Common dynamics of two Pisot substitutions with the same incidence matrix
Sellami, Tarek
2010-01-01
The matrix of a substitution is not sufficient to completely determine the dynamics associated, even in simplest cases since there are many words with the same abelianization. In this paper we study the common points of the canonical broken lines associated to two different Pisot irreducible substitutions $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ having the same incidence matrix. We prove that if 0 is inner point to the Rauzy fractal associated to $\\sigma_1$ these common points can be generated with a substitution on an alphabet of so-called "balanced blocks".
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fernández-Anaya, G.; Matínez-García, J.C.; Kučera, Vladimír
2006-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 11 (2006), s. 871-878. ISSN 0167-6911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Matrix positive real substitutions * properties preservation * linear time-invariant systems * robustness * Kalman –Yakubovich –Popov lemma * circle criterion Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2006
Tyagi, Manoj; Gowri, Venkataraman S; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Offmann, Bernard
2006-10-01
Analysis of protein structures based on backbone structural patterns known as structural alphabets have been shown to be very useful. Among them, a set of 16 pentapeptide structural motifs known as protein blocks (PBs) has been identified and upon which backbone model of most protein structures can be built. PBs allows simplification of 3D space onto 1D space in the form of sequence of PBs. Here, for the first time, substitution probabilities of PBs in a large number of aligned homologous protein structures have been studied and are expressed as a simplified 16 x 16 substitution matrix. The matrix was validated by benchmarking how well it can align sequences of PBs rather like amino acid alignment to identify structurally equivalent regions in closely or distantly related proteins using dynamic programming approach. The alignment results obtained are very comparable to well established structure comparison methods like DALI and STAMP. Other interesting applications of the matrix have been investigated. We first show that, in variable regions between two superimposed homologous proteins, one can distinguish between local conformational differences and rigid-body displacement of a conserved motif by comparing the PBs and their substitution scores. Second, we demonstrate, with the example of aspartic proteinases, that PBs can be efficiently used to detect the lobe/domain flexibility in the multidomain proteins. Lastly, using protein kinase as an example, we identify regions of conformational variations and rigid body movements in the enzyme as it is changed to the active state from an inactive state. PMID:16894618
Stochastic sandwich method with low mode substitution for nucleon isovector matrix elements
Yang, Yi-Bo; Draper, Terrence; Gong, Ming; Liu, Keh-Fei
2015-01-01
We introduce a stochastic sandwich method with low-mode substitution to evaluate the connected three-point functions. The isovector matrix elements of the nucleon for the axial-vector coupling $g_A^3$, scalar couplings $g_S^3$ and the quark momentum fraction $\\langle x\\rangle_{u -d}$ are calculated with overlap fermion on 2+1 flavor domain-wall configurations on a $24^3 \\times 64$ lattice at $m_{\\pi} = 330$ MeV with lattice spacing $a = 0.114$ fm.
Aligning protein sequence and analysing substitution pattern using a class-specific matrix
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hai Song Xu; Wen Ke Ren; Xiao Hui Liu; Xiao Qin Li
2010-06-01
Aligning protein sequences using a score matrix has became a routine but valuable method in modern biological research. However, alignment in the ‘twilight zone’ remains an open issue. It is feasible and necessary to construct a new score matrix as more protein structures are resolved. Three structural class-specific score matrices (all-alpha, all-beta and alpha/beta) were constructed based on the structure alignment of low identity proteins of the corresponding structural classes. The class-specific score matrices were significantly better than a structure-derived matrix (HSDM) and three other generalized matrices (BLOSUM30, BLOSUM60 and Gonnet250) in alignment performance tests. The optimized gap penalties presented here also promote alignment performance. The results indicate that different protein classes have distinct amino acid substitution patterns, and an amino acid score matrix should be constructed based on different structural classes. The class-specific score matrices could also be used in profile construction to improve homology detection.
Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin
2016-03-01
The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279
RMOS blastn result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us KOME RMOS bla ... ult Description of data contents Results of blastn search es against the Rice EST Microarray (G-Array) Data f ... ome_rmos_blastn_result.zip File size: 74 KB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/kom ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In the present study polyacrylamide (PAm-gelatin-hydroxyapatite (HA composites have been synthesized by suspension polymerization method. The prepared composites were characterized by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR which revealed the presence of functional groups in the composite. The X-ray diffraction (XRD studies indicated that HA powder was present in nano size. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA revealed that composite is more thermally stable than the polymer matrix alone. The morphology of composite studied by optical microscopy (OPM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM suggested that pore size was between 3–20 µm. The composites showed adequately good mechanical properties as evident from the varying compressive strength and modulus in the range 31.57±8.16 MPa and 745±388 MPa, respectively. The water sorption behavior was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the matrix and the sorption data were used to calculate network parameters. The porosity of composite varied between 4 to 30.66%.The in vitro blood compatibility indicated that the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA varied from 0.11 to 0.24 mg•g–1, the percentage haemolysis was between 2.4 to 6.9% and the weight of blood clot formed on the composite surfaces were found in the range 11 to 52 mg.
Using the nucleotide substitution rate matrix to detect horizontal gene transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betterton M D
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT has allowed bacteria to evolve many new capabilities. Because transferred genes perform many medically important functions, such as conferring antibiotic resistance, improved detection of horizontally transferred genes from sequence data would be an important advance. Existing sequence-based methods for detecting HGT focus on changes in nucleotide composition or on differences between gene and genome phylogenies; these methods have high error rates. Results First, we introduce a new class of methods for detecting HGT based on the changes in nucleotide substitution rates that occur when a gene is transferred to a new organism. Our new methods discriminate simulated HGT events with an error rate up to 10 times lower than does GC content. Use of models that are not time-reversible is crucial for detecting HGT. Second, we show that using combinations of multiple predictors of HGT offers substantial improvements over using any single predictor, yielding as much as a factor of 18 improvement in performance (a maximum reduction in error rate from 38% to about 3%. Multiple predictors were combined by using the random forests machine learning algorithm to identify optimal classifiers that separate HGT from non-HGT trees. Conclusion The new class of HGT-detection methods introduced here combines advantages of phylogenetic and compositional HGT-detection techniques. These new techniques offer order-of-magnitude improvements over compositional methods because they are better able to discriminate HGT from non-HGT trees under a wide range of simulated conditions. We also found that combining multiple measures of HGT is essential for detecting a wide range of HGT events. These novel indicators of horizontal transfer will be widely useful in detecting HGT events linked to the evolution of important bacterial traits, such as antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity.
Pimenta, Luiz; Pesántez, Carlos Fernando Arias; Oliveira, Leonardo
2008-01-01
Introduction Autograft has been the “gold standard” for orthopedic bone grafting applications, but with some clinical challenges. Here we present the rationale and clinical outcomes supporting the use of a bone substitute material that consists of a mixture of two calcium phosphates (HA and ß-TCP), which are integrated into a silicon xerogel matrix, promoting nanocrystalline apatite layers on the surface of the material following implantation into a physiological environment. Methods Twenty-f...
Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Allamandola, L. J.
2004-01-01
The matrix-isolation technique has been employed to measure the mid-infrared spectra of phenazine (C12H8N2), a dual substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycle (PANH), in the neutral, cationic and anionic forms. The experimentally measured band frequencies and intensities are tabulated and compared with their calculated values as well as those of the non-substituted parent molecule, anthracene. The theoretical band positions and intensities were calculated using both the 3-31 G as well as the larger 6-3lG* Basis Sets. A comparison of the results can be found in the tables. The spectroscopic properties of phenazine and its cation are similar to those observed in mono-substituted PANHs, with one exception. The presence of a second nitrogen atom results in an additional enhancement of the cation's total integrated intensity, for the 1500-1000 cm(sup -1) (6.7 to 10 micron) region, over that observed for a mono-substituted PANH cation. The significance of this enhancement and the astrobiological implications of these results are discussed.
Yuan, Hua; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Yang, Guoqiang
2016-05-01
A novel glass matrix doped with phthalocyanine or naphthalocyanine is prepared by a modified sol-gel technique. The photophysical and optical limiting properties of the phthalocyanine compounds both in glass matrix and in THF solution were investigated. The obtained glass matrix is homogeneous and transparent, as well as mechanically and thermodynamically stable enough to withstand very high laser fluence; the optical limiting performances of these compound samples are better than that of benchmark materials like C60 in toluene, carbon black in water, and graphene oxide in water or ethanol under nanosecond pulsed laser at 532 nm. Two prototypes of optical limiters doped in the glass matrix have very good optical limiting performances, which may provide potential practical use for optical limiting materials in a near future. PMID:27137586
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghanaati, Shahram; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, Charles James [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Willershausen, Ines [Institute for Dental Material Sciences and Technology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Thimm, Benjamin W [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Booms, Patrick [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Section of Medicine, Surgery and Anaesthesia, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Stuebinger, Stefan; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert Anton, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Department for Oral, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Medical Center of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stein-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2010-06-01
The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Łabuś Wojciech
2015-10-01
Full Text Available As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes may be the optimal method of burn treatment.
Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz
2015-10-01
As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment. PMID:26812752
GenBank blastn search result: AK121312 [KOME
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available te MMP24 (membrane-inserted matrix metalloproteinase 24) and two predicted CpG islands, complete sequence.|VRT VRT 3e-21 Plus Plus ... ...l gene similar to mouse and human MBC2 (membrane bound C2 domain containing prote...in), a novel gene similar to vertebrate ITGB4BP (integrin beta 4 binding protein), the 3' part of novel gene similar to vertebra...AK121312 J023112O04 AL929108.5 Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-239J9 in lin...kage group 6 Contains the 3' part of a novel gene similar to human and mouse SPAG1 (sperm associated antigen
GenBank blastn search result: AK242341 [KOME
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available ovel gene similar to vertebrate MMP24 (membrane-inserted matrix metalloproteinase 24) and two predicted CpG islands, complete sequence. VRT 9e-24 1 1 ... ...e, a novel gene similar to mouse and human MBC2 (membrane bound C2 domain contain...ing protein), a novel gene similar to vertebrate ITGB4BP (integrin beta 4 binding protein), the 3' part of n...AK242341 J075199P17 AL929108.5 AL929108 Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-239...J9 in linkage group 6 Contains the 3' part of a novel gene similar to human and mouse SPAG1 (sperm associated an
Faundez, Antonio; Taylor, Sofia; Kaelin, André
2006-01-01
In order to avoid the morbidity from autogenous bone harvesting, bone graft substitutes are being used more frequently in spinal surgery. There is indirect radiological evidence that bone graft substitutes are efficacious in humans. The purpose of this four-case study was to visually, manually, and histologically assess the quality of a fusion mass produced by a collagen hydroxyapatite scaffold impregnated with autologous bone marrow aspirate for posterolateral fusion. Four patients sustained...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kojima, Masazumi; Nakagami, Hiroaki [Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo (Japan). Pharmaceutical Technology Research Lab.
2002-12-01
The water mobility and diffusivity in the gel-layer of hydrating low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (LH41) tablets with or without a drug were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared with those properties in the gel-layer of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) tablets. For this purpose, a localized image-analysis method was newly developed, and the spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and apparent self-diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in the gel-layer were visualized in one-dimensional maps. Those maps showed that the extent of gel-layer growth in the tablets was in the order of HPC>HPMC>>LH41, and there was a water mobility gradient across the gel-layers of all three tablet formulations. The T{sub 2} and ADC in the outer parts of the gel-layers were close to those of free water. In contrast, these values in the inner parts of the gel-layer decreased progressively; suggesting that the water mobility and diffusivity around the core interface were highly restricted. Furthermore, the correlation between the T{sub 2} of {sup 1}H proton in the gel-layer of the tablets and the drug release rate from the tablets was observed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The water mobility and diffusivity in the gel-layer of hydrating low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (LH41) tablets with or without a drug were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared with those properties in the gel-layer of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) tablets. For this purpose, a localized image-analysis method was newly developed, and the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and apparent self-diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in the gel-layer were visualized in one-dimensional maps. Those maps showed that the extent of gel-layer growth in the tablets was in the order of HPC>HPMC>>LH41, and there was a water mobility gradient across the gel-layers of all three tablet formulations. The T2 and ADC in the outer parts of the gel-layers were close to those of free water. In contrast, these values in the inner parts of the gel-layer decreased progressively; suggesting that the water mobility and diffusivity around the core interface were highly restricted. Furthermore, the correlation between the T2 of 1H proton in the gel-layer of the tablets and the drug release rate from the tablets was observed. (author)
Rutherford, Daniel Edwin
2013-01-01
Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated
Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni
2010-01-01
The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭思思; 黄银章; 姚强; 向鹏华; 张小良; 郭维; 龙世平
2015-01-01
easily find that,the seedling effects and agronomic traits of T3 was similar to CK based on comprehensive comparison for physical and chemical properties and seedling growth,and which can substitute commercial peat matrix for seedling in flue-cured tobacco production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations
Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halim Ahmad
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnemayr, K; Brückner, A; Körner, R;
1999-01-01
and emission wavelengths of 420 and 490 nm, respectively. After removal of unreacted compounds, the peptide conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. They readily form both [M...
Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rölfing, Jan
2012-01-01
Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...
40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...
Ball, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.
1993-01-01
BF3 was co-condensed with H2O, D2O, (C2H5)2O, (CF3CH2)2O, and (C2F5)2O in excess argon at 15 K. Infrared spectra of BF3/water isolated in solid argon provided a more complete analysis of the BF3--H2O complex than previously published. Infrared spectra of the matrices showed a definite Lewis acid-base interaction between BF3 and diethyl ether; a weak but definite interaction with bis (2,2,2-trifluorodiethyl) ether, and no observable interaction with perfluorodiethyl ether. Thus, the ether data indicate a clear trend between strength of interaction with BF3 and the degree of F substitution. To support and explain the emerging relationship between interaction strength and the basicity of the oxygen-containing molecule, the proton affinity of (CF3CH2)2O was measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The implications of the results for lubricant/metal oxide surface interactions are discussed.
Fractal dual substitution tilings
Frank, Natalie Priebe; Webster, Samuel B. G.; Whittaker, Michael F.
2014-01-01
Starting with a substitution tiling, we demonstrate a method for constructing infinitely many new substitution tilings. Each of these new tilings is derived from a graph iterated function system and the tiles have fractal boundary. We show that each of the new tilings is mutually locally derivable to the original tiling. Thus, at the tiling space level, the new substitution rules are expressing geometric and combinatorial, rather than topological, features of the original. Our method is easy ...
Syndeticity and independent substitutions
Durand, Fabien
2009-01-01
We associate in a canonical way a substitution to any abstract numeration system built on a regular language. In relationship with the growth order of the letters, we define the notion of two independent substitutions. Our main result is the following. If a sequence $x$ is generated by two independent substitutions, at least one being of exponential growth, then the factors of $x$ appearing infinitely often in $x$ appear with bounded gaps. As an application, we derive an analogue of Cobham's theorem for two independent substitutions (or abstract numeration systems) one with polynomial growth, the other being exponential.
Channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix in teleportation
Zha, Xin-Wei; Qi, Jian-Xia; Song, Hai-Yang
2014-01-01
In this paper, two kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix)associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for teleportation that the number of coefficient of an unknown state is determined by the rank of the collapsed matrix is given.
Plefka, J. C.; Serone, M.; Waldron, A.K.
1998-01-01
The technology required for eikonal scattering amplitude calculations in Matrix theory is developed. Using the entire supersymmetric completion of the v^4/r^7 Matrix theory potential we compute the graviton-graviton scattering amplitude and find agreement with eleven dimensional supergravity at tree level.
Bodewig, E
1959-01-01
Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well
Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)
A unified approach to the transition matrices of DNA substitution models.
Yap, Von Bing
2013-04-01
For a reversible finite-state continuous-time Markov chain containing similar states, the computation of the transition matrix can be expressed quite elegantly in terms of the transition matrix of an associated lumped Markov chain. This result is immensely useful for obtaining explicit transition matrices for many DNA substitution models, without diagonalizing a matrix or solving a differential equation. Furthermore, the technique works for the analogous problem in the discrete-time DNA substitution models. PMID:23313463
2010-07-01
... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...
Cobham's theorem for substitutions
Durand, Fabien
2010-01-01
The seminal theorem of Cobham has given rise during the last 40 years to a lot of works around non-standard numeration systems and has been extended to many contexts. In this paper, as a result of fifteen years of improvements, we obtain a complete and general version for the so-called substitutive sequences. Let $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ be two multiplicatively independent Perron numbers. Then, a sequence $x\\in A^\\mathbb{N}$, where $A$ is a finite alphabet, is both $\\alpha$-substitutive and $\\beta$-substitutive if and only if $x$ is ultimately periodic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)
The substitutability of reinforcers.
Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E
1993-07-01
Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696
Geometric realizations of substitutive tilings
Bedaride, Nicolas
2011-01-01
We define 2-dimensional topological substitutions. A tiling of the Euclidean plane, or of the hyperbolic plane, is substitutive if the underlying 2-complex can be obtained by iteration of a 2-dimensional topological substitution. We prove that there is no primitive substitutive tiling of the hyperbolic plane $\\mathbb{H}^2$. However, we give an example of substitutive tiling of $\\Hyp^2$ which is non-primitive.
[Delegation yes, substitution no!].
Schroeder, A
2014-08-01
The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:25047595
Richardson, Thomas M.
2014-01-01
The reciprocal Pascal matrix is the Hadamard inverse of the symmetric Pascal matrix. We show that the ordinary matrix inverse of the reciprocal Pascal matrix has integer elements. The proof uses two factorizations of the matrix of super Catalan numbers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sophia
2007-01-01
@@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.
Bhatia, Rajendra
1997-01-01
A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...
Dermal Matrices and Bioengineered Skin Substitutes: A Critical Review of Current Options
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heidi Debels, MD
2015-01-01
Conclusions: Skin substitutes are a useful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery practices as an alternative to skin grafts. In the choice of substitute, the general plastic surgery principle of replacing like tissue with like tissue seems to be still standing, and products most resembling the natural dermal extracellular matrix should be preferred.
