Sample records for blepharitis

  1. Blepharitis: Always remember demodex

    Vipul Bhandari


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence and density of Demodex species on the eyelashes of subjects with normal eyelids, anterior blepharitis (AB, meibomian-gland dysfunction (MGD, and mixed blepharitis (MB. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients diagnosed with AB, MGD, and MB were recruited. An additional 50 individuals were recruited who were free of lid and margin disease to serve as a control group. All patients underwent a standard eye examination. Data on ocular symptomatology were gathered. Digital photography was performed of the lid margins. Lash sampling was performed by epilating the lashes and the lashes were checked for Demodex based on morphology using light microscopy. The total number of mites were tabulated for each eye. Comparison between the affected eyes and the control eyes was performed. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Twenty percenth had AB, 40% had MGD, and 40% had MB. The incidence of Demodex infestation was 90% in cases of AB, 60% in MGD cases, and 90% in MB cases. The incidence of Demodex in control subjects was 18%. Conclusions: The incidence and density of Demodex infestation was highest in patients with AB and MB. Lid irritation and presence of cylindrical dandruff were indicative of a high-density infestation. These signs should alert the clinician to treat concomitant Demodex infestation.

  2. [Progress of study on the demodex blepharitis].

    Zhang, X Y; Sun, X G


    Demodex blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease which is common, but always to be neglected. There were a few related reports about this disease in China. The pathogenic mechanism of demodex blepharitis is not clear at present. Literatures held different ideas about its diagnosis, therapeutic methods and curative effect. This review will summarize the new development of demodex blepharitis in order to provide references for its basic and clinical researches.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 315-320). PMID:27094071

  3. Blepharitis

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center ...

  4. Blepharitis

    ... one eye, but, usually, both eyes are involved. Self-Care Guidelines Apply frequent warm, moist compresses. Clean the eyelids with baby shampoo and a wet cotton ball. Practice good hygiene of the face and scalp, including use of ...

  5. Azithromycin in DuraSite® for the treatment of blepharitis

    Luchs, Jodi


    Blepharitis is a common inflammatory disease of the eyelid. Posterior blepharitis affects the posterior lamella of the eyelid and involves inflammation of the meibomian glands, whereas anterior blepharitis affects the anterior lamella of the eyelid and the eyelashes; either version can be inflammatory or infectious in nature. Each of these conditions can incite or propagate the other; anterior blepharitis, if not treated, can lead to meibomian gland disease, and vice versa. Blepharitis is typ...

  6. Pediculosis palpebrarum initially diagnosed as blepharitis

    J. A. Ebeigbe


    Full Text Available Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. Eyelid involvement is uncommon, but can be caused by pediculus humanus capitis (head louse, rarely by  pediculus humanus corporis (body louse and commonly by phthirus pubis (pubic louse. Signs and symptoms are similar to those of blepharitis. A diagnosis of any type of pediculosis requires the finding of live specimen of lice and/or a viable nit.The immediate and effective treatment of pediculosis palpebrarum is removal of the lice and nits manually with forceps and treating the patient withvaseline, twice daily for seven to ten days. Also, fomites such as pillow cases, bedsheets, towels and hats  need to be washed in hot water and dried. This is to avoid further spread of lice or reinfestation.

  7. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis


    Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (C-NS) are regarded asnormal flora of the lids and conjunctiva.The ability of these organisms tocause conjunctivitis and blepharitis can be overlooked or disregarded.Toelucidate the role of individual C-NS species in these eye diseases wecompared Staphylococcus sp.isolated from the conjunctiva and lids of 50healthy volunteers with 248 strains of Staphylococcus isolated frompatients with staphylococcal conjunctivitis or blepharitis.S.epidermidiswas the most frequent spec...

  8. Corneal ulcer associated with blepharitis, latent herpes simplex virus infection and dysbacteriosis of intestine in children (a case report)

    O.A. Vasilyeva; D.Y. Maychuk; I. A. Pronkin; M.Z. Shakirova


    ABSTRACT Purpose. Blepharitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the eyelid edge. Intestinal dysbacteriosis is one of the predisposing factors of blepharitis. In turn, the blepharitis of long standing can cause the development of chronic keratitis. Therefore, a comprehensive treatment of blepharitis, keratitis and pathology of the digestive tract is pathogenetically justified approach to the treatment in this case. Material and methods. The patient, 7 years old, with kerat...

  9. Placebo controlled trial of fusidic acid gel and oxytetracycline for recurrent blepharitis and rosacea.

    Seal, D. V.; Wright, P; Ficker, L.; Hagan, K.; Troski, M; Menday, P.


    A prospective, randomised, double blind, partial crossover, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to compare the performance of topical fusidic acid gel (Fucithalmic) and oral oxytetracycline as treatment for symptomatic chronic blepharitis. Treatment success was judged both by a reduction in symptoms and clinical examination before and after therapy. Seventy five per cent of patients with blepharitis and associated rosacea were symptomatically improved by fusidic acid gel and 50% by ox...

  10. Corneal ulcer associated with blepharitis, latent herpes simplex virus infection and dysbacteriosis of intestine in children (a case report

    O.A. Vasilyeva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. Blepharitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the eyelid edge. Intestinal dysbacteriosis is one of the predisposing factors of blepharitis. In turn, the blepharitis of long standing can cause the development of chronic keratitis. Therefore, a comprehensive treatment of blepharitis, keratitis and pathology of the digestive tract is pathogenetically justified approach to the treatment in this case. Material and methods. The patient, 7 years old, with keratoconjunctivitis associated with chronic blepharitis was examined. Blepharitis was developed on the background of intestinal dysbacteriosis and latent flow of herpetic infection. Complex therapy of blepharitis, keratitis and intestinal dysbacteriosis was administrated to this patient. Results. In the result of complex treatment within a month there was the absence of blepharitis symptoms, a significant decrease in corneal infiltration, a clear border infiltration, the absence of neovascularization. Conclusions. Children with keratoconjunctivitis, associated with chronic blepharitis that developed against the background of intestinal dysbacteriosis, should be administrated with protracted course of therapy. It should be directed on restoration of the tear film, eyelid hygiene and mild gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Azithromycin in DuraSite® for the treatment of blepharitis

    Jodi Luchs


    Full Text Available Jodi LuchsDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Blepharitis is a common inflammatory disease of the eyelid. Posterior blepharitis affects the posterior lamella of the eyelid and involves inflammation of the meibomian glands, whereas anterior blepharitis affects the anterior lamella of the eyelid and the eyelashes; either version can be inflammatory or infectious in nature. Each of these conditions can incite or propagate the other; anterior blepharitis, if not treated, can lead to meibomian gland disease, and vice versa. Blepharitis is typically chronic, and can be associated with a variety of systemic diseases such as dermatitis, as well as ocular diseases such as dry eye, conjunctivitis, or keratitis. The standard treatment regimen historically consists of lid hygiene with warm compresses and eyelid scrubs, although these treatment modalities may have limited efficacy for many patients, especially those with more severe disease. Adjunctive treatment includes systemic and topical antibiotics, topical corticosteroids, and tear replacement therapy. Topical antibiotics are recommended to decrease the bacterial load, and topical corticosteroids may help in cases of severe inflammation. Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in DuraSite® (AzaSite®; Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Durham, North Carolina, USA has been proposed as a novel treatment for posterior blepharitis, based on its well-known anti-infective profile, its antiinflammatory properties, its excellent tissue penetration, and its regulatory approval for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. This review focuses on an off-label indication for topical azithromycin 1% in DuraSite for the treatment of blepharitis.Keywords: lid margin disease, meibomian gland disease

  12. Azithromycin 1.5% ophthalmic solution: efficacy and treatment modalities in chronic blepharitis

    Ali Fadlallah


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic blepharitis and to compare the efficacy of two different treatment modalities. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial included 67 patients with chronic anterior and/or posterior blepharitis, followed-up for 3 months. Signs and symptoms were graded according to severity. Patients were randomized into two groups: 33 patients in group I and 34 patients in group II. Group I patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days, and Group II patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days then at bedtime for the rest of the month. All patients were instructed to apply warm compresses and an eye-friendly soap twice daily. RESULTS: Patients in both groups tolerated the treatment with minimal irritation. A significant improvement in signs and symptoms was noted at the one week follow-up visit. Group II showed a more pronounced and longer-lasting improvement that persisted after three months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Topical 1.5% azithromycin ophthalmic solution is an effective treatment option for chronic blepharitis. In moderate to severe blepharitis, a one month treatment is safe and shows better improvement than the three-day protocol with no significant relapse until three months of follow-up.

