Sample records for blending

  1. Blended Learning

    Bauerová, Andrea


    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  2. Blended learning

    Dau, Susanne


    -finding process of navigating different learning environment. Blended learning is conceptualized as an ecological learning process where sociality, mobility, interactionality, structures, spatiality, identity and emotionality are central dimension affiliated to blended learning as way-finding. Based on the......Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning in...... blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011...

  3. Blended learning

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  4. Blended Learning

    Imbriale, Ryan


    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  5. Blended Learning

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan


    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  6. Blended Learning

    Gynther, Karsten


    Artiklen giver en grundlæggende introduktion til begrebet blended learning og sætter fokus på didaktiske spørgsmål som: Hvad er blended learning? Hvilke forskellige former ser vi i dag i danske uddannelser? Hvorfor udbydes uddannelser i stigende grad i et blended learning format? Hvilke didaktiske...... principper kan man som underviser tage i brug, når man skal designe et blended learning forløb? Hvad er den grundlæggende didaktiske forskel på tilstedeværelsesundervisning og netbaseret undervisning? Og hvilke kritiske perspektiver er det vigtigt at have med, når en uddannelsesinstitution beslutter sig for...... at re-designe traditionel tilstedeværelsesundervisning til blended learning?...

  7. Stockyard blending

    Ferretti, C.; Grattarola, G.C. (Italimpianti S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Bulk Materials Handling Division)


    Six computer calculation programs have been developed to simulate the blending process. The integrated system, known as ASPO, has been implemented by Italimpianti for statistical analysis of the blending processes in stockyards. Programs are written in FORTRAN 77 and require a short processing time. The OLOMON program analyzes the content percentages; RAILON analyses the ratio indices; the TRAGEO and TRAMIX programs allow the building of the transverse section of the pipe and create data for subsequent analysis of reclaiming the front; TRATAM and TRARUA enable analysis of the reclaiming of the pile with a barrel and a wheel reclaimer respectively. Results of the application of the blending technique in the iron and steel industry in an iron ore plant and in a coal blending plant in the USSR are given. 1 ref., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Blended learning

    Басава, Ганна Іванаўна; Салаўёў, Павел Леанідавіч


    In recent years, the training initiatives in blended learning increased enormously as a result of the different demands to integrate the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in educational systems. In Higher Education, the blend approach is highly pursued because of its unique flexibility that allows the teacher to propose, in every situation, more advantageous train- ing solutions for their students, contrary to mandatory classroom in Basic and Secondary schools. It seems that th...


    Goodfellow, Paul


    BLEED & BLEND is an ambient artwork that was commissioned by Digital Media in Newcastle University's Culture Lab, as part of their data visualisation screening project: Data Elements. The aim of the project was to take an unconventional approach to interpreting and displaying scientific data through visual artworks. The work was projected onto Newcastle University's Kings Gate building in Newcastle city centre in October 2012. A useful and succinct description of Ambient Art is found in B...

  10. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    Gill, Deborah


    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  11. Blended learning

    Rubens, Wilfred


    `Blended learning` во изучувањето на странските јазици нуди голема предност во споредба со другите методи и пристапи. Како концепт тој вклучува обработка на оригинален текст и негова актуeлизација во процесот на учење во комбинација со интернет или напредната технологија во наставата, но користи и аудио и видео снимки од изворни говорници. Во својата наставна дејност анализирам и обработувам видео и аудио текстови од германски изворни говорители преземени од различни веб страници. На овој нач...

  12. A Blended Learning Experience

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda


    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  13. Blended Learning Environments and Suggesstions for Blended Learning Design

    Dağ, Funda


    The number of studies in blended learning field, which has gained importance by being reinterpreted with the effect of the developments in information and communication technologies, has been increasing recently. There have been many diverse approaches in these studies on the point of defining blended learning and on the point of which components of blended learning environments need blending and how they are blended. The aim of this study is to examine national and international studies in b...

  14. Blended Learning Design

    Pedersen, Lise


    digital materials which can be employed didactically and reused by the teachers. This can also mean that the particular competencies which teaches have in Svendborg can be used at other locations in UCL and disseminated to a larger group of students without further costs. Educational Innovation and...... Learning Resources (EILR) was asked to develop and support the blended learning implementation strategy. EILR is an inter-faculty unit in UCL, which develops and supports digitization and learning approaches in the professional bachelor programme. The paper addresses the potentials and the pitfalls in the...... blended learning implementation strategy. The blended learning implementation strategy contains phases for preparation, development, implementation and evaluation. The preparation phase addresses the importance of goal-setting and includes the winnings and the purpose. The developmental phase looks into...

  15. Blended Learning Environments and Suggesstions for Blended Learning Design

    Funda DAĞ


    Full Text Available The number of studies in blended learning field, which has gained importance by being reinterpreted with the effect of the developments in information and communication technologies, has been increasing recently. There have been many diverse approaches in these studies on the point of defining blended learning and on the point of which components of blended learning environments need blending and how they are blended. The aim of this study is to examine national and international studies in blended learning in higher education and to make suggestions about necessary components for designing an effective blended learning environment. Within this framework the studies on blended learning, which were accessible online, were examined from the perspectives of research methods that were used, preferred e-learning environments and/or e-learning methods, preferred face to face learning/teaching strategies and the methods used in the evaluation of blended learning. In the light of the findings it is seen that blended learning should be regarded as a teaching design approach in order to create effectively blended learning environments and it is hoped that the suggestions made will be lodestar in forming blended learning models for diverse learning fields.

  16. AKRO/SF: Blend System

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blend was the system used by the NMFS Alaska Regional Office to monitor groundfish catch from 1991 until 2002. The Blend system combined data from industry...

  17. Morphology stabilization of heterogeneous blends

    A heterogeneous elastomer blend is described, consisting of at least two elastomer components which are cross-linkable by irradiation and having a stabilized morphology formed by subjecting the blend to high energy radiation to a point from below to slightly above the gel dose of the blend. (author)

  18. Theory of polymer blends

    We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

  19. Synthesizing optimal waste blends

    Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. Process and storage economics show that minimizing the total number of glass logs produced is the key to keeping cost as low as possible. The amount of glass produced can be reduced by blending of the wastes. The optimal way to combine the tanks to minimize the vole of glass can be determined from a discrete blend calculation. However, this problem results in a combinatorial explosion as the number of tanks increases. Moreover, the property constraints make this problem highly nonconvex where many algorithms get trapped in local minima. In this paper the authors examine the use of different combinatorial optimization approaches to solve this problem. A two-stage approach using a combination of simulated annealing and nonlinear programming (NLP) is developed. The results of different methods such as the heuristics approach based on human knowledge and judgment, the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach with GAMS, and branch and bound with lower bound derived from the structure of the given blending problem are compared with this coupled simulated annealing and NLP approach

  20. Blended Learning in English Literature

    Haugestad, Astrid


    Abstract Blended Learning This study investigates blended learning used in a course of English Literature and Culture in upper secondary school. It raises the question how the use of blended learning may promote and encourage learning in a course of English literature and culture. The study also compares traditional face-to-face classroom communication with communication mediated by digital artefacts. It has been important to go beyond the strictly technical issues ...

  1. Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen

    Keller, Miriam; Back, Andrea


    Der Arbeitsbericht Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen liefert einen Beitrag zur Bearbeitung des Themas Blended Learning und liefert dem Leser einen Überblick und erste Anregungen zur Planung, Integration und Gestaltung von Blended-Learning-Konzepten im Unternehmen.

  2. Managing as blended care.

    Mintzberg, H


    As part of a research project on managerial work based on a new model of the roles, the head nurse of a hospital unit was observed during a working day. Her work is described, with reference especially to the roles of leading, linking, controlling, and doing. Conclusions are drawn about the advantages of a craft style of management as opposed to the more traditional "boss" or professional styles. The author also discusses what those in general management can learn from those in nursing management, which seems best practiced out in the open, on one's feet, as a kind of blended care. PMID:8089715

  3. Blended Learning on Campus

    Heilesen, Simon; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche


    On the basis of a large-scale project implementing information and communication technology at Roskilde University, Denmark, this paper discusses ways of introducing technology-based blended learning in academic life. We examine some examples of use of systems for computer-mediated collabora......-tive learning and work in Danish Open University education as well as in courses on campus. We further suggest some possi-bilities for using technology in innovative ways, arguing that innovation is to be found, not in isolated instantiations of sys-tems, but in the form of a deliberate integration of all...... relevant ICT-features as a whole into the learning environment....

  4. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise


    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education. PMID:26317458

  5. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Tucker, Catlin R.


    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  6. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    Malchev, P.G.


    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  7. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.


    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  8. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel


    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  9. Challenges of blended-learning

    Lugovtsova, Y. D.; Mylnikova, Tatyana Stepanovna


    Creation of the virtual environment as an educational resource to increase motivation and inquisition of the students is a great challenge for Russian educational system. The paper considers some issues of blended-learning. Some elements of blended-learning are analyzed through the ways they are implemented in Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  10. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.


    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  11. Blend or not to blend: a study investigating faculty members perceptions of blended teaching

    Mehmet A Ocak


    Full Text Available This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a satisfaction with blended teaching, (b perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c perceived impact on student learning, (d perceived impact on student motivation, (e advantages of blended teaching, and (f disadvantages of blended teaching. Findings indicated that faculty members were likely to agree that blended teaching provides a high degree of satisfaction and that it requires more time and commitment from the faculty. The faculty members perceived that blended teaching improves student learning and, to some extent, improves motivation. The faculty members also emphasized the importance of institutional support and the use of technology to mitigate student problems. This study presents these faculty members’ perceptions, which are helpful for those planning to implement a blended teaching approach, and makes suggestions for trouble-shooting and taking advantage of the opportunities in a blended environment successfully.

  12. Blend or not to blend: a study investigating faculty members perceptions of blended teaching

    Mehmet A Ocak


    This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a) satisfaction with blended teaching, (b) perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c) perceived impact on student learning, ...

  13. Performance of Blended Learning in University Teaching:

    Michael Reiss


    Full Text Available Blended learning as a combination of classroom teaching and e-learning has become a widely represented standard in employee and management development of companies. The exploratory survey “Blended Learning@University” conducted in 2008 investigated the integration of blended learning in higher education. The results of the survey show that the majority of participating academic teachers use blended learning in single courses, but not as a program of study and thus do not exploit the core performance potential of blended learning. According to the study, the main driver of blended learning performance is its embeddedness in higher education. Integrated blended programs of study deliver the best results. In blended learning, learning infrastructure (in terms of software, culture, skills, funding, content providing, etc. does not play the role of a performance driver but serves as an enabler for blended learning.

  14. Coal blending and coal homogenisation facilities

    Toerslev Jensen, P. [I/S ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)


    Blending is becoming increasingly important as a way of improving the quality of coal fired in power plants. This paper gives a basic description of the purposes of coal blending. Although indices for estimating (properties, slagging and fouling propensity, reactivity, etc.) of coal and coal blends exist, these are not considered reliable for coals of widely different origin, and experience will be emphasised as a better tool. The pros and cons of different blending methods are discussed together with the environmental impact of coal blending facilities. Finally, the blending facilities of ELSAM, a power pool serving the western part of Denmark, are described. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG


    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  16. Radiation effect on PVC/ENR blends

    The effect of irradiation on the physical properties of Polyvinyl Chloride / Epoxidised Natural Rubber Blends (PVC/ENR blends) were investigated. The enhancement in tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and aging properties of the blends have confirmed the positive effect of irradiation on the blends. It is evident from gel fraction and infra red spectroscopic studies that the blends of PVC and ENR cross-linked upon irradiation. The results also revealed that at any blend composition, the enhancement in properties depend on irradiation dose which controls the degree of radiation induced cross-linking. In an attempt to maximize the constructive effect of irradiation, the influence of various additives such as stabilizers, radiation sensitizers, fillers and processing aids on the blend properties were studied. The changes in blend properties upon irradiation with the presents of above additives were also presented in this paper

  17. Production of Silk & Wool Blended Worsted Cloth

    段亚峰; 许琳


    Wool & silk blended fancy suiting is desinged. Through trial-production with silk sliver and Australian wool top, the spinning technology is investigated, and the relationship of spinning technology, blending ratio and yam construction is discussed.

  18. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  19. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    VanDerLinden, Kim


    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  20. Performance of Blended Learning in University Teaching:

    Michael Reiss; Dirk Steffens


    Blended learning as a combination of classroom teaching and e-learning has become a widely represented standard in employee and management development of companies. The exploratory survey “Blended Learning@University” conducted in 2008 investigated the integration of blended learning in higher education. The results of the survey show that the majority of participating academic teachers use blended learning in single courses, but not as a program of study and thus do not exploit the core perf...

