Sample records for blepharoptosis

  1. Acquired blepharoptosis

    Oosterhuis, HJGH


    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  2. Upper eyelid motility in blepharoptosis and in the aging eyelid

    R.J. Wouters; W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); H.G. Lemij (Hans); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)


    textabstractPURPOSE. To study the metrics of lid saccades in blepharoptosis and to distinguish any differences in the dynamics of eyelid movements that are related to the cause of blepharoptosis and to aging. METHODS. The lid and vertical eye saccades of 7 patients with

  3. Elevator Muscle Anterior Resection: A New Technique for Blepharoptosis.

    Zigiotti, Gian Luigi; Delia, Gabriele; Grenga, Pierluigi; Pichi, Francesco; Rechichi, Miguel; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; d'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Lupo, Flavia; Meduri, Alessandro


    Blepharoptosis is a condition of inadequate upper eyelid position, with a downward displacement of the upper eyelid margin resulting in obstruction of the superior visual field. Levator resection is an effective technique that is routinely used to correct aponeurotic ptosis. The anterior levator resection is the procedure of choice in moderate blepharoptosis when there is moderate to good levator muscle function, furthermore, with an anterior approach, a greater resection can be achieved than by a conjunctival approach. The authors describe a modification in the Putterman technique with a resection done over a plicated elevator, plication that was suggested by Mustardè. The technique has been named as elevator muscle anterior resection. The elevator muscle anterior resection inspires from the Fasanella-Servat operation by the use of a clamp, making the operation simple and predictable. PMID:26703054

  4. Frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children.

    Dianju Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. RESULTS: The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%; the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%; blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. CONCLUSION: Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.

  5. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Ji-Sun Paik

    Full Text Available To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF, according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis.The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05. As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1 decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women; the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders; the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ≤0.001 for both genders. Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.32-3.47; and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97 and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease.The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.


    Ruchi; Parth


    AIM & OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the functional and cosmetic outcome and compare the complications of various ptosis surgeries done for simple congenital ptosis at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 46 patients with 52 eyelids having undergone ptosis surger y for congenital simple blepharoptosis were included in our study. Patients of all age groups and either sex which post - operatively completed a follow – up period at 1, 3, 6 m...

  7. Blefaroptose em usuários de lentes de contato Blepharoptosis in contact lens wearers

    Tiana Gabriela Burmann


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a freqüência de blefaroptose adquirida em usuários de lentes de contato. MÉTODOS: Avaliação prospectiva de 50 pacientes, usuários de lentes de contato, do Setor de Lentes de Contato do Serviço de Oftalmologia do Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, durante o período de abril a novembro de 2004. A distância reflexo-margem (MRD foi avaliada em 99 pálpebras de usuários de lentes de contato e para as 52 pálpebras de controle. Pacientes cuja medida da distância reflexo-margem se apresentou inferior a 2 mm ou com assimetria de distância reflexo-margem maior ou igual a 2 mm foram considerados portadores de blefaroptose. Foram avaliados o tipo de lente de contato utilizada e o tempo de uso das mesmas. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes apresentaram ptose, todos eles eram usuários de lentes de contato rígidas, um com ptose bilateral e quatro, unilateral. A distância reflexo-margem dos pacientes usuários de lentes de contato foi, em média, 0,88 mm inferior aos não usuários. Os valores de distância reflexo-margem foram progressivamente decrescentes nos grupos estudados: controles, usuários de lentes gelatinosas e de lentes rígidas. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo sugere que os usuários de lentes de contato possuem alteração dos valores de distância reflexo-margem, principalmente os que usam lentes rígidas.PURPOSE: To investigate the occurrence of acquired blepharoptosis in contact lens wearers. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 50 contact lens wearers being followed at the Contact Lenses Section of the Ophthalmology Service at the "Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre" between April and November 2004. The margin reflex distance (MRD was evaluated for the 99 eyelids of contact lens wearers and for the 52 eyelids of controls. A patient whose measurement was less than 2 mm or with an assymetry of margin reflex distance greater or equal to 2 mm were considered with blepharoptosis. The contact lens type and

  8. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction

    Đorđević Boban


    s crease was formed by the conjoined fascia including the fascia of the orbicularis muscle, the superficial layer of the orbital septum, and the aponeurosis of the LPS muscle, as well as the pretarsal fascia. Conclusion. The conducted study provided a valuable morphological basis for biomechanical and clinical considerations regarding blepharoptosis surgery. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175030