  13. The effect of topical cyclosporine A on tear film instability in patients with posterior blepharitis

    Onur Çatak


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacyof topical cyclosporine A (CsA 0.05% (Restasis, AllerganPharmaceuticals in patients with posterior blepharitis.Methods: The study included 15 patients with posteriorblepharitis. Topical CsA 0.05% (Restasis, Allergan Pharmaceuticalswas applied twice a daily for 2 months. Theywere evaluated at baseline and after treatment for subjectivesymptoms and objective signs including tear breakuptime (BUT, Schirmer scores, conjunctival hyperemia, tarsaltelangiectasis and Meibomian gland inclusions.Results: Fifteen patients completed the study. At the2-month visit, the patients showed improvement in ocularsymptom including burning, itching, conjunctival hyperemia(p<0.05; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively.Topicaladministration of CsA provided improvement in Schirmerscores (p<0.001Conclusion: Topical CsA was inducing an improvementin the ocular symptoms. Topical CsA 0.05% may be helpfulin the treatment of posterior blepharitis. These findingsshould be further evaluated in large-scale.Key words: Posterior blepharitis, Cyclosporine A,Schirmer scores, breakup time

  14. Blefarite e tricomegalia induzidas pelo cetuximabe Blepharitis and trichomegaly induced by cetuximab

    Paulo Ricardo Criado


    Full Text Available Nós descrevemos uma mulher de 41 anos em tratamento de câncer colorretal avançado que, após a segunda dose de cetuximabe, desenvolveu intensa blefarite e tricomegalia bilateral. A toxicidade ocular decorrente do cetuximabe tem sido relatada, porém ainda tem mecanismos fisiopatogênicos incertos.This report describes the case of a 41-year old woman in treatment for advanced colorectal cancer who developed severe bilateral blepharitis and trichomegaly after the second dose of cetuximab. Cetuximab-related eyelid toxicity has been described previously; however, its pathogenesis has not yet been clearly established.

  15. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  16. Clinical-Laboratory Parallels in Patients with Demodectic Blepharitis at Cosmecevtic’s Use

    I. B. Medvedev


    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of the new cosmecevtic — cream «Demazol» on the dynamics of clinical and laboratory parameters (akarogramms with Demodex blepharitis.Patients and methods. There were 56 patients with Demodex blepharitis with symptoms of blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis in the study. In all cases, the clinical diagnoses were confirmed by laboratory investigations of epilated lashes. The akarogramms indicated the number of adult mite larvae and eggs of parasites separately for each eye. The cream was applied topically on the eyelids 2 times a day following our instructions, and before this, we provided pretreatment alcohol eucalyptus or sage tincture. The course of treatment was 1.5 months. Alongside this, we conducted drug correction of the status of the tear film via artificial tears eyedrops and therapy of blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis withantibiotics, steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A controlled laboratory testing for the presence of the mite Demodex folliculorum was undertaken after the course of treatment with cream. Evaluation of the efficacy of the cream was undertaken in accordance with the age of patients (up to 70 groups of patients 70 years and older, and the amount of mites.Results. The cosmetic cream «Demazol» had eliminated all forms of the mite Demodex — adults, larvae and eggs of parasites after 45 days of application. The number of mites after the course was significantly reduced: 5.7 times (by the number of adults; 3.7 times (the number of larvae and 12 times (the number of parasite eggs. Reduction the number of ticks was noted in general by 95% of patients; full or substantial reduction by 62.5%, proving the specific efficacy of «Demazol.» The clinical effect of varying degrees (excluding akarogramm was noted in 49 of 56 patients (87.5%. The percentage of patients with a moderate pronounced effect from the cream was 78.6%. The combination of a pronounced

  17. Assessment of the tolerability profile of an ophthalmic solution of 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer PEG/PPG on healthy volunteers and evaluation of its efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe blepharitis

    Mencucci R


    Full Text Available Rita Mencucci, Eleonora Favuzza, Ugo MenchiniDepartment of Surgery and Translational Medicine – Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the tolerability on healthy volunteers and the efficacy on subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis of a 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer poly(ethylene glycol/poly(propylene glycol(PEG/PPG ophthalmic solution.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, open label, intra-patient monocentric study. It consisted of two different phases, the assessment of tolerability phase on 20 healthy volunteers, and the evaluation of the efficacy on 21 subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis; the treatment period was 2 weeks, followed by 1-week of follow-up. In the efficacy phase, in both eyes, eyelid hygiene was also performed. At day 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 a complete ophthalmological examination was performed. In the tolerability phase, signs of clinical toxicity were recorded and subject-reported symptoms were collected using a questionnaire. In the efficacy phase, global signs and symptoms of blepharitis scores were collected using standardized photographic scales and questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: No ocular signs of drug toxicity were reported. During the treatment period for tolerability phase, there were statistically significant higher scores of tearing and ocular discomfort in the tolerability study group versus the tolerability control group. In the efficacy phase, differences between global scores of the two groups were statistically significant at day 0 (score of the efficacy study group was higher than the efficacy control group; P = 0.005 and at day 21 (score of the efficacy study group was lower than the efficacy control group (P ≤ 0.001.The difference of global scores at day 3, 7, 14, and 21 versus day 0 was statistically significant in both groups. No serious adverse events

  18. Seborrheic dermatitis eye lid involment (seborrheic blepharitis in children not a rare clinical observation

    Anca Chiriac


    Full Text Available We present a typical case of seborrheic dermatitis, with no cutaneous manifestations, rarely reported in children, frequently misdiagnosed (especially by ophthalmologists, simply confirmed by microscopic examination of scales and with wonderful therapeutic results with antifungal agents (topical and/or systemic treatments.

  19. Survivin、 COX-2蛋白在眼睑基底细胞癌中的表达及意义%Expression and Significance of Survivin and COX-2 in Blepharal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    叶青; 杨桂芳


    Objective: To research the expression and clinical significance of COX-2 and Survivin protein in eyelid basal cell carcinoma. Methods: The specimens of 100 cases of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and 100 normal specimens from floppy eyelid syndrome patients were collected. Immunohisto-chemical method was adopted to detect the expression of Survivin and COX-2, and the expression results were compared between the two groups. Results: Eyelid basal cell carcinoma showed high COX-2 and Survivin expression, while normal eyelid tissue showed low COX-2 and Survivin expression (both P>0. 05). Conclusion; Survivin and COX-2 are highly expressed and play an important role in eyelid basal cell carcinoma.%目的:探讨COX-2和Suvrivin蛋白在眼睑基底细胞癌组织中的表达及临床意义.方法:搜集本院病理科2000年1月-2010年12月保存的基底细胞癌标本100例,所有眼睑基底细胞癌肿瘤组织均经病理科检查确诊.同时搜集同期100例正常眼睑部组织,正常对照组100例均为单侧,均来自眼睑松弛症患者.运用免疫组织化学方法检测Survivin蛋白和COX-2蛋白在100例眼睑基底细胞癌中的表达.结果:眼睑基底细胞癌组织中COX-2蛋白呈高表达;正常眼睑组织中COX-2蛋白呈低表达.眼睑基底细胞癌组织中Suvrivin蛋白呈高表达;正常眼睑组织中Suvrivin蛋白呈低表达.两种基因表达均无年龄、性别、生长部位的统计学差异(均P>0.05).结论:COX-2、Survivin在眼睑基底细胞癌中的高表达,对眼睑基底细胞癌的发生和发展起了重要作用.