Invariant measures for subshifts arising from substitutions of some primitive components
Hama, Masaki
2010-01-01
The class of substitutions of some primitive components is introduced. A bilateral subshift arising from a substitution of some primitive components is decomposed into pairwise disjoint, locally compact, shift-invariant sets, on each of which an invariant Radon measure is unique up to scaling. It is completely characterized in terms of eigenvalues of an incidence matrix when the unique invariant measure is finite.
Belitsky, A V
2016-01-01
The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.
Selfdual Substitutions in Dimension One
Berthé, Valérie; Sirvent, Victor
2011-01-01
There are several notions of the 'dual' of a word/tile substitution. We show that the most common ones are equivalent for substitutions in dimension one, where we restrict ourselves to the case of two letters/tiles. Furthermore, we obtain necessary and sufficient arithmetic conditions for substitutions being selfdual in this case.
Consistency of multidimensional combinatorial substitutions
Jolivet, Timo
2011-01-01
Multidimensional combinatorial substitutions are rules that replace symbols by finite patterns of symbols in Z^d. We focus on the case where the patterns are not necessarily rectangular, which requires a specific description of the way they are glued together in the image by a substitution. Two problems can arise when defining a substitution in such a way: it can fail to be consistent, and the patterns in an image by the substitution might overlap. We prove that it is undecidable whether a two-dimensional substitution is consistent or overlapping, and we provide practical algorithms to decide these properties in some particular cases.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...
2010-07-01
... sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721.2577... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...
THE STRUCTURE OF INVERTIBLE SUBSTITUTIONS ON A THREE-LETTER ALPHABET
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan Bo; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Yiping
2003-01-01
We study the structure of invertible substitutions on three-letter alphabet.We show that there exists a fi-nite set S of invertible substitutions such that any invertible substitution can be written as Iw o σ1 o σ2…σk,where Iw is the inner automorphism associated with w,and σj∈S for l≤j≤k.As a consequence,M is the matrix of an invertible substitution if and only if it is a finite product of non-negative elementary matrices.
How Substitutable Is Natural Capital?
Markandya, Anil; Pedroso, S.
2006-01-01
One of the recurring themes in the sustainability literature has been the legitimacy of using an economic framework to account for natural resources. This paper examines the potential for substituting between different inputs in the generation of income, where the inputs include natural resources such as land and energy resources. A nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function is used to allow flexibility in the estimated elasticities of substitution. Also, with this s...
Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli
2015-01-01
In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP. Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.
Orthogonal Matrix in Cryptography
Santana, Yeray Cachon
2014-01-01
In this work is proposed a method using orthogonal matrix transform properties to encrypt and decrypt a message. It will be showed how to use matrix functions to create complex encryptions. Because orthogonal matrix are always diagonalizable on R, and the exponential of a diagonal matrix is easy to compute, the exponential of orthogonal matrix will be used to encrypt text messages.
Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure
Hajek, Bruce
2007-01-01
Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.
Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…
Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suganthi, R.V.; Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Chandra, V. Sarath [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E.K. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)
2011-04-08
The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.
Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.
Detailed assessment of homology detection using different substitution matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing; WANG Wei
2006-01-01
Homology detection plays a key role in bioinformatics, whereas substitution matrix is one of the most important components in homology detection. Thus, besides the improvement of alignment algorithms, another effective way to enhance the accuracy of homology detection is to use proper substitution matrices or even construct new matrices.A study on the features of various matrices and on the comparison of the performances between different matrices in homology detection enable us to choose the most proper or optimal matrix for some specific applications. In this paper, by taking BLOSUM matrices as an example, some detailed features of matrices in homology detection are studied by calculating the distributions of numbers of recognized proteins over different sequence identities and sequence lengths. Our results clearly showed that different matrices have different preferences and abilities to the recognition of remote homologous proteins. Furthermore, detailed features of the various matrices can be used to improve the accuracy of homology detection.
Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier Jeannin
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me 3 3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF32(TCNQ was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4− anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3(FeCl4, the (EDT-TTF-CF3+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state.
40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...
40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...
40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3063 Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl... chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...
Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zhao-shu; XIA Ju-pei; ZHU Xiao-qin; LIU Fan; HE Mao-yun
2006-01-01
The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.
Simple, heart-smart substitutions
... fat and cholesterol . It also limits salt, refined sugar, and processed foods. Making heart-healthy food choices does not mean you have to sacrifice flavor. The key is to substitute less healthy foods with fresh produce, whole grains, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility that NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) can be a substitute for CT (Computerized Tomography), is described. NMR focus on the nuclei in the atoms of certain elements, for example hydrogen
Testing Substitutability of Weak Preferences
Aziz, Haris; Brill, Markus; Harrenstein, Paul
2012-01-01
In many-to-many matching models, substitutable preferences constitute the largest domain for which a pairwise stable matching is guaranteed to exist. In this note, we extend the recently proposed algorithm of Hatfield et al. [3] to test substitutability of weak preferences. Interestingly, the algorithm is faster than the algorithm of Hatfield et al. by a linear factor on the domain of strict preferences.
Amalgam substitutes: a critical analysis
Lutz, Felix; Krejci, Ivo
2000-01-01
Quality standards for restorations recently have been defined in Switzerland. Amalgam substitutes must meet restoration Grade 2 requirements (i.e., pulp and dental hard substance must be preserved, and both form and function of the tooth have to be reconstituted). The pertinent operative technique has to be simple and amalgam-like. A minimum service life of 8 years is required. This in vitro study investigated the clinical potential of several amalgam substitutes, taking into account the oper...
Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.
Arai, K.; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M.; Neel, J. V.; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W
1989-01-01
We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions di...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins.
Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G; Ciechanover, Aaron
2016-06-17
Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems - at least partially - in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. PMID:27157140
Makeenko, Yu.; Zarembo, K.
1993-01-01
We study fermionic one-matrix, two-matrix and $D$-dimensional gauge invariant matrix models. In all cases we derive loop equations which unambiguously determine the large-$N$ solution. For the one-matrix case the solution is obtained for an arbitrary interaction potential and turns out to be equivalent to the one for the Hermitean one-matrix model with a logarithmic potential and, therefore, belongs to the same universality class. The explicit solutions for the fermionic two-matrix and $D$-di...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....
Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis
Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy
2014-01-01
Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy.
Givoni, Inmar; Cheung, Vincent; Frey, Brendan J.
2012-01-01
Many tasks require finding groups of elements in a matrix of numbers, symbols or class likelihoods. One approach is to use efficient bi- or tri-linear factorization techniques including PCA, ICA, sparse matrix factorization and plaid analysis. These techniques are not appropriate when addition and multiplication of matrix elements are not sensibly defined. More directly, methods like bi-clustering can be used to classify matrix elements, but these methods make the overly-restrictive assumptio...
Matrix Order Differintegration
Naber, Mark
2003-01-01
The Riemann-Liouville formula for fractional derivatives and integrals (differintegration) is used to derive formulae for matrix order derivatives and integrals. That is, the parameter for integration and differentiation is allowed to assume matrix values. It is found that the computation of derivatives and integrals to matrix order is well defined for any square matrix over the complex numbers. Some properties are worked out for special classes of matrices. It is hoped that this new formalis...
Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
2015-01-01
Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enz...
Schell, David George
2008-01-01
The matrix partition problem has been of recent interest in graph theory. Matrix partitions generalize the study of graph colourings and homomorphisms. Many well-known graph partition problems can be stated in terms of matrices. For example skew partitions, split partitions, homogeneous sets, clique-cutsets, stable-cutsets and k-colourings can all be modeled as matrix partitions. For each matrix partition problem there is an equivalent trigraph H-colouring problem. We show a ‘dichotomy’ for t...
Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors
Ahmad, Faiz
2011-01-01
It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…
Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arianna B. Lovati
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.
Bosonic Matrix Theory and Matrix Dbranes
Chaudhuri, S
2002-01-01
We develop new tools for an in-depth investigation of our recent proposal for Matrix Theory. We construct the anomaly-free and finite planar continuum limit of the ground state with SO(2^{13}) symmetry matching with the tadpole and tachyon free IR stable high temperature ground state of the open and closed bosonic string. The correspondence between large N limits and spacetime effective actions is demonstrated more generally for an arbitrary D25brane ground state which might include brane-antibrane pairs or NS-branes and which need not have an action formulation. Closure of the finite N matrix Lorentz algebra nevertheless requires that such a ground state is simultaneously charged under all even rank antisymmetric matrix potentials. Additional invariance under the gauge symmetry mediated by the one-form matrix potential requires a ground state charged under the full spectrum of antisymmetric (p+1)-form matrix potentials with p taking any integer value less than 26. Matrix Dbrane democracy has a beautiful larg...
Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prentø, P; Lyon, H
1997-01-01
We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....
Substitution systems and nonextensive statistics
García-Morales, V.
2015-12-01
Substitution systems evolve in time by generating sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet: At a certain iteration step, the existing symbols are systematically replaced by blocks of Nk symbols also within the alphabet (with Nk, a natural number, being the length of the kth block of the substitution). The dynamics of these systems leads naturally to fractals and self-similarity. By using B-calculus (García-Morales, 2012) universal maps for deterministic substitution systems both of constant and non-constant length, are formulated in 1D. It is then shown how these systems can be put in direct correspondence with Tsallis entropy. A 'Second Law of Thermodynamics' is also proved for these systems in the asymptotic limit of large words.
THE PROBLEM OF SENSES SUBSTITUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oreshkina M. A.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The author deals with problems of substitution of senses and notions in the science and in the social life. Such processes result not only in distortion of the scientific worldview but also in absolutely undesirable social cataclysms. However, this scientific problem has not been yet worked out to sufficient extent, which hampers preventing the mentioned distortions of the real worldview and brings to unwanted consequences requiring correlation and corrections. The question of senses and notions substitution is not new in the science but it has not been yet sufficiently studied. We know that strictness of thinking must be dearly paid for in loss of flexibility in revaluation of senses, which makes you easily slip into dogmatism. It should be noted that this keeps taking place both in the science itself and in the life of society any science is called to serve. So the science can be hardly imagined without schools of thought. They ensure preservation of certain knowledge, vision, approach and, finally, of a certain school – they are traditions and authority of the science. However, having passed their golden age, when the founder used to be followed after several generations by dogmatists whose genius and talent were far from being so great, a school begins to degrade producing scholasticism by substitution and emasculation of senses and notions and finally destructs itself. The collectivization in the USSR in the 30ies of the 20th century and so-called “extremes” associated with it being that very substitution of sense platforms in its pure form constitutes a rather illustrative example of social manipulation based on the substitution of sense platforms. These activities relating to detection of senses and notions substitution will also be developed in the future. The truth will be approached as before through cleaning the knowledge of the myth, through searching for the original sense or the archetype separated from lie and fabrication
Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan
2010-01-12
Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.
Combinatorial substitutions and sofic tilings
Fernique, Thomas
2010-01-01
A combinatorial substitution is a map over tilings which allows to define sets of tilings with a strong hierarchical structure. In this paper, we show that such sets of tilings are sofic, that is, can be enforced by finitely many local constraints. This extends some similar previous results (Mozes'90, Goodmann-Strauss'98) in a much shorter presentation.
Tax rates as strategic substitutes
H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)
2016-01-01
textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t
Parallelism in matrix computations
Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H
2016-01-01
This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...
Motl, L
2001-01-01
In this short note we construct the DLCQ description of the flux seven-branes in type IIA string theory and discuss its basic properties. The matrix model involves dipole fields. We explain the relation of this nonlocal matrix model to various orbifolds. We also give a spacetime interpretation of the Seiberg-Witten-like map, proposed in a different context first by Bergman and Ganor, that converts this matrix model to a local, highly nonlinear theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Lysén, M.; Vedsø, Per; Begtrup, M.
2001-01-01
matrix presented Ortho lithiation-in situ boration using lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (LTMP) in combination with triisopropylborate (B(OiPr) ) is a highly efficient and experimentally straightforward process for the preparation of ortho substituted arylboronic esters. The mild reaction...
He, Y.; Jejjala, V.
2003-01-01
Inspired by a formal resemblance of certain q-expansions of modular forms and the master field formalism of matrix models in terms of Cuntz operators, we construct a Hermitian one-matrix model, which we dub the ``modular matrix model.'' Together with an N=1 gauge theory and a special Calabi-Yau geometry, we find a modular matrix model that naturally encodes the Klein elliptic j-invariant, and hence, by Moonshine, the irreducible representations of the Fischer-Griess Monster group.
Substitute Students Do a Roaring Trade
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
UniverSity students employ substitutes for a wide range of duties, from attending compulsory morning exercises and classes to writing papers or even love letters, These substitutes advertise their services on campus bulletin boards,
Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process
V. Remya; Naveen Kumar; Sharma, A. K.; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Mamta Negi; S.K. Maiti; Sameer Shrivastava; S. Sonal; KURADE, N.P.
2014-01-01
Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc) seeded extracellular matrix [ECM]) was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim ...
Smart Phones and their Substitutes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas
2009-01-01
Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....
Substituting oil by electric power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)
Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis.
Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy
2014-12-01
Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy. PMID:26567100
International Evidence on Sectoral Interfuel Substitution
Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Vasetsky, Olexandr
2010-01-01
This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the sector level. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional form, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that the interfuel substitution elasticities are consistently below unity, revealing the limited ability to substitute between ...
Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois
Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances
2011-01-01
The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…
40 CFR 721.3360 - Substituted ethanolamine.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethanolamine. 721.3360... Substances § 721.3360 Substituted ethanolamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted ethanolamine (PMN P-91-490)...
24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...
24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...
40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances § 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...
Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engvild, Kjeld Christensen
1978-01-01
Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....
Substituting Quantum Entanglement for Communication
Cleve, Richard; Buhrman, Harry
1997-01-01
We show that quantum entanglement can be used as a substitute for communication when the goal is to compute a function whose input data is distributed among remote parties. Specifically, we show that, for a particular function among three parties (each of which possesses part of the function's input), a prior quantum entanglement enables one of them to learn the value of the function with only two bits of communication occurring among the parties, whereas, without quantum entanglement, three ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia
2007-01-01
The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such...... comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare and...... evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case of the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To increase the accuracy of discrimination of true coincidences against the background of accidental ones, circuit has been developed which operates on the principle of dynamic equalization of resolution times of two coincidence circuits. The flowsheet of a 4x6 double-coincidence matrix is given. The principal elements of the matrix are commutators and output signal shapers. The matrix uses 138-series microcircuits. The resolution time of coincidence circuits is 10 ns, the dead time is 25 ns. The results of testing the matrix during experiments under conditions of a high background of accidental coincidences (70-90%) have shown that the accuracy of discrimination of true coincidences with the help of the double-coincidence matrix approximates the accuracy of time-to-digital converters within the limits of the statistical accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)
Geometric realization for substitution tilings
Barge, Marcy
2011-01-01
Given an n-dimensional substitution whose associated linear expansion is unimodular and hyperbolic, we use elements of the one-dimensional integer \\v{C}ech cohomology of the associated tiling space to construct a finite-to-one semi-conjugacy, called geometric realization, between the substitution induced dynamics and an invariant set of a hyperbolic toral automorphism. If the linear expansion satisfies a Pisot family condition and the rank of the module of generalized return vectors equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, the image of geometric realization is the entire torus and coincides with the map onto the maximal equicontinuous factor of the translation action on the tiling space. We are led to formulate a higher-dimensional generalization of the Pisot Substitution Conjecture: If the linear expansion satisfies the Pisot family condition and the rank of the one-dimensional cohomology of the tiling space equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, then the translation action on t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zimmermann Karel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.
Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory
Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.34.3
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.
MLD Relations of Pisot Substitution Tilings
Gähler, Franz
2010-01-01
We consider 1-dimensional, unimodular Pisot substitution tilings with three intervals, and discuss conditions under which pairs of such tilings are locally isomorhphic (LI), or mutually locally derivable (MDL). For this purpose, we regard the substitutions as homomorphisms of the underlying free group with three generators. Then, if two substitutions are conjugated by an inner automorphism of the free group, the two tilings are LI, and a conjugating outer automorphism between two substitutions can often be used to prove that the two tilings are MLD. We present several examples illustrating the different phenomena that can occur in this context. In particular, we show how two substitution tilings can be MLD even if their substitution matrices are not equal, but only conjugate in $GL(n,\\mathbb{Z})$. We also illustrate how the (in our case fractal) windows of MLD tilings can be reconstructed from each other, and discuss how the conjugating group automorphism affects the substitution generating the window boundar...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;
2013-01-01
For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...... strategy uses a nonzero probability as small as image. This is done by constructing an explicit image nonsingular image matrix, for which the inverse has only nonnegative entries and where some of the entries are of value image....
Morozov, A
2012-01-01
Partition functions of eigenvalue matrix models possess a number of very different descriptions: as matrix integrals, as solutions to linear and non-linear equations, as tau-functions of integrable hierarchies and as special-geometry prepotentials, as result of the action of W-operators and of various recursions on elementary input data, as gluing of certain elementary building blocks. All this explains the central role of such matrix models in modern mathematical physics: they provide the basic "special functions" to express the answers and relations between them, and they serve as a dream model of what one should try to achieve in any other field.
Quivers from Matrix Factorizations
Aspinwall, Paul S
2010-01-01
We discuss how matrix factorizations offer a practical method of computing the quiver and associated superpotential for a hypersurface singularity. This method also yields explicit geometrical interpretations of D-branes (i.e., quiver representations) on a resolution given in terms of Grassmannians. As an example we analyze some non-toric singularities which are resolved by a single CP1 but have "length" greater than one. These examples have a much richer structure than conifolds. A picture is proposed that relates matrix factorizations in Landau-Ginzburg theories to the way that matrix factorizations are used in this paper to perform noncommutative resolutions.
Eves, Howard
1980-01-01
The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri
Araújo, C. Mendes; Juan R. Torregrosa; Urbano, Ana M.
2003-01-01
An n x n matrix is called an N-matrix if all principal minors are negative. In this paper, we are interested in N-matrix completion problems, that is, when a partial N-matrix hás an N-matrix completion. In general, a combinatorially or non-combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix does not have an N-matrix completion. Here we prove that a combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix has an N-matrix completion if the graph of its specified entries is a 1-chordal graph. We also prove that there ...