  9. Palpebral position interdependence in blepharoptosis: comparison of the effect of instillation of 10% phenylephrine drop and digital lifting

    Ivana Cardoso Pereira


    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify and compare the effects of instillation with 10% phenylephrine and digital lifting on the contralateral upper eyelid of patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis. Methods: The present prospective clinical study involved patients with involutional bilateral blepharoptosis who underwent two tests: 1 digital lifting of the more ptotic eyelid and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid and 2 instillation of two drops of 10% phenylephrine in the more ptotic eye and observation of the effect on the contralateral eyelid. Patients were filmed before and 5, 10, and 15 min after instillation, and the resulting images were analyzed to obtain eyelid measurements. The results were tested using a linear mixed-effects model. Results: A total of 27 patients, ranging from 52 to 82 years of age (mean age 68.51 ± 8.21 years, 24 (88.88% of whom were women, were included in the present study. In eyes that received instillation, the marginal distance reflex-1 (MDR1 values increased from baseline (1.21 ± 0.60 mm until 10 min after instillation, then remained statistically unchanged until 15 min after instillation (2.42 ± 0.90 mm. Significant differences were observed in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent digital lifting (1.51 ± 0.53 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm and in the contralateral eye of the group that underwent 10% phenylephrine instillation (1.38 ± 0.54 mm - 1.63 ± 0.56 mm; p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: In all eyes, 10% phenylephrine elevated the upper eyelid, with improved eyelid height at 10 min after instillation. Significant differences were observed in the height of the contralateral eyelid when compared before and after each intervention in each group; however, this difference was very small and nearly undetectable by conventional clinical evaluation in the digital lifting group. However, the 10% phenylephrine eye-drop test resulted in substantial changes in MDR1 values in the

  10. Suspensão ao músculo frontal com politetrafluoretileno para o tratamento da blefaroptose Frontalis suspension with polytetrafluorethylene for the treatment of blepharoptosis

    Juliana Silvério


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o uso do fio de politetrafluoretileno nas cirurgias de suspensão ao músculo frontal para correção de blefaroptose. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados todos os casos de blefaroptose grave submetidos à cirurgia pela técnica de suspensão ao músculo frontal como fio de politetrafluoretileno, no período de fevereiro de 2003 a abril de 2007. Foram realizadas 36 cirurgias em 23 pacientes, a média de seguimento foi de 15,8 meses (variando de 3 a 36 meses. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi a descrita por Fox. RESULTADOS: Entre as causas de blefaroptose foram encontradas: congênita em 20 (86,95% pacientes, blefarofimose em 2 (8,69% pacientes e traumática em 1 (4,35% paciente. Na primeira semana de pós-operatório, 6 (26,08% pacientes referiram assimetria palpebral, 4 (17,39% notaram edema local, 3 (13,04% pacientes apresentaram granuloma no local do fio e 1 (4,35% paciente apresentou celulite facial na região frontal unilateral. Após 3 meses de seguimento, 3 (13,04% pacientes referiram assimetria palpebral, e em 1 (4,35% paciente persistia o granuloma. CONCLUSÃO: O politetrafluoretileno - Modelo CV3, 6.0 (Gore-Tex®; W.L. Gore & Associates Inc, Flagstaff, AZ, EUA é um material adequado com bons resultados funcionais (86,9%, baixos índices de complicação (4,35% e insatisfação (13,4%, podendo ser uma alternativa em relação à fáscia lata, na cirurgia de suspensão ao frontal para tratamento de ptose palpebral grave.PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional results and complications of the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene in frontalis suspension surgery for the treatment of blepharoptosis. METHODS: Frontalis suspension procedure with polytetrafluoroethylene was performed between 2003 and 2007 on 23 patients (36 eyes with blepharoptosis. An average follow-up time was 15.8 months (range, 3 to 36. Surgical technique used was described by Fox. RESULTS: The causes of blepharoptosis found were: congenital in