  20. A randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, comparative study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination compared to 1% azithromycin alone, dexamethasone 0.1% alone, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis

    Hosseini, Kamran; Lindstrom,Richard; Foulks,Gary; Nichols,Kelly


    Kamran Hosseini,1 Richard L Lindstrom,2,3 Gary Foulks,4 Kelly K Nichols5 1InSite Vision, Alameda, CA, 2Minnesota Eye Consultants, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 5School of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a 1% a...

  1. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    V. N. Trubilin


    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  2. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    D. Yu. Maychuk


    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  3. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    D. Yu. Maychuk


    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  4. The survival and growth of microorganisms in mascara during use.

    Wilson, L A; Julian, A J; Ahearn, D G


    Over 150 mascaras representing eight popular brands were examined for their susceptibility to microbial contamination during their use by study group members. Additional mascaras from patients with symptoms and clinical findings of long-term blepharitis also were investigated. Early in the study, two brands without preservatives supported reproducing populations of microorganisms, including potential eye pathogens. These products, as currently manufactured, were recalcitrant to microbial attack. Microbes associated with the facial skin and fingers of the study group users were typically isolated from mascaras after use. Initial microorganisms isolated from mascaras were usually transients. Establishment of reproducing populations within the cosmetics appeared related to the number of uses, personal habits of the user, and the formulation of the product. Four patients with staphylococcal blepharitis and cosmetics heavily laden with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed marked clinical improvement when they stopped using the contaminated cosmetics. The application of used eye area makeup prior to and following ocular surgery should be avoided. PMID:1119519

  5. Posterior blefaritli hastalarda topikal siklosporin A tedavisinin gözyaşı film instabilitesine etkisi

    Onur Çatak; Ülkü Çeliker


    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacyof topical cyclosporine A (CsA) 0.05% (Restasis, AllerganPharmaceuticals) in patients with posterior blepharitis.Methods: The study included 15 patients with posteriorblepharitis. Topical CsA 0.05% (Restasis, Allergan Pharmaceuticals)was applied twice a daily for 2 months. Theywere evaluated at baseline and after treatment for subjectivesymptoms and objective signs including tear breakuptime (BUT), Schirmer scores, conjunctival hyper...

  6. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P.; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E.


    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmet...

  7. A comparison of the ability of three common contact lens solutions with different constituents to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus

    Marsha Oberholzer; Jacques Raubenheimer; Marga Lyell; Sade Pieterse; Aveli Keyser; Armandt Rautenbach; Suandré van Rooyen


    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal on skin and mucosal surfaces; its contact with the eye may cause a variety of ocular inflammations and infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis and keratitis, amongst others. Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of certain pathogens, and disinfecting solutions for contact lenses are therefore of utmost importance. These solutions should be effective in inhibiting the growth of a variety of pathogens to pr...

  8. Erlotinib-related keratopathy in a patient underwent laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Kau, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chieh-Chih


    Erlotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Since there is a wide expression of the epidermal growth factor receptors in the epithelial tissues of ocular surface and adnexa, ocular adverse reactions may happen during systemic administration of erlotinib. Previously reported ocular adverse reactions of erlotinib include trichomegaly, periorbital rash, ectropion, blepharitis, persistent corneal epithelial defect, corneal ulcer and perforation. We report the first case of erlotinib-related keratopathy in a patient who had received laser in situ keratomileusis. The patient presented a special picture of flap striae related to erlotinib. Improvement of keratopathy after cessation of erlotinib was demonstrated. PMID:26340340

  9. Organochlorine pesticides associated with ocular, nasal, or otic infection in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Tangredi, B P; Evans, R H


    From May 1987 to September 1994, 19 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) originating from scattered locations on Long Island, New York (USA) were presented with one or more of the following signs: listlessness, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and otitis media. Numerous species of bacteria and yeast were isolated by aerobic culture. Histopathologic findings confirmed chronic active bacterial infections. Toxicologic analyses of livers revealed elevated concentrations of chlordane metabolites in two diseased turtles. A third turtle liver contained residues of endosulfan sulfate. Immunosuppressive effects of low-level exposure to organochlorines, including chlordane and endosulfan, could be involved in the pathogenesis of the observed infections. PMID:9226623

  10. Ultrasound biomicroscopy as a tool for conjunctiva and eyelids evaluation

    V. N. Trubilin


    Full Text Available Currently, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is the only diagnostic method that uses a 50‑100 MHz transducer with a depth of penetration of 4 mm. This provides greater sensitivity and resolution.Aim. To visualize meibomian glands and to evaluate their morphological and functional status using UBM.Methods. UBM was performed in 14 patients aged 29‑81 with obvious meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD and healthy meibomian glands. 6 patients had no biomicroscopic signs of blepharitis while 8 patients had biomicroscopic signs of blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, and MGD.Results. UBM provides detailed information on meibomian glands and eyelid margins and their pathological conditions, i.e., eyelid margin thickening due to inflammation, meibomian gland orifice obstruction, increase in distance between meibomian glands due to their atrophy, and cartilaginous tissue destruction. UBM findings may depend on patient age as well as on disease stage and severity. When re-positioning UBM transducer, bullous conjunctiva and subconjunctival cysts can be visualized. This provides differential diagnosis between opaque cysts and tumors.Conclusion. UBM combined with standard exams increases information value, reliability, and accuracy of the diagnostics of anterior segment disorders and facilitates the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. Further studies on diagnostic value of conjunctiva and eyelids UBM are required.

  11. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Osmo Kari


    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  12. Ocular rosacea

    Đaković Zorana


    Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.

  13. Frequency of decreased vision and ocular diseases in school children at bannu

    Objective: This study was done to assess frequency of ocular diseases and causes of visual impairment in children of a school at Bannu. Study Design: Observational cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: A local high school at Bannu from March 2009 to May 2009. Material and Methods: Students were asked to fill a structured questionnaire designed to encompass the symptoms of ocular diseases like history of impaired vision, use of glasses, headache and redness. Initial examination at school included assessment of visual acuity by Snellens chart, torch examination and cover uncover test. Subjects having unaided visual acuity less than 6/9 in worse eye, squint or redness were subjected to further examination including refraction and slit lamp biomicroscopy. SPSS version 15 was utilized to assess the data. Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Results: The 304 students (76%) were male and 96 (24%) were female. Mean age was 10.7 +- 2.8 years. Eighty five subjects (21.2%) were diagnosed to be suffering from some ocular disease but only 6.5% had any previous ocular consultation. Twelve percent (48) students had decreased vision on examination but its frequency in those with history of headache was significantly high (20%) compared to those with negative history (9.5%) (p value < 0.05). Refractive error was the cause of decreased vision in more than half of the cases. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) was diagnosed in 2.8 % but its frequency was significantly high in those complaining of redness (12%) as compared to those not complaining of redness (1.1%) (p value <0.05). Blepharitis was also found to be a common disease affecting 3.3% of subjects. Conclusion: Ocular diseases are very common in school going children of Bannu. Refractive errors, VKC and blepharitis constitute the majority of cases. Frequency of ocular consultation was quite low as compared to the load of eye diseases which necessitates consolidated effort to screen

  14. Etiology and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of community-acquired bacterial ocular infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