  1. Laboratory optimization of continuous blend asphalt rubber

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge C.; Luzia, Rosa


    Asphalt rubber from wet process requires batching blending and reaction time associated to blending rubber and conventional asphalt to produce asphalt rubber. The ideal blending of these materials depends on the combination of very important variables, such as the amount of rubber, reaction time and temperature reaction. This paper intends to optimize the laboratory production of asphalt rubber using the continuous blend process. The rubber from waste tyres was reduced by ambient grinding and...

  2. Binary blend nanoparticles with defined morphology

    Ghazy, Omayma


    In this study polymer blends of polystyrene and poly(propylene carbonate) were prepared using the miniemulsion process as model systems for the nanoparticles consisting of semiconducting polymers for optical applications. The blends were prepared by mixing nanoparticles of pure polymers or by fabricating blend nanoparticles including both the two polymers in each particle. The development of controlled hemispherical phase separated morphology (Janus morphology) within the blend nanoparticles ...

  3. Towards generating novel games using conceptual blending

    Gow, Jeremy; Corneli, Joseph


    We sketch the process of creating a novel video game by blending two video games specified in the Video Game Description Language (VGDL), following the COINVENT computational model of conceptual blending. We highlight the choices that need to be made in this process, and discuss the prospects for a computational game designer based on blending.

  4. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  5. Netbaserede uddannelser og blended learning

    Vognsgaard Hjernø, Henriette; Jensen, Michael Peter; Bertelsen, Jesper Vedel


    Denne håndbog er tænkt som inspiration til uddannelsesfaglige medarbejdere, som er eller skal i gang med at undervise på en netbaseret uddannelse i UCL. Håndbogen giver et teoretisk overblik i forhold til netbaserede uddannelser, online- og blended learning samt en indførsel i hvilke didaktiske...

  6. Building a Blended Learning Program

    McLester, Susan


    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…


    Lin-ping Ke; Mei-li Guo; De-lu Zhao


    For a system of flexible polymer molecules, the concepts of two concentrations, namely the segmental and the molecular concentrations, have been proposed in this paper. The former is equivalent to the volume fraction. The latter can be defined as the number of the gravity centers of macromolecules in a unit volume. The two concentrations should be correlated with each other by the conformational function of the polymer chain and should be discussed in different thermodynamic equations. On the basis of these concepts it has been proved that the Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing should be the result of the mixing "ideal gases of the gravity centers of macromolecules". The general correlation between the free energy of mixing and the scattering function (structural factor) of polymer blends has been studied based on the general fluctuation theory. When the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing is adopted, the de Gennes scattering function of a polymer blend can be derived.

  8. Confined flow of polymer blends.

    Tufano, C; Peters, G W M; Meijer, H E H


    The influence of confinement on the steady-state morphology of two different emulsions is investigated. The blends, made from polybutene (PB) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polybutadiene (PBD) in PDMS, are sheared between two parallel plates, mostly with a standard gap spacing of 40 microm, in the range of shear rates at which the transition from "bulk" behavior toward "confined" behavior is observed. For both cases, the influence of the concentration was systematically investigated, as well as the shear rate effects on the final steady-state morphology. By decreasing the shear rate, for each blend, the increasing droplets, i.e., increasing confinement for a fixed gap spacing, arrange themselves first into two layers, and when the degree of confinement reaches an even higher value, a single layer of droplets is formed. The ratio between the drop diameters and the gap spacing at which this transition occurs is always lower than 0.5. While decreasing the shear rate, the degree of confinement increases due to drop coalescence. Droplets arrange themselves in superstructures like ordered pearl necklaces and, at the lower shear rates, strings. The aspect ratio and the width of the droplet obtained from optical micrographs are compared to predictions of the single droplet Maffettone-Minale model (MM model(1)). It is found that the theory, meant for unconfined shear flow, is not able to predict the drop deformation when the degree of confinement is above a critical value that depends on the blends considered and the shear rate applied. A recently developed extension of the MM model is reported by Minale (M model(2)) where the effect of the confinement is included by using the Shapira-Haber correction.3 Further extending this M model, by incorporating an effective viscosity as originally proposed by Choi and Showalter,4 we arrive at the mM model that accurately describes the experiments of blends in confined flow. PMID:18348582

  9. Game innovation through conceptual blending

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    In  this  paper  I  wish  to  apply implications of  the  Conceptual  Blending  Theory  to  computer  games.  I  will  analyze  chosen  examples  and  discuss  them  as  a  result  of  video  game  innovation  made  possible  through  "conceptual  blending."  Conceptual  blending  links  at  least......  integration  network  consisting  of  at  least  two  input  spaces,  a  generic  space  and  a  blended  space  as  well  as  its  governing  principles  consisting  of  composition,  completion,  and  elaboration.  With  the  help  of  these  instruments  I  analyze computer  games like  Tuper  Tario  Tros.......,  Hell.  The  purpose  of  my  approach  is  not  so  much  to  validate  the  ideas  of  conceptual  blending  theory  through  another  field  of  examples  (computer  games)  but  to  name  and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the  help of a given method....

  10. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Lee Scott


    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  11. Miscibility evolution of polycarbonate/polystyrene blends during compounding

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;


    The miscibility evolution of polycarbonate/polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, remelt blending in a twin-screw extruder and third melt blending in an injection molding machine, was investigated by...

  12. Morphology Evolution of Polycarbonate-Polystyrene Blends During Compounding

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;


    The morphology evolution of polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, re-melt blending in a twin-screw extruder and tri-melt blending in an injection-moulding machine, was investigated using...

  13. A Time Based Blended Learning Model

    Norberg, Anders; Dziuban, Charles D; Moskal, Patsy M


    Purpose – This paper seeks to outline a time-based strategy for blended learning that illustrates course design and delivery by framing students' learning opportunities in synchronous and asynchronous modalities. Design/methodology/approach – This paper deconstructs the evolving components of blended learning in order to identify changes induced by digital technologies for enhancing teaching and learning environments. Findings – This paper hypothesizes that blended learning may be traced back...

  14. Constructivism Based Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Ahmad Mhammad Al-Huneidi; Jeanne Schreurs


    This paper explain how to apply Constructivism and Conversation theories in Blended Learning environment in order to increase learning outcomes and quality. Some scenarios of Constructivism based blended learning activities are presented in this paper. In addition, a Constructivism Based Blended Learning model for “ICT Management†course, a compulsory course in Master of Management Information Systems program at Hasselt University, is proposed. The proposed model applies and combines Const...

  15. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  16. Learning to Blend Computer Game Levels

    Guzdial, Matthew; Riedl, Mark


    We present an approach to generate novel computer game levels that blend different game concepts in an unsupervised fashion. Our primary contribution is an analogical reasoning process to construct blends between level design models learned from gameplay videos. The models represent probabilistic relationships between elements in the game. An analogical reasoning process maps features between two models to produce blended models that can then generate new level chunks. As a proof-of-concept w...

  17. Rheological properties of olefinic thermoplastic elastomer blends

    Sengers, W.G.F.


    Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are a class of materials that have rubber-like properties and can be processed like thermoplastic polymers. In this thesis, the rheological properties of two TPE blends are correlated to their morphology. The thermoplastic vulcanisates (TPV) consist of micron-sized, cured elastomer particles while the blends of PP and the triblock copolymer SEBS show co-continuous structures. Both blends also contain considerable amount of paraffinic oil. The difference between ...

  18. Structuring of Interface-Modified Polymer Blends

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen


    The paper treats the case where blends of polystyrene (PS), poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a diblock copolymer of PS and PDMS are used as model materials. This modelsystem is predicted to be "stable" in discrete blends in simple shear flow. Stable in the sence that the block copolymer can not...... inversion volume predicted by theory is outside the observed IPS interval for one of the investigated blend pairs....

  19. ASP, Amalgamation and the Conceptual Blending Workflow

    Eppe, Manfred; Maclean, Ewen; Confalonieri, Roberto; Kutz, Oliver; Schorlemmer, Marco; Plaza, Enric


    We present an amalgamation technique used for conceptual blending – a concept invention method that is advocated in cognitive science as a fundamental, and uniquely human engine for creative thinking. Herein, we employ the search capabilities of ASP to find commonalities among input concepts as part of the blending process, and we show how our approach fits within a generalised conceptual blending workflow. Specifically, we orchestrate ASP with imperative programming languages like Python, to...


    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa


    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  1. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  2. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    De Vries, M.L.


    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.




    E-learning was acknowledged by most educators and researchers as a savior, even an only alternative in education field, especially in the following years of its emergence. However, with the rise of its limitations, the idea of bringing face-to-face learning and e-learning together to complete each other has occured. Blended learning is a method emerged as a result of this sentiment. The new education alternatives which have been discovered as a consequence of the researches and the studies ma...

  4. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    Klemm, R. E.


    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  5. A Review on Conceptual Blending Theory



    The CBT(Conceptual Blending Theory)is rapidly emerging as a major force in cognitive science and provides a unifying umbrella framework for a range of cognitive phenomena.The present paper is to have a general review of the conceptual blending theory through illustrating its four-space theory in order to have a better comprehension of its nature.

  6. Introducing blended e-learning course design

    Gyamfi, Samuel Adu; Ryberg, Thomas


    In the face of diminishing education budgets in higher education, blended learning has been found to be a viable and effective approach to deliver high-quality, up-to-date, on-demand solutions to developing cross-curricular skills of undergraduates. However, research has also shown that blended l...


    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  8. Dynamic Heterogeneity in Interacting Miscible Polymer Blends

    Gaikwad, Ashish; Lodge, Timothy


    Dynamic heterogeneity leading to time-temperature superposition (tTS) failure has been widely reported in non-interacting/weakly interacting miscible polymer blends. However, coupling of the component dynamic response in blends, even with a huge dynamic asymmetry in the pure components, is possible with H-bonding interactions. This study is focused on finding the minimum level of interaction necessary for thermo-rheological simplicity in blends. Blends of styrene-co-vinylphenol (PSVPh) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) were chosen. Incorporation of styrene provides an effective way to modulate H-bonding interactions in the system. Linear viscoelastic data indicate that tTS fails for PS/PVME blends, whereas data obtained for different PVPh/PVME blends showed that tTS was obeyed a over wide temperature range. For PSVPh/PVME blends with low PSVPh content, tTS was successful. This suggests that the presence of alternating styrene and vinyl phenol units was insufficient for dynamic response decoupling. Further studies are in progress, with varying vinyl phenol content in PSVPh, to explore the influence of H-bonding on dynamic heterogeneity and blend dynamics.

  9. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.


    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  10. Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Vaughan, N.


    This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but…

  11. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou


    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.


    CERTA, P.J.


    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  13. Study on combustion characteristics of blended coals

    LI Yonghua; WANG Chunbo; CHEN Hongwei


    Power plants in China have to burn blended coal instead of one specific coal for a variety of reasons.So it is of great necessity to investigate the combustion of blended coals.Using a test rig with a capacity of 640 MJ/h with an absolute milling system and flue gas online analysis system,characteristics such as burnout,slag,and pollution of some blended coals were investigated.The ratio of coke and slag as a method of distinguishing coal slagging characteristic was introduced.The results show that the blending of coal has some effect on NOx but there is no obvious rule.SOx emission can be reduced by blending low sulfur coal.



    The preparation process-dependent phase morphology of blends composed of nylon 6 and acryionitrile-butadienestyrene(ABS)over a composition range of 30-70 wt% using a styrene-maleic anhydride(SMA)copolymer as the compatibilizing agent with a constant content(5phr)was investigated.The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM)observation revealed that compared with the binary blends of nylon 6 and ABS,the existence of SMA caused a composition shift of phase inversion to a higher weight fraction of nylon 6 when ABS was blended with the preblended nylon 6/SMA blend,while the co-continuous structures could be observed over a considerably narrower composition range when nylon 6 was blended with the pre-blended ABS/SMA blend.An examination through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)tests confirmed the results obtained with SEM.It is found that near the phase inversion region a remarkable change in the dynamic storage modulus(G')and the loss tangent(tanδ)appears.Moreover,the influence of blending sequence on the size of dispersed particles has been probed for uncompatibilized and compatibilized blends of nylon 6 and ABS over a wide range of compositions below or beyond the phase inversion points.For the blends of ABS dispersed in a nylon 6 matrix,little discernible effects of blending sequence on particle size could be observed.Furthermore,there exists a significant difference in morphologies of the blends prepared by nylon 6 particles dispersing in a ABS matrix in cases of different blending sequences used.Some possible factors responsible for the above asymmetric behaviors have been proposed.

  15. Imaging Microlens Blends Using Image Subtraction

    Gould, A; Gould, Andrew; An, Jin H.


    Blended light is an important source of degeneracy in the characterization of microlensing events, particularly in binary-lens and high magnification events. We show how the techniques of image subtraction can be applied to form an image of the blend with the source removed. In many cases, it should be possible to construct images with very high signal-to-noise ratio. Analysis of these images can help distinguish between competing models that have different blend fractions, and in some cases should allow direct detection of the lens.

  16. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  17. Blended Learning-A Focus Study on Asia

    Kwong Onn Tham; ChoiKit Tham


    Blended learning is gaining popularity in Asia. This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore and the challenges encountered. While blended learning is well-received in western culture, it has met with varying degrees of success in Asia due in part to the different perceptions of instructors and students towards blended learning approaches. In China, for example, while blended learning was well-received, the ...

  18. Prospects of Blended Learning Implementation at Technical University

    Buran, Anna Leonidovna; Evseeva, Arina Mikhailovna


    The present paper explores the integration of a blended learning course in the process of learning English as a second language at the technical university. We overview the difference between traditional, web facilitated, blended learning and online course; the implementation of the blended learning course in the process of learning English at the technical university. The article also investigates the benefits and drawbacks of blended learning and the possibilities of a blended learning cour...

  19. Monitoring Blending of Pharmaceutical Powders with Multipoint NIR Spectroscopy

    SCHEIBELHOFER, OTTO; Balak, Nikolaus; Wahl, Patrick R.; Koller, Daniel M.; Glasser, Benjamin J; Khinast, Johannes G.


    Blending of powders is a crucial step in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is often a powder that is blended with other powders (excipients) in order to produce tablets. The blending efficiency is influenced by several external factors, such as the desired degree of homogeneity and the required blending time, which mainly depend on the properties of the blended materials and on the geometry of the blender. This experimental study i...

  20. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone-gelatin blend

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar


    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL-gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL-gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants.

  1. Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces

    李桂清; 李华


    In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.

  2. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.


    ... the production of special natural wine of the same type, e.g., producing a sweet vermouth by blending sweet vermouths produced under two or more approved formulas, the submission and approval of...

  3. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  4. Constructivism Based Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Al-Huneidi, Ahmad


    Blended Learning, which is a mix of online and face-to-face learning, can combine the benefits of both, traditional classroom learning and e-learning environments.3 The aim of this thesis is to explore how to design and implement Blended Learning environment based on Constructivism theory, which focuses on students’ experience to construct the knowledge, in order to increase learning outcomes, performance, and quality in academic institutions. An affective and successful learni...

  5. Blending of polyethylene materials for pipe applications

    Wright, Wayne Clifton Augustus


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Melt blending of polyethylene, in particularly HDPE and LLDPE, have been shown to be a major success, especially in the film markets. In this thesis studies are reported on the stress rupture performance of pipes produced from selected polyethylene materials blended to a chosen MDPE pipe grade. The pipes were tested, notched or unnotched, at a single temperature of 80oC and at internal pressu...

  6. Blended learning approaches enhance student academic performance

    Morris, NP


    Blended learning, or technology enhanced learning, is increasingly becoming an expectation for higher education students. Blended learning allows for the enhancement of face-to-face interaction between tutors and students, using internet or computer based tools. In this paper, a range of case studies are described which illustrate methods to engage students with technology enhanced learning and improve academic performance and student satisfaction. In the first case study, first year undergra...

  7. Redesigning A Course For Blended Learning Environment

    Orhan, Feza


    ABSTRACT This article describes a collaborative study of the blended learning approach, designed to pave the way for higher education students to integrate online and face-to-face learning environments in an “Instructional Technology and Material Development” course at the University of Yildiz Technic in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to investigate the students’ perceptions of the blended learning environment and to trace the integration between online and face-to-face learning environ...

  8. Surface segregation of conformationally asymmetric polymer blends

    Stepanow, Semjon; Fedorenko, Andrei A.


    We have generalized the Edwards' method of collective description of dense polymer systems in terms of effective potentials to polymer blends in the presence of a surface. With this method we have studied conformationally asymmetric athermic polymer blends in the presence of a hard wall to the first order in effective potentials. For polymers with the same gyration radius $R_g$ but different statistical segment lengths $l_{A}$ and $l_{B}$ the excess concentration of stiffer polymers at the su...

  9. Physical Aging of Miscible Polymer Blends

    Robertson, Christopher


    Physical aging measurements were performed on various polymeric glasses with the overriding goal of developing a better molecular picture of the nonequilibrium glassy state. To this end, aging-induced changes in mechanical properties and in the thermodynamic state (volume and enthalpy) were assessed for two different miscible polymer blends as a function of both composition and aging temperature. This investigation considered the physical aging behavior of blends containing atactic polystyr...

  10. Interfacial Slip in Sheared Polymer Blends

    Lo, Tak Shing; Mihajlovic, Maja; Shnidman, Yitzhak; Li, Wentao; Gersappe, Dilip


    We have developed a dynamic self-consistent field theory, without any adjustable parameters, for unentangled polymer blends under shear. Our model accounts for the interaction between polymers, and enables one to compute the evolution of the local rheology, microstructure and the conformations of the polymer chains under shear self-consistently. We use this model to study the interfacial dynamics in sheared polymer blends and make a quantitative comparison between this model and Molecular Dyn...

  11. Blended Interaction Spaces for Collaborative Design

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    During the past five years, we have explored the use, potentials and challenges of Blended Interaction spaces. In addition, we have a long background in developing and exploring methods for collaborative design. In this workshop paper, we give an overview of our work and present our visions and...... ongoing research in developing Blended Interaction spaces for collaborative design. We then identify key themes and challenges pertinent for the workshop....

  12. Blended Learning in International Nuclear Education

    The spread of nuclear power ambitions beyond the few early-adopter nations requires more globalized education. Two of the learning problems specific to international education are the need for a common instructional language and different cultural styles of learning. Blended learning, a mix of personal interaction between teacher and impersonal computer-based learning, can solve these problems. The new KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School outside Ulsan, Korea is investing heavily in blended learning

  13. The water permeability of blended polyethylene films

    Wong, ACY


    Water vapour transmission (WVT) characteristics of blended polyethylene films blown from a 45 mm single-screw extruder were examined. For a given die gap size and blow-up ratio, it was found that WVT basically had an exponential decaying relationship with increasing film thickness. For a given film thickness, molecular orientation on the film in the machine direction could be increased by increasing the size of the die gap. It was found that WVT of blended polyethylene films which involved so...

  14. Film formation from latex blends

    Tang, Jiansheng


    Film formation from hard/soft (i.e., high Tg/low Tg) latex blends consisting of hard polystyrene (PS) and soft poly(n-butyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) [P(BMA/BA)] latex particles were studied with an emphasis on the influence of the carboxyl groups present on the latex particles. A theoretical model was developed to calculate the optimal surfactant and monomer feed rates for a semicontinuous polymerization process to synthesize monodisperse carboxylated latex particles and independently control the particle size and degree of carboxylation. An important finding obtained from the drying studies is that the drying rate from the edge zone is much faster than the rate obtained from the latex pool. It was also found that the presence of carboxyl groups on the latex particles retarded the drying rate. Utilizing PS particles with a low density of carboxyl groups present on the particle surfaces (e.g., 10% surface coverage) resulted in an even distribution of these particles in the soft copolymer matrix, and thus, good film gloss was achieved. However, the use of hard particles with a high density of carboxyl groups present (e.g., 65% coverage) resulted in a less even distribution of PS particles and poor gloss. A cluster model and a hydrogen bonding mechanism were proposed to explain these phenomena. The presence of the carboxyl groups on the PS particles significantly enhanced the Young's modulus and the yield strength, but did not influence the ultimate mechanical properties. A quantitative model was proposed to predict the Young's modus of the latex blend films as a function of the carboxyl group coverage on the hard particles. There was a good fit between model and the experimental data. The stability of the precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles in the P(BMA/BA) latexes was determined by the charge on pigment surface which, in turn, was influenced by the presence of sodium polyacrylate stabilizer. It was found that the wetting ability of the soft

  15. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M


    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  16. Microstructural blending of coal to enhance flowability

    Abou-Chakra, H.; Tuezuen, U. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering


    Coal-fired power stations for electricity generation are well known to suffer from chronic problems in coal handling and flow affecting the operation of pulverisation mills and combustors. The economic impact of coal handling facilities can be significant, resulting in total shutdown of the power generating plant in some extreme cases. In coal-fired power generation, optimal operation of the combustors requires the ash content of pulverised coal not exceed 20%. Excessive ash content would result in lower calorific value. Therefore, the overall profitability of the market coal tends to be strongly effected by the ash content of the raw coal. However, the flowability of coal tends to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the constituent particles, as well as the presence of high fines fraction. The experimental work described in this paper aims to illustrate how flowability can be enhanced by optimising particle size distribution and particle surface moisture in blends of raw and washed coals. The results of the flowability tests obtained with ''microstructurally'' blended samples indicate that to ensure flowability in process vessels, it is necessary to blend according to important microstructural criteria as well as minimising ash content. Microstructural blending is not included in current industrial practice, which only blends washed and raw coals to produce high calorific value and low ash content. The work presented here establishes methodology for microstructural blending to enhance bulk flowability. (orig.)

  17. Polymer dynamics in binary blends

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Loring, Roger F.


    We develop a theory of the dynamics of flexible linear polymers in a melt composed of macromolecules of two molecular weights and of the same chemical species. A polymer is represented by a freely jointed chain that moves by two dynamical processes. The first is a local jump motion that may be blocked by obstacles, and the second is a slithering mode that mimics reptation. The dynamics of the obstacles are determined self-consistently by an ansatz that associates their relaxation with the dynamics of the slowest mode of conformational relaxation of a chain. The calculations of the autocorrelation function of the end-to-end vector and of the mean squared displacement of the center of mass are related exactly to the solution of a random walk problem with dynamical disorder. We calculate the necessary random walk propagator by applying the dynamical effective medium approximation. Calculations of the dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of both components on blend composition and on molecular weights are presented. The theory is shown to provide a unified description of diffusion in the unentangled and entangled regimes.

  18. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  19. Blended Learning: How Teachers Balance the Blend of Online and Classroom Components

    Jeffrey, Lynn M.; Milne, John; Suddaby, Gordon


    Despite teacher resistance to the use of technology in education, blended learning has increased rapidly, driven by evidence of its advantages over either online or classroom teaching alone. However, blended learning courses still fail to maximize the benefits this format offers. Much research has been conducted on various aspects of this problem,…

  20. Binary blend Nanoparticles with defined morphology

    The word blend in linguistics means a word formed from two parts of two words. In polymer science polymer blends means polymer mixtures, a class of materials analogues to the metal alloys. Blending of polymers is a simple and economic way to create new materials meeting specific desired properties. The other alternative is to synthesize such materials eventually facing the organic chemistry design difficulties. The low entropy of mixing polymers makes the process thermodynamically unfavorable, unless there are some specific interactions between the mixed polymers. As a result, in thermal equilibrium typically a phase separation between the blend components takes place. The main challenge facing the blending of polymers is the control of the length scale of the phase separation. One of the most important applications, where the control of the phase separation is crucial for the performance is the organic solar cells. In organic solar cells a blend of an electron donating polymer and electron accepting one is formed. The dimensions of the phase separation between the two polymers should be in the range of the exciton diffusion length [1-3] (in semiconductors, exciton diffusion length is the average distance traveled by the electron-hole pair before recombination). Only under this condition the charge transfer at the interface between the two polymer layers can take place and the solar cell performs efficiently. The thin polymer blend layers for such applications are commonly deposited by spin coating from solution containing both polymers. The morphology of the thin layer prepared in this way is highly influenced by the preparation conditions such as the surface properties of the substrate, the solvent from which the blend was deposited, the temperature, and the annealing temperature [4-9]. Therefore controlling the length scale of phase separation in layers casted or spin coated from solutions is difficult and is a matter of trials and errors. Recently a novel

  1. Radiochemical compatibility of EPDM/PP blends

    The capacity of ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer to be cross-linked by its exposure to high energy radiation was considered in this work. γ-irradiation of EPDM/PP (ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer/polypropylene) blends proved that free radicals provided by PP can be grafted on the EPDM backbone. Gel content measurements over all blending concentrations revealed a maximum level cross-linking at around 200 kGy. Simultaneity of cross-linking and oxidative degradation in irradiated polymers requires the choice of proper conditions to obtain high durability. IR spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl and hydroxyl indexes emphasize that low concentrations in radiolytic products is attained at short exposure (less than 200 kGy). This work presents the difference between raw and degraded polypropylene used for mixture preparation. The radiochemical behaviour of similar compositions of blends is proved. Thermal stability of non-irradiated EPDM/PP blend was checked by oxygen uptake method that confirms the higher probability of polypropylene to provide free radicals in a large extent. The high temperature used in the oxidation testing of present blends requires radiochemical compatibility of polymers. (authors)


    Ibrahim Umit YAPICI,


    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students’ views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of “Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity” with 47 9th grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010. The lessons were taught in a way appropriate to the blended learning model both via the Internet and on face-to-face basis. As the online dimension of the blended learning model, Moodle, a Learning Management System (LMS, was used. The application lasted 10 weeks. The scale of learners’ views on blended learning was applied and interviews were held to determine the views. As a result of the analysis of the scale, it was seen that their views were “highly” positive. The interviews held with the students revealed that the blended learning model provided students with various opportunities such as getting prepared for the lessons, reviewing the lessons as many times as wanted, reaching the subject-related materials without being dependent on time and place, testing oneself and communicating with the teacher and other students out of the school. The interviews also revealed that there were various problems though such as lack of Internet connection at home and problems experienced while playing the videos.