Matrix-Free Approximate Equilibration
Bradley, Andrew M.; Murray, Walter
2011-01-01
The condition number of a diagonally scaled matrix, for appropriately chosen scaling matrices, is often less than that of the original. Equilibration scales a matrix so that the scaled matrix's row and column norms are equal. Scaling can be approximate. We develop approximate equilibration algorithms for nonsymmetric and symmetric matrices having signed elements that access a matrix only by matrix-vector products.
The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.
Hill, William Fawcett
1971-01-01
Leadership style, group composition, and group development are simultaneously quantified through the use of the matrix. It represents an attempt to objectify the art of group therapy. Comment by Richard C. Rank follows. (Author)
The Matrix Organization Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm
1999-01-01
This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....
Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.; Ward, J.
2007-01-01
Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...
Periwal, Vipul; Tafjord, Oyvind
1998-01-01
String configurations have been identified in compactified Matrix theory at vanishing string coupling. We show how the interactions of these strings are determined by the Yang-Mills gauge field on the worldsheet. At finite string coupling, this suggests the underlying dynamics is not well-approximated as a theory of strings. This may explain why string perturbation theory diverges badly, while Matrix string perturbation theory presumably has a perturbative expansion with properties similar to...
Ding-Iohara-Miki symmetry of network matrix models
Mironov, A; Zenkevich, Y
2016-01-01
Ward identities in the most general "network matrix model" can be described in terms of the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras (DIM). This confirms an expectation that such algebras and their various limits/reductions are the relevant substitutes/deformations of the Virasoro/W-algebra for (q,t) and (q_1,q_2,q_3) deformed network matrix models. Exhaustive for these purposes should be the Pagoda triple-affine elliptic DIM, which corresponds to networks associated with 6d gauge theories with adjoint matter (double elliptic systems). We provide some details on elliptic qq-characters.
Bosonic Matrix Theory and Matrix Dbranes
Chaudhuri, Shyamoli
2002-01-01
We develop new tools for an in-depth study of our recent proposal for Matrix Theory. We construct the anomaly-free and finite planar continuum limit of the ground state with SO(2^{13}) symmetry matching with the tadpole and tachyon free IR stable high temperature ground state of the open and closed bosonic string. The correspondence between large N limits and spacetime effective actions is demonstrated more generally for an arbitrary D25brane ground state which might include brane-antibrane p...
Spectral Properties of Substituted Coumarins in Solution and Polymer Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jana Donovalová
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1 by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH32, mainly, but not exclusively, in positions 7 and (2, by either CHO or 4-PhNHCONHN=CH- in position 3. While the spectra of non-substituted coumarin-3-carbaldehyde has absorptions at approximately 305 and 350 nm, substitution at position 7 leads to remarkable changes in the shape of the absorption spectrum and shifts the absorption to a longer wavelength. Similarly, the replacement of the formyl group with a semicarbazide group substantially influences the shape of the absorption spectrum, and coumarins which have only N(CH32 in position 7 experience small changes. These changes are associated with the increasing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT character and increasing conjugation length of the chromophoric system, respectively, in the studied molecules. The fluorescence is almost negligible for derivatives which have H in this position. With increasing electron donating ability, and the possibility of a positive mesomeric (+M effect of the substituent in position 7 of the coumarin moiety, the fluorescence increases, and this increase is most intense when N(CH32 substitutes in this position, for both 3-substituted derivatives. Spectral measurements of the studied coumarins in polymer matrices revealed that the absorption and fluorescence maxima lay within the maxima for solvents, and that coumarins yield more intense fluorescence in polymer matrices than when they are in solution. The quantum yield of derivatives which have a dimethylamino group in position 7 in polymer matrices approaches 1, and the fluorescence lifetime is within the range of 0.5–4 ns. The high quantum yield of 7-dimethylamino derivatives qualifies them as laser dyes which have kF higher than knr in the given medium. This
Deviation of ergodic averages for substitution dynamical systems with eigenvalues of modulus one
Bressaud, Xavier; Hubert, Pascal
2011-01-01
Deviation of ergodic sums is studied for substitution dynamical systems with a matrix that admits eigenvalues of modulus 1. We consider the corresponding eigenfunctions, and in Theorem 1.1 we prove that the limit inferior of the ergodic sums is bounded for every point in the phase space. In Theorem 1.2, we prove existence of limit distributions along certain exponential subsequences of times for substitutions of constant length. Under additional assumptions, we prove that ergodic integrals satisfy the Central Limit Theorem (Theorem 1.3, Theorem 1.9).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Maiorana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.
Maiorana, Carlo; Beretta, Mario; Rancitelli, Davide; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott
2016-01-01
The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented. PMID:27022489
Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel eArenas
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.
Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand
Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José
2006-01-01
We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...
Information Technology and Transportation: Substitutes or Complements?
Oliver, Atara Stephanie
2013-01-01
The increased availability and prevalence of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) provides opportunities to use such products as substitutes for transportation. Common examples of this substitution are telecommuting, video conferences, and online classes. However, despite the intuitive appeal of a substitution relationship existing between ICT and transportation, prior research has indicated that the relationship between ICT and transportation is quite complex; at times ICT substit...
Bhatia, Rajendra
2013-01-01
This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR). During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands
2009-01-01
We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for...... algebraically closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....
Pérez López, César
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...
Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns
Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2010-01-01
We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.
Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis
Queffélec, Martine
2010-01-01
This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...
Perin, Charles; Le Goc, Mathieu; Di Vozzo, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Dragicevic, Pierre
2015-01-01
In this paper, we relate the iterative fabrication of a physical Bertin Matrix. Jacques Bertin designed and refined such devices over 10 years (1970–1980) and five iterations of what he called Dominos 1–5. For the purpose of an exhibit dedicated to Bertin's work during VIS 2014 in Paris, we designed an improved version of such device by leveraging modern fabrication possibilities and in particular a laser cutter. We describe the process, iterations and improvements of our matrix, and report l...
A nonsupersymmetric matrix orbifold
Banks, Tom; Motl, Lubos
1999-01-01
We construct the matrix description for a twisted version of the IIA string theory on S^1 with fermions antiperiodic around a spatial circle. The result is a 2+1-dimensional U(N) x U(N) nonsupersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with fermionic matter transforming in the (N,Nbar). The two U(N)'s are exchanged if one goes around a twisted circle of the worldvolume. Relations with Type 0 theories are explored and we find Type 0 matrix string limits of our gauge theory. We argue however that most of the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.W.
2010-11-15
The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
Frahm, K M
2016-01-01
Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.
Hohn, Franz E
2012-01-01
This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur
Matrixed business support comparison study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parsons, Josh D.
2004-11-01
The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.
40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzothiazole-azo... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5340 Substituted benzothiazole-azo... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...
Ortiz, Thomas; Samtleben, Henning; Tsimpis, Dimitrios
2014-01-01
We set up the formalism of holographic renormalization for the matter-coupled two-dimensional maximal supergravity that captures the low-lying fluctuations around the non-conformal D0-brane near-horizon geometry. As an application we compute holographically one- and two-point functions of the BFSS matrix quantum mechanics and its supersymmetric $SO(3)\\times SO(6)$ deformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The number of background events in nuclear and particle physics experiments which use multiwire proportional chambers can be extremely high. Using a computer to resolve these events results in a high deadtime for the experiment. A fast matrix system for decreasing the number of background events is described in this report. 4 figures
Matrix Synthesis and Characterization
1984-01-01
The role of NASA in the area of composite material synthesis; evaluation techniques; prediction analysis techniques; solvent-resistant tough composite matrix; resistance to paint strippers; acceptable processing temperature and pressure for thermoplastics; and the role of computer modeling and fiber interface improvement were discussed.
Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming
2007-01-01
@@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).
A virtual substitution of Brouwer choice sequence
Lange, Klaus
2009-01-01
Step by step a substitution of the well known Brouwer choice sequence will be constructed. It begins with an establishing of quasi alternating prime number series followed by a construction of a virtual sequence in sense of the virtual set definition. The last step gives reasons for why this virtual sequence substitutes the choice sequence created by L. E. J. Brouwer.
PERFORMANCE OF PULVERIZED SLAG-SUBSTITUTED CEMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.
24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 235.206... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS FOR HOME OWNERSHIP AND PROJECT REHABILITATION Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling...
Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir
2014-01-01
Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, v...
Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens
1990-01-01
Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...
29 CFR 500.216 - Substituted service.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted service. 500.216 Section 500.216 Labor... Service § 500.216 Substituted service. (a) Pursuant to section 102(5) of the Act, the Secretary, when so designated by a court, shall accept service of summons in any action arising under the Act or...
Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins
Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.
1989-01-01
A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.
Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...
Substitution between cars within the household
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.98 and...... 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect to...
Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlson, L.
1995-06-01
Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.
r-BlockPermutation Factor Circulant Matrix and Inverse Matrix
SUN Ji zhong; QIN Keyun; Hu, Yan
2012-01-01
The concept of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix is presented. The characteristics of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix are discussed by Kronecker. The interchange ability of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix has been demonstrated, that is AB=BA. The calculation method of matrix determinant and the sufficient condition of nonsingular matrix based on the diagonalization of circulant matrices are given. Finally, the method of inverse matrix is given in r-blo...
