. Can We Really Prevent Suicide?

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A


    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, a...

  10. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors