WorldWideScience
1

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

2

An update on blast furnace granular coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

1997-12-31

3

Understanding a blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the drainage of molten iron and slag from a blast furnace have been carried out by ANSTO scientists by monitoring the passage of radioactive tracers through the furnace. Gold-198 and cobalt-60 are used to track the molten iron, and lanthanum-140 and scandium-46 are used to track the slag

4

Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process  

OpenAIRE

The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw mater...

Besta, P.; Samolejova?, A.; Lenort, R.; Janovska?, K.; Kuta?c?, J.; Sikorova?, A.

2014-01-01

5

Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

P. Besta

2014-10-01

6

Blast furnace operation analysis by thermic exergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to know the blast furnace thermic state, the thermic exergy can be used, which considers the temperatures level of the process. The magnitude analysis of thermic exergy for blast furnace operation using pulverized coal, natural gas and oxygen injection by tuyeres, shows that natural gas injection is less effective than pulverized coal and enriched blast with oxygen simultaneous injection. (Author) 6 refs

7

The use of blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

Va?clavi?k, V.; Dirner, V.; Dvorsky?, T.; Daxner, J.

2012-01-01

8

The use of blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

V. Václavík

2012-10-01

9

Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

10

Coal injection at the Uckange blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The powdered coal injection has been in fully industrial use in blast furnace no3 at Uckange works since January 1982, after preliminary tests in this same furnace with a pilot unit. From 40 to 80 kg of powdered coal per ton of hot metal is being injected. The coals injected from January to July 1982 was lorrain high volatile coals. Different qualities of coals have been tested, in order to establish the equivalence coefficient coal/coke and to study the technical, metallurgical and economical aspects of powdered coal injection into blast furnace tuyeres. The metallurgical results are close to the Japanese results of Oita blast furnace no1. In the present conditions this coefficient can be estimated as: 1kg of high volatile coal = 0.9 to 1.00 kg coke. This value can be considered as a minimum. Powdered coal injection into blast furnace tuyeres provides an interesting and supplementary way at the disposal of the blast furnace operator to produce a good quality hot metal in the best operating and economical conditions.

Colnot, B.

1982-11-01

11

Studies on High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags  

OpenAIRE

In the present work, viscosities and sulphide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were investigated. The systems investigated were four component CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-CaF2 quinary systems. Viscosities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined by the rotating cylinder method using Brookfield digital viscometer model LVDV-II+ pro. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1573- 1873 ...

Shankar, Amitabh

2007-01-01

12

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and ...

Ali Azadeh; Ghaderi, S. F.

2006-01-01

13

Applications of numerical simulation for blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

The blast furnace plays an important role in the steel making industry, and it is a good facility to reduce iron ore to liquid iron. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)—an inexpensive, efficient, and powerful tool—has been applied to improve operation efficiency and prolong its working life. The present thesis contains two parts. First, mathematical models are generated for a chemical reaction simulation. After validation of results, two essential parameters are calibrated and applied thro...

Chen, Yan

2012-01-01

14

BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

15

The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace  

OpenAIRE

Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge...

Ra?enovic?, A.; Malina, J.; Matijas?ic?, G.

2009-01-01

16

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND CONTROL OF THE BLAST FURNACE PROCESS  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study have been: to develop a mathematical model for the blast furnace process and to implement its steady state simulation on a digital computer; to extend it into a dynamic simulation model; and to formulate and propose a detailed strategy for the optimization of the blast furnace operation.^ The first part of the study consists of the development of the mathematical model for the blast furnace process. For this purpose the process was divided into four major zones...

Ufret Acevedo, Carlos Manuel

1981-01-01

17

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of blast furnace shaft  

OpenAIRE

Computational fluid dynamics simulation is a tool to better understand the behavior of the gas-solid flow and in-furnace performance of blast furnace. This thesis consists of four parts. First, development and use of a mathematical model to predict the burden distribution which has a great effect on gas distribution and furnace efficiency. Second, simulate the blast furnace shaft process considering chemical reactions, heat exchanges, and gas-solid flow dynamics. Third, validate the burden di...

Rahman, Taifur

2012-01-01

18

Thermomechanical modelling of a blast furnace hearth  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able to estimate the stress state in service. To identify the behaviour of bricks, mortars and ramming mix, characterization tests have been developed for temperatures up to 1500°C. A modified Cam-clay model is identified for the ramming mix. The masonry modelling is based on a macroscopic approach where bricks and mortars are replaced by a set of equivalent homogeneous materials accounting for the differ...

Brulin, Je?ro?me; Rekik, Amna; Blond, Eric; Josserand, Laurent; Gasser, Alain; Roulet, Fre?de?ric

2011-01-01

19

Silicon behaviour at the blast furnace process  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Views on the reduction of SiO2 at the blast furnace process began to change in the mid 70s. Nowadays it is claimed that the silicon appears in the metal not only from the slag SiO2 reduction at the liquid phase, but also from a gaseous SiO. Presented in this paper, laboratory tests were aimed on finding the effect of temperature and MgO containing in the slag on the dynamics of the Si transition to the pig iron at the liquid phase at time when slag lies on metal.Design/methodology/ap...

Klimczyk, A.; Stachura, R.; Bernasowski, M.; ?e?dzki, A.

2012-01-01

20

Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke  

OpenAIRE

The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgi...

Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Amp Rkki, Jouko J. H.

2008-01-01

21

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most important regions of worldwide iron production. The prospects for future possible developments of blast furnace technology is presented, too.Findings: of this analysis show that directions of development of blast furnace technologies is characterized by: an increase the overall productivity of blast furnaces, the increase in volume blast furnaces and extending the period for campaign work of blast furnaces, systematic improving the quality of blast furnace charge, controlling its distribution, the introduction of coal dust injection and modernization of the equipments. Moreover, some specific researches were carried out e.g. a new process granulation for the control of melting materials, hybrid bonding iron ore of inferior quality, decreasing CO2 emissions in the process of sintering iron.The Chinese iron industry is oriented on modification of uneconomical structure of the iron production, excessive energy consumption and heavy impact on global environment. Research limitations/implications: Simulation calculations show that the future lines of the development of blast furnace technology should take into account: a use lower temperatures of hot blast and high blast enrichment in oxygen. b. injection of various fuels taking into account their prices in various world regions, c. the effective use of top gas, d. the possibility of eliminating blast furnace stoves. Originality/value: of the paper consist in transfer of knowledge helpful to further lowering energy for iron production and reducing harmful impact for the natural environment.

J. Mróz

2012-12-01

22

Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

23

Blast furnace vs. smelting reduction: competition or synergy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Injection of natural or prereduced iron ore at blast furnace opens new opportunities for increasing the productivity since some operating constraints are overcome. This paper proposes some possible evolution of the blast furnace from an analysis of the main operating constraints of the current practice with high coal injection. 4 refs., 11 tabs.

Michard, J.A.; Schneider, M.; de Lassat de Pressigny, Y.; Hanrot, F.

2000-07-01

24

Computational fluid dynamics simulation of blast furnace hearth drainage  

OpenAIRE

Iron and slag are the products from blast furnace and normally drained out as a mixture via taphole. Two tapholes are opening alternatively in the large-scale blast furnace hearth. After the taphole switches, molten iron is only tapped out at the first few minutes. This phenomenon is observed widely in the large-scale blast furnace and it is called the Slag delay. Due to the high temperature and high pressure inside the furnace, it is hard to execute real-time observations. A CFD model is dev...

Leu, Chao-lun

2010-01-01

25

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

Science.gov (United States)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

26

Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radiaidentified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently determining the chemical significance of this information and its relation to the differing cementitious properties of the two compounds. This analytical technique is now being investigated on data generated at the HIFAR reactor

27

Natural radioactivity in blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is part of a series of systematic investigations on natural radioactivity in iron and steel raw materials in finite products. The blast furnace slag is an iron and steel by-product most useful in industry. The analyses of slag samples from each batch over three months reveled the presence of the natural series 232 Th and 238 U. For detection we used a high resolution gamma spectrometry system with built-in computer in Marinelli geometry. The specific activities of the following descendants were given: 212 Pb, 208 Tl, 228 Ac, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi. Natural radioactivity was found to be lower in slag than in iron and steel raw materials. (Author)

28

Pressurized water model of the blast furnace hearth drainage  

OpenAIRE

In the process of making iron, the liquid level at the blast furnace hearth is one important effect to consider in the operation. The liquid level is check in order to have a smooth running process. Many numerical methods have been done and analyzed in order to have an understanding of the liquid behavior inside the blast furnace. All numerical methods done, about the liquid level, show a strong flow phenomenon at the taphole of the blast furnace. Since many numerical methods already exist, a...

Alvarez, Pedro

2011-01-01

29

Determination of leakages in blast furnace cooling plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of T into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation (LS) counting, the concentration of T in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 L/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author)

30

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution. PMID:15511583

Oguz, Ensar

2004-10-18

31

Deposition of cesium and cobalt sorbed on zeolite in matrices of blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

137Cs and 60Co were sorbed from model solutions and waste water on chemically treated granular zeolite. The zeolite was incorporated into cement slurries based on blast furnace slag (BFS). The compressive and bending strength were measured after different times of hydration. The leaching tests were performed in water, base and acid solutions. The leachability was more pronounced only for samples in acidic solutions. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

32

The use of radioactive tracers in the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of the blast furnace operation does not depend only on the properties of the materials but also on the conditions of contact between phases. Radioactive tracers have brought new information about the motion of gas, solids and liquids inside the furnace. The flow of materials through the furnace may be well described using a two zones model: the shaft is a counter current heat and mass exchanger with a plug flow behaviour; the dripping zone and the hearth behave like a mixed reactor. An original technique has been developed at IRSID using xenon capsules to measure the location of isotherms in the blast furnace. This technique has been applied to establish relations between the heat pattern and the operation of french blast furnaces. It has brought about a better understanding of the internal conditions of the furnace through the description of the various local thermal and chemical paths that may exist in central operating blast furnaces. The heterogeneous distribution of gas and solids on the furnace radius has been related with the efficiency of gas solid reactions in the shaft, with the aerodynamics of the furnace and with the thermal conditions at the walls

33

Silicon behaviour at the blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Views on the reduction of SiO2 at the blast furnace process began to change in the mid 70s. Nowadays it is claimed that the silicon appears in the metal not only from the slag SiO2 reduction at the liquid phase, but also from a gaseous SiO. Presented in this paper, laboratory tests were aimed on finding the effect of temperature and MgO containing in the slag on the dynamics of the Si transition to the pig iron at the liquid phase at time when slag lies on metal.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory tests carried out in laboratory on devices AGH described in detail in other studies such as [8-11]. Metal used in the study obtained by carbonizing the carbon-iron saturation assuming the values given by J. Chipman [7].Findings: Observations of industrial units in combination with laboratory tests allowed us to approximately determine the contribution of silicon from the gaseous SiO in hot metal.Research limitations/implications: Si content in the metal after the test at a constant temperature is less than taping pig iron of about 0.15 to 0.35%. This means that in addition to the reduction reaction of the silica source of silicon in the slag is reduced gaseous SiO , which is in line with those of the authors [2-5, 8-10]. This will also be the subject of the next stage of research.Practical implications: As a result, developed guidelines and proposals for the conduct of blast-furnace technology to minimize Si in pig iron.Originality/value: The AGH research team has approached to issue of SiO2 reduction complexly. The work is divided into stages. Laboratory studies combined with industry specific observations. As a result of this approach to work is possible to develop a practical technology to minimize silicon in the pig iron. Articles published in reputable journals on similar or related topics do not include all issues.

A. Klimczyk

2012-12-01

34

A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

Andersson, Annika

2003-01-01

35

Use of PCI in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing steel demand and growing competition from scrap-based mini-mills is forcing blast furnace (BF) based plants to improve their performance in order to reduce operating costs and, at the same time, increase productivity. One way to achieve this is by injecting pulverised coal directly into the BF. Injection of coal causes a number of changes within the BF, some of which can be detrimental. This report begins by outlining some of the technical issues associated with high pulverised coal injection (PCI) rates. It then discusses the effect of coal quality on the performance of BFs with the emphasis on the properties of coal that influence its selection. The requirements relating to coke quality have become more stringent at high PCI rates, and this is discussed, along with the quality of iron ore. The pulverisation and injection of coal is examined. Coal combustion is an important parameter as it affects the amount of coal that can be injected. It produces, along with coke combustion, both heat and reducing gases for the ironmaking process. Coal combustion within the raceway and the consumption of unburnt char outside the raceway are discussed. Finally, the transfer of silicon and sulphur from coal to the hot metal (pig iron), which adversely affects its quality, is described. The report concludes that blending offers advantages in improving the performance of coals. Its importance is likely to increase as injection rates approach the theoretical maximum and will provide furnace operators with the flexibility in coal selection to meet their particular needs. With better predication and improved understanding of the effect of coal properties and how operating conditions can be optimised, there is the potential to identify suitable, as well as cheaper, coals. This could provide significant cost savings whilst maintaining a high productivity. 184 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Carpenter, A.M. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2006-09-15

36

Review and evaluation of alternative processes to the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical review on the alternative processes to the blast furnace, involving both solid and liquid state reduction is presented. Process comparison allows to identify advantages and disadvantages of each type of processes as well as to highlight the major challenges faced in order to compete with the traditional iron making route: the blast furnace, which today rules the production of iron units worldwide. (Author) 31 refs

37

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

OpenAIRE

Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considerin...

Verdeja, L. F.; Gonza?lez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbe?s, Mª F.

2003-01-01

38

Evaluation of the REAS test for blast furnace charge materials  

OpenAIRE

During the past two decades many efforts have been made to increase the control of blast furnace conditions to ensure a homogeneous product. The dissections on blast furnaces by various iron and steel companies in Japan in the early 70s provided valuable information on the high temperature properties of charging material. Standard tests (ISO) to determine ore, sinter and pellet qualities only provide information of up to 1100°C . By using the REAS apparatus - a high temperature reducti...

Vyver, Wilhelmina Fredrika

2006-01-01

39

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most...

Mro?z, J.

2012-01-01

40

15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

Noska, T.G.L. [Iscor Ltd., Gauteng (South Africa)

1995-07-01

41

Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and Virtual Reality visualization of a blast furnace hearth  

OpenAIRE

The blast furnace is an important unit for producing pig iron in the steel industry. The hearth of the blast furnace plays a critical role for the furnace campaign life. The erosion of the blast furnace hearth is significantly affected by the temperature distributions inside the hearth. Understanding the heat transfer characteristics of the blast furnace hearth is crucial to direct hearth operation and relining. A 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model had been developed to simulate t...

Hu, Yuzhu

2011-01-01

42

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

43

Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

44

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

45

The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use  

OpenAIRE

In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

Konstanciak, A.

2013-01-01

46

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and cast-iron stations. Furthermore, there are 54 operations for each blast furnace workshop. The results and the structure of the integrated simulation model were verified and validated by comparative analysis and t-test. Moreover, the monthly production rate of cast-iron station is chosen as the performance measure for the actual system and simulation model in a twelve months trial. The results of t-test shows the average monthly production of cast-iron for the two system is statistically equal (at ?=0.05. Also, the industrial engineering unit and the production managers accredited the integrated model. After this stage, the simulation was run for a period of six months to evaluate major bottlenecks in the system. Finally, two optimizing alternatives, which can save the company millions of Dollars, are introduced and their economic advantages are discussed. The integrated simulation model has several unique features. First, it is integrated and considers all operations, maintenance, repairs, quality control activities, systems' limitations and interaction with other systems. Second, it is coded in parametric fashion so any alternative may be easily retrieved. Third, it is a practical tool due to its verification, validation and accreditation. Finally, a standard procedure for development of integrated simulation model for similar blast furnace or workshops is introduced.

Ali Azadeh

2006-01-01

47

Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality  

OpenAIRE

In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

Balgabekov, ?. ?.; Issin, D. K.; Kimanov, B. M.; Issagulov, A. Z.; Zholdubayeva, Zh D.; Akashev, ?. Z.; Issin, B. D.

2014-01-01

48

'Everlasting' cast copper coolers for the blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

Comparing the mechanical properties of copper castings that had been in service for over 10 years as cooling plates in a blast furnace showed that operational service conditions appear to have no effect on the mechanical properties of the cast copper. Any differences measured between newly cast and ex-service cast coppers can be attributed to differences in grain size in the castings.

Baylis, M.; Marrow, J.

2001-01-01

49

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

50

Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

?. ?. Balgabekov

2014-10-01

51

The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

Ra?enovi?, A.

2009-04-01

52

Forecast situation of the blast furnace cohesive zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of sinters are manufactured in the pilot plant, using a mineral mixture, like that blast furnace. The sinters are characterised, by chemical and granulometric analysis and by determining the softening and melting temperatures. In the blast furnace temperatures are determined by using a series of probes in the furnace which make it possible to locate the position of the isotherm of higher temperature of 950 degree centigrade, which correspond to the reserve thermic zone. A model has been developed, proposing and indirect estimation of the shape of the cohesive zone through the determination of the isotherm with the highest temperature in the thermic reserve zone. The values of the softening and melting temperatures of sinters can be used to estimate the isotherms limiting the cohesive zone in the 1300-1400 degree centigrade range. (Author)

53

Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind  

OpenAIRE

The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

Terpa?k, J.; Dorc?a?k, L.; Kos?tial, I.; Pivka, L.

2010-01-01

54

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

55

Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

OpenAIRE

Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ...

Ashish Kumar Pathak; Pandey, Dr V.

2014-01-01

56

Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

OpenAIRE

Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues...

Pathan, Veena G.; Ghutke, Vishal S.; MR. GULFAM PATHAN

2013-01-01

57

A 3D CFD simulation of liquid flow in an ironmaking blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-dimensional CFX-based mathematical model is developed to describe the flow-heat transfer-chemical reactions behaviours of gas-solid-liquid phases in an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The typical in-furnace phenomena of an operating blast furnace, in particular, the liquid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace is simulated in aspects of velocity and volume fraction. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2013-07-01

58

Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

Ashish Kumar Pathak

2014-05-01

59

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

60

Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

1996-12-31

61

Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can be done by adding different media into the wind with different results from the operational and economical viewpoints. Essentially, the following types of media are used in blast furnaces: steam, oxygen, substitution fuels, nitrogen, and waste gas.

J. Terpák

2010-04-01

62

Evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The main aim of the paper is the evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department with the use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and PAMCO method.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation was made for blast furnace department in Polish steel plant. Two methods: OEE and PAMCO was used. The analysis covers the period of 7 years. The analysis was made based on different data: different types of time connected whit work of blast furnaces, inte...

Kardas, E.

2012-01-01

63

An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Heat Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth  

OpenAIRE

This study has focused on determining the heat flows in a production blast furnace hearth. This part of the blast furnace is exposed to high temperatures. In order to increase the campaign length of the lining an improved knowledge of heat flows are necessary. Thus, it has been studied both experimentally and numerically by heat transfer modeling. Measurements of outer surface temperatures in the lower part of a production blast furnace were carried out. In the experimental study, relations w...

Swartling, Maria

2008-01-01

64

The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

A. Konstanciak

2013-04-01

65

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquids temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) (14 refs.)

Tervola, K.; Haerkki, J.

1996-12-31

66

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

1996-12-31

67

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

68

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

69

Continuous measurement of blast-furnace coke moisture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After presenting the advantages of applying neutron moisture gages to the continuous measurement of blast-furnace coke moisture and explaining the factors influencing the measurement accuracy, the necessity of calibrating these devices under flow conditions and the encountered difficulties are discussed. Using statistical methods it has been observed that the main source of calibration errors is the sampling phase. Based on results of mathematical processing, a new calibration method with higher performance - compared with the earlier ones - is proposed. This method allows to achieve high accuracy in a relatively short time. (author)

70

Constructed Wetlands for the Remediation of Blast Furnace Slag Leachates  

OpenAIRE

Air-cooled blast-furnace slag (BFS), a by-product of iron production, is recycled and often used as fill material for roads and other transportation structures. The use of this material in poorly drained areas can produce a greenish leachate, with high pH, elevated sulfate and dissolved solids concentrations, and hydrogen sulfide odor. The occurrence of this leachate from BFS used as fill on I-65 in Northwest Indiana, has resulted in the Indiana Department of Transportation’s (INDOT) remedi...

Banks, M. K.; Schwab, A. Paul; Alleman, James E.; Hunter, James Gregory; Hickey, Jason C.

2006-01-01

71

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

72

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

Verdeja, L. F.

2003-06-01

73

Investigations concerning the wear of a blast-furnace lining by the isotopic tracer method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of the wear of a blast-furnace lining are described. The examination of the lining wear by the isotopic tracer method is presented. The results of measurements of the wear carried out of the lining of live blast furnaces from 500 to 900 m3 capacity are discussed. (author)

74

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

75

Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

Dorc?a?k, L.; Terpa?k, J.; Podlubny?, I.; Pivka, L.

2010-01-01

76

X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 950 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

77

Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

2010-04-01

78

Some experience with radioisotopes in the study of the wear of blast furnace linings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cobalt-60 sources encapsulated in stainless steel are installed in the refractory lining of five out of the six blast furnaces of the Tata Iron and Steel Company, Jamshedpur. The wear of furnace lining has been monitored by monitoring the installed radioactive sources. The experience gained in 4-5 years of blast furnace compaign after the installation of cobalt-60 capsules is described. (M.G.B.)

79

Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

1997-12-31

80

Characterization of the permeability of the blast furnace lower part  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of high coal injection and high productivity operation, the coke behaviour inside the blast furnace hearth is the main parameter to control. Different and complementary investigations as radioactive and helium tracer injections, liquids and coke samplings, have been carried out at Sollac Fos BF1 using the tuyere probe to determine the hearth permeability and its evolutions as a function of the main control parameters, and to understand the hearth activity. The results of all these experiments give a very consistent picture of a heterogenous hearth with three concentric areas of various permeabilities to gas and liquids. A two concentric zones model has been built, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. It enables to evaluate the impact of the central zone on the liquids flow at the periphery. (author)

81

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

82

Immobilization of technetium in blast furnace slag grouts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace slags have been successfully used to reduce the leachability of technetium from cement-based waste forms, ostensible because the slag produces a less permeable product or reduces the pertechnetate to a less mobile form. Waste contaminated with technetium is of particular concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission, Department of Energy, and Environmental Protection Agency because of its mobility as the pertechnetate ion. The technetium leachabilities of cement-based waste forms with and without a slag component and for different slags are presented. The mass transfer parameter (e.g., diffusivity) for leaching technetium from these waste forms decreased by five orders of magnitude when slag was used (i.e., using slag can increase the ANS 16.1 leachability index by five). Results of bulk and surface examinations of the slags are presented

83

Waste Heat Recovery from Blast Furnace Slag by Chemical Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace (BF) slag, which is the main byproduct in the ironmaking process, contains large amounts of sensible heat. To recover the heat, a new waste heat-recovery system—granulating molten BF slag by rotary multinozzles cup atomizer and pyrolyzing printed circuited board with obtained hot BF slag particle—was proposed in this study. The feasibility of the waste heat-recovery system was verified by dry granulation and pyrolyzation experiments. The energy of hot BF slag could be converted to chemical energy through the pyrolysis reaction, and a large amount of combustible gas like CO, H2, C m H n , and CH4 can be generated during the process.

Qin, Yuelin; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang; Qiu, Guibao; Chen, Pan

2012-08-01

84

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be described by a model involving pseudo-second-order reactions. For all slag types, phosphorus sorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The acid neutralizing capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags were determined. In the case of the crystalline slags, buffering intervals were found to exist during which the slag minerals dissolve in the sequence bredigite-gehlenite-diaspor. There is a high correlation (R2=0.9989) between ANC3.8 and the saturation capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags. PMID:15899277

Kostura, Bruno; Kulveitová, Hana; Lesko, Juraj

2005-05-01

85

Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues up to a certain percentage of replacement, but higher ratios gives lower compressive strength. The main objective of this research work is to determine the optimum replacement percentage which can be suitably used under the Indian conditions. To fulfil the objective various properties of concrete using GGBFS have been evaluated.

MRS. VEENA G.PATHAN

2013-01-01

86

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

2004-01-01

87

EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT  

OpenAIRE

A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry...

MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR; EBRAHIM NAJAFI KANI; ALI ALLAHVERDI

2011-01-01

88

Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

D. Baricová

2010-04-01

89

Injection of brown-coal tar in a statistical relationship with the significant parameters of a blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

The extremely large energy requirements of blast-furnace iron production and the high levels of pollution in terms of carbon dioxide have resulted in systematic efforts aimed at decreasing the specific consumption of fuels and deoxidizing agents during this process. This paper deals with the injection of alternative fuels into a blast furnace and their effect on the blast furnace’s operation. In this case oil injection was replaced by coal-tar injection. A comparison analysis of th...

Puste?jovska?, Pavli?na; Jursova?, Simona; Broz?ova?, Silvie; Pivko, Michal

2012-01-01

90

PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATERS USING MOBILE PILOT UNITS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents an in-depth pilot-plant investigation of the applicability of advanced waste treatment methods for upgrading ironmaking blast furnace wastewaters to Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) levels. Mobile treatments facilities, designed to op...

91

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

92

Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blast furnace tapping. This study also discusses different hearth erosion situations and explains the rationality of blast furnace large-scale trends from the perspective of molten iron liquid level stability.