    Bharathi M


    Full Text Available Aims: To identify the etiology, incidence and prevalence of ocular bacterial infections, and to assess the in vitro susceptibility of these ocular bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive samples submitted for microbiological evaluation from patients who were clinically diagnosed with ocular infections and were treated at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India between January 2002 and December 2007. Results: A total of 4417 ocular samples was submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which 2599 (58.8% had bacterial growth, 456 (10.3% had fungal growth, 15 (0.34% had acanthamoebic growth, 14 (0.32% had mixed microbial growth and the remaining 1333 (30.2% had negative growth. The rate of culture-positivity was found to be 88% (P < 0.001 in eyelids′ infection, 70% in conjunctival, 69% in lacrimal apparatus, 67.4% in corneal, 51.6% in intraocular tissues, 42.9% in orbital and 39.2% in scleral infections. The most common bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (26.69% followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.14%. Sta. aureus was more prevalent more in eyelid infections (51.22%; P = 0.001 coagulase-negative staphylococci in endophthalmitis (53.1%; P = 0.001, Str. pneumoniae in lacrimal apparatus and corneal infections (64.19%; P = 0.001, Corynebacterium species in blepharitis and conjunctivitis (71%; P = 0.001, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in keratitis and dacryocystitis (66.5%; P = 0.001, Haemophilus species in dacryocystitis and conjunctivitis (66.7%; P = 0.001, Moraxella lacunata in blepharitis (54.17%; P = 0.001 and Moraxella catarrhalis in dacryocystitis (63.83%; P = 0.001. The largest number of gram-positive isolates was susceptible to moxifloxacin (98.7% and vancomycin (97.9%, and gram-negative isolates to amikacin (93.5% and gatifloxacin (92.7%. Conclusions: Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent bacteria isolated from ocular infections and were

  15. Etiology and epidemiological analysis of glaucoma-filtering bleb infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

    R Ramakrishnan


    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the microbial etiology and associated risk factors among patients with blebitis following trabeculectomy. Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis of all culture-proven blebitis was performed in patients who underwent trabeculectomy between January 2004 and December 2008. A standardized form was filled out for each patient, documenting sociodemographic features and information pertaining to risk factors. Swabbing of the infected bleb surface was performed for all suspected cases and further subjected to microbiological analysis. Results : A total of 23 patients with culture-proven blebitis were treated during the study period, with a mean age of 59.2 years (59.2 ± SD: 12.8; range, 30-81 years. Duration of onset was early (≤36 months in six (26% cases and late (> 36 months in 17 (74% cases with a range between 15 and 144 months (mean, 82.91 months; SD: 41.89. All 23 blebs were located superiorly and of which, 21 (91% were microcystic avascular, 1 (4% diffuse avascular, and 1 (4% vascular flattened. The predominant risk factor identified was bleb leak (35%; 8 of 23 followed by thin bleb (22%; 5 of 23 and blepharitis (17%; 4 of 23. Bleb leaks (100% were recorded only in patients with late onset (≥ 9 years of infection (P< 0.001, while the incidence of ocular surface disease (100% occurred early (≤3 years (P< 0.001. Use of topical steroids was associated frequently with cases of thin blebs (80%; 4 of 5 (P< 0.001, while topical antibiotics showed bleb leaks (88%; 7 of 8 (P< 0.001. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were frequently recovered from blebitis with thin blebs (71%; 5 of 7 (P = 0.001, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS with bleb leak (100%; 8 of 8 (P< 0.001, Corynebacterium with blepharitis (100%; 3 of 3 (P = 0.001, and Streptococci with releasable sutures (75%; 3 of 4 (P = 0.001. Conclusion : Bleb leak is the principal risk factor responsible for late-onset blebitis, while early-onset blebitis could

  16. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

    Al-Yousuf Nada


    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses




    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  18. Prevalence of eye disease in Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Fernanda B. F. de Lima


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the type and frequency of ocular manifestations in Brazilian psoriatic arthritis patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The test group included 40 patients who had psoriatic arthritis according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis. A control group of 40 individuals was matched for age and gender. All of the patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation, which included best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp and fundus examinations, and dry eye diagnostic tests (Schirmer I, tear breakup time and rose bengal. Demographic parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9±13.1 years; the mean disease duration was 8±10.5 years. Most of the patients were women (60%, and the majority had polyarticular disease (57.5%. Several ocular abnormalities were found, including punctate keratitis, pinguecula, blepharitis, pterygium, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and retinal microvascular abnormalities. There were no significant differences in the rates of these abnormalities compared with the control group, however. The Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry eye diagnostic tests were more often positive in the patients with psoriatic arthritis than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was the most common ocular finding related to psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, we recommend early ophthalmologic evaluations for all psoriatic arthritis patients who complain of eye symptoms.

  19. Over 25 Years of Clinical Experience With Ivermectin: An Overview of Safety for an Increasing Number of Indications.

    Kircik, Leon H; Del Rosso, James Q; Layton, Alison M; Schauber, Jürgen


    Although the broad-spectrum anti-parasitic effects of the avermectin derivative ivermectin are well documented, its anti-inflammatory activity has only recently been demonstrated. For over 25 years, ivermectin has been used to treat parasitic infections in mammals, with a good safety profile that may be attributed to its high affinity to invertebrate neuronal ion channels and its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier in humans and other mammals. Numerous studies report low rates of adverse events, as an oral treatment for parasitic infections, scabies and head lice. Ivermectin has been used off-label to treat diseases associated with Demodex mites, such as blepharitis and demodicidosis. New evidence has linked Demodex mites to rosacea, a chronic inflammatory disease. Ivermectin has recently received FDA and EU approval for the treatment of adult patients with inflammatory lesions of rosacea, a disease in which this agent has been shown to be well tolerated. After more than 25 years of use, ivermectin continues to provide a high margin of safety for a growing number of indications based on its anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26954318

  20. Lesões palpebrais no lúpus eritematoso Lid lesions in lupus erythematosus

    Ana Paula Beckhauser


    Full Text Available O envolvimento cutâneo do lúpus eritematoso, quando aparece de maneira isolada em pálpebra, pode ser de difícil diagnóstico. Diagnósticos errôneos são comuns, principalmente o de blefarite resistente a tratamento. Todavia o diagnóstico precoce é importante no sentido de evitar a cicatrização e possíveis seqüelas nas delicadas estruturas locais. Descrevem-se três casos de lesões palpebrais em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso, e, em cada uma das situações, essa lesão teve um significado clínico diferente. Nas duas primeiras pacientes, firmou-se o diagnóstico de lesão discóide pela biópsia. Na terceira paciente encontrou-se um carcinoma basocelular.The cutaneous involvement of lupus erythematosus is difficult to diagnose when it appears isolated in the eyelid. Misdiagnosis is common, confusions arising mainly with chronic resistant blepharitis. Yet the early diagnosis is important to avoid scarring and damage to the delicate local structures. We present three patients with lupus and eyelid cutaneous lesions, each of them with a different clinical significance. In the first two patients it was possible to diagnose discoid lesion through skin biopsy. In the third, a basocelular carcinoma was found.

  1. Visual Status of Children with Down Syndrome

    Robert H. Duckman, OD, MA


    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS are known to have a high prevalence of visual anomalies including strabismus, high refractive errors, Brushfield spots, nystagmus, keratoconus, and external pathologies such as blepharitis and conjunctivitis. These anomalies can impair children with DS from maximum functional capabilities. Methods: This study looks at 42 children from Stepping Stone Day School between the ages of 2.33 years and 5.17 years. All 42 children received a comprehensive visual evaluation. Testing included visual acuity (either forced preferential looking (FPL or Lea Picture Cards, ocular motor status (motilities and cover test/Hirschberg test, dry and damp retinoscopy, and ocular health examination with dilation. Results: DS children showed a significantly higher prevalence than normal children of strabismus (43%, ocular-motor deficiencies (100%, decrease in visual acuity (31; 74% of the children had uncorrected visual acuity between 20/60 and +1.50, 23.81% had myopia > -1.00, and 28.57% had astigmatism > 1.00 diopter; one third had no significant refractive error. Conclusion: It is clear that children with DS should have a comprehensive visual evaluation as early as possible and annually thereafter.

  2. Therapeutical Management for Ocular Rosacea

    Gloria López-Valverde


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important. Methods: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic. Results: A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient’s vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary. Conclusions: Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.

  3. A case of pachyonychia congenita with unusual manifestations: an unusual type or a new syndrome?

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gül, Ülker; Kılıç, Arzu; Soylu, Seçil; Koçak, Oğuzhan; Demiriz, Murat


    A 30-year-old man presented with lesions on his oral mucosa and soles. There were no similar complaints in his family members. The dermatological examination revealed follicular hyperkeratosis on his trunk and upper extremities and flesh-colored, firm cystic lesions on his axillae. He had focal, painful, hyperkeratotic areas sited particularly on both his soles and palms. In addition to these, leukokeratosis and ulcerative areas on buccal, labial mucosa, tongue, and at corners of the mouth, and complete loss of teeth was observed. The proximal layering was revealed on all of his nails. The laboratory investigations produced normal results except the deficiency of immunoglobulin A. The psychiatric examination revealed mild mental retardation. Keratin gene (KRT6a, KRT6b, KRT16, and KRT17) mutations for pachyonychia congenita were negative. He got removable dental prosthesis because of inadequate alimentation. Squamous cell cancer developed on lower lip mucosa during follow-up. We present an individual who had different nail dystrophy, epidermal cysts, mental retardation, blepharitis, complete loss of teeth, and negative keratin gene mutations for pachyonychia congenita and developed squamous cell cancer on the oral leukokeratosis lesions. We think that the present case may be an unusual new type of pachyonychia congenita. PMID:25713981

  4. Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Biswas Jyotirmay


    Full Text Available Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.

  5. Ocular signs, diagnosis and long-term treatment with allopurinol in a cat with leishmaniasis.

    Richter; Schaarschmidt-Kiener; Krudewig


    A case of leishmaniasis with predominantly ocular signs in a cat living in Switzerland and it's treatment is reported. The cat was imported from Spain 4 years earlier and was initially presented with chronic uveitis. Laboratory test results were negative for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as for Bartonella haenselae and Leishmania spp. Twenty-one months later the cat was presented again because of development of keratitis and granulomatous blepharitis. Blood cell count revealed severe Pancytopenia; Cytology of fine needle aspirates of granulomatous lesions on both upper eyelids and of a corneal smear revealed intracytoplasmatic microorganisms. A preliminary diagnosis of leishmaniasis was supported by positive polymerase chain reaction from bone marrow and eyelid samples for Leishmania infantum DNA and by a high serum antibody titer for Leishmania spp. Treatment with Allopurinol (10 mg/kg, BID) orally led to rapid improvement of ocular signs, general condition and blood cell count with complete remission of lid and corneal lesions within 2 months of treatment. PMID:24867242

  6. The rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in Japanese infants treated with conservative management during the 1st year of age

    Hirohiko Kakizaki


    Full Text Available Hirohiko Kakizaki1, Yasuhiro Takahashi2, Shinsuke Kinoshita1, Kunihiko Shiraki2, Masayoshi Iwaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This study aimed to examine the rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO in Japanese infants treated with conservative management within the 1st year of age. Thirty-five lacrimal ducts in 27 patients diagnosed with CNLDO were included in the study. During the observational period, lacrimal ducts were massaged. As well, antibiotic eye drops, to be administered 4 times a day, were sometimes prescribed for obvious conjunctivitis. Two lacrimal ducts in 2 patients were probed before the 1st year of age because of dacryocystitis or severe blepharitis; these patients were included in the unimproved group. Twenty-nine lacrimal ducts in 21 patients resolved during the period (82.9%; with 16 lacrimal ducts resolving before six months of age. Therefore, a comparatively high percentage of resolution for CNLDO (82.9% following conservative management was shown before the 1st year of age in Japanese infants.Keywords: congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction, symptomatic improvement, conservative management, massage, probing


    Vasantha Mallika


    Full Text Available In spite of National Programme for Control of Blindness with its control strategies revised from time to time to provide comprehensive health care to the community, blindness and other conditions of ocular morbidity continue to be problems of much Public Health importance. Considering the fact that one-third of India’s blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under fifteen years when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. In Kerala, only some hospital based data are available based on the studies conducted in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology and Medical College Hospitals. Only piece meal data on field based studies are existing. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age group 9-15 years. 2. To find the socio demographic factors associated with ocular morbidity in children. METHODOLOGY Across sectional study was conducted among a sample of 3130 students of the age group 9-15 years from Government, Private and Aided schools of Perumkadavila Block Panchayat for three months from November 2013. Children were subjected to measurement of height and weight, general examination of the eyes, torch light examination of anterior segment and fundus examination, visual acuity for distant vision and for near vision. Colour blindness was checked using Ishihara’s chart. Sociodemographic details were collected using the pretested Performa. RESULTS 28.9% of the study group was having one or more form of ocular morbidity. Majority of the children studied were of 12 years age. Most of the ocular morbidities were either preventable or curable. Among the children having ocular morbidity the leading cause was refractive error (17.9% followed by Vitamin A deficiency (9.6%, Conjunctivitis (0.9%, Blepharitis (0.3%, Squint (0.1%, Colour blindness (0.1% and Ptosis (0.01%. The presence of ocular morbidity showed significant

  8. One man's poison is another man's meat: Using azithromycin-induced phospholipidosis to promote ocular surface health

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a common adverse effect which has led to the termination of clinical trials for many candidate pharmaceuticals. However, this lipid-inducing effect may be beneficial in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the major cause of dry eye disease (DED), which affects 40 million people in the USA and has no cure. Azithromycin (AZM) is a PLD-inducing antibiotic that is used off-label to treat MGD, and is presumably effective because it suppresses the MGD-associated conjunctival inflammation (i.e. posterior blepharitis) and growth of lid bacteria. We hypothesize that AZM can act directly to promote the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells by inducing PLD in these cells, characterized by the accumulation of lipids and lysosomes. Immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGEC) were cultured with or without azithromycin for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol (Filipin) and neutral lipid (LipidTox) staining, as well as the appearance of lysosomes (LysoTracker) and lamellar bodies (transmission electron microscopy, TEM). The lipid composition of cellular lysates was analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography. Our findings demonstrate that AZM stimulates the accumulation of free cholesterol, neutral lipids and lysosomes in HMGEC. This AZM-induced increase of neutral lipid content occurred predominantly within lysosomes. Many of these vesicles appeared to be lamellar bodies by TEM, which is the characteristic of PLD. Our findings also show that AZM promotes an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, as well as phospholipids in HMGECimmortalized. Our results support our hypothesis and confirm the beneficial effect of PLD induced by AZM on HMGEC. Our discovery reveals a new potential use of PLD-inducing drugs, and makes this adverse effect a beneficial effect

  9. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak® for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia

    Brzhesky VV


    Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free

  10. Intra-arterial bromodeoxyuridine radiosensitization of malignant gliomas

    In the 1950's it was first observed that mammalian cells exposed to the halogenated deoxyuridines were more sensitive to ultraviolet light and radiation than untreated cells. This prompted early clinical trials with bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) which showed mixed results. More recently, several Phase I studies, while establishing the feasibility of continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of BUdR, have reported significant dose limiting skin and bone marrow toxicities and have questioned the optimal method of BUdR delivery. To exploit the high mitotic activity of malignant gliomas relative to surrounding normal brain tissue, we have developed a permanently implantable infusion pump system for safe, continuous intraarterial (IA) internal carotid BUdR delivery. Since July 1985, 23 patients with malignant brain tumors (18 grade 4, 5 grade 3) have been treated in a Phase I clinical trial using IA BUdR (400-600 mg/m2/day X 8 1/2 weeks) and focal external beam radiotherapy (59.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/day in 6 1/2 weeks). Following initial biopsy/surgery the infusion pump system was implanted; BUdR infusion began 2 weeks prior to and continued throughout the 6 1/2 week course of radiotherapy. There have been no vascular complications. Side-effects in all patients have included varying degrees of anorexia, fatigue, ipsilateral forehead dermatitis, blepharitis, and conjunctivitis. Myelosuppression requiring dose reduction occurred in one patient. An overall Kaplan-Meier estimated median survival of 20 months has been achieved. As in larger controlled series, histologic grade and age are prognostically significant. We have shown in a Phase I study that IA BUdR radiosensitization is safe, tolerable, may lead to improved survival, and appears to be an efficacious primary treatment of malignant gliomas

  11. Study of uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected diseases of eye in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Ashrof Raja


    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractory error and cataract are leading causes of preventable blindness in India. Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors associated with uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected eye diseases in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas near Chennai during May–August 2009. EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and individuals in age group 5–70 years were selected with 450 subjects in both areas. Detail ophthalmic examination was done and socio-economic history for risk factors was obtained by trained interviewer. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0 software. To compare data sets chi-square test was used and Odds ratios calculated to assess association of risk factor. Results: 33.3% of the rural population had uncorrected refractory error as compared to 22.2% urban population (p<0.001; 24.2% rural population were having cataract compared to 13.1% urban population (p<0.001. Prevalence of pterygium and external hordeolum were 3% and 1% among total study population. Prevalence of internal hordeolum, corneal opacity and blepharitis were less than 1%. Subjects residing in rural area with low standard of living and using wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel were at significant higher risk of developing cataract (OR:2.43 and 2.88 respectively. They were also at significant higher risk of having refractory error (OR: 2.35 for low standard of living and 2.08 for wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractory error and cataract was high especially in rural area in the present study.

  12. A comparison of the ability of three common contact lens solutions with different constituents to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus

    Marsha Oberholzer


    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal on skin and mucosal surfaces; its contact with the eye may cause a variety of ocular inflammations and infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis and keratitis, amongst others. Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of certain pathogens, and disinfecting solutions for contact lenses are therefore of utmost importance. These solutions should be effective in inhibiting the growth of a variety of pathogens to protect the user from ocular infections.Aim: To highlight the need for clinicians to be aware of the effects of various recommended disinfecting contact lens solutions.Method: Three popular disinfecting contact lens solutions readily available in South Africa were chosen. These and a control solution (saline were prepared and inoculated with S. aureus to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. The primary stand-alone test was used to evaluate the solutions according to the ISO standard specifically for this purpose.Results: The test results indicated that two of the solutions met the ISO standards; the third failed. Of the two that passed the test, only one showed the required 3-log reduction after 30 minutes, as per the ISO standard, although this solution is marketed as a ’10 minute system’.Conclusion: It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complications that may be caused by contaminated solutions, and patients should be warned about the effects thereof. To ensure healthy eyes for our patients, sufficient knowledge regarding the efficacy of recommended multipurpose solutions is necessary. Solutions that meet ISO standards promote good ocular health and ensure sufficient cleaning and disinfecting of contact lenses.

  13. Bioadhesive sulfacetamide sodium microspheres: evaluation of their effectiveness in the treatment of bacterial keratitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rabbit model.

    Sensoy, Demet; Cevher, Erdal; Sarici, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Mesut; Ozdamar, Akif; Bergişadi, Nazan


    The aim of this study was to prepare bioadhesive sulfacetamide sodium (SA) microspheres to increase their residence time on the ocular surface and to enhance their treatment efficacy on ocular keratitis. Microspheres were fabricated by spray drying method using mixture of polymers such as pectin, polycarbophil and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) at different ratios. The particle size and distribution, morphological characteristics, thermal behavior, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies on formulations have been investigated. After optimisation studies, SA-loaded polycarbophil microsphere formulation with polymer:drug ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most suitable for ocular application and used in in vivo studies. In vivo studies were carried out on New Zealand male rabbit eyes with keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Sterile microsphere suspension in light mineral oil was applied to infected eyes twice a day. Plain SA suspension was used as a positive control. On 3rd and 6th days of the antimicrobial therapy, the eyes were examined in respect to clinical signs of infection (blepharitis, conjunctivitis, iritis, corneal oedema and corneal infiltrates) which are the main symptoms of bacterial keratitis and then cornea samples were counted microbiologically. The rabbit eyes treated with microspheres demonstrated significantly lower clinical scores than those treated with SA alone. A significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria in eyes treated with microspheres was observed in both infection models when compared to those treated with SA alone. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that SA-loaded microspheres were proven to be highly effective in the treatment of ocular keratitis. PMID:19223014

  14. Clinical Findings, Follow-up and Treatment Results in Patients with Ocular Rosacea

    İlkay Kılıç Müftüoğlu


    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the clinical features, treatment options and complications in patients with ocular rosacea. Materials and Methods: The records of 48 eyes of 24 patients with ocular rosacea were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ ocular signs and symptoms were scored between 1 and 4 points according to disease severity; tear film break-up time (BUT and Schirmer’s test results were recorded before and after the treatment. Preservative-free artificial tears, topical antibiotic eye drops/ointments, short-term topical corticosteroids, topical 0.05% cyclosporine and oral doxycycline treatment were applied as a standard therapy to all patients. Additional treatments were given as needed. Complications were recorded. Results: Twenty-four patients with a mean age of 48.5±35.4 (32-54 years were followed for a mean 15±9.4 (8-36 months. Ocular findings included meibomitis in 100% of cases, anterior blepharitis in 83% (40 eyes, punctate keratopathy in 67% (32 eyes, chalazia in 50% (24 eyes, corneal neovascularization in 50% (24 eyes and subepithelial infiltrates in 16.6% (8 eyes. Significant improvement of symptoms and clinical findings were achieved in all patients with treatment. The increases in Schirmer’s test and BUT were 3.3±1.5 and 4.5±2.8, respectively (p<0.05. Descemetocele and small corneal perforation occurred in 2 eyes; re-epithelialization was achieved in both eyes with tissue adhesive application (1 eye and additional amniotic membrane transplantation (1 eye. Four eyes of three patients showed significant regression of corneal neovascularization with topical bevacizumab therapy. Conclusion: Ocular rosacea may present with a variety of ophthalmic signs. It is possible to control the ophthalmic disease with appropriate therapeutic modalities including topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine and systemic doxycycline.


    H. Mohsenin


    Full Text Available Trachoma, especially its complications, is more prevalent in females than in males. In some of the rural areas of Iran, the use of "Surmeh" is a preva­lent practice. A biological test was carried out to determine the benefit of using this social custom by means of medicated surmeh for the control of trachoma and other infectious eye disease. Surmeh is smoked carbon powder, with a little oil added, which is used for beautifying the eye-lashes and eye-lids of women. Surmeh could transmit bacterial eye diseases, but its effect on the transmission of trachoma is not yet proven. In preparing medicated Surmeh almond oil is used, but other cheap, non-allergiant oils may be substituted. Seventy tests for three kinds of medicated surmeh were performed, i.e., 1. surmeh plus 1% aureomycin; 2. surmeh plus 3% aureomycin; 3. surmeh plus about one-thousandth methylene blue. The biological test is the same as the usual bacterial sensitivity test, i.e., a stock isolated sensitive staphylococcus is cultured on blood agar plate and round disc papers ,with eye secretion are put on the plate. The tests showed that all three medicated surmeh were effective and have considerable residual effects up to 8 hours. In few occasions the residual effect was lasting even up to 16-23 hours. The residual effects of medicated surmeh are nearly the same as those of antibiotic eye ointments. Medicated surmeh may be used for the treatment of blepharitis. It seems that medicated surmeh is also effective in trachoma control, especially for the prevention of trichiasis. Medicated surmeh can be prepared in the field by making a condensed oil suspension of the effective drug and mixing 2-3 drops in each of the women's surmeh pots. Health education is needed for the proper use of surmeh in areas where its use is common, and precautions must be taken to prevent the spreading of this social custom.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Satia Milan


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.


    Kh. Moradpour


    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  18. Effect of detergents on corneal permeability

    Changes of corneal permeability for 22Na caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the Czechoslovak detergent Jar were tested in vitro as well as in vivo. Experiments in vitro were performed on corneas of bovine eyes incubated at 37 degC. During a 10 min span the corneal surface was wetted with nine drops of aqueous solutions of BAC (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10.0%, resp.) and Jar (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0%, 10.0% and 100.0%, i.e., commercialy available compound, resp.). Changes of corneal permeability caused by detergents were demonstrated by an increaseJ uptake of 22Na transferred from the paper strips stretched over the corneal surface. For the controls, saline was used instead of detergents. The corneal permeability for 22Na increased with increasing detergent concentration. Significant changes of corneal permeability were caused by Jar diluted to 0.01%. Experiments in vivo were carried out on rabbits. Both detergents were tested in above mentioned concetrations using always two drops during a 1 min exposure. The eyes were observed for 6 days. Heavy keratitis with corneal edema, purulent conjunctival discharge and blepharitis was caused by 10% BAC and to a lesser degree also by 1% BAC or undiluted Jar. On the seventh day the permeability of the rabbit corneas was tested applying the paper strips soaked with 22Na. After 30 min the rabbits were dissected and the radioactivity of the isolated tissues and aqueous has been evaluated. After the six days delay the functional changes of the epithelial barrier were still observable manifesting itself by changed permeability and ocular distribution of 22Na. (author)

  19. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    Shimizu Y


    Full Text Available Yusuke Shimizu,1 Hiroshi Toshida,1 Rio Honda,1 Asaki Matsui,1 Toshihiko Ohta,1 Yousuke Asada,2 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods: The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX cefamezin (CEZ, gentamicin (GM and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results: There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2% had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002 and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005. Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%, followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%, blepharitis (50.0%, dacryoadenitis (45.5%, conjunctivitis (38.2%, infectious corneal ulcer (28.5% and endophthalmitis (24.7%. LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: assessment of the prevalence of refractive errors and other ocular disorders in school going children of Srikakulam D istrict, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : Aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Refractive errors and ocular disorders in school going children between the ages 5 – 15 years. D ifferent randomly selected 56 schools were taken into study which were situated in both Urban and Rural areas of Srikakulam D istrict , Andhra P radesh. Multistage cluster sampling was used to identify the sample population of School going students in the age range 5 - 15 years.5296 students were examined in the school which included assessment of visual acuity and refraction. Identi fied cases of refractive errors were recommended spectacles and some other cases which needed further evaluation were referred to Rajiv Gandhi institute of Health sciences , Srikakulam. OBSERVATION : Total 5296 students were screened in this study where 2543 were from schools situated in Urban Srikakulam and 2753 students were from the schools situated in Rural parts of Srikakulam District. Among 5296 students screened , 276 ( 5.2% students from Urban areas had eye problems and 373 ( 7.04% from the Rural areas h ad eye problems. In this 77 ( 1.45% students from Urban areas had Refractive errors and 101 ( 1.9% from Rural areas had Refractive errors which needed Spectacle correction. Commonest found eye problem was Refractive errors ( 3.32% followed by Vernal/Allergic conjunctivitis ( 3.06% . Corneal Opacity , a condition which causes childhood blindness was present in 0.04% of students. C olour Blindness was present ( 0.02% . Some other eye disorders were also detected during this study which needed medical attention so r eferred to Tertiary centre RIMS , Srikakulam for further evaluation. These conditions were Stye ( 0.096% , and others like blepharitis , dacryocystitis , and developmental cataract were 0.51%. CONCLUSION : Eye disorders

  1. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A


    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  2. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

    Oleñik A


    day, may be beneficial in the treatment of MGD, mainly by improving tear stability. Keywords: blepharitis, dry eye, ocular inflammation, eye discomfort, surface disease

  3. Clinical course and management of postoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus keratitis in immunocompromised patients: two case reports

    Prabhu SP


    Full Text Available Timothy Y Chou1, Sujata P Prabhu21Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, 2Shiley Eye Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: We describe the clinical course and successful treatment of two cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA keratitis. In case 1, MRSA keratitis occurred 5 days after cataract extraction, associated with endophthalmitis; in case 2, diagnosis was made 19 months after penetrating keratoplasty. Treatment in both cases consisted of topical fortified vancomycin and fortified bacitracin. A third topical antibiotic, polymyxin B-trimethoprim, was added to the therapeutic regimen in case 2, one month into the treatment. Oral doxycycline was prescribed to reduce collagenase activity and treat blepharitis. Mupirocin nasal ointment and skin antiseptics were used to decrease and eliminate potential MRSA colonization. Topical prednisolone acetate 1% was applied conservatively to mitigate inflammation in both cases. In case 2, topical cyclosporine A was also used for similar purposes. Keratitis may have worsened while on these immune-modulating drops, especially in case 2, and eradication of infection may have been slowed. Eventually both patients achieved full resolution of infection. Duration of keratitis was 3 and 1.5 months, respectively. Polyantimicrobial therapy is effective in eradicating MRSA-related postoperative keratitis. Topical fortified vancomycin and fortified bacitracin were used in both cases, with a third topical antibiotic, polymyxin B-trimethoprim, also required in case 2. Oral doxycycline, nasal mupirocin, and antiseptic soap may be useful adjuncts in management. Treatment time to achieve full resolution may be prolonged relative to other types of bacterial keratitis. Alterations in immune status may have lengthened the time of treatment. Our two patients were immune compromised and were also susceptible to endophthalmitis

  4. Is Demodex really non-pathogenic? O Demodex é realmente não patogênico?

    Gil Patrus PENA


    Full Text Available Although usually considered a non-pathogenic parasite in parasitological textbooks, Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as a causative agent for some dermatological conditions, such as rosacea-like eruptions and some types of blepharitis. Several anecdotal reports have demonstrated unequivocal tissue damage directly related to the presence of the parasite. However, this seems to be exceedingly rare, in contrast with the marked prevalence of this infestation. We have had the opportunity to observe one of such cases. A 38-year-old woman presented with rosacea-like papular lesions in her right cheek. Histopathological examination revealed granulomatous dermal inflammation with a well-preserved mite phagocytized by a multinucleated giant cell. This finding may be taken as an evidence for the pathogenicity of the parasite, inasmuch as it does not explain how such a common parasite is able to produce such a rare disease.Embora geralmente considerado um parasita não patogênico nos livros-texto de parasitologia, Demodex folliculorum tem sido implicado como agente causal de algumas condições dermatológicas, como erupções tipo rosácea e alguns tipos de blefarite. Vários relatos isolados têm demonstrado alterações teciduais sem dúvida relacionadas diretamente à presença do parasita. Entretanto, esses achados são extremamente raros, ao contrário da enorme prevalência da infestação. Tivemos a oportunidade de observar um destes casos. Paciente do sexo feminino, com 38 anos, apresentou lesões papulosas rosaceiformes, na região zigomática direita. O exame histopatológico revelou inflamação dérmica granulomatosa, com um ácaro bem preservado, fagocitado por uma célula gigante. Esse achado pode ser considerado como evidência a favor da patogenicidade do parasita, embora não explique como um parasita tão comum pode ser capaz de produzir alteração tão rara.