  3. Learning Design Development for Blended Learning

    Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    Learning design development for blended learning We started implementing Blackboard at Aarhus University in 2013. At the Health Faculty Blackboard replaced AULA which was a LMS with functionality for file distribution and only a vague focus on learning tools. Most teachers therefore had no...... experiences with blended leaning and technology supported out-of-class activities. At the pedagogical unit at the Health faculty we wanted to follow the Blackboard implementation with pedagogical tools for learning design to evolve the pedagogical use of the system. We needed to make development of blended...... learning courses easier for the teachers and also ensure quality in the courses. This poster describes the process from development of the learning design to implementation of the learning design at the faculty: 1. How to place demands on a learning design-model and how to develop and use such a model. 2...

  4. Controlled morphology of biodegradable polymer blends

    Buddhiranon, Sasiwimon; Kyu, Thein


    Phase diagrams of biodegradable polymer blends containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) having two different molecular weights were established by means of cloud point measurement and differential scanning calorimetry. Subsequently, the theoretical phase diagram was calculated self-consistently based on the combination of Flory-Huggins free energy for liquid-liquid phase separation and phase field free energy for crystal solidification. The phase diagrams thus obtained were LCST type or hour-glass type, which depended on molecular weight of PDLLA utilized. Guided by the phase diagram, the emerged morphology was determined as a function of blend concentration and temperature. It appears that the morphology control is feasible that ultimately affects the end-use property of PCL/PDLLA blends. A wide variety of morphology of biodegradable polymer may be developed with the porous structure and pore size to control scaffold porosity and the rate of drug delivery.

  5. Designed blending for near infrared calibration.

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Grabner, Bianca; Bondi, Robert W; Igne, Benoît; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G


    Spectroscopic methods are increasingly used for monitoring pharmaceutical manufacturing unit operations that involve powder handling and processing. With that regard, chemometric models are required to interpret the obtained spectra. There are many ways to prepare artificial powder blend samples used in a chemometric model for predicting the chemical content. Basically, an infinite number of possible concentration levels exist in terms of the individual components. In our study, design of experiments for ternary mixtures was used to establish a suitable number of blend compositions that represents the entire mixture region of interest for a three component blend. Various experimental designs and their effect on the predictive power of a chemometric model for near infrared spectra were investigated. It was determined that a particular choice of experimental design could change the predictive power of a model, even with the same number of calibration experiments. PMID:25980978

  6. Miscibility of polymer blends with engineering models

    Vassilis, Harismiadis; van Bergen, A. R. D.; Goncalves, Ana Saraiva;


    The miscibility behavior of polymer blends that do not exhibit strong specific interactions is examined. Phase equilibrium calculations are presented with the van der Waals equation of state and three group-contribution models (UNIFAC, Entropic-FV, and GC-Flory). Performance of these models is also...... compared. The van der Waals equation of state was recently shown to accurately correlate and predict vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria for binary polymer/solvent solutions. In this work, it is demonstrated that it correlates the upper critical solution behavior of polymer blends with excellent......, the upper critical solution temperature can be predicted with an average error of less than 45 degrees C. The van der Waals equation of state can correlate the lower critical solution behavior of polymer blends, using an interaction parameter that is a linear function of temperature. The UNIFAC and...


    Fan Shuqian; Ke Yinglin


    A novel method to extract conic blending feature in reverse engineering is presented.Different from the methods to recover constant and variable radius blends from unorganized points, it contains not only novel segmentation and feature recognition techniques, but also bias corrected technique to capture more reliable distribution of feature parameters along the spine curve. The segmentation depending on point classification separates the points in the conic blend region from the input point cloud. The available feature parameters of the cross-sectional curves are extracted with the processes of slicing point clouds with planes, conic curve fitting, and parameters estimation and compensation. The extracted parameters and its distribution laws are refined according to statistic theory such as regression analysis and hypothesis test. The proposed method can accurately capture the original design intentions and conveniently guide the reverse modeling process. Application examples are presented to verify the high precision and stability of the proposed method.

  8. Model for blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Leth, Lilli-Ann Thomsen; Olsen, Frank;


    Anvendelse af blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser i UCN med udgangspunkt i bygningskonstruktøruddannelsen......Anvendelse af blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser i UCN med udgangspunkt i bygningskonstruktøruddannelsen...


    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  10. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Wan, Chen


    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  11. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  12. Blended Course with Flipped Classroom Approach

    Timcenko, Olga; Purwins, Hendrik; Triantafyllou, Evangelia;


    This paper presents and analyses design decisions and development process of producing teaching materials for a blended course with flipped classroom approach at bachelor level at Aalborg University in Copenhagen, Denmark. Our experiences, as well as students’ reactions and opinions will be descr......This paper presents and analyses design decisions and development process of producing teaching materials for a blended course with flipped classroom approach at bachelor level at Aalborg University in Copenhagen, Denmark. Our experiences, as well as students’ reactions and opinions...

  13. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    Madsen, Camilla


    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials as...... shown how to set up parametric acceptance criteria for the batch that gives a high confidence that future samples with a probability larger than a specified value will pass the USP threeclass criteria. Properties and robustness of proposed changes to the USP test for content uniformity are investigated...

  14. Blended Learning or E-learning?

    Tayebinik, Maryam; Puteh, Marlia


    ICT or Information and Communication Technology has pervaded the fields of education.In recent years the term e-learning has emerged as a result of the integration of ICT in the education fields. Following the application this technology into teaching, some pitfalls have been identified and this have led to the Blended learning phenomenon.However the preference on this new method has been debated quite extensively.The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantages of blended learning over...




    As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  16. To blend or not to blend?! That’s the e-learning question!

    Gil, Henrique


    This paper aims to discuss and reflect about the importance of blended learning. Today blended learning became very popular but it is important find the best ways and the best types to deliver and ”consume ”it. It is common recognize blended learning as a mix of media and delivery. However there is very important to find out the “right mix” because it is known that different problems need different solutions. When we talk about higher education we deal with adults and we assume that students ...

  17. Systematic Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products: Fuels and Other Blended Products

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti

    A tailor-made blended liquid product is defined as a formulation of various chemicals in the liquid state to obtain a liquid mixture with a specific set of desired characteristics and qualities. Examples of blended liquid products are synthetic fuels and lubricants. This type of products is very ...... methodology and tools was tested through two case studies. In the first case study, two different gasoline blend problems have been solved. In the second case study, four different lubricant design problems have been solved....

  18. Effect of Blending Ratio on the Properties of Ramie/Polyester Blended Yarn

    YU Wen


    The effects of the blending ratio on the properties of Ramie/Polyester blended yarns are discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the elongation of the yarn with the polyester content more than 40% is better than that of others. There is a lowest tenacity of the yarn corresponding to the blending ratio of 50/50 or so. The other properties of the yarn, such as the evenness and hairiness, will be improved with the increasing of the polyester content.


    Mikitaev, Muslim; Kozlov, Georgiy; Howell, Bob; Zaikov, Gennadiy; Mikitaev, Abdulah


    It has been shown that the extreme enhancement of strain at break for blends polycarbonate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends is due to the corresponding structural changes of the indicated blends, which are characterized by their structure fractal dimension variation. The blends deformability rise can be achieved by enhancement of either Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, or shear strength of their autohesional contact. The transparence threshold of macromolecular coils achievement result...

  20. Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah


    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universitie...


    WANG Hailin; CHEN Jinming; HUANG Yong; SHEN Jiarui


    The thermal behavior of thermotropic hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate (HECA)/polyethylene (PE) blends has been studied by DSC. It is found that the blends of HECA and PE are immiscible but the crystallization of PE is affected by HECA chains in the blends with more than 50% HECA, which results in the subordinate crystallization of PE and the formation of imperfect structures in the PE crystals. The imperfection of PE crystals in the blends can be eliminated after annealing at 393K.

  2. Blended Learning within an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Laboratory

    Elmer, Steven J.; Carter, Kathryn R.; Armga, Austin J.; Carter, Jason R.


    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning…

  3. Transitioning to Blended Learning: Understanding Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Napier, Nannette P.; Dekhane, Sonal; Smith, Stella


    This paper describes the conversion of an introductory computing course to the blended learning model at a small, public liberal arts college. Blended learning significantly reduces face-to-face instruction by incorporating rich, online learning experiences. To assess the impact of blended learning on students, survey data was collected at the…

  4. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine. 24.213 Section 24.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine...


    ZHANG Wanxi; L(U) Yingtao; SUN Jiazhen


    The radiation crosslinking of EPR/SBR blend has been studied. A relationship between sol fraction and radiation dose for the different weight ratio polymer blends and the method to calculate βb value of EPR/SBR blend system have been established.

  6. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  7. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation

  8. Miscibility of polymer blends with engineering models

    Vassilis, Harismiadis; van Bergen, A. R. D.; Goncalves, Ana Saraiva; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Fredenslund, Aage; Dimitrios, Tassios


    The miscibility behavior of polymer blends that do not exhibit strong specific interactions is examined. Phase equilibrium calculations are presented with the van der Waals equation of state and three group-contribution models (UNIFAC, Entropic-FV, and GC-Flory). Performance of these models is also...

  9. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Knoop, J.R.I.; Kappen, F.H.J.; Boeriu, C.G.


    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory an

  10. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  11. Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments

    Ng, Eugenia M. W., Ed.


    With the advent of new technologies, more convenient and effective ways of learning are being adopted. However, despite the growing advancements there remains a lack of literature in applications of using these technology teaching approaches. This book offers in-depth analysis of new technologies in blended learning that promote creativity,…

  12. Evaluating What Works in Blended Learning

    Education Week, 2012


    Blended learning--the mix of virtual education and face-to-face instruction--is evolving quickly in schools across the country, generating a variety of different models. This special report, the second in a three-part 2012-13 series on virtual education, examines several of those approaches and aims to identify what is working and where…

  13. High School Students' Views on Blended Learning

    Yapici, Ibrahim Umit; Akbayin, Hasan


    In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students' views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of "Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity" with 47 9[superscript th] grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010.…

  14. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Environments

    Eryilmaz, Meltem


    The object of this experimental study is to measure the effectiveness of a blended learning environment which is laid out on the basis of features for face to face and online environments. The study was applied to 110 students who attend to Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey and take Introduction to Computers Course. During the application,…

  15. Transactional Distance in a Blended Learning Environment

    Dron, Jon; Seidel, Catharine; Litten, Gabrielle


    This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the…

  16. Blended learning tools for teaching and training

    Allan, Barbara


    Offers a holistic blended learning approach, combining the best of traditional approaches to learning and teaching to make best use of the advantages of each while minimizing the disadvantages. It provides information professionals with a practical guide to the design and delivery of such training programmes.

  17. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning For Students

    Nuray Gedik; Ercan Kiraz; M.Yaşar ÖZDEN


    The purpose of this study was to elicit students’ perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers) in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment. Data were collected from the students’ weekly reflection papers, interviews with students, and documents, and analyzed by structurally and textural...

  18. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  19. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu


    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  20. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.


    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  1. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The...... methodology has been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....


    Jun Li; Robert A.Shanks; Long Yu


    The effect of time-temperature treatment on morphology of polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) blends wasstudied to establish a relationship between thermal history, morphology and mechanical properties. Polypropylene (PP)homopolymers were used to blend with various polyethylenes (PE), including high density polyethylene (HDPE), lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and very and ultra low density polyethylene(VLDPE and ULDPE). The majority of the blends were prepared at a ratio ofPE:PP = 80:20, while blends of PP and LLDPEwere prepared at various compositions. Thermal treatment was carried out at temperatures between the crystallizationtemperatures of PP and PEs to allow PP to crystallize first from the blends. On cooling further, PE crystallized too. A verydiffuse PP spherulite morphology in the PE matrix was formed in some partially miscible blends when PP was less than 20%by mass. Droplet-matrix structures were developed in other blends with either PP or PE as dispersed domains in a continuousmatrix, depending on the composition ratio. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images displayed a fibrillar structureof PP spherulite in the LLDPE-PP (80:20) and large droplets of PP in the HDPE-PP (80:20) blend, providing larger surfacearea and better bonding in the LLDPE-PP (80:20) blends. This explains why the blends with diffuse spherulite morphologyshowed greater improvement in tensile properties than droplet-matrix morphology blends after time-temperature treatment.

  3. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian


    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  4. Engaging with blended learning to improve students' learning outcomes

    Francis, Rebecca; Shannon, Susan J.


    When blended learning is embraced to enhance learning in engineering (architectural), design and architecture, we argue it is a best-practice instructional mode. Blended learning is the seamless amalgamation of carefully selected online modules with face-to-face instruction. This paper evaluates case studies of the introduction of blended learning in these disciplines. It demonstrates that students who do not engage with blended learning are academically disadvantaged. Alignment of the blended mode of delivery and the mode of assessment is next considered. Two case studies of the introduction of blended modes of assessment, for improved student satisfaction with feedback, are evaluated. Finally, the reliance upon non-faculty to provide both blended learning and assessment is evaluated using qualitative research methods to establish the barriers to adoption of what is now considered best educational practice.

  5. Performance evaluation of gamma irradiated SiR-EPDM blends

    Deepalaxmi, R., E-mail:; Rajini, V.


    Highlights: • The effects of gamma irradiation on SiR-EPDM blend are examined. • Cross-linking reaction is dominant in blends C, D and E, due to higher EPDM content. • The tensile strength and hardness of blend E is improved by gamma irradiation. • The blend C and EPDM rich blends (D, E) are found to have superior performance. • Among C, D and E, suitable blend can be selected for a particular NPP application. - Abstract: Cable insulation materials (CIM) should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in nuclear power plants (NPP). The CIM will be exposed to gamma irradiation at the installed locations. In order to forecast long-term performance of CIM, the short time accelerated testing was carried out. Due to its good mechanical strength, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is widely used as CIM. Silicone rubber (SiR) is used in high temperature environments, due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of these two polymers may result in the improvement in their specific properties. This paper analyses the effects of gamma irradiation on the five different compositions (90-10; 70-30; 50-50; 30-70; 10-90) of SiR-EPDM blends. The blends were exposed to four different doses (25 Mrad, 100 Mrad, 200 Mrad and 250 Mrad) of gamma irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like volume resistivity (VRY), surface resistivity (SRY), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), hardness (H) of the virgin and gamma irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simultaneous occurrence of cross-linking and chain scission is found to be the mechanism for ageing in SiR-EPDM blends. The electrical parameters such as volume resistivity and surface resistivity of all the blends are found to improve for all doses of gamma irradiation. To validate the influence of cross-linking reaction of the Si

  6. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  7. Raman technique application for rubber blends characterization

    Smitthipong, W.


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has been employed in a number of studies to examine the morphological changes in a variety of materials. It is a non-destructive analysis method and an equally useful method for the investigation of material structure. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been developed to employ as an imaging instrumentation. Sample surface scanning in X- and Y-axis and sample depth (Z-axis can be carried out by modifying the focus of the laser beam from the Raman microscope. Therefore, three-dimensional images can be thus built by using special software. The surface and bulk properties of immiscible rubber blend were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy were in good agreement with those of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The combination of Raman spectrometry and SEM clearly elucidates the identification of phases between the dispersed phase and the matrix (continuous phase of the immiscible rubber blends.

  8. Methanol gasoline blend from petroleum coke sources

    Netzer, David [Consulting Chemical Engineer (United States); Wallsgrove, Chris [Process Engineering Manager (United States)


    In Alberta, a large amount of petroleum coke is produced as a byproduct from processes relating to bitumen upgrading and refining. Unfortunately, there is little to no market for this product in the province. This presentation addresses concerns relating to the concept of converting the otherwise wasted petcoke into methanol and using it as a blending component in gasoline. The presentation tackles issues relating to environmental impact, economics, renewability, toxicity, safety, and vehicle design by analyzing and comparing the proposed methanol/gasoline (M-10) to that of an ethanol/gasoline (E-10). The presentation covers analysis of the CO2 emissions, an analysis of the finances, and a number of scenarios involving the improper use or accidental spillage of M-10. Through the comparison of methanol/gasoline and ethanol/gasoline, the presentation demonstrated that converting the petcoke byproduct into methanol for use as a gasoline blend is a viable option.

  9. Guidelines for handling and blending FAME



    This report provides guidance on the handling and blending of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), as a neat product and at concentrations up to 10% v/v in diesel fuel. The major challenges associated with diesel fuels containing FAME are discussed as they relate to the conformity of the finished fuel to typical specifications, especially those in the European standard for automotive diesel (EN 590). This report focuses on the production, blending, distribution, and supply of diesel containing up to 10% v/v FAME as well as the storage and handling of neat FAME but does not address vehicle-related issues with the use of diesel fuels containing FAME. The potential future production and use of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) in diesel fuel is also discussed.

  10. A thermodynamic model for blended cements

    A chemical thermodynamic model has been developed for blended cements, called CEMCHEM. Given the chemical compositions of the blend materials, CEMCHEM calculates the equilibrium phase distribution, achieved at 25oC. It is based on a portion of the CaO-Al2O3- SiO2- SO3- H2O system, whose phase relations have been determined from the results of 'compatibility experiments'. Solubility models have been developed for the cement hydrate phases used in CEMCHEM, for use with the computer codes MINEQL, PHREEQE and EQ3/6. Validation of the overall approach is provided by the agreement between observed and calculated aqueous compositions for the compatibility experiments. Thus CEMCHEM, with the cement hydrate solubility models, can be used as the basis for modelling near field chemistry in cementitious radwaste repositories. (author)

  11. Engineers Create Bone that Blends into Tendons


    @@ Engineers at Georgia Tech have used skin cells to create artificial bones that mimic the ability of natural bone to blend into other tissues such as tendons or ligaments. The artificial bones display a gradual change from bone to softer tissue rather than the sudden shift of previously developed artificial tissue, providing better integration with the body and allowing them to handle weight more successfully.

  12. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment

    Dron, Jon; Seidel, Catharine; Litten, Gabrielle


    This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore’s theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the reality of systemic behaviours caused by delivering such a course within a group of conventional further and higher educational institutions has led ...

  13. Flow induced coalescence in polymer blends

    Jůza, Josef; Fortelný, Ivan


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 53-60. ISSN 1996-4196. [POLYCHAR 20 World Forum on Advanced Materials. Dubrovnik, 26.03.2012-30.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/1069 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : coalescence * polymer blends * extensional flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Accommodating and promoting multilingualism through blended learning

    Olivier, Jak


    Multilingualism is a reality in South African classrooms. The Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) and the national language policy recognize language rights and aims at supporting, promoting and developing the official languages. However, despite the advantages of mother tongue education, English is often chosen as language of learning and teaching at the cost of the African official languages. This study proposes the accommodation and promotion of multilingualism through blended l...




    The study examines some features of educational discourse, including the concepts of online and blended learning within the context of high school. The object of research is high school, especially senior high school. The author looks into discourse markers for the use of concepts in the discourse of education. The features differentiate texts, which belong to the educational discourse and its genres as well as show the markers of contemporary discourse within the context. They study analyzes...

  16. Identification of SPV using a Blended Method

    A Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) may cause plant transients like reactor trip, turbine/ generator trip, orderated power to 50% or more. In order to improve plant reliability and performance by preventing unexpected plant transients, we, KEPCO-ENC and KHNP, are developing SPV monitoring program. To have a better result of the SPV identification and monitoring, we used a blended method which was comprised of qualitative and quantitative approaches. This method is described herein, representative results of SPV identification are presented

  17. Identification of SPV using a Blended Method

    Han, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO-ENC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) may cause plant transients like reactor trip, turbine/ generator trip, orderated power to 50% or more. In order to improve plant reliability and performance by preventing unexpected plant transients, we, KEPCO-ENC and KHNP, are developing SPV monitoring program. To have a better result of the SPV identification and monitoring, we used a blended method which was comprised of qualitative and quantitative approaches. This method is described herein, representative results of SPV identification are presented

  18. Characterization of polymer-liquid crystal blends



    Blends of semi-crystalline polymers (polyethylene adipate and two poly(ester-urethane) s) with liquid crystal cholesteryl palmitate with different compositions were prepared by solution casting. One of the poly(ester-urethane)s was based on 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and the other one on 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The miscibility and phase transition were investigated over the whole range of concentration by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy.

  19. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Leung, Bonnie


    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vac...

  20. Blended learning course to teach word processing

    HAVELKA, Zbyněk


    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of teaching computer science and various approaches to the teaching of the application environment. The work provides a comparison of available textbooks on the issue. Furthermore, in the theoretical part of the bachelor work is design a modern approach to teaching of the application environment. As a practical output of this work is, as its name suggests, the blended learning course to teach word processing, which is designed as a modern approach p...

  1. Facebook: A Versatile Platform for Blended Learning

    Wong Ling Shing; Betty Voon Wan Niu


    Facebook is a popular networking tool among the young learners. This paper reports a practical usage of Facebook to engage learners in blended learning. The practical usage of Facebook in hosting online forums, sharing media files in vodcast, building collaborative content through Facebook Doc, and using Facebook as repository for articles and lecture notes has been described. Recent survey on 55 students revealed that a strong majority of the students agreed that Facebook has positive impact...

  2. Blended learning labs practice: magnetic field measurement

    Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Miret Marí, Juan José; Caballero Caballero, María Teresa; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Mas Candela, David; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Illueca Contri, Carlos


    In the current academic year, the widespread implementation of the new degrees in the Spanish higher education has brought the development and application of new methodologies with the aim of trying to improve the way students learn. In order to promote scientific interest of the students and to help in the improvement of the teaching-learning process of physics, we have scheduled plan blended learning labs. A lab practice that deals with magnetic fields, whose concepts have been already disc...

  3. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Chatchai Kunyawut


    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  4. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)


    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  5. Engineering Polymer Blends for Impact Damage Mitigation

    Gordon, Keith L.; Smith, Russell W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.


    Structures containing polymers such as DuPont's Surlyn® 8940, demonstrate puncture healing when impacted by a 9 millimeter projectile traveling from speeds near 300 meters per second (1,100 feet per second) to hypervelocity impacts in the micrometeoroid velocity range of 5 kilometers per second (16,000 feet per second). Surlyn® 8940 puncture heals over a temperature range of minus 30 degrees Centigrade to plus 70 degrees Centigrade and shows potential for use in pressurized vessels subject to impact damage. However, such polymers are difficult to process and limited in applicability due to their low thermal stability, poor chemical resistance and overall poor mechanical properties. In this work, several puncture healing engineered melt formulations were developed. Moldings of melt blend formulations were impacted with a 5.56 millimeter projectile with a nominal velocity of 945 meters per second (3,100 feet per second) at about 25 degrees Centigrade, 50 degrees Centigrade and 100 degrees Centigrade, depending upon the specific blend being investigated. Self-healing tendencies were determined using surface vacuum pressure tests and tensile tests after penetration using tensile dog-bone specimens (ASTM D 638-10). For the characterization of tensile properties both pristine and impacted specimens were tested to obtain tensile modulus, yield stress and tensile strength, where possible. Experimental results demonstrate a range of new puncture healing blends which mitigate damage in the ballistic velocity regime.

  6. Blended learning. Conceptos básicos

    Antonio Bartolomé Pina


    Full Text Available En los últimos dos años ha aparecido un nuevo concepto que surge con fuerza en el ámbito de la formación: «Blended Learning». Literalmente podríamos traducirlo como «aprendizaje mezclado» y la novedad del término no se corresponde con la tradición de las prácticas que encierra. Otras denominaciones se han utilizado antes para la misma idea. Y a veces otras ideas se están utilizando para esta misma denominación. ¿Estamos ante un simple recurso de propaganda y venta? ¿Aporta algo a nuestras acción formativa? Este artículo trata de ayudar a comprender que se entiende por «Blended Learning» y a entresacar algunas de las aportaciones que nos pueden enriquecer. Tras estudiar el blended learning como respuesta a los problemas que encuentra el elearning y la enseñanza tradicional, se analizan sus posibilidades y sus características. El artículo termina con una reflexión sobre la razón de la necesidad de este modelo más allá de los motivos economicistas o didácticos.

  7. An Summarization on Blended Learning%Blended Learning初步研究

    田世生; 傅钢善


    混合式学习(Blended Learning)的核心目的就是要将传统的课堂式学习和e-Learning的优势相结合.从2001年国外e-Learning开始进入低潮后,国外教育技术界和企业培训界便试图用混合式学习来辅助和改造传统的e-Learning.现在混合式学习已成为教育技术界高度关注的热点.本文拟从Blended Learning的基本问题、设计一个Blended Learning课程的方法以及其对教育技术学带来的反思等方面作一个综述.