  11. Improvement of frontal muscle-fascia suspension for blepharoptosis treatment%以额肌为动力治疗上睑下垂方法的改进

    赵天兰; 余道江; 谢晓明; 张云涛; 徐妍; 陈琦; 吴浩荣


    目的 探索一种简便、实用的以额肌为动力治疗上睑下垂的方法的改进.方法 对22例不同程度的上睑下垂患者仍利用额肌作为动力,将分离的额肌筋膜直接固定于睑板上缘进行治疗.术中经重睑成形术切口将额肌筋膜与皮下组织充分游离,在眶上缘下横行切开额肌筋膜长约1.5 cm,在骨膜表面向上分离额肌筋膜,至眶上1.5 cm左右,不制作额肌筋膜瓣,然后将分离的额肌筋膜直接向下牵拉与睑板上缘睑上提肌腱膜缝合固定3~4针,并调整固定至张力适度为止,术中无需分离眼轮匝肌后隧道.结果 22例伤口均Ⅰ期愈合,睁眼时无抬眉、皱额表现,重睑外形佳,双眼对称,手术效果良好,患者满意.经3~6个月随访,无1例复发.结论 借用额肌作为动力,将额肌筋膜直接与睑板上缘缝合悬吊治疗上睑下垂,方法简便,疗效稳定,损伤小,并发症少.此方法可应用于额肌功能正常的各型上睑下垂患者.%Objective To introduce a new and practical method of treating blepharoptosis with direct suspension of the frontal muscle-fascia improvement. Methods 22 cases of blepharoptosis were corrected by direct suspension of the frontal muscle-fascia in which the dynamia still came from frontal muscle.Through double-fold eyelid incision, the frontal muscle-fascia was dissected from the subcutaneous tissue and a 1.5 cm length incision of the frontal muscle-fascia was cut under the supraorbital margin. And through the incision, the frontal muscle-fascia on the superficies of periosteum was dissected 1.5 cm to the upper margin of orbital, and then the frontal muscle-fascia was pulled down and fixed to the levator muscle aponeurosis directly by mattress sutures, with the tension being adjusted to a moderate degree. Results 22 cases of blepharoptosis were cured by primary healing with this method. The patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with satisfactory results and no recurrence

  12. Suspensão ao músculo frontal com politetrafluoretileno para o tratamento da blefaroptose Frontalis suspension with polytetrafluorethylene for the treatment of blepharoptosis

    Juliana Silvério; Débora Mayumi Sugano; Lúcia Miriam Dumont Lucci; José Ricardo Carvalho Lima Rehder


    OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o uso do fio de politetrafluoretileno nas cirurgias de suspensão ao músculo frontal para correção de blefaroptose. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados todos os casos de blefaroptose grave submetidos à cirurgia pela técnica de suspensão ao músculo frontal como fio de politetrafluoretileno, no período de fevereiro de 2003 a abril de 2007. Foram realizadas 36 cirurgias em 23 pacientes, a média de seguimento foi de 15,8 meses (variando de 3 a 36 meses). A técnica cirúrgic...

  13. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture.

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan


    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  14. Ptosis - infants and children

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  15. Trigeminal Proprioception Evoked by Strong Stretching of the Mechanoreceptors in Müller's Muscle Induces Reflex Contraction of the Orbital Orbicularis Oculi Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke


    Objective: The mixed orbicularis oculi muscle lacks an intramuscular proprioceptive system such as muscle spindles, to induce reflex contraction of its slow-twitch fibers. We evaluated whether the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle function as extrinsic mechanoreceptors to induce reflex contraction of the slow-twitch fibers of the orbicularis oculi in addition to those of the levator and frontalis muscles. Methods: We evaluated in patients with aponeurosis-disinserted blepharoptosis whether ...

  16. Michels syndrome: The first case report from India and review of literature

    Adedayo A Adio


    Full Text Available A 2-year 7-month-old girl born out of a consanguineous marriage, presented at our facility with clinical features characterized by the eyelid triad of blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis and epicanthus inversus in association with hypertelorism, cleft palate and craniosynostosis. This constellation of features is suggestive of Michels syndrome. At the time of writing this report, there were only ten reported cases worldwide and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports from India.

  17. Mild Ptosis Correction with the Stitch Method During Incisional Double Fold Formation

    Lee, Edward Ilho; Ahn, Tae Joo


    Background Numerous methods exist for simultaneous correction of mild blepharoptosis during double eyelid surgery. These methods are generally categorized into either incisional (open) or non-incisional (suture) methods. The incisional method is commonly used for the creation of the double eyelid crease in patients with excessive or thick skin. However, concurrent open ptosis correction is often marred by the lengthy period of intraoperative adjustment, causing more swelling, a longer recover...

  18. Kirurško zdravljenje ptoze z mersilensko mrežico: Surgical treatment of ptosis with mersilene mesh:

    Beltram, Matej; Drnovšek-Olup, Brigita


    Background. Frontalis suspension is the best surgical procedure for severe ptosis with poor or absent levator muscle function. The transmission of frontalis muscle activity to the upper lid is achieved by the insertion of thebiologically acceptable stretchable connection between the two. The authorsdescribe the results of thirteen years of use of the Mersilene mesh sling for the correction of severe blepharoptosis. Methods. From January 1990 to October 2003 brow suspension was performed on 55...

  19. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A


    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27200201

  20. Regeneração aberrante do nervo oculomotor secundária a aneurisma intracraniano: relato de caso Aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor nerve followed by intracranial aneurysm: case report

    Renato Wendell Ferreira Damasceno


    Full Text Available Relatar um caso de regeneração aberrante secundária à paralisia aguda do nervo oculomotor causada por aneurisma intracraniano. Paciente atendida em fevereiro de 2006 queixando-se de dor de cabeça acompanhada de visão dupla e queda da pálpebra no olho direito. Na avaliação da motilidade ocular extrínseca, verificou-se incapacidade da adução, da supradução e da infradução associada à blefaroptose no olho direito. Com relação à motilidade intrínseca, midríase paralítica no olho direito. Formulou-se diagnóstico de paralisia aguda de nervo oculomotor no olho direito e solicitou-se avaliação neurológica. No Departamento de Neurocirurgia, após ser diagnosticada presença de aneurisma de artéria comunicante posterior, a paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Em dezembro de 2006, observou-se melhora relativa da adução, mantendo a incapacidade da supradução e da infradução com blefaroptose melhorada à adução do olho direito. Com relação à motilidade intrínseca, miose no olho afetado. O diagnóstico de regeneração aberrante do nervo oculomotor pós-paralisia aguda foi formulado baseando-se na anamnese e nos exames oftalmológicos seqüenciais.To report a case of aberrant regeneration followed by acute palsy of the oculomotor nerve caused by intracranial aneurysm. A 59-year-old patient was attended in February 2006 complaining of headache with diplopia and blepharoptosis in the right eye. At the external ocular motility exam. Aduction, supraduction and infraduction defects with blepharoptosis in the right eye were observed. Regarding the internal ocular motility, mydriasis in the right eye. Acute palsy of the oculomotor nerve in the right eye was diagnosed and neurological examination was requested. At the Department of Neurosurgery, after having diagnosed aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery, the patient was submitted to an operation. In December 2006, it improvement of the aduction was

  1. Bilateral lid/brow elevation procedure for severe ptosis in Kearns-Sayre syndrome, a mitochondrial cytopathy

    Sebastiá R


    Full Text Available Roberto Sebastiá,1,2 Ester Fallico,3 Matteo Fallico,4 Eduardo Fortuna,5 Sergio Lessa,2,6 Guilherme Herzog Neto1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, 2Oculoplastic Surgery Department, 38th Infirmary of the Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Ivo Pitanguy, Pontifícia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Clinica Gretter, 4Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy; 5Hospital da Plástica, 6Post-Graduate Program in Physiopathology in Surgical Science, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: The purpose of this work was to determine the effectiveness and possible complications encountered with bilateral fascia lata lid suspension used to correct blepharoptosis in patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome.Methods: This was a retrospective study of seven patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome who had a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. A bilateral fascia lata sling was used to correct the ptosis. Preoperative and postoperative measurements of the vertical lid fissure width (VFW and marginal reflex distance (MRD were performed. The Student’s t-test was used to analyze the results.Results: The mean preoperative VFW and MRD measurements were 4±2.45 mm and 0.14±0.92 mm, respectively. The mean postoperative VFW and MRD measurements were 7.71±1.85 mm, and 2.86±1.69 mm, respectively. All preoperative and postoperative values were considered to be statistically significant (P<0.01. Adequate elevation of the lids was obtained in all patients, both functionally and aesthetically. All of the patients showed a mild symmetric postoperative inferior version lagophthalmos, and one patient developed corneal ulceration and scarring due to corneal exposure and a weak Bell’s phenomenon.Conclusion: The surgical technique described to correct the blepharoptosis found in patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome was found to