  5. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and ownedclient dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

    Simona Di Pietro


    Full Text Available Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy. Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test, and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs. The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50% while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs. In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%, but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48. In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs, in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25, there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25, had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more

  6. 倒睫激光疗效106例观察%Treatment of trichiasis with argon laser photocoagulation

    徐冬冬; 于伟鸿; 董方田


    Objective To observe the clinical effect with the use of Argon laser photocoagulation for the treatment of recurrent trichiasis patients. Methods A total of 106 lids (73 patients) with aberrant lashes were treated in our study. Each lash was treated with a beam of 50-200μm (spot size), 0.2s (time), and 500-1000mW .power). Topical or infiltration anesthesia was used. The beam was focused at the root of the aberrant cilium and a 2-3mm crater was produced at its base. This was then deepened to destroy the whole lash follicle. At the conclusion of the laser treatment, the patient was discharged on topical antibiotic eye drops three times a day for one week. Results Successful treatment with no evidence of recurrence was achieved in 64.2% of lids after one laser session. Of 101 lids (95.3%) achieved no recurrence with three sessions laser treatment. With one laser session, the success rate was 78.9% when aberrant lashes per lid were below 5 and 33.3%when aberrant lashes were from 5-10. If the aberrant lashes per lid were above 10, several sessions of laser was needed. With one laser session, the success rate of trachoma was 41.7%, 72.4% for blepharitis and 81.8% for idiopathic trichiasis. Conclusions Argon laser treatment appears to be a safe and effective method to the treatment of trichiasis. The success rate is lower when the aberrant lashes per lid are more. Among the different causes of trichiasis, trachoma carries a significant low success rate.%目的 对氩激光光凝后的倒睫患者进行随诊,观察这种方法的临床效果.方法 应用氩激光治疗倒睫毛,将能量设为500~1000m W,时间为200m s,光斑50~200μm,使激光束对准倒睫毛的根部,产生2~3m m直径的小凹陷,继续激光破坏毛囊.激光后应用抗生素滴眼液一周.结果 73位患者106只眼接受了氩激光治疗.每根倒睫所需激光点数(53.7±19.1)点,68只眼经1次激光治愈,成功率64.2%,经3次激光,101只眼(95.3%)达到治愈效果.眼睑≤5

  7. Effects of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate on experimental corneal lesions in rabbits Efeitos do etil-cianoacrilato ou do octil-cianoacrilato sobre lesões corneais experimentais em coelhos

    V.T. Barbosa


    Full Text Available The use of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate were clinically and histopathologically compared on the corneas of 36 rabbits after lamellar keratectomy (standardized diameter and depth. The animals were distributed into two groups, one for each type of adhesive. From each group, six subgroups were histopathologically evaluated on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th, and 60th day post-operative. General (daily and ophthalmic (days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44, and 60 evaluations clinically indicated that there were significant differences for the variables water intake, attitude, blepharitis, corneal edema, and fluorescein test. The adhesive permanence time for octyl-cyanoacrylate (17.22 days was greater than that for ethyl-cyanoacrylate (7.66 days. With respect to the histopathological evaluation, corneal epithelization and collagen organization occurred without severe complications. However, treatment with ethyl-cyanoacrylate led to a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. With octyl-cyanoacrylate, re-epithelization and collagen organization proceeded more slowly with a discrete inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. From clinical and histopathologic points of view, octyl-cyanoacrylate showed advantages over ethyl-cyanoacrylate, whereas wound healing was achieved in both groups without major complications.Comparou-se o uso do etil-cianoacrilato e do octil-cianoacrilato em córneas de 36 coelhos após ceratectomia lamelar (diâmetro e profundidade padronizados. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos, segundo o tipo de adesivo, e redistribuídos em seis subgrupos com três animais cada, para as avaliações histológicas aos 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As avaliações clínicas gerais (diárias e as oftálmicas (dias 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44 e 60, indicaram diferença entre os dois grupos, quanto ao consumo de água, atitude, blefarite, edema da córnea e teste da fluoresceína. O Tempo de

  8. Benefits of switching from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops: a meta-analysis of two Phase IIIb clinical trials

    Uusitalo H


    of blepharitis and corneal/conjunctival fluorescein staining had in turn decreased to one-half of those reported for preserved latanoprost. Severity of conjunctival hyperemia was halved during treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, and there was significant improvement in tear break-up time and tear production. A further reduction in IOP (~1 mmHg was seen with preservative-free tafluprost compared with preserved latanoprost. Drop discomfort was alleviated during preservative-free tafluprost treatment, and an outstanding majority of patients (72% preferred preservative-free tafluprost over preserved latanoprost. Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirmed that IOP remained at the same level after replacing benzalkonium chloride-preserved latanoprost eye drops with preservative-free tafluprost eye drops. Preservative-free tafluprost significantly decreased the symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease and outrated latanoprost in drop comfort and treatment preference. Keywords: Taflotan®, preserved latanoprost, Xalatan®, ocular surface disease, ocular symptoms and signs, IOP, patient-related outcome

  9. Análise do custo-benefício da avaliação ocular de pacientes portadores de rosácea Cost-benefit analysis of ocular examination of patients with rosacea

    Keila Barbosa de Oliveira Lima


    examination and tested with Schirmer I, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining, impression cytology and conjunctival scrub. The costs of these examinations were abstracted from the Public Health System's values (SUS, Brazilian Medical Association values (AMB and values charged by a private service. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrollet initially in the study, but only 16 completed it. Eleven patients were female (55%, 19 were white (95% and the average age was 56 years. All patients had at least one complaint related to rosacea. The most common symptoms were itching (40%, tearing (35%, foreign body sensation (30%. The most common signs were telangiectasis of lid margins (70%, hyperemia of lid margins (70%, meibomitis (65% and blepharitis (50%. Most subsidiary examination showed normal results. There was difference of costs between the different paying sources. CONCLUSIONS: The main ocular manifestations in rosacea were related with meibomian gland disease. Considering the subsidiary examination costs and their results, the ophthalmologic check-up presents the best cost-benefit for the patient with rosacea.

  10. Blefaroplastia inferior: poderia a cirurgia proporcionar satisfação aos pacientes? Lower blepharoplasty: would the surgery provide satisfaction to the patient?

    Giovanni André Pires Viana


    was composed of 25 patients who were submitted to conservatively standard fat-resection lower eyelid blepharoplasty, and routine lateral canthal support. The Surgical Group 2 (experimental group was represented by 25 patients submitted to lower eyelid blepharoplasty with periorbital fat mobilization and arcus marginalis redrape, and routine lateral canthal support. The self-esteem of all patients was compared with those in 25 age-matched volunteers from the general population. The parameters of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were determined preoperatively and at 6-month interval postoperatively. Standardized photographs obtained before and after surgery were evaluated by three independent observers. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 395 days (range 364 to 547 days. The mean age was 48.8 years, the population's gender was predominantly female (96%. Analysis of preoperative and postoperative photographs showed that 96% patients achieved significant improvement. Self-esteem scores improved from baseline preoperative mean levels of 5.1 (Standard Deviation = 4.1 to a mean level of 3.6 (Standard Deviation = 3.5 at 6 months post-surgery (p=0.001. No patients had orbital hematoma, blepharitis, lagophthalmos or ectropion. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that both procedures are safe and effective with low complication rates, and marked improvement in self-esteem was observed in patients at 6-month follow-up.