  8. Studies on poly (hydroxy alkanoates)/(ethylcellulose) blends

    Vaishali Suthar; Arun Pratap; Heta Raval


    Biodegradable polymers represent one of the most significant area of research today. Among these polymers, poly (-hydroxy butyrate co '-hydroxy valerate) i.e. PHBV have received special attention because of their unique combination of properties. They are perfectly biocompatible, biodegradable polymers and can be processed by any conventional technique. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop the biodegradable blends of PHBV by blending them with ethyl cellulose (EC). Ethyl cellulose has been selected to monitor the biodegradation rate of PHBV and also for making the blends cost effective. The blends are thoroughly characterized for their compatibility, by the measurement of viscosity of blends and through FT-IR. Various applications of PHBV/EC blend in agriculture and pharmaceutical industries are being explored.

  9. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;


    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower...... oil, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends...

  10. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Asim Mushtaq


    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  11. Preparation and characterization of chitosan - polystyrene polymer blends

    Mascarenhas, N. P.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Goveas, J. J.; Shetty, T. C. S.; Crasta, V.


    To enhance the physical and mechanical properties of Chitosan (CS) and to improve the functionality of CS towards some specific applications, we have blended CS with polystyrene (PS) to form blended films. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed on the prepared films to confirm functional groups and formation of the blends. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) is carried out to study thermal stability of the blended films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the material reveals amorphous nature and hence it may be used for adsorption process. The versatility of the blends, such as film-forming ability, hydrophilicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility are comparable with the existing blends.

  12. Blending effects on coal burnout and NO emissions

    B. Arias; R. Backreedy; A. Arenillas; J.M. Jones; F. Rubiera; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC Oviedo (Spain)


    In this work, the combustion behaviour of individual coals of different rank and their blends was evaluated. The study was focused on burnout and NO emissions during blend combustion. Preliminary combustion tests of the coals and their blends were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Some characteristic temperatures were obtained to evaluate the combustibility of the samples. These temperatures indicate an improvement in the combustibility of the less reactive coal when it is blended. An entrained flow reactor (EFR) was employed to study the behaviour of the samples at high heating rates and short residence times. Burnout and NO emissions were measured during EFR combustion tests. In some blends the results can be predicted from the weighted average of the values of the individual coals. However, other blends show an increase, from the averaged values, in burnout and especially in NO emissions. 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The...... methodology has been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  14. Structuring polymer blends with bicontinuous phase morphology. Part II. Tailoring blends with ultralow critical volume fraction

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Utracki, Leszek


    A hypothesis providing a guideline for the development of immiscible polymer blends with co-continuous phase structure at very low critical volume fraction of one component is. postulated and experimentally verified. Based on a number of simplifying assumptions the following relation was derived......: phi(cr) = k(lambdagamma)(1-z)/(theta(b)(*))(z) where lambdagamma is a Deborah number and theta(b)(*) is a dimensionless break-up time. The equation parameters, k and z are constant that depend on the flow field hence on the blending equipment. For the studies an internal mixer with Walzenkneter...

  15. Blend for visual studio 2012 by example beginner's guide

    Shukla, Abhishek


    This book is aimed at developers and designers who are new to Blend and looking to learn Blend, not just practically, but also conceptually. This book does not assume any knowledge about Blend on the part of developers; however, some experience in design or development might be useful in understanding the concepts faster, but this book explains everything very simply so that you are able to understand everything with little or no effort.

  16. Design and evaluation of two blended learning approaches: Lessons learned

    Cheung, WS; Hew, KF


    In this paper, we share two blended learning approaches used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore. We have been using these two approaches in the last twelve years in many courses ranging from the diploma to graduate programs. For the first blended learning approach, we integrated one asynchronous communication tool with face to face tutorials, classroom discussions, and a reflection session. For the second blended learning approach, we integrated two asynchronous tools with fa...

  17. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    Hartfield, Perry


    Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blende...


    Chun Meng Tang; Lee Yen Chaw


    Information technology (IT) has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs) improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude o...

  19. COMBLE: European Community of Integrative Blended Learning Experts

    Niemczik, Christian; Brenstein, Elke; Scholl, Margit


    The COMBLE project defines new and innovative models for the use of Blended learning in different educational backgrounds (vocational training, enterprises, universities, public bodies). To use the potentials of Blended learning a European wiki-based community called Methopedia will be established. By contributing to the development of Blended learning COMBLE supports ICT relevant methods that are indispensable for lifelong learning in Europe. Moreover, COMBLE will address to management-level...

  20. Blended learning in health education: three case studies

    Jong, Nynke de; Savin-Baden, Maggi; Cunningham, Anne Marie; Verstegen, Daniëlle M. L.


    Blended learning in which online education is combined with face-to-face education is especially useful for (future) health care professionals who need to keep up-to-date. Blended learning can make learning more efficient, for instance by removing barriers of time and distance. In the past distance-based learning activities have often been associated with traditional delivery-based methods, individual learning and limited contact. The central question in this paper is: can blended learning be...

  1. Blending Learning与创新人才培养

    石小云; 肖伟


    Blending Learning这一新概念的提出和被广泛认同,真正深化了学校教学改革,达到培养创新人才的目标.本文从Blending Learning和创新人才的涵义及关系探讨了Blending Learning对培养创新人才的重要意义.

  2. Enhancing the blended learning experience of Calculus I students

    Al-Ghassani, A; H. Al Shamsi; Islam, M.; N. Al-Salti; I. Al-Hasni


    Blended Learning showed in the last two decades to be one of the effective ways in education and training. We illustrate our initiative experience with blended learning in the course Calculus I. The main goals we want to achieve are improving students understanding of the course concepts, increasing the level of uniformity in this multi-sections course and enhancing students blended learning experience online and offline. Consequently, this affects positively students' academic performance. W...

  3. Performance of wet process method alternatives : terminal or continuous blend

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério


    This study presents the results of the research to investigate asphalt rubber mixtures produced with asphalt rubber binder obtained from two different processes; (i) terminal blend (produced in refinery); (ii) continuous blend (produced in laboratory). The experiment included the evaluation of fatigue and permanent deformation resistance of two gap graded mixtures (Caltrans ARHM -GG; ADOT AR-A C) and a dense gradation Asphalt Institute (AI) mix type IV) Two asphalt rubbers from terminal blend...

  4. Miscibility Phase Diagram of Ring Polymer Blends: A Topological Effect

    Sakaue, Takahiro; Nakajima, Chihiro H.


    The miscibility of polymer blends, a classical problem in polymer science, may be altered, if one or both of the component do not have chain ends. Based on the idea of {\\it topological volume}, we propose a mean-field theory to clarify how the topological constraints in ring polymers affect the phase behavior of the blends. While the large enhancement of the miscibility is expected for ring-linear polymer blends, the opposite trend toward demixing, albeit comparatively weak, is predicted for ...

  5. Comparison of Hybrid Blends for Solar Cell Application

    Maria C. Lechmann; Dominik Koll; Daniel Kessler; Patrick Theato; Wolfgang Tremel; Gutmann, Jochen S.


    In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene) P3HT or poly(triphenylamine) PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO 2 rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in t...

  6. Miscibility and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Blends with LCP'S

    Gabellini, G.; Suman Bretas, R.


    The main advantage of the "in situ" production of blends of thermoplastics with liquid crystalline polymers (LCP's) is viscosity reduction. In this work the phase behavior of blends of poly p-phenylene sulphide (PPS) with two different LCP's is presented. The LCP's are HX1000 (amorphous) and HX4000, crystalline, both from DuPont. The samples were prepared by injection molding and its dynamic mechanical properties were tested after annealing. It was observed that before annealing the blends we...

  7. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NOx from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  8. Blended e-learning Design: Discussion of Cultural Issues

    Ahmed AL-Hunaiyyan; Nabeel Al-Huwail; Salah Al-Sharhan


    Blended e-learning is becoming an educational issue especially with the new development of e-learning technology and globalization. Educators as the question: can we design these systems to accommodate different cultural groups and various learning strategies. This paper addresses some design issues when selecting a blended e-learning approach; it discusses some cultural elements that affect the design of blended e-learning. The paper also explores issues related to learning design, then emph...


    Chun Meng Tang


    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude of students towards different learning aspects could influence their readiness for blended learning. We conceptualized six learning aspects in a research model and then collected responses from 201 full-time undergraduate students to validate the model. Analyses revealed three key findings. First, the use of technology in education was not a hindrance to the students. Second, blended learning adaptability, which was modelled as a second-order formative construct and formed by four first-order reflective constructs—attitude towards online learning, study management, online interaction, and learning flexibility—had a positive relationship with student readiness for blended learning. Third, attitude towards classroom learning had a negative relationship with student readiness for blended learning. An understanding of student attitude towards different learning aspects can be critical in the assessment of student readiness for blended learning, which is a prerequisite for successful implementation of blended learning.

  10. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    C.H. Azhari; Wong, S F


    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  11. Silk fibroin and sodium alginate blend: Miscibility and physical characteristics

    Agostini de Moraes, Mariana; Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Weska, Raquel Farias; Beppu, Marisa Masumi, E-mail:


    Films of silk fibroin (SF) and sodium alginate (SA) blends were prepared by solution casting technique. The miscibility of SF and SA in those blends was evaluated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SF/SA 25/75 wt.% blends underwent microscopic phase separation, resulting in globular structures composed mainly of SF. X-ray diffraction indicated the amorphous nature of these blends, even after a treatment with ethanol that turned them insoluble in water. Thermal analyses of blends showed the peaks of degradation of pristine SF and SA shifted to intermediate temperatures. Water vapor permeability, swelling capacity and tensile strength of SF films could be enhanced by blending with SA. Cell viability remained between 90 and 100%, as indicated by in vitro cytotoxicity test. The SF/SA blend with self-assembled SF globules can be used to modulate structural and mechanical properties of the final material and may be used in designing high performance wound dressing. - Highlights: • Blend films of fibroin and alginate were prepared with microscopic phase separation; • Self-assembled globular microdomains were mainly composed by fibroin; • It was possible to obtain a film with better mechanical and physical properties; • Blend films of fibroin and alginate represent a novel material in biomaterials field.

  12. Blended working: for whom it may (not work.

    Nico W Van Yperen

    Full Text Available Similarly to related developments such as blended learning and blended care, blended working is a pervasive and booming trend in modern societies. Blended working combines on-site and off-site working in an optimal way to improve workers' and organizations' outcomes. In this paper, we examine the degree to which workers feel that the two defining features of blended working (i.e., time-independent working and location-independent working enhance their own functioning in their jobs. Blended working, enabled through the continuing advance and improvement of high-tech ICT software, devices, and infrastructure, may be considered beneficial for workers' perceived effectiveness because it increases their job autonomy. However, because blended working may have downsides as well, it is important to know for whom blended working may (not work. As hypothesized, in a sample of 348 workers (51.7% women, representing a wide range of occupations and organizations, we found that the perceived personal effectiveness of blended working was contingent upon workers' psychological need strength. Specifically, the perceived effectiveness of both time-independent working and location-independent working was positively related to individuals' need for autonomy at work, and negatively related to their need for relatedness and need for structure at work.

  13. REVIEW: The Handbook Of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    ATES, Reviewed By Alev


    Blended learning or blended e-learning sounds like a confusing term at first since it is relatively a new term for today’s instructors. However, Moore reports that it can be traced as far back as the 1920s which was called “supervised correspondence study”. For clarification of the term “blended learning” and informing the instructors about its common practices worldwide, the book provides readers a comprehensive resource about blended learning. It aims to raise awareness of adopting BL from ...

  14. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Alina Christova


    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  15. Blending toward Competency. Early Patterns of Blended Learning and Competency-Based Education in New Hampshire

    Freeland, Julia


    As the education field strives to differentiate and personalize learning to cater to each student, two related movements are gaining attention: competency-based education and blended learning. In competency-based models, students advance on the basis of mastery, rather than according to the traditional methods of counting progress in terms of time…

  16. Self-Determined Blended Learning: A Case Study of Blended Learning Design

    De George-Walker, Linda; Keeffe, Mary


    Higher education has been actively encouraged to find more effective and flexible delivery models to provide all students with access to quality learning experiences yet also meet institutional imperatives for efficiency and accountability. Blended learning, commonly defined as an integration of traditional face-to-face and online approaches to…

  17. Line of sight stabilization - Sensor blending

    Pettit, Christopher


    The paper examines a concept of blending inertial measuring sensors (IMS) which operate in different frequency ranges to produce an IMS sensor system that can measure base disturbances from dc to over 1000 Hz with minimum distortion. This information is them employed to point the line-of-sight (LOS) at a target with minimum jitter effects. Attention is given to a set of experimental results from this method involving the isolation of the LOS from the base motion of a space platform over a wide frequency range. The results reported, obtained from implementing the method on a two-body spacecraft simulator, include pointing stability and retargeting results. Results were encouraging.