  2. Acquired oculomotor muscle fibrosis in infant: case report

    Carlos Ramos de Souza-Dias


    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a 5 year-old boy who up to 2 years old presented normal eyes, when his right eye started to deviate upward and laterally, until be hidden under the superior lid. At the surgery, a strong passive limitation to infraduction of this eye was felt. He had already been operated on in another clinic, but the surgeon could not succeed in hooking his superior rectus. With great difficulty, the only thing that we could do was a free tenotomy of the superior rectus. As the eye was equilibrated in a moderate abduction, we performed an 8 mm recession of the lateral rectus. As there was still a small hypertropia and exotropia postoperatively, we performed in a second operation an eight millimeters resection of the medial rectus, a recession with anterior transposition of the inferior oblique and an advancement of the inferior rectus according to the Romero-Apis technique, in order to avert circulatory problems to the anterior segment of the eye. As he presented a small blepharoptosis, we did, in a third surgery, a tarsectomy according to the Fasanella-Servat technique, with good result. He ended with good eye position, almost no limitation of the horizontal movements and - 3 limitation of up and down ductions. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an altered image of the superior rectus, suggesting fibrosis post myositis.

  3. A broad range of ophthalmologic anomalies is part of the holoprosencephaly spectrum.

    Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Solomon, Benjamin D; Roessler, Erich; Balog, Joan Z; Hadley, Donald W; Zein, Wadih M; Hadsall, Casey K; Brooks, Brian P; Muenke, Maximilian


    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common disorder of the developing forebrain in humans, and is characterized by failed or incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep brain structures. HPE includes wide phenotypic variability, with a continuum of both brain and craniofacial anomalies. While "classic" eye findings, including the spectrum of midline anomalies ranging from cyclopia to hypotelorism, as well as chorioretinal coloboma and microphthalmia, have been frequently described in patients with HPE, other subtle eye anomalies may also occur. In our study we prospectively analyzed a small cohort of 10 patients in whom we identified mutations in SHH, SIX3, ZIC2, or FGF8, the latter of which is a very recently described HPE-associated gene. We found that 9 of 10 patients had at least two ophthalmologic anomalies, including refractive errors, microcornea, microphthalmia, blepharoptosis, exotropia, and uveal coloboma. These findings contribute to the understanding of the phenotypic variability of the HPE spectrum, and highlight findings in one medically important but often incompletely investigated system. PMID:21976454

  4. Antidepressant effect of bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes in mice and rats

    Hongwei Kan; Liang Ming; Chunru Li; Hongxing Kan; Bei Sun; Yan Liang


    A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes(BCPT)has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A(MAO-A)in vitro.Researchers have thought that BCPT may be a potential antidepressant.The MAO-A suppressor moclobemide served as a control,and this study investigated the mechanisms of BCPT as an antidepressant.Results demonstrated that BCPT induced significantly increased sucrose intake in chronic unpredictable stressed rats,shortened immobility time in forced swimming mice,improved the scores of blepharoptosis and akinesia in reserpine-treated mice,increased the number of 5-hydroxy tryptophan-induced head-twitches,remarkably enhanced the expression of hippocampus mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA,decreased the ratio of mineralcorticoid receptor to glucocorticoid receptor and raised the levels of dopamine,norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine,while decreasing hydroxyindole acetic acid levels or dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid in chronic unpredictable stressed rats.Behavioral test results suggested that BCPT potentially had antidepressant-like activity.Meanwhile,BCPT increased the levels of neurotransmitters,and mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hippocampus,which may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  5. 开郁胶囊对抑郁动物模型的影响%Effects of Kaiyu Capsule on Depression-like Animal Models

    李雅莉; 赵玲; 魏海峰; 李林


    head-twitching number induced by 5-HTP( P < 0. 01 ), and shortened the latency period ( P < 0. 05 ). After sc reserpine, the mice appeared physical signs such as blepharoptosis, akinesia and hypothermia. The middle and high doses of Kaiyu capsule significantly ameliorated the blepharoptosis and akinesia( P < 0. 01 ), and decreased the range of hypothermia in reserpine-induced model mice( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion: Kaiyu capsule has the significant antidepressant effect, and the mechanisms may be related to the enhancement of serotonergie and noradrenergic functions.