Evaluation of dermal substitute in a novel co-transplantation model with autologous epidermal sheet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guofeng Huang
Full Text Available The development of more and more new dermal substitutes requires a reliable and effective animal model to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In this study we constructed a novel animal model using co-transplantation of autologous epidermal sheets with dermal substitutes to repair full-thickness skin defects. Autologous epidermal sheets were obtained by digesting the basement membrane (BM and dermal components from rat split-thickness skins in Dispase II solution (1.2 u/ml at 4 °C for 8, 10 and 12 h. H&E, immunohistochemical and live/dead staining showed that the epidermal sheet preserved an intact epidermis without any BM or dermal components, and a high percentage of viable cells (92.10 ± 4.19% and P63 positive cells (67.43 ± 4.21% under an optimized condition. Porcine acellular dermal matrixes were co-transplanted with the autologous epidermal sheets to repair full-thickness skin defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. The epidermal sheets survived and completely re-covered the wounds within 3 weeks. Histological staining showed that the newly formed stratified epidermis attached directly onto the dermal matrix. Inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularization of the dermal matrix were not significantly different from those in the subcutaneous implantation model. Collagen IV and laminin distributed continuously at the epidermis and dermal matrix junction 4 weeks after transplantation. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the presence of continuous lamina densa and hemidesmosome structures. This novel animal model can be used not only to observe the biocompatibility of dermal substitutes, but also to evaluate their effects on new epidermis and BM formation. Therefore, it is a simple and reliable model for evaluating the safety and efficacy of dermal substitutes.
Carlo Maiorana; Mario Beretta; Davide Rancitelli; Giovanni Battista Grossi; Marco Cicciù; Alan Scott Herford
2016-01-01
The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix a...
Young-Joo Yi; Miriam Sutovsky; Chelsey Kennedy; Peter Sutovsky
2012-01-01
Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteas...
Electrotactile vision substitution for 3D trajectory following.
Chekhchoukh, A; Goumidi, M; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y; Glade, N
2013-01-01
Navigation for blind persons represents a challenge for researchers in vision substitution. In this field, one of the used techniques to navigate is guidance. In this study, we develop a new approach for 3D trajectory following in which the requested task is to track a light path using computer input devices (keyboard and mouse) or a rigid body handled in front of a stereoscopic camera. The light path is visualized either on direct vision or by way of a electro-stimulation device, the Tongue Display Unit, a 12 × 12 matrix of electrodes. We improve our method by a series of experiments in which the effect of the modality of perception and that of the input device. Preliminary results indicated a close correlation between the stimulated and recorded trajectories. PMID:24111209
Electrotactile vision substitution for 3D trajectory following
Chekhchoukh, Abdessalem; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Payan, Yohan; Glade, Nicolas
2013-01-01
Navigation for blind persons represents a challenge for researchers in vision substitution. In this field, one of the used techniques to navigate is guidance. In this study, we develop a new approach for 3D trajectory following in which the requested task is to track a light path using computer input devices (keyboard and mouse) or a rigid body handled in front of a stereoscopic camera. The light path is visualized either on direct vision or by way of a electro-stimulation device, the Tongue Display Unit, a 12x12 matrix of electrodes. We improve our method by a series of experiments in which the effect of the modality of perception and that of the input device. Preliminary results indicated a close correlation between the stimulated and recorded trajectories.
Elution efficiency of gel generator with Ti-Mo and Zr-Mo matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analysis of the elution profile of the Zr-Mo gel generator matrix was carried out and the optimum drying temperature of Zr polymolybdate xerogel was determined. Substitutional functions can be used to describe the gel matrix elution profile. The kinetics of Tc passage from the Zr-Mo xerogel matrix into solution was examined, and a pseudomonomolecular reaction was proposed to describe the chemical kinetics. The Ti-Mo matrix seems to be more radiation- and temperature-sensitive. In Ti-Mo targets an increase in local temperature results in the destruction of the zeolite structure of the matrix and in the appearance of Mo5+ ions in the matrix. This causes a substantial decrease in the yield of 99mTc. (author) 8 tabs., 10 refs
2010-07-01
...)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section 721... Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic... identified generically as phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo...
A nonsupersymmetric matrix orbifold
Banks, T; Banks, Tom; Motl, Lubos
2000-01-01
We construct the matrix description for a twisted version of the IIA string theory on S^1 with fermions antiperiodic around a spatial circle. The result is a 2+1-dimensional U(N) x U(N) nonsupersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with fermionic matter transforming in the (N,Nbar). The two U(N)'s are exchanged if one goes around a twisted circle of the worldvolume. Relations with Type 0 theories are explored and we find Type 0 matrix string limits of our gauge theory. We argue however that most of these results are falsified by the absence of SUSY nonrenormalization theorems and that the models do not in fact have a sensible Lorentz invariant space time interpretation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In order to obtain meaningful analytical information from an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer, it is necessary to correlate measured intensity values with sample concentrations. The ability to do this to a desired level of precision depends on taking care of a number of variables which influence measured intensity values. These variables include: the sample, which needs to be homogeneous, flat and critically thick to the analyte lines used for measurement; the spectrometer, which needs to perform any mechanical movements in a highly reproducible manner; the time taken to measure an analyte line, and the software, which needs to take care of detector dead-time, the contribution of background to the measured signal, the effects of line overlaps and matrix (absorption and enhancement) effects. This presentation will address commonly used correction procedures for matrix effects and their relative success in achieving their objective. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc
Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang
2015-09-15
Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions. PMID:26371930
Extended Matrix Variate Hypergeometric Functions and Matrix Variate Distributions
Daya K. Nagar; Raúl Alejandro Morán-Vásquez; Gupta, Arjun K.
2015-01-01
Hypergeometric functions of matrix arguments occur frequently in multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, we define and study extended forms of Gauss and confluent hypergeometric functions of matrix arguments and show that they occur naturally in statistical distribution theory.
BRENNER, BARBARA; Bodo B. Schlegelmilch; Ambos, Björn
2013-01-01
This case describes how Nike, a consumer goods company with an ever expanding portfolio and a tremendous brand value, manages the tradeoff between local responsiveness and global integration. In particular, the case highlights Nike's organizational structure that consists of a global matrix organization that is replicated at a regional level for the European market. While this organizational structure allows Nike to respond to local consumer tastes it also ensures that the company benefits f...
Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex
Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M.
2015-12-01
We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.
Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: muthu@polysci.umass.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)
2015-12-28
We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.
Infinite matrix products and the representation the gamma matrix function
J.-C. Cortés; Jódar, L.; Francisco J. Solís; Roberto Ku-Carrillo
2015-01-01
We introduce infinite matrix products including some of their main properties and convergence results. We apply them in order to extend to the matrix scenario the definition of the scalar gamma function given by an infinite product due to Weierstrass. A limit representation of the matrix gamma function is also provided.
Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview
Halim Ahmad; Khoo Teng; Shah Jumaat
2010-01-01
The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substit...
Co-substitution of carbonate and fluoride in hydroxyapatite: Effect on substitution type and content
Zhu, Qing-Xia; Li, Ya-Ming; Han, Dan
2015-04-01
The nanosized hydroxyapatite substituted by fluoride and carbonate ions (CFHA) had been synthesized by aqueous precipitation method. CFHA had been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO{3/2-} and F- on the substitution type and content. The morphologies of CFHAs were observed by TEM. The carbonate substitution type and content were characterized by FTIR. The fluoride contents were determined by F-selective electrode. The phase compositions and crystallinity of the samples were investigated by XRD. The fluoride and carbonate contents of CFHA increase with the dopant concentrations nonlinearly. The carbonate substitution has much more obvious effect on morphology compared with the fluoride substitution. The co-existence of CO{3/2-} and F- ions can influence the corresponding substitution fraction. The isomorphic substitution of sodium for calcium in the substitution process of CO{3/2-} can improve crystal degree and favor the B-type substitutions. Due to the closeness of the ion radii and equivalent substitution of F- and OH-, F- will occupy the OH- sites of HA crystals more easily, compelling most of the CO{3/2-} to be located in the B sites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.V. Vashchenko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article examines the preconditions and prospects of import substitution implementation by native producers of machine-building industry. It is based on the analysis of the different countries experiences in import substitution implementation for their economic growth and renovation. The rational explanation of the import substitution strategy formation and implementation at the management level of enterprise development is given. It allows to form more clearly the mission and objectives of enterprise’s effective management in an unstable external environment. The results of the analysis. The definition of the concept «industrial enterprise import substitution strategy» was formulated. The scientific and methodical aspects to the definition of the perspective directions for the import substitution strategy were developed. It allows to choose the best solution while considering the set of criteria. The matrix «the group's share in the product portfolio of an enterprise – the priority directions of the import substitution strategy realization» was developed using the method of hierarchies analysis. It helps to choose direction of the import substitution strategy implementation. According to the matrix it is possible to distinguish five zones in which it is ossible to choose the direction of the import substitution strategy implementation at industrial enterprises. Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is proved that for the purpose of determining of strategically effective directions of industrial enterprise development it is advisable to use principle of «sales funnel» phased selection of promising groups of product portfolio according to the criteria «degree of market risk and the additional ratio of return per unit of risk investment». The analysis of these indicators provides an opportunity to identify risk of attractive investment project and growth of the commodity portfolio groups
Matrix Completions and Chordal Graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kenneth John HARRISON
2003-01-01
In a matrix-completion problem the aim is to specifiy the missing entries of a matrix inorder to produce a matrix with particular properties. In this paper we survey results concerning matrix-completion problems where we look for completions of various types for partial matrices supported ona given pattern. We see that thc existence of completions of the required type often depends on thechordal properties of graphs associated with the pattern.
Orbit equivalent substitution dynamical systems and complexity
Bezuglyi, S
2012-01-01
For any primitive proper substitution \\sigma, we give explicit constructions of countably many pairwise non-isomorphic substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})}_{n=1}^{\\infty} such that they all are (strong) orbit equivalent to (X_{\\sigma}, T_{\\sigma}). We show that the complexity of the substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})} is essentially different that prevents them from being isomorphic. Given a primitive (not necessarily proper) substitution \\tau, we find a stationary simple properly ordered Bratteli diagram with the least possible number of vertices such that the corresponding Bratteli-Vershik system is orbit equivalent to (X_{\\tau}, T_{\\tau}).
47 CFR 76.110 - Substitutions.
2010-10-01
... blackout rules at § 76.111, substitute a program from any other television broadcast station. Programs... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports...
Substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications: A review
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šupová, Monika
2015-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 8 (2015), s. 9203-9231. ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * substitution Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2014
Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael; Kristensen, Jesper L
2006-01-01
The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....
The cellulose resource matrix.
Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G
2013-03-01
The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the
A Homeomorphism Invariant for Substitution Tiling Spaces
Ormes, Nic; Radin, Charles; Sadun, Lorenzo
2000-01-01
We derive a homeomorphism invariant for those tiling spaces which are made by rather general substitution rules on polygonal tiles, including those tilings, like the pinwheel, which contain tiles in infinitely many orientations. The invariant is a quotient of Cech cohomology, is easily computed directly from the substitution rule, and distinguishes many examples, including most pinwheel-like tiling spaces. We also introduce a module structure on cohomology which is very convenient as well as ...
Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization
Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.
1999-01-01
Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.
CONSERVATION PRICING AND GROUND WATER SUBSTITUTION
Schuck, Eric C.; Green, Gareth P.
2001-01-01
The United States Bureau of Reclamation has been exploring the use of water price as a tool for promoting water conservation. Raising water rates is an attractive means of reducing diversions from surface water systems supplied by the USBR. Rising water rates may promote ground water substitution. When irrigators have access to both surface and ground water, changes in the relative cost of each water source can encourage movement from one source to another. Ground water substitution will occu...
Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Katarina Kralova; Josef Jampilek; Vladimir Buchta; Jarmila Vinsova; Lukas Palek; Martin Dolezal
2006-01-01
Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid) withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and...
Industrialisation: Import Substitution to Export Promotion
Jayanthakumaran, K.
2000-01-01
Import-substitution policy creates biases in the incentive structure and lowers the growth of potential exports in the long run. Trade reforms in this respect are likely to reduce the gap between domestic and border prices. The expectation is to bring better industrial performance on the lines of comparative advantages. This paper examines the import-substitution policy and the effect and impact of trade liberalisation.
Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru
Liliana Rojas-Suárez
1992-01-01
This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...
Similartity Network For Semantic Web Services Substitution
Cherifi, Chantal
2013-01-01
Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...
SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION
Cherifi, Chantal
2013-01-01
Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...
Eisenman, Richard L
2005-01-01
This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur
Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A.
- : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf
Matrix string partition function
Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre
1998-01-01
We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.
Substituting missing data in compositional analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
2011-10-15
Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.
Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.
Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan
2016-03-01
A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of
Matrix algebra for linear models
Gruber, Marvin H J
2013-01-01
Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f
Hierarchical Matrix Techniques on Massively Parallel Computers
Izadi, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Hierarchical matrix (H-matrix) techniques can be used to efficiently treat dense matrices. With an H-matrix, the storage requirements and performing all fundamental operations, namely matrix-vector multiplication, matrix-matrix multiplication and matrix inversion can be done in almost linear complexity. In this work, we tried to gain even further speedup for the H-matrix arithmetic by utilizing multiple processors. Our approach towards an H-matrix distribution relies on the s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Luis RamÃrez-Rojas
1986-03-01
Full Text Available Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the case of an open economy the calculations of revenue-maximing rates of inflation have been made using a restrictive model that assumes that domestic residents can only substitute between domestic money and goods (and real assets. The paper demonstrates that once the effects of currency substitution, so common in developing countries, are taken into account, the inflation rate that maximizes the proceeds of the inflation tax can be quite lower than would be the case when currency substitution is ignored.
Characterization of supercapacitors matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shan, Y. V.; Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Kozeschnik, E.
Zurich: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Mishra, B.; Ionescu, M.; Chandra, T.), s. 645-650. ( Advanced Materials Research. 922). ISBN 978-3-03835-074-3. ISSN 1022-6680. [THERMEC 2013 - International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials: Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications /8/. Las Vegas (US), 02.12.2013-06.12.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : interstitial trapping * chemical potential * trapping enthalpy * carbon * nitrogen Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics
[Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].
Michel, L; Maguet, O
2005-01-01
Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Remya
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc seeded extracellular matrix [ECM] was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB. Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed. Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I. Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.
Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1987-01-01
The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.
Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1987-01-01
The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove
2014-01-01
useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration of a...... an appropriate unit of analysis and that categories of such practices can be established by an axis of articulation work and an axis of the codification needed to express and coordinate knowledge and work efforts. Keywords: E-learning; distance education; synchronous; distributed; assemblages...... different approach to learning situations based on the idea that tools, technology and learning environments are media through which participants simultaneously acquire proficiency to articulate and gain a perspective in order to decode what is going on. To effectively interact online, we contend that both...
Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component
Rügheimer, Louise
2008-09-01
The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control
Craps, B; Verlinde, E; Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik
2005-01-01
The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.
Matrix Quantization of Turbulence
Floratos, Emmanuel
2011-01-01
Based on our recent work on Quantum Nambu Mechanics $\\cite{af2}$, we provide an explicit quantization of the Lorenz chaotic attractor through the introduction of Non-commutative phase space coordinates as Hermitian $ N \\times N $ matrices in $ R^{3}$. For the volume preserving part, they satisfy the commutation relations induced by one of the two Nambu Hamiltonians, the second one generating a unique time evolution. Dissipation is incorporated quantum mechanically in a self-consistent way having the correct classical limit without the introduction of external degrees of freedom. Due to its volume phase space contraction it violates the quantum commutation relations. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg-Nambu evolution equations for the Matrix Lorenz system develop fast decoherence to N independent Lorenz attractors. On the other hand there is a weak dissipation regime, where the quantum mechanical properties of the volume preserving non-dissipative sector survive for long times.
Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibrahim Doreya
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nano powders containing silicon and or carbonate prepared by a wet chemical method. The process parameters are set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of carbonate and silicon ions in the place of phosphorus. The chemical and structural characterizations of the prepared powders are determined with the aid of; XRF, ICP, XRD and FTIR. The results show that, the ion substitution in the crystal lattice of HA caused a change in the unit cell dimensions and affected the degree of crystallization of the produced powders. The apatite formation abilityy of the prepared discs from the synthesized powders is determined by immersing in SBF solution for different periods. The degree of ion release was determined in the obtained solutions. The examined surface of the immersed discs under SEM and analyzed by CDS showed a more dense HA layer than those of un-substituted ones. The HA with the substituted silicon and carbonate ions, showed the highest solubility with greater rate of ion release, compared with carbonate-free powder. All prepared powders took sodium ion from the SBF solution during immersion, which was not recorded before.
Egg substitutes: chemical and biologic evaluations.
Childs, M T; Ostrander, J
1976-03-01
The total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid content of dried whole egg (DWE), a refrigerated liquid egg substitute, a powdered egg substitute, and a commercial egg yolk replacer (EYR) were compared. All substitutes contained less total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid than DWE. The powdered substitute contained only half the total lipid content reported by the producers and only a fifth of the cholesterol of DWE, while the percentage distribution of fatty acids was similar to that of DWE. The liquid substitute and EYR had fatty acid distributions similar to soybean oil. Rat growth and lipid response were compared for diets containing either DWE or a mixture of EYR and egg white. Both diets were fed with and without vitamin and mineral supplements. Rat growth response was greatest on the DWE diets, either with or without the supplements, was intermediate on the supplemented EYR diets, and was least on the unsupplemented EYR diets. The consumption of DWE-containing diets, when compared with the EYR-containing diets, caused greater liver weight, greater liver total lipid and total cholesterol content, and slightly higher serum cholesterol. PMID:942984
Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Cherubino
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28
Sanginario, V; Ginebra, M P; Tanner, K E; Planell, J A; Ambrosio, L
2006-05-01
Biodegradable and semi-biodegradable composite hydrogels are proposed as bone substitutes. They consist of an hydrophilic biodegradable polymer (HYAFF 11) as matrix and two ceramic powders (alpha-TCP and HA) as reinforcement. Both components of these composites have been of great interest in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility and tissue interactions, however they have never been investigated as bone substitute composites. Morphological and mechanical analysis have shown that the two fillers behave in a very different way. In the HYAFF 11/alpha-TCP composite, alpha-TCP is able to hydrolyze in contact with water while in the HYAFF 11 matrix. As a result, the composite sets and hardens, and entangled CDHA crystals are formed in the hydrogel phase and increases in the mechanical properties are obtained. In the HYAFF11/HA composite the ceramic reinforcement acts as inert phase leading to lower mechanical properties. Both mechanical properties and microstructure analysis have demonstrated the possibility to design hydrophilic biodegradable composite structures for bone tissue substitution applications. PMID:16688585
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kozáková Aneta
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Substitute Family Care is an institute for children when their parents, for whatever reason, are unable to care for the children themselves. This paper is concerned with substitute family care in the Czech Republic. The paper is specifically aimed at the process of mediating of the substitute family care. A social worker, in the process of mediating of the substitute family care, has a key role, nevertheless, the social worker co-operatives with other people involved, such as psychologists and medical examiners. People involved are abided by the law, different methodologies and recommendations, but even so they are highly benevolent when assessing claimant for substitute family care. The research problem is described in the introduction. The term of substitute family care is explained and the process of mediating of the substitute family care is described there. The issues of who else is interested in this process and what requirements are imposed on a claimant for substitute family care, are also described and explained in this chapter. Research methodology is described subsequently. The aim of the research is to describe how people involved in the process of mediating of the alternative family care perceive and interpret the requests asked of the claimant. The main and sub research questions are based on the aim of the research. Qualitative research strategy is applied and field research, as a type of research, is selected by Miovský. In the last part of the paper the interesting findings from the carried out research are interpreted and discussed. The very process of mediating of the substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian Region is described. The attitude of the people involved towards the requirements imposed on substitute parents is also described. Sub-questions are answered in the end.
Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity
Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.
Substitution between Cars within the Household
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects of...... increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices are...
Dorey, Nick; Turner, Carl
2016-01-01
We study a U(N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large $N$ limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We study a U( N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS2), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II
Wang, Xingqiao; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Tianyou; Hu, Jianzhi; Qiu, Jianqing
1989-04-01
A series of SAPO-5 samples with different numbers of silicon atoms are investigated by chemical analysis, XRD and CP/MAS NMR. The results indicate that the lines at about -102 and -110 ppm observed in the 29Si NMR spectra of the SAPO-5 samples are due to the non-framework silicon phase which is structurally similar to the synthesis gel. The corrected framework compositions of SAPO-5 samples strongly suggest that Si is only substituted by framework P (case 2). Si simultaneously substituted by both framework P and Al (case 3) is unlikely.
Parallel substitution algorithm theory and application
Achasova, S; Markova, V; Piskunov, S
1994-01-01
Parallel Substitution Algorithm (PSA) is a new model for distributed (cellular) computations. It provides a concise mapping of distributed computation processes into cellular arrays. A PSA is specified by a set of parallel substitutions operating over a cellular array.Two concepts make PSA a powerful tool for modelling cellular computations: 1) naming functions which allow the specification of any type of interactions in the computation space, 2) a context which serves to represent control of a computational process in time.The foundation of PSA theory comprises validity conditions of computat
Substitution between cars within the household
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan
The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...
Soluble N-Substituted Organosilane Polybenzimidazoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaehn, J. R.; Luther, T. A.; Orme, C. J.; Jones, M. G.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.
2007-10-01
Six organosilane derivatives were synthesized, and are more soluble in common organic solvents (tetrahydrofuran and chloroform) than the parent polybenzimidazole. Our polymer modification pathway provides a straightforward synthesis that can be carried out at room temperature and give reasonable yields. Solution 1H NMR spectra of both the parent and deprotonated polybenzimidazoles are reported. Based upon the NMR analysis in CDCl3, nearly all of the benzimidazole N-H positions are substituted by the organosilane moieties. Some of the modified polymers have similar thermal properties compared to the parent polymer, and the average molecular weights are higher for the substituted polybenzimidazoles than the parent PBI.
Factor Input Substitution in Irish Manufacturing
Haller, Stefanie A.; Hyland, Marie
2014-01-01
We use a translog cost function to model production in the Irish manufacturing sector over the period from 1991 to 2009. We estimate both own- and cross-price elasticities and Morishima elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, materials and energy. We find that capital and energy are substitutes in the production process. Across all firms we find that a 1% rise in the price of energy is associated with an increase of 0.1% in the demand for capital. The Morishima elasticities, whi...
Substitution-diffusion based Image Cipher
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narendra K Pareek
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 128-bit size is proposed. In thealgorithm, image is partitioned into several key based dynamic blocks and further, each block passesthrough the eight rounds of diffusion as well as substitution process. In diffusion process, sequences ofblock pixels are rearranged within the block by a zigzag approach whereas block pixels are replaced withanother by using difference calculation of row and column in substitution process. Due to high order ofsubstitution and diffusion, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. Theexperimental results show that the proposed technique is efficient and has high security features.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-01-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio DMRG algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab-initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational par...
Quinten, Thomas; Andrews, GP; De Beer, Thomas; Saerens, Lien; Bouquet-Geerardyn, Wim; Jones, DS; Hornsby, P.; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris
2012-01-01
Sustained-release matrix tablets based on Eudragit RL and RS were manufactured by injection moulding. The influence of process temperature; matrix composition; drug load, plasticizer level; and salt form of metoprolol: tartrate (MPT), fumarate (MPF) and succinate (MPS) on ease of processing and drug release were evaluated. Formulations composed of 70/30% Eudragit RL/MPT showed the fastest drug release, substituting part of Eudragit RL by RS resulted in slower drug release, all following first...
SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF SOME SUBSTITUTED 2, 3-SUBSTITUTED QUINAZOLINONE ANALOGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Rajasekaran*, Gopalkrishna Rao and H.S. Niranjan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there is a tremendous increase of drug resistant pathogens, leading to the design and development of newer antitubercular agents. A series of 2-(substituted-phenyl-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3-amino-2-(substituted-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-ones were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl chloride with anthranilic acid and 2- (substituted phenyl-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one with hydrazine hydrate in absolute alcohol respectively. The title compounds 2-substituted phenyl-3-(thiophen-2-ylmethyleneamino quinazolin-4(3H-ones and 2-(substituted phenyl-3-(1-(furan-2-ylethylideneamino quinazolin-4(3H-ones were obtained by reacting 3-amino-2-(substituted phenyl quinazolin-4(3H-one with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-acetyl furan respectively. The title compounds have been characterized by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectra. The synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their antitubercular activity. Few of the compounds exhibited significant antitubercular while other compounds showed moderate activity.
Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article
Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert
2016-01-12
A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.
S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.
2013-01-01
We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.
Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng
2012-01-01
This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…
Matrix Analysis of Tracer Transport
Mills, Peter
2015-01-01
We review matrix methods as applied to tracer transport. Because tracer transport is linear, matrix methods are an ideal fit for the problem. In particular, solutions of linear, first-order systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are reviewed as well as special properties of these solutions. Detailed derivations are included
Machining of Metal Matrix Composites
2012-01-01
Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...
Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2010-01-01
In this article we consider the distributions of non-negative random vectors with a joint rational Laplace transform, i.e., a fraction between two multi-dimensional polynomials. These distributions are in the univariate case known as matrix-exponential distributions, since their densities can be...... written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem for the...
On interfuel substitution : some international evidence
Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda; Vasetsky, Olexandr
2009-01-01
This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the national and sector levels. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional forms, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that th...
Substitutional NaCl hydration in ice
Feibelman, Peter J.
2007-06-01
Na+ and Cl- can replace water molecules in ice Ih with minimal lattice strain and without disrupting the crystal’s H-bond network. First-principles calculations show that substitutional solvation is endothermic by as little as 0.49eV per ion pair. Interstitial ion solvation is less favorable by >1.5eV .
Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard
2010-01-01
Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very...
Equivalent substitution in the control theory
Proudnikov, Igor
2012-01-01
A system of differential equations with control is considered. A rule for equivalent substitution of this system is given. The system of differential equations is changed for two systems with upper and lower approximation functions of a function on the right side of the initial system in a region of attainability.
A Partial Taxonomy of Substitutability and Interchangeability
Karakashian, Shant; Choueiry, Berthe Y; Prestwhich, Steven; Freuder, Eugene C
2010-01-01
Substitutability, interchangeability and related concepts in Constraint Programming were introduced approximately twenty years ago and have given rise to considerable subsequent research. We survey this work, classify, and relate the different concepts, and indicate directions for future work, in particular with respect to making connections with research into symmetry breaking. This paper is a condensed version of a larger work in progress.
Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.
2005-01-01
A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.
Antitrypanosomal Activities of Fluoroquinolones with Pyrrolidinyl Substitutions
Nenortas, Elizabeth; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Burri, Christian; Shapiro, Theresa A.
2003-01-01
Fluoroquinolones with pyrrolidinyl substitutions were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and mammalian cells. Bulky substituents at C-7 or a 1-2-bridging thiazolidine ring increased antitrypanosomal activity and selective toxicity. These compounds trap protein-DNA complexes and inhibit nucleic acid biosynthesis in trypanosomes, characteristics of topoisomerase II inhibition.