  18. Electrospun cellulose nitrate and polycaprolactone blended nanofibers

    Nartker, Steven; Hassan, Mohamed; Stogsdill, Michael


    Pure cellulose nitrate (CN) and blends of CN and polycaprolactone were electrospun to form nonwoven mats. Polymers were dissolved in a mixed solvent system of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide. The concentrations were varied to obtain sub-micron and nanoscale fiber mats. Fiber mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The fiber morphology, surface chemistry and contact angle data show that these electrospun materials are suitable for applications including biosensing, biomedical and tissue engineering.

  19. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Rosemary Wood


    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  20. Blended e-learning en universidades andaluzas

    Tirado Morueta, Ramón; Pérez Rodríguez, María Amor; Aguaded Gómez, José Ignacio


    Conocer la implantación de la enseñanza virtual en el sistema universitario es hoy una prioridad básica en la investigación educativa para evaluar los nuevos procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje que esta modalidad didáctica está generando. El ya llamado «blended e-learning» se ha ido implantando en las distintas universidades de todo el mundo con resultados muy variables. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un Proyecto de Investigación de Excelencia desarrollado en la...

  1. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Bakos G.Á.


    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.


    Natalia Alexandrovna Kameneva


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the use of information technologies in the context of a blended technology approach to learning foreign languages in higher education institutions. Distance learning tools can be categorized as being synchronous (webinar, video conferencing, case-technology, chat, ICQ, Skype, interactive whiteboards or asynchronous (blogs, forums, Twitter, video and audio podcasts, wikis, on-line testing. Sociological and psychological aspects of their application in the educational process are also considered.DOI:

  3. From E-learning to Blended Learning

    Hansen, Line Skov; Hansen, Ole


    This paper presents the didactical considerations, theoretical approaches and first experiences with a cohesive school and kindergarten research-based development project in a Norwegian municipality. The project involves 41 schools and 70 kindergartens, inclusive all leaders and pedagogical staff....... The project uses a ?capacity building strategy where new practice and skills are built through pedagogical interventions mostly designed as courses based on blended learning with a dialogue oriented and practice related team-work as an important part. Through this work the team learns how to use a...

  4. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  5. Initial retrieval sequence and blending strategy

    Pemwell, D.L.; Grenard, C.E.


    This report documents the initial retrieval sequence and the methodology used to select it. Waste retrieval, storage, pretreatment and vitrification were modeled for candidate single-shell tank retrieval sequences. Performance of the sequences was measured by a set of metrics (for example,high-level waste glass volume, relative risk and schedule).Computer models were used to evaluate estimated glass volumes,process rates, retrieval dates, and blending strategy effects.The models were based on estimates of component inventories and concentrations, sludge wash factors and timing, retrieval annex limitations, etc.

  6. Blended learning within an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory.

    Elmer, Steven J; Carter, Kathryn R; Armga, Austin J; Carter, Jason R


    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning on student performance and perceptions in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory. Using a randomized, crossover design, four laboratory topics were delivered in either a blended or traditional format. For blended laboratories, content was offloaded to self-paced video demonstrations (∼15 min). Laboratory section 1 (n = 16) completed blended laboratories for 1) neuromuscular power and 2) blood lactate, whereas section 2 (n = 17) completed blended laboratories for 1) maximal O2 consumption and 2) muscle electromyography. Both sections completed the same assignments (scored in a blinded manner using a standardized rubric) and practicum exams (evaluated by two independent investigators). Pre- and postcourse surveys were used to assess student perceptions. Most students (∼79%) watched videos for both blended laboratories. Assignment scores did not differ between blended and traditional laboratories (P = 0.62) or between sections (P = 0.91). Practicum scores did not differ between sections (both P > 0.05). At the end of the course, students' perceived value of the blended format increased (P < 0.01) and a greater percentage of students agreed that learning key foundational content through video demonstrations before class greatly enhanced their learning of course material compared with a preassigned reading (94% vs. 78%, P < 0.01). Blended exercise physiology laboratories provided an alternative method for delivering content that was favorably perceived by students and did not compromise student performance. PMID:26847259

  7. Morphology and enzymatic degradation of thermoplastic starch-polycaprolactone blends

    Vikman, M.; Hulleman, S.H.D.; Zee, van der M.; Myllarinen, P.; Feil, H.


    This study's aim was to evaluate the effect of processing conditions on the morphology and enzymatic degradation of 50/50 (w/w) thermoplastic starch-polycaprolactone blends. The blends, produced from native potato starch, glycerol, and polycaprolactone in a melt mixer using different mixing speeds a

  8. Blending MOOCs in Face-to-Face Teaching and Studies

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Gynther, Karsten; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica


    inspired by grounded theory. The paper will categorise former design experiments with MOOCs in blended settings, and, using design workshops and interviews with educators as our point of departure, we will sketch and discuss various models for blending MOOCs with face-to-face teaching and supporting...

  9. Student Engagement and Blended Learning: Making the Assessment Connection

    Norman Vaughan


    There is an increased focus on student engagement and blended approaches to learning in higher education. This article demonstrates how collaborative learning applications and a blended approach to learning can be used to design and support assessment activities that increase levels of student engagement with course concepts, their peers, faculty and external experts, leading to increased student success and satisfaction.

  10. Teaching Human Development: A Case for Blended Learning

    Cottle, Nathan R.; Glover, Rebecca J.


    This article makes a case for the use of blended learning in teaching human development as a means to encourage higher-order student learning outcomes. The authors review literature regarding the use and effectiveness of blended learning, discuss an illustrative example of a redesign of a human development course, present outcomes from a…

  11. A Blended Learning Approach to Course Design and Implementation

    Hoic-Bozic, N.; Mornar, V.; Boticki, I.


    Blended learning has become an increasingly popular form of e-learning, and is particularly suitable to the process of transitioning towards e-learning from traditional forms of learning and teaching. This paper describes the use of the blended e-learning model, which is based on a mixture of collaborative learning, problem-based learning (PBL)…

  12. Design and Evaluation of Two Blended Learning Approaches: Lessons Learned

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon


    In this paper, we share two blended learning approaches used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore. We have been using these two approaches in the last twelve years in many courses ranging from the diploma to graduate programs. For the first blended learning approach, we integrated one asynchronous communication tool with face to…

  13. The Challenges of Blended Learning Using a Media Annotation Tool

    Douglas, Kathy A.; Lang, Josephine; Colasante, Meg


    Blended learning has been evolving as an important approach to learning and teaching in tertiary education. This approach incorporates learning in both online and face-to-face modes and promotes deep learning by incorporating the best of both approaches. An innovation in blended learning is the use of an online media annotation tool (MAT) in…

  14. Challenges Facing Blended Learning in Higher Education in Asia

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley


    This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, South Korea and Japan, with a comparison to the city state of Singapore. It is noted that blended learning and e-learning are introduced at institutes of higher learning in these countries with varying

  15. Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah


    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

  16. A Blended Learning Model for Teaching Practice Course

    Caner, Mustafa


    The aim of the present study is to introduce a blended learning environment and a model for pre-service teaching practice course in English Language Teacher Training Program at Anadolu University. It is supposed that providing a blended learning environment for teaching practice course would improve the practice and contribute to the professional…

  17. Students' Opinions on Facebook Supported Blended Learning Environment

    Erdem, Mukaddes; Kibar, Pinar Nuhoglu


    The first purpose of this study was to determine students' opinions on blended learning and its implementation. The other purpose was to explore the students' opinions on Facebook integration into blended learning environment. The participants of this study were 40 undergraduate students in their fourth semester of the program.…

  18. Cyber Asynchronous versus Blended Cyber Approach in Distance English Learning

    Ge, Zi-Gang


    This study aims to compare the single cyber asynchronous learning approach with the blended cyber learning approach in distance English education. Two classes of 70 students participated in this study, which lasted one semester of about four months, with one class using the blended approach for their English study and the other only using the…

  19. Collaborative Inquiry: Expert Analysis of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Wold, Kari


    This paper reports on findings of a university focus group exploring blended learning in higher education. It first describes the findings regarding the amorphous definition of blended learning as well as whether and how universities might engage in the practice. This paper then explains the administrative, instructor, and student variables that…

  20. Blended Learning at the Boundary: Designing a New Internship

    Heckman, Robert; Østerlund, Carsten S.; Saltz, Jeffrey


    This paper explores how blended learning can enhance learning at the boundary between academia and industry, and make possible the design of a new kind of internship. Boundary theory proposes that socio-cultural discontinuities between different environments create opportunities for learning. Blended learning pedagogy makes it possible to make the…

  1. Blended Learning for College Students with English Reading Difficulties

    Yang, Yu-Fen


    Most previous studies in blended learning simply involved on-site and online instruction without considering students' control of their own learning in these two different modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students with English reading difficulties integrate their conceptions of and approaches to blended learning…

  2. Encouraging User Participation in Blended Learning: Course Reorientation

    Fairchild, Alea M.


    Blended learning, structured as a combination of traditional course instruction and additional supporting multimedia course content, can be used in higher education for a variety of reasons. In the case study that we examine, the introduction of blended learning was initiated three years ago with the purpose of creating more resources for…

  3. Student Outcomes and Design Elements in Blended Learning Courses

    Newbury, Robert


    The concept of "blended learning" appears with increasing frequency in academic literature, published research and general discussion as the latest trend in pedagogy. Known also as "hybrid education" and "web-enhanced instruction", blended learning courses have been reported as the method of delivery for 80 to 90…

  4. Access Patterns of Online Materials in a Blended Course

    Asarta, Carlos J.; Schmidt, James R.


    Patterns in student accesses of online materials and their effects upon student performance in a blended course are examined. Our blended course is an introductory business and economic statistics course where lectures are only available online while the traditional class period is used for complementary learning activities. Timing, volumes,…

  5. A Blended Mobile Learning Environment for Museum Learning

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Peng-Chun; Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Jhe-Wei; Chang, Kuo-En


    The use of mobile devices for informal learning has gained attention over recent years. Museum learning is also regarded as an important research topic in the field of informal learning. This study explored a blended mobile museum learning environment (BMMLE). Moreover, this study applied three blended museum learning modes: (a) the traditional…

  6. Critical crossover phenomena in compatible polymer blends studied with SANS

    Schwahn, D.; Janssen, S.; Willner, L.; Schmackers, T.; Springer, T.; Mortensen, K.; Takeno, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Jinnai, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Imai, M.


    Polymer blends show a much larger 3d-Ising regime, e.g. a much larger Ginzburg number Gi than predicted by the Ginzburg criterion. This discrepancy is supposed to be explained by the compressibility or the free volume of the blend. In this paper we present and discuss the Gi number of polymer ble...

  7. Polymer blend membranes for CO2 separation from natural gas

    Mukhtar, H.; Mannan, H. A.; Minh, D.; Nasir, R.; Moshshim, D. F.; Murugesan, T.


    Polymeric membranes are dominantly used in industrial gas separation membrane processes. Enhancement in membranes permeability and/or selectivity is a key challenge faced by membrane researchers. The current work represents the effect of poyetherimide blending on separation performance of polysulfone membranes. Polysulfone/poyetherimide (PSF/PEI) blend flat sheet dense membranes were synthesized and tested for permeation analysis of CO2 and CH4 gases at 6, 8 and 10 bar pressure and 25oC temperature. Morphology and thermal properties of membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Blend membranes were dense and homogeneous as deduced from FESEM analysis. Thermal stability of synthesized blend membranes was maintained by blending with PEI as characterized by TGA results. Decrease in permeability of both gases was observed by the addition of PEI due to rigidity of PEI chains. Additionally, selectivity of synthesized blend membranes was enhanced by blending PEI and blend membranes show improved selectivity over pure PSF membrane. This new material has the capability to be used as gas separation membrane material.

  8. Thermal and X-ray characterization of polymer blends

    Oudhuis, Alida Anna Catherina Maria; Pennings, A.J


    In the last decade many studies have focused on phase behaviour of polymer blends. It determines the morphology and therefore to a large extend the mechanical properties. The most simple, well known and often used property to determine phase behaviour in polymer blends is the glass transition temper

  9. Radiation crosslinked block copolymer blends with improved impact resistance

    Polymer blends having high impact resistance after mechanical working are produced by blending together a non-elastomeric monovinylidene aromatic polymer such as polystyrene with an elastomeric copolymer, such as a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, in the form of crosslinked, colloidal size particles

  10. An Experimental Analysis of Phoneme Blending and Segmenting Skills

    Daly, Edward J., III; Johnson, Sarah; LeClair, Courtney


    In this 2-experiment study, experimental analyses of phoneme blending and segmenting skills were conducted with four-first grade students. Intraindividual analyses were conducted to identify the effects of classroom-based instruction on blending phonemes in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the effects of an individualized intervention for the…

  11. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  12. Cycloolefin copolymer/polyethylene blends for medical applications

    Kruliš, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Stará, Hana; Horák, Zdeněk; Hulejová, H.; Petrtýl, M.