  6. Uso da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal: descrição da técnica cirúrgica - Relato de caso Use of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension: description of the surgical technique - Case report

    Tânia Pereira Nunes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Familiarizar o oftalmologista com a anatomia da região temporal, descrever a técnica cirúrgica da retirada da fáscia temporal e da suspensão frontal e analisar as vantagens e desvantagens da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal. MÉTODOS: Revisão do prontuário de uma paciente com blefaroptose grave que foi submetida à suspensão frontal com fáscia temporal. Revisão da anatomia da fossa temporal e das técnicas cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: Bom resultado estético e funcional foi conseguido no caso descrito. CONCLUSÃO: A fáscia temporal é boa opção na suspensão frontal com algumas vantagens: é um tecido autógeno, de fácil obtenção e mínima morbidade no pós-operatório.PURPOSE: To familiarize the ophthalmologist with the anatomy of the temporal region, to describe the surgical technique of temporal fascia harvest and frontalis suspension and to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension. METHODS: Review of the clinical and surgical data of one case with severe blepharoptosis who underwent frontalis suspension using temporal fascia. Review of the anatomy of the temporal fossa and the surgical techniques. RESULTS: Good esthetic and functional results were obtained in this case. CONCLUSION: Temporal fascia is a good choice for frontalis suspension with some advantages: it is autogenous, it is easily harvested and it yields minimal post-operative morbidity.

  7. Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Images of an Anatomical Dissection of the Eyeball and Orbit for Educational Purposes



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a series of stereoscopic anatomical images of the eye and orbit for use in the curricula of medical schools and residency programs in ophthalmology and other specialties. Layer-by-layer dissection of the eyelid, eyeball, and orbit of a cadaver was performed by an ophthalmologist. A stereoscopic camera system was used to capture a series of anatomical views that were scanned in a panoramic three-dimensional manner around the center of the lid fissure. The images could be rotated 360 degrees in the frontal plane and the angle of views could be tilted up to 90 degrees along the anteroposterior axis perpendicular to the frontal plane around the 360 degrees. The skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, and upper and lower tarsus were sequentially observed. The upper and lower eyelids were removed to expose the bulbar conjunctiva and to insert three 25-gauge trocars for vitrectomy at the location of the pars plana. The cornea was cut at the limbus, and the lens with mature cataract was dislocated. The sclera was cut to observe the trocars from inside the eyeball. The sclera was further cut to visualize the superior oblique muscle with the trochlea and the inferior oblique muscle. The eyeball was dissected completely to observe the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. The thin bones of the medial and inferior orbital wall were cracked with a forceps to expose the ethmoid and maxillary sinus, respectively. In conclusion, the serial dissection images visualized aspects of the local anatomy specific to various procedures, including the levator muscle and tarsus for blepharoptosis surgery, 25-gauge trocars as viewed from inside the eye globe for vitrectomy, the oblique muscles for strabismus surgery, and the thin medial and inferior orbital bony walls for orbital bone fractures.




    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcome of adjustable suture technique in ptosis surgery. INTRODUCTION : Surgical management of blepharoptosis is indicated in multiple situations and the post - operative outcomes can be as variable as the indications for surgery. Adjustable suture techniques in ptosis repair have been introduced and variable efficacies have been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case review of medical records from June 2010 to May 2011 (12 months of 5 eyes of 5 consecutive patients operated by a single surgeon at a Tertiary Eye care center in South India were reviewed. The clinical profile of patients included was r ecorded and results of adjustable suture technique described by Borman and collegues for these patients was reported. RESULTS: 5 eyes of 5 patients underwent adjustable suture ptosis repair in the study duration. 4 patients with moderate and 1 with severe ptosis, all having good levator function were diagnosed to have c ongenital ptosis in 3 cases and a cquired involutional ptosis in 2 cases. All 5 cases had a satisfactory outcome at day 4 post - operative after adjustment of lid height in the out - patient clini c. 1 patient with acquired involutional ptosis, identified with levator dehiscence intra - operatively had overcorrection at 6 months warranting re - surgery while the other 4 patients had satisfactory cosmetic lid height and functional outcome at 6 months fol low up after the adjustable suture technique for ptosis repair. CONCLUSION: Use of adjustable sutures in ptosis surgery can eliminate the intraoperative lid factors that can lead to unpredictable results. The technique described is easy to adapt and perfor m and can give repeatable and well acceptable results in the properly selected cases

  9. [Concurrence of myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, thyroiditis and eosinophilia in a patient with type B1 thymoma].