Hong-Wei Guo

2013-08-01

93

Determination of cadmium in blast furnace slag by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blast furnace slag is used widely (cement, concrete aggregate and so on), it is important to measure toxic heavy metal in slag. In this study, we measured Cd in blast furnace slag by Multiple Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (MPGA) and investigated LLD (Lower Limit of Determination). As a result, LLD for Cd in slag was 1 ppm order (counting time: 3h). In each sample, Cd peak was not confirmed in this measurement. (author)

94

Determination of burden descent rate in a blast furnace by a radioisotope technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The times and rates of burden descent in a blast furnace were studied using 46Sc radioisotope. The amounts and qualities of the radioactive material required for a full scale study were determined, and a suitable experimental procedure and evaluation method were developed.The data obtained by the present method make it possible to determine both the blast furnace capacity and the period that passed before the changes in burden and coke rates affect the process

95

Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes  

OpenAIRE

Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL) purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results...

Babich, A.; Senk, D.; Gudenau, H. W.; Mavrommatis, K.; Spaniol, O.; Babich, Y.; Formoso, A.

2005-01-01

96

Measurement of burden material level in blast furnace using radiometric level gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To increase reliability of recording circuit, to simplify adjustment and operation of radiometric level gauges for charge measuring in blast furnaces, a standart control unit on the base of semiconductors has been produced. It reduces radiation source activity by 6-7 times. The application of the control unit and the new modification of electromechanical driver makes it possible to increase considerably the life of radiometric level gauges of charge in blast furnaces

97

Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying...

Carrasco, M. F.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Irassar, E. F.

2003-01-01

98

The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process  

OpenAIRE

A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3) days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

Malind?ák Du?an; Spi?ák Ján

1996-01-01

99

The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

Malind?ák Du?an

1996-12-01

100

Limestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties  

OpenAIRE

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and Granulated blast furnace slag ce...

Courard, Luc; Michel, Fre?de?ric

2014-01-01

101

Blast furnace operating conditions manipulation for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative reduction behavior of wuestite samples prepared from iron ore sinter was investigated to find the optimum way for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in blast furnace technology. A series of wuestite reduction experiments was carried out using different gas mixtures. A correlation between the experimental results and real data of blast furnaces at Egyptian Iron and Steel Company (EISCO) was demonstrated in order to optimize the coke consumption inside blast furnaces. Different theoretical models were applied on real data of blast furnaces to calculate the effect of operation parameters on the coke consumption. It was found that the wuestite reducibility can be controlled and enhanced using certain ratio of H{sub 2} and CO gases. Such kind of enhancement decreases the remaining quantity of unreduced wuestite which descends to the high temperature region of blast furnace. The theoretical analysis of real data using certain values of H{sub 2} and CO shows that increasing the amount of natural gas injection in blast furnace of EISCO will decrease the degree of direct reduction of iron oxide and consequently will decrease the amount of coke consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Bahgat, Mohamed; Abdel Halim, Khaled S.; El-Kelesh, Heba Ali; Nasr, Mahmoud I. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo (Egypt)

2012-07-15

102

Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

2006-12-01

103

Sintering mechanism of blast furnace slag-kaolin ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general ceramics processing scheme by cold uniaxial pressing and conventional sintering process have been used to prepare ceramics from mixtures of blast furnace slag (BFS) and kaolin (10%, 30% and 50% kaolin). The properties of the ceramics were studied by measuring linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and mechanical properties of samples heated at temperatures from 800 oC to 1100 oC. The formed crystalline phases were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Slag melt formed at relatively low temperatures (800-900 oC) modified the sintering process to liquid phase sintering mechanism. Combination of BFS with 10% kaolin gave the highest mechanical properties, densification and shrinkage at relatively low firing temperatures. The crystalline phases were identified as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in both BFS and BFS with 10% kaolin samples. Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) phase increased with increasing kaolin contents. In the case of kaolin-rich mixtures (30% and 50% kaolin), increased expansion took place during firing at temperatures in the range 800-1000 oC. This effect could be attributed to the entrapment of released gases.

104

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

OpenAIRE

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak.

Tague, I.; Llewellin, P.; Burton, K.; Buchan, R.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

105

The use of radioactive tracers to study metal and slag flow in blast furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclides 198Au, 60Co, 46Sc and 140La were used as tracers to determine flow characteristics and residence times for the iron and slag phases in an iron blast furnace hearth. This was done by injecting the tracers at various positions around the circumference of the furnace and measuring the induced activity of the iron and slag produced at the taphole

106

Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

L'. Dor?ák

2010-04-01

107

Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production  

OpenAIRE

In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain sma...

Baricova?, D.; Pribulova?, A.; Demeter, P.

2010-01-01

108

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

109

Evaluation of refractory lining wear of Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN) blast furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The blast furnace refractory linings are submitted to unfavourable conditions such as alkalis attack, temperature, top pressure, abrasion and so forth... After studies on distribution and installation of radioactive sources with low activities in the refractory lining, it was possible to develop a new technique of thickness evaluation and attendance of wearing in the furnace lining. The viability analysis, simulated laboratory tests, localization, identification, installations and periodical measurements of the radioactive sources are described, as well the results obtained on the present campaign of CSN Blast Furnaces. (Author)

110

Blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection at different technological conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at two blast furnaces (BFs) in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amounts is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime. (Author) 31 refs

111

Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

112

Analysis of mineralogical and textural characteristics on the reducibility of iron ores used in blast furnace; Analise da influencia dos atributos mineralogicos e texturais sobre a redutibilidade de granulados de minerios de ferro para altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, s series of reduction experiments under isothermal and load conditions were carried out (ut to 1130 deg C), using different types of brazilian iron ores containing specular hematite, martite, goethite, limonite as well as criptocrystalline/microcrystalline hematite, with different textures (lepidoblastic, granoblastic, micro granular and interlaced), used as blast furnace charge. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Seshadri, Varadarajan [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia; Vieira, Claudio B. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas; Coelho, Luiz H. [TEQBET, MG (Brazil); Rosiere, Carlos A. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

1996-12-31

113

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emission would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal injection PCI rate and oxygen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxygen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50% Blast furnace operation with full oxygen blast (100 % of process oxygen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected. (Author) 54 refs

114

Water leak detection in the cooling system of the blast furnace walls, by using radiotracer techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The walls of a blast furnace are cooled by water that circulates through a system of copper plates inserted in the reflactory lining. These plates are fed by two independent annular pipes (or distribution rings) located around the furnace at different levels. Tritiated water was continuously injected in the upper ring, to investigate the presence of leaks in the plates fed by that distribution ring. During and after injection, water samples were periodically collected at the top of the blast furnace by condensing moisture from exit gases. The tritium activity, when present in the samples, indicates the existence of leaks in the cooling plates and, in some cases, allows to estimate the total water flow rate entering the blast furnace. Actual applications of this techniques are described. (Author)

115

Char refiring under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

It is attempt in pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace tuyeres to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. The unburned char can cause problems in the blast furnace operation, such as reduced permeability, undesirable gas/temperature distribution, excessive coke erosion and significant char carryover. In the near tuyere region the coal is injected with air but the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere w...

A?lvarez Rodri?guez, Diego; Casal Banciella, M. ª. Dolores; Go?mez Borrego, A?ngeles; Oso?rio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C. F.

2007-01-01

116

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improv...

Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

2011-01-01

117

Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activattrength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

118

Evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the paper is the evaluation of efficiency of working time of equipment in blast furnace department with the use of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE and PAMCO method.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation was made for blast furnace department in Polish steel plant. Two methods: OEE and PAMCO was used. The analysis covers the period of 7 years. The analysis was made based on different data: different types of time connected whit work of blast furnaces, interruption in blast furnace work, level of pig iron production, unit production time and quantity of non-conformance production.Findings: Performed research made it possible to determine the level of efficiency of blast furnace department. It can be concluded that working time in this department is used efficient. Factors that reduce efficiency are usually not-dependent on the company: mainly are connected with the situation on the steel market.Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to continue the research in order to assess individual blast furnaces. That analysis may enable to show if these units has the same level of efficiency and if they are affected by the same factors in the same way.Practical implications: Optimal utilization of capacity and working time of machines and equipment are important for the reduction of production costs. Use of OEE and PAMCO methods helps to assess the level of efficiency of working time and allow to find factors that has great importance for level of efficiency.Originality/value: Results of this analysis can be taken into consideration by blast furnace department under study. Analysis can help to assess the level of efficiency and find factors that influence on it.

E. Kardas

2012-12-01

119

Subjects for achievement of blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technology which reduces the reducing agent rate by the improvement in the reaction efficiency of blast furnace leads to reduction of hot metal manufacturing cost, but also solution of recent CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The subjects for achievement of the blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate were described on reduction measures of the carbon consumption and problem of the measures referring to the example of reducing agent rate of the present state blast furnace concerning blast operation and reactive improvement. And, carried out concrete measures were introduced in order to aim at the low reducing agent rate operation. The following results were obtained. 1) Since it has reached the already high reaction efficiency in present state blast furnace, it is not easy to attempt further reduction of the reducing agent rate. 2) The blast furnace use of high reactivity coke or reduced iron is equal level or over it in comparison with the reduction effect by the assumed blast operation in this paper. 3) The promotion of coke reaction load with the gasification is worried, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation by the high reactivity coke use. 4) It is estimated that the threshold also exists for the reducibility of competing ore, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation using the high reactivity coke. 5) The use of the low SiO{sub 2} sinter is effective for the improvement on the permeability in the blast furnace, when it aims at the low fuel rate operation. However, the new technology of the permeability improvement is desired, since there is a limit for low SiO{sub 2} of the sintered ore, when future raw material supply and demand is considered.

Ujisawa, Y.; Nakano, K.; Matsukura, Y.; Sunahara, K.; Komatsu, S.; Yamamoto, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Kashima (Japan). Corp R& amp; D Labs.

2006-12-15

120

Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ?The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ? The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. gular speed of rotary cup increases. ? The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ? Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ? A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

121

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14

122

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500?m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future. PMID:20887042

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

123

Tendency in development of radioisotope methods for control and automatization of blast furnaces and metallurgical processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To raise labour productivity in the metallurgy industry and to improve performance of blast furnaces in the period between capital repairs, a row of nuclear methods has been developed or was at the stage of experimental testing. Review is given of the tendencies of development of radioisotope methods of control and automatization of the blast furnace and metallurgic processes. Descriptions are given of nuclear methods for control and automatization of processes of materials transportation; continuous determination of the level of materials loading into the throat of blast furnace; observation of the wear of refractory lining of blast furnaces; determination of specific activity of cast iron; determination if the pre-set maximum and minimum levels of materials in bunkers on blast furnace bridge. Description is given of radiation sources of different activity, placed into containers, specific for each case of application as well as description of probes, - radiation detectors with Geiger-Mueller gas discharge counters. Depending on the field of application, probes can have a water cooling system. Description is given of probes commutation diagram as well as of the central part of installation ensuring processing of information coming from prodes and having control elements for automation of observation of technological processes and their control. The results are reflected on a mnemonic diagram for each of the process observed

124

Three-dimensional multiphase mathematical modeling of the blast furnace based on the multifluid model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of the blast furnace is presented. This model treats the blast furnace process as a multiphase reactor in which all phases behave like fluids. Five phases are treated by this model, namely, gas, lump solids (iron ore, sinter, pellets and coke), pig iron, molten slag and pulverized coal. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species for all phases are solved based on the finite volume method, In the discretized momentum equations, the covariant velocity projections are used, which is expected to give the best coupling between the velocity and pressure fields and improve the convergence of the calculations. This is a new feature of the present model regarding to the numerical procedures applied to the blast furnace modeling, which emphasizes its originality. In addition, gas and solid phases are treated as continuous phases possessing a pressure field and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to extract the pressure field and ensure mass conservation. Hot metal, slag and pulverized coal are treated as discontinuous phases consisting of unconnected droplets. For such phases, momentum conservation is used to calculate the fields of velocity while the continuity equations are used to calculate the phase volume fractions. This model was applied to predict the three-dimensional blast furnace operation and predicted temperature distributions and operational parameters like productivity, coke rate and slag rate presented close agreement with the actual measured ones in the blast furnace process.

de Castro, J.A.; Nogami, H.; Yagi, J. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

2002-07-01

125

EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

2011-03-01

126

Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de escoria, mientras que a edades más avanzadas se trasladan a mayores contenidos de puzolana y escoria.

Irassar, E. F.

2006-09-01

127

Model for Fast Evaluation of Charging Programs in the Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematical model for fast evaluation of charging programs in bell-less top blast furnaces is presented. The model describes the burden formation and descent procedures in the blast furnace, and can be used for designing charging programs. Experimental results in small scale were used to validate the model. The model was applied to a real charging program from a reference blast furnace. Through comparison between the estimated burden distribution and gas temperatures from an above-burden probe it was concluded that the model has captured the main features of the distribution of coke and pellets. The potential of using the model for the design of new charging programs was finally illustrated by analyzing the effect of small changes in the positions of the rings on the arising burden distribution.

Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

2014-12-01

128

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

129

The cycle and effect of zinc in the blast-furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the effect of zinc in the blast furnace process and it also analysis its contents in the input and output raw materials. The results obtained in the long-term research project will be used as data here. The removal of zinc from the input raw materials is very difficult already in the sinter production stage. This is due to its uniform distribution in the raw materials, but also due to the fact that it does not transfer into gas phase during the sintering process. The content of Zinc compounds was experimentally measured in the lining. The quantity of penetrated Zinc is different in different parts of the blast furnace. As demonstrated by the research, zinc repeatedly enters the blast furnace process, which leads to its circulation.

M. Hendrych

2013-04-01

130

Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

1997-12-31

131

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits  

OpenAIRE

Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of ...

Sanjua?n, M. A.; Pin?eiro, A.; Rodri?guez, O.

2011-01-01

132

Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace:  

OpenAIRE

The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in blast furnace. The fraction of smaller than 8 mm is used in the sinter plant. Therefore, a large fraction of coke around 20 % from coking plant/process is not used for iron ore reduction. Recent ...

Song, Q.

2013-01-01

133

Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

P. Bigoš

2015-01-01

134

Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping  

OpenAIRE

Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blas...

Hong-Wei Guo; Bing-Ji Yan; Jian-Liang Zhang; He-Lan Liang; Yi-Li Liu

2013-01-01

135

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

OpenAIRE

The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information...

Ghosh D.; Krishnamurthy V.A.; Sankaranarayanan S.R.

2010-01-01

136

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

137

Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.)

138

Approach for Minimizing Operating Blast Furnace Carbon Rate Using Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) Diagram  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach for reducing input carbon rate of a blast furnace using carbon-direct reduction (C-DRR) diagram has been developed. The role of shaft efficiency, blast input conditions, and heat loss rate in reducing the carbon rate has been brought out. A two-zone thermochemical model has been used to develop C-DRR diagrams for analyzing operating data of a furnace as well as predicting conditions for reducing its carbon rate. The model can be integrated with the control system of a blast furnace for driving an operating furnace to reduce carbon rates.

Paul, Soumavo; Roy, S. K.; Sen, P. K.

2013-02-01

139

Numerical investigation of simultaneous injection of pulverized coal and natural gas with oxygen enrichment to the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multiple injection of carbonaceous materials and oxygen enrichment in the blast furnace has received especial attention in the recent years due to its possibility of considerably decrease in coke rate and increase of the productivity. This paper introduces a modeling of the co-injection of pulverized coal and natural gas into the blast furnace through the tuyere. This model treats the blast furnace as a multi-phase reactor and five phases are treated simultaneously: gas, lump solids (iron ore, sinter, pellets and coke), pig iron, molten slag and pulverized coal. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are solved simultaneously based on the finite volume method. Firstly pulverized coal is simulated and afterwards only natural gas is investigated and compared with the all coke operation. Finally, the combined practice is suggested in order to improve the actual blast furnace operation. The simulation results have contributed to better understanding the blast furnace phenomena with multiple injectants, and supported new improvements in the furnace operation. The results obtained in this investigation have shown the possibility of considerable advances in the actual blast furnace operation such as increase in productivity, lower silicon content in hot metal and decrease of the coke and slag rates. In addition, the total amount of the greenhouses in the off gas is decreased, which contributes to make the blast furnace process cleaner.

de Castro, J.A.; Nogami, H.; Yagi, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil)

2002-07-01

140

Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out. PMID:22128000

Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

2011-12-01

141

A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

2012-12-01

142

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

143

Slag optimization in charcoal blast furnaces; Otimizacao de escorias de altos-fornos a carvao vegetal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, it is shown the optimum composition of charcoal blast furnace slag using phase diagrams. The results are compared with industrial data and some possible changes in slag composition and mass are also suggested. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli; Lopes, Leonardo Braga Polido; Goncalves, Alexandre Ferreira [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1987-12-31

144

Calculation and Analysis of Liquid Holdup in Lower Blast Furnace by Model Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydromechanics experiment on the countercurrent flow of gas and liquid simulating the flow conditions in the lower blast furnace was carried out. A cold model of a packed bed with various packing materials and liquids was used to study the holdup of liquid. Correlations for static holdup, dynamic holdup, and total holdup were obtained. A good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental data. A mathematical model simulating the flow fields was applied to study the effect of liquid holdup in blast furnace. The results of the model calculation show that static holdup is the determinant of the total holdup of molten materials when the blast furnace works in stable condition. The slag phase generally reaches flooding holdup ahead of the hot metal. The radial distribution of gas flow is almost not influenced by the holdup of molten materials, but it has a greater influence on the pressure drop. The size of coke has far greater influence on static holdup than liquid properties does. The study is useful for acquiring a deeper understanding of the complex phenomena in the blast furnace and for determining appropriate operational actions under different production conditions.

Xiong, Wei; Bi, Xue-Gong; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Fu

2012-06-01

145

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

OpenAIRE

 Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-relat...

Juan Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter Claisse

2011-01-01

146

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

147

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

148

Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

A. Konstanciak

2012-12-01

149

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from land to the removal of this resource from landfills

150

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

151

Moshyttan: Sweden’s oldest known blast furnace? : A multiproxy study based on geochemical and pollen analyses  

OpenAIRE

Radiocarbon datings in a previous study suggested that Moshyttan in Nora bergslag is the oldest blast furnace in Sweden and Europe. The aim of this study was specifically to study the origin of the Moshyttan blast furnace to answer the question: when was the blast furnace at Moshyttan established? To this end, a 2.5 m sediment record was collected from Fickeln, a lake 600 m downstream of Moshyttan, in March 2012. The geochemical properties of the sediment record were analyzed for major and tr...

Lidberg, William

2012-01-01

152

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information is available for High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags, since much of the open literature deals with Low Alumina Slags, with alumina content less than 15 weight percentage. High Alumina slags (alumina content in the range of 15% to 30% are predominantly encountered in Indian Blast Furnaces. It appears that these slags have higher viscosity and lower sulphide capacity than the low alumina slags. The effect of chemical composition / ionic structure on viscosity has been interpreted in this work, using the chemical parameter of optical basicity. Data reported in the literature have been used, along with the values of liquidus temperature, for high alumina slags. Three slag systems, i.e., CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 have been considered in this work. The trends observed are discussed in the paper.

Ghosh D.