    Palermo: University of Palermo, 2007. s. 72. [European Symposium on Polymer Blends /9./. 09.09.2007-12.09.2007, Palermo] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : skeletal replacement * blend * cycloolefin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Transport through track etched polymeric blend membrane

    Kamlendra Awasthi; Vaibhav Kulshreshtha; B Tripathi; N K Acharya; M Singh; Y K Vijay


    Polymer blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polysulphone (PSF) having thickness, 27 m, are prepared by solution cast method. The transport properties of pores in a blend membrane are examined. The pores were produced in this membrane by a track etching technique. For this purpose, a thin polymer membrane was penetrated by a single heavy ion of Ni7+ of 100 MeV, followed by preferential chemical etching of the ion track. Ion permeation measurements show that pores in polymeric membrane are charged or neutralized, which depends upon the variation in concentration of the solvent. The – curve at concentration, N/10, shows that the pores are negatively charged, whereas at concentration, N/20, the linear nature of – curve indicates that the pores approach towards neutralized state and on further concentration, N/40, the pores become fully neutralized, consequently the rectifier behaviour of pores has been omitted. The gas permeability of hydrogen and carbon dioxide of this membrane was measured with increasing etching time. The permeability was measured from both the sides. Permeability at the front was larger than the permeability at the back which shows asymmetric behaviour of membranes.

  14. Engineering thermal conductivity in polymer blends

    Rashidi, Vahid; Coyle, Eleanor; Kieffer, John; Pipe, Kevin

    Weak inter-chain bonding in polymers is believed to be a bottleneck for both thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Most polymers have low thermal conductivity (~0.1 W/mK), hindering their performance in applications for which thermal management is critical (e.g., electronics packaging). In this work, we use computational methods to study how hydrogen bonding between polymer chains as well as water content can be used to engineer thermal transport in bulk polymers. We examine how changes in the number of hydrogen bonds, chain elongation, density, and vibrational density of states correlate with changes in thermal conductivity for polymer blends composed of different relative constituent fractions. We also consider the effects of bond strength, tacticity, and polymer chain mass. For certain blend fractions, we observe large increases in thermal conductivity, and we analyze these increases in terms of modifications to chain chemistry (e.g., inter-chain bonding) and chain morphology (e.g., chain alignment and radius of gyration). We observe that increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the system results in better packing as well as better chain alignment and elongation that contribute to enhanced thermal conductivity. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0010.

  15. Blending Online Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning

    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch


    Full Text Available In this article I will share a qualitative self-study about a 15-week blended 100% online graduate level course facilitated through synchronous meetings on Blackboard Collaborate and asynchronous discussions on Blackboard. I taught the course at the University of Tennessee (UT during the spring 2012 semester and the course topic was online learning environments. The primary research question of this study was: How can the designer/instructor optimize learning experiences for students who are studying about online learning environments in a blended online course relying on both synchronous and asynchronous technologies? I relied on student reflections of course activities during the beginning, middle, and the end of the semester as the primary data source to obtain their insights regarding course experiences. Through the experiences involved in designing and teaching the course and engaging in this study I found that there is room in the instructional technology research community to address strategies for facilitating online synchronous learning that complement asynchronous learning. Synchronous online whole class meetings and well-structured small group meetings can help students feel a stronger sense of connection to their peers and instructor and stay engaged with course activities. In order to provide meaningful learning spaces in synchronous learning environments, the instructor/designer needs to balance the tension between embracing the flexibility that the online space affords to users and designing deliberate structures that will help them take advantage of the flexible space.

  16. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films.

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S


    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films. PMID:24507374

  17. Morphology and Mechanical Properties of (Epoxy/PVC Blend

    Awham M. Hameed


    Full Text Available In this research, the morphology and mechanical properties of (Epoxy/PVC blend were investigated. (EP/PVC blend was prepared by manual mixing of epoxy resin with different weight ratios of (Poly vinyl chloride (PVC after dissolving it in cyclohexanon. Five sheets of polymer blends in wt% included (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of PVC were prepared at room temperature. Tests were carried out to study some mechanical properties for these blends and compared with the properties of pure epoxy. The morphology of the prepared materials was examined to study the compatibility nature between the two polymers under work. It was found that the best ratio of addition is (20% of PVC. This percentage gave the highest value of tensile strength compared with other percentages of mixing for (EP/PVC blends.

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.


    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  19. A blend of Sodium Humate/SLES/Herbal Oils

    Yeliz Akyiğit


    Full Text Available A blend of sodium humate (SH with anionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES was prepared by solution mixing at medium of herbal oils at 25, 50 and 75°C. Its miscibility studies were carried out by using physical techniques over an extended range of concentration and composition in buffer solution. In addition, to ascertain the state of miscibility of the blends, they were investigated by using UV-visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR. These values revealed that the blend is miscible when the sodium humate content is more than %60 in the blend at all temperatures. There were no important differences in the characteristics of the blends at different temperatures.It was thought that the mechanism ofthe complex formation is realized by making strong intermolecular interaction like hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl groups in humic acid and hydroxyl groups in fatty acids.

  20. Photophysical studies of poly-isocyanopeptide based photovoltaic blends

    We report a photophysical study of photovoltaic blends containing perylene-substituted polyisocyanide (pery-PIC) materials, using time-correlated single photon counting and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy, and compare the key characteristics with analogous perylene-diimide (PDI) monomer blends with polythiophene- and polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers. Pery-PIC consists of semiconducting perylene units, which self-stack in a regular fashion around a rigid helical poly-isocyanopeptide backbone. In particular, the charged state lifetimes in pery-PIC blends are found to be of order tens of microseconds, this being typically less than half those of the perylene anion in the corresponding PDI blends. We consider the influence of photophysical factors on the superior photovoltaic device performance of the pery-PIC blends, relative to the corresponding PDI-based devices, in addition to the morphological effects described in earlier studies.

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of physically-blended-plastic films

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (PP) blend were produced in film form and were characterized by a number of techniques such as wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and instron tensile testing. Results of WAXD and DTA showed conclusively that the two components in the blend are incompatible. SEM micrographs indicated that the 60/40 and 40/60 PP/PE blends show approximately fine homogeneous dispersion of the minor component into the matrix of the major component. The mechanical properties of the blend films improved with respect to the PE homo polymer. The improvement was more remarkable with the increase of the PP component in the blend. Results obtained in this work were explained in terms of crystallinity and the crystallite orientation. 28 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  2. Influence of coal blending on mineral transformation at high temperatures

    BAI Jin; LI Wen; LI Chun-zhu; BAI Zong-qing; LI Bao-qing


    Transformation of mineral matter is important for coal utilization at high temperatures. This is especially true for blended coal. XRD and FTIR were employed together to study the transformation of mineral matter at high temperature in blended coals. It was found that the concentration of catalytic minerals, namely iron oxides, increases with an increasing ratio of Shenfu coal, which could improve coal gasification. The transformation characteristics of the minerals in blended coals are not exactly predictable from the blend ratio. This was proved by comparing the iron oxide content to the blending ratio. The results from FTIR are comparable with those from XRD. FTIR is an effective method for examining variation in mineral matter.


    HOU Canshu; LI Jihong; WANG Yinghan; CHEN Yongrong; WANG Ling


    Blends of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) containing trace amounts of branching and/or cross-linking in chain and Polyamide-66 (PA-66) have been prepared by melt blending. The rheological behavior of PPS/PA-66 blends has been studied by means of capillary rheometer, and compared with PPS. The effects of shear rate, shear stress and temperature on the flow of PPS/PA-66 blends and PPS are discussed. The non-Newtonian indexes and the activation energies of viscous flow are obtained. The results show that the apparent viscosity of PPS/PA-66 blends is not sensitive to shear rate and stress, but decreases with the elevation of temperature. On the contrary, the apparent viscosity of the PPS decreases obviously with the increasing of shear rate and shear stress, but it is increased by the elevation of temperatue.

  4. Aging and mechanical properties of NR/BR blends

    Chiu, Hsien-Tang; Tsai, Peir-An


    The mechanical properties and post-thermal aging properties of natural rubber (NR) and polybutadiene rubber (BR) blends at different blending ratios are investigated herein. The experimental results show that both tensile and tear strengths of NR/BR blends increase with increasing NR content. BR has a higher compression stiffness than NR. The deformation of BR is less than that of NR under the same load conditions. With regard to aging properties, both tensile stress and strain of NR/BR blends decrease after prolonged aging. In addition, the stress loss of BR is lower than that of NR, meaning that the aging resistance property of BR is superior to that of NR. Furthermore, accumulated thermal history has shifted the glass transition temperature (T g) of NR/BR blends toward lower temperatures while the loss tangent (tan δ) value increases with prolonged thermal aging.

  5. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.


    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  6. The Literature Landscape of Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Need for Better Understanding of Academic Blended Practice

    Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Drew, Steve


    If we are to realise the potential of blended learning in higher education, then further research into academic practice and relevant academic development is essential. Our review of literature on blended learning in higher education reveals an interesting scholarship landscape which, when described in detail, pointedly directs attention to the…

  7. Rheology of miscible polymer blends with hydrogen bonding

    Yang, Zhiyi

    Poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) was blended with four different polymers: poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) by solvent casting. The miscibility of these four PVPh-based blend systems was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the composition-dependent glass transition temperature (Tg) was predicted by a thermodynamic theory. The hydrogen bonds between phenolic group in PVPh and ether group, carbonyl group or pyridine group was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The fraction of hydrogen bonds was calculated by the Coleman-Graf-Painter association model. Linear dynamic viscoelasticity of four PVPh-based miscible polymer blends with hydrogen bonding was investigated. Emphasis was placed on investigating how the linear dynamic viscoelasticity of miscible polymer blends with specific interaction might be different from that of miscible polymer blends without specific interaction. We have found that an application of time-temperature superposition (TTS) to the PVPh-based miscible blends with intermolecular hydrogen bonding is warranted even when the difference in the component glass transition temperatures is as large as about 200°C, while TTS fails for miscible polymer blends without specific interactions. On the basis of such an observation, we have concluded that hydrogen bonding suppressed concentration fluctuations in PVPh-based miscible blends. It has been found that both the intra-association (self-association) of the phenoxy hydroxyl groups in PVPh and inter-association (intermolecular interactions) between the constituent components have a profound influence on the frequency dependence of dynamic moduli in the terminal region of the PVPh-based miscible blend systems investigated. Hydrogenated functional polynorbornenes (HFPNBs) were synthesized and they were used to investigate the miscibility and rheology of HFPNB


    Lyna Latifah


    Full Text Available the accounting lectures have a big challengeb to improve the quality of graduates who are expected to have high knowledge and skill, to have good critical analysis and decision making. Thus: accounting lecturers are needed to improve their teaching and learning processes especially on learning design and assessment. Improving students knowledge and skill in accounting field can be created by using learning philosophy which makes students active and integrative in the class room. this articles discusses about the innovation of accounting learning with blended learning which collaborates cooperative learning and e-learning. Cooperative learning is a learning approach which emphasizes on structured behavior to cooperate in groups it can improve students interpersonal skill, cooperation, critical analysis and decision making. On the other hand, the application of cooperative learning needs more time so it can be solved by using computer with e-learning.

  9. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment

    Jon Dron


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the reality of systemic behaviours caused by delivering such a course within a group of conventional further and higher educational institutions has led to an entirely unanticipated reversion to structure, with unpleasant consequences for both quality and quantity of dialogue. The paper looks at some of the reasons for this drift, and suggests that some of the disappointing results (in particular in terms of the quality of the students' experience and associated poor retention can be attributed to the lack of dialogue, and consequent increase in transactional distance. It concludes with a description and evaluation of steps currently being taken to correct this behaviour.

  10. An Open Portal for Blended Learning

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Petersen, Marianne Graves;


    , University of Aarhus has developed a CourseWeb system, which is an open configurable Web portal where the teachers are able to control courses and integrate facilities from third-part Web-based systems. At the same time students see the CourseWeb as an integrated access to study material and activities......The combination of traditional teaching and Web-based teaching, so called blended learning, is a challenge to the teachers as well as to the students. This shift in teaching demands an openness and flexibility from the technical platform which has not been found in the existing tools. Therefore....... This paper reflects on how the challenges with the creation of flexible Web-supported teaching are handled in two courses and how CourseWeb in the present and in the future is able to support this kind of teaching....