    Inoue, Manabu; Kojima, Yasuhiro; Shinde, Akiyo; Satoi, Hitoshi; Makino, Fumi; Kanda, Masutarou; Shibasaki, Hiroshi


    We presented a 43-year-old Japanese woman who acutely developed weakness of all extremities and difficulty in swallowing and drooping of eyelids, characterized by easy fatigability at the end of December, 2005. On general physical examination, she had moderate goiter. No cervical lymphadenopathy, cardiac murmur, or skin rash was noted. Neurologically, she had blepharoptosis, more on the right, only in the upright position with easy fatigability and marked weakness in the neck flexor, trunk, and all limb muscles much more proximally than distally. She had neither muscular atrophy nor upper motor neuron sign. Laboratory data showed slight leukocytosis with eosinophilia (up to 31%), and serum creatine kinase was markedly increased to over 2,000 IU/l. TSH receptor antibody (11.9%) and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (46.6 nmol/L) were also increased. Edrophonium test was positive. Electrophysiologically, muscle evoked potentials by repetitive motor nerve stimulation showed 13% and 50% waning in abductor pollicis brevis and deltoid muscle, respectively, at low frequency and no waxing at high frequency. Needle EMG showed fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in proximal muscles. Polymyositis was diagnosed by muscle biopsy which showed infiltration of lymphocytes in the endomysium and around non-necrotic muscle fibers. Upper arm muscle MRI showed multifocal high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images which were likely related to myositis. This finding is atypical for polymyositis. X-ray and CT of chest showed a mass lesion in the left pulmonary hilum, which was histologically diagnosed as type B1 thymoma. Thus, the present case had myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, thyroidititis and eosinophilia associated with type B1 thymoma. After the thymectomy, corticosteroid administration and immunoadsorption therapy, clinical symptoms and all laboratory abnormalities markedly improved. PMID:17710886

  10. Modified levator aponeurotic advancement with delayed postoperative office revision.

    Mauriello, J A; Abdelsalam, A


    The results of a "modified" levator aponeurotic advancement were reviewed to determine the appropriate indications and optimum timing for office revision after blepharoptosis repair. The levator advancement was modified as follows: 1) elimination of epinephrine from the local anesthetic so as not to stimulate the Müller muscle, 2) use of a 6-0 silk rather than a monofilament nonabsorbable suture to secure the advanced levator to avoid possible cheese-wiring and late recurrence, and 3) excision of a strip of preseptal orbicularis muscle just above the tarsal border to create surgically apposed "raw" surfaces for a firm attachment of the "advanced" levator. Office adjustments were delayed for at least 8 days after surgery and were performed as late as 14 days after surgery. Of the 122 consecutive aponeurotic advancements in 110 patients (12 bilateral cases), five (4.1%) patients were candidates for revision in that the operated eyelid was greater than 1 mm from desired height. All such eyelids were undercorrected by 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm. Four of the five underwent revision at 8, 11, and 14 days (two patients) after surgery. The fifth patient did not undergo revision. Four patients with overcorrections from 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm resolved with eyelid massage. It is concluded that the number of office revisions may be reduced if delayed for at least 8 days after surgery. This delay allows for resolution of postoperative edema and objective prediction of final eyelid position. The advantages of this "modified" levator advancement procedure are discussed. PMID:9700735

  11. 保留"眼台"的睑袋修复术%Repair of baggy deformity with lower eyelid step reservation

    乔锋丽; 陈兵; 张维娜; 白南; 柳大烈; 王飏; 安阳; 袁继龙


    目的 探讨保留"眼台"的睑袋修复方法 及效果.方法 通过睑缘切口,采用皮瓣与肌皮瓣联合的方法 适当保留睑板前眼轮匝肌,并对眶隔前眼轮匝肌和眼轮匝肌眶部、眶隔及眶隔脂肪行适当处理,去除适量的皮肤,在保留"眼台"的同时修复睑袋.结果 本组58例受术者,术后随访6~24个月,下睑形态良好,外观自然,富有立体感,效果满意.结论 保留"眼台"的睑袋修复方法,在解决下睑袋状突出问题的同时,能使下睑外观更自然,更符合美学要求,使眼部更年轻.%Objective To explore the operation method and effect of repairing baggy deformity with lower eyelid step reservation. Methods The method of skin flap and musculo cutaneous flap with pretarsal orbicularis oculi reservation was adopted through palpebral margin incision, then the preseptal orbicularis oculi and orbital part , orbital septum and orbital septum fat of orbitalis muscle were treated suitably to remove appropriate amount of skin. The lower eyelid step was reserved and repair of blepharoptosis was performed simultaneously.Results Fifty-eight patients were followed up for 6 ~ 24 months, and all were satisfied with good shaped eyelid , natural and spatial construe, which more met aesthetic requirements and looked younger. Conclusion The method of repairing baggy deformity with lower eyelid step reservation could not only solve problem of eye bags , which produces a more desirable appearance, but also meet aesthetic requirements and rejuvenative appearance.

  12. Corrección de ptosis palpebral por la incisión de blefaroplastia Upper eyelid ptosis treatment using blepharoplasty incision

    A. Novo Torres


    y por tanto la recuperación es mas rápida; posibilita también la cirugía de rescate en caso de correcciones insuficientes y evita el problema de sobrecorrección con exceso de resección de tejido conjuntival. En resumen se trata de una modificación quirúrgica que facilita la técnica, disminuye las complicaciones postoperatorias, mejora la recuperación y evita la sensación de cuerpo extraño intraocular de una resección conjuntivalBlepharoptosis is the abnormally low of the top eyelid during the direct look. Best results are obtained by resection or advance of the elevator muscle or aponeurosis, whenever the elevator has a suitable function. We present a modification to the Blaskovics´s technique for correction of moderate blepharoptosis, with good function of the elevator muscle. We present a serie of 10 cases where we used a variant of Blaskovics’s technique of resection of the elevator for surgical correction of ptosis. Seven were bilateral cases and 3 unilateral ones. In all the cases the elevator function was between 4 and 8 mm and ptosis was major than 4mm with visual field decrease in the direct look. Surgical technique included a cutaneous horizontal incision of Blepharoplasty, wide exhibition of elevator muscle and aponeurosis, respecting orbicular fatty bags and separating it from the palpebral conjunctive. In all the cases correction of the ptosis were obtained. The grade of asymmetry was lower than 0,3 cm. One case presented in the inmediate postoperatory opening of the suture in his medial side and had to be re-taken after 10 days. The palpebral postoperative edema was solved between 2 – 8th day allowing evaluation in that moment. Patient’s satisfaction was good or very good and the visual field was complete in all patients Classic surgical techniques and its modifications for correction of ptosis keep on being valid. With this modification that respects conjuctive we avoid to add morbidity to the surgical process. We think that

  13. Cerebral circulation characteristics of patients with persistent trigeminal artery combined with cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical relevance%永存三叉动脉合并脑血管病的脑循环及临床研究

    王佳楠; 张雄伟; 王磊; 尹世敏; 杜彬; 李险峰


    Objective To explore the cerebral circulation characteristics of patients with persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) combined with cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical relevance.Methods Eight patients with PTA,admitted our hospital from March 2010 to March 2013 and conformed by DSA,MR radiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA),were chosen in our study; their cerebral circulation features and clinical manifestations were retrospectively analyzed.Results In these eight patients,two were combined with cerebral infarction,one with cerebral artery stenosis,two with cerebral infarction and cerebral artery stenosis,one with transient ischemic attack,and the left two with cerebral aneurysm.Four patients complained for paroxysmal dizziness (one of them with one-side weakness),two patients complained for numbness of a limb,One patient had headache and blepharoptosis and one patient had diplopia.Saltzman type Ⅰ was noted in six patients,type H in one and special type in one.The pathogenesis of cerebral infarction was related to PTA.Conclusion The clinical features of the patients with PTA often determine by merger cerebrovascular diseases; PTA can change the normal cerebral circulation; PTA detection can be helpful in the diagnosis of the pathogenesis of multiple cerebral infarction.%目的 探讨永存三叉动脉(PTA)合并脑血管病的脑循环及临床特征. 方法 选择自2010年3月至2013年3月第二炮兵总医院神经内科和神经介入科收治的经数字减影血管造影(DSA)、磁共振血管造影(MRA)或CT血管成像(CTA)证实存在PTA的脑血管病患者8例为研究对象,回顾性分析其脑循环特征及临床表现. 结果 8例PTA合并脑血管病患者中,2例合并脑梗死,1例合并脑动脉狭窄,2例合并脑梗死和脑动脉狭窄,1例合并短暂性脑缺血发作,2例合并动脉瘤;发作性头晕4例(其中1例伴一侧肢体力弱),一侧肢体麻木2例,头痛、眼睑下垂1例,复视1例;PTA分型Saltzman Ⅰ型6