2010-01-01

153

Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

154

Mathematical Model of the Solid Flow Behavior in a Real Dimension Blast Furnace  

OpenAIRE

A mathematical model based on the continuum mechanic concept has been developed to describe the profile of solid particles in an industrial scale blast furnace. The focus is the in-furnace conditions and its characteristics such as the shape and size of the deadman. The Navier-Stokes differential equation for multi-phase multi-dimensional space has been used to describe the behavior of existing phases. The equation has been modified to make it possible to describe the dual nature of the solid...

Safavi Nick, Reza

2012-01-01

155

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

156

Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh. PMID:25084406

Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

2009-01-01

157

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

158

A Differential Scanning Calorimetry Method for Construction of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram of Blast Furnace Slag  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuous cooling crystallization of a blast furnace slag was studied by the application of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. A kinetic model describing the correlation between the evolution of the degree of crystallization with time was obtained. Bulk cooling experiments of the molten slag coupled with numerical simulation of heat transfer were conducted to validate the results of the DSC methods. The degrees of crystallization of the samples from the bulk cooling experiments were estimated by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the DSC method. It was found that the results from the DSC cooling and bulk cooling experiments are in good agreement. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the blast furnace slag was constructed according to crystallization kinetic model and experimental data. The obtained CCT diagram characterizes with two crystallization noses at different temperature ranges.

Gan, Lei; Zhang, Chunxia; Shangguan, Fangqin; Li, Xiuping

2012-06-01

159

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion. 

Juan Lizarazo Marriaga

2011-05-01

160

Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar:  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique significantly improved the quality of the interfacial transition zone in mortars subjected to carbonation shrinkage. Consequently the frost salt scaling durability of blast furnace slag mortars wa...

Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

2011-01-01

161

The analysis of quality of ferrous burden materials and its effect on the parameters of blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the effect of the quality of ferrous burden materials on the parameters of blast furnace process is presented in this paper. First, the quantitative and qualitative analysis of ferrous burden materials used in blast furnace process was made. The chemical composition, mainly iron content, is the basic quality parameter taken into consideration. Then, the dependence of parameters of process on the quality parameters of burden materials will be calculated.

E. Kardas

2013-04-01

162

Some aspects on the reduction of olivine pellets in laboratory scale and in an experimental blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

The reduction behaviour of the olivine iron ore pellet MPBOwas studied in laboratory scale at KTH as well as in the LKABexperimental blast furnace. Initially, a newreduction-under-load, or so-called reduction/softening/melting,test equipment was developed. Experiments using differentreducing conditions, corresponding to different radialpositions of the blast furnace, were conducted. The experimentsincluded different temperature profiles, reducing atmospheresand mechanical loads applied on the...

Sterneland, Jerker

2002-01-01

163

The analysis of quality of ferrous burden materials and its effect on the parameters of blast furnace process  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of the effect of the quality of ferrous burden materials on the parameters of blast furnace process is presented in this paper. First, the quantitative and qualitative analysis of ferrous burden materials used in blast furnace process was made. The chemical composition, mainly iron content, is the basic quality parameter taken into consideration. Then, the dependence of parameters of process on the quality parameters of burden materials will be calculated.

Kardas, E.

2013-01-01

164

Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3) three groups of substances can be distinguis...

Konstanciak, A.

2012-01-01

165

Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. D...

Sa?nchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

2011-01-01

166

Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the ...

Bigos?, P.; Kul?ka, J.; Mantic?, M.; Kopas, M.

2015-01-01

167

Plastic wastes, lube oils and carbochemical products as secondary feedstocks for blast-furnace coke production  

OpenAIRE

Plastic wastes, lube oils and coal-tar are evaluated, individually and combined, as additives to coal blends for the production of blast-furnace coke. The effects of adding 2 wt% of potential additives or their mixtures (50:50 w/w) on the coking capacity of coal, the pressure generated during the coking process and the coke quality parameters were evaluated. Using a combination of polyolefin waste and lubricating oil with high-boiling hydrocarbons has the beneficial...

Melendi Espina, Sonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; A?lvarez Garci?a, Ramo?n; Di?ez Di?az-este?banez, M. ª. Antonia

2009-01-01

168

Reactions in the Lower Part of the Blast Furnace with Focus on Silicon  

OpenAIRE

The thermodynamic conditions for the behaviour of silicon in the lower part of the blast furnace have been the focus of the thesis. More specifically, the influences of temperature, carbon activity, total gas pressure and Fe reoxidation on silicon have been studied. Calculations show that an increased temperature gives higher equilibrium ratio between silicon in hot metal and slag. Furthermore, laboratory reduction studies shows that the carbon activity in the cohesive zone increase with an i...

Gustavsson, Joel

2004-01-01

169

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation:  

OpenAIRE

In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonati...

Zemskov, S. V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F. J.

2013-01-01

170

Characterization of Blast Furnace Slag to be used as Road Base Material:  

OpenAIRE

In congested areas around the world, traffic has significantly grown beyond expectation both in terms of volume and weight. Any hinder to the traffic causes severe delays resulting not only in economic loss but also in extra pollution of the environment. Therefore, maintenance works are desired to be reduced as much as possible. Application of self-cementing materials such as Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) for base courses is one of the methods to reduce the need for maintenance, since such base co...

Akbarnejad, S.; Copuroglu, O.; Houben, L. J. M.; Molenaar, A. A. A.

2012-01-01

171

On hearth phenomena and hot metal carbon content in blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work was to investigate the hearth operation and the factors influencing the total quality of hot metal, especially its carbon and sulphur contents. Regarding the hot metal quality there are many sources of disturbances starting from raw materials, continuing through the blast furnace process and ending the hot metal casting. The carbon content of hot metal is an important part of the total quality of hot metal. Nearly 80 % of the total reaction energy in the BOF pr...

Raipala, Kalevi

2003-01-01

172

Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag:  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy and causes less CO2 emission than Portland cement. Moreover, the use of limestone powder and BFS improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, such as workability and durability. Enginee...

Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M. G.; Ye, G.; Breugel, K.; Li, V. C.

2009-01-01

173

Chloride-binding effect of blast furnace slag in cement pastes containing added chlorides  

OpenAIRE

Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. It is standard industry practice to add various mineral admixtures such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), or fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF), to concrete mixtures to increase the corrosion resistance of the reinforcement in the matrix and its subsequent design life span. Various investigations have re...

Potgieter, J. H.; Delport, D. J.; Verryn, Sabine Marie Charlotte; Potgieter-vermaak, S. S.

2011-01-01

174

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

OpenAIRE

Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash) can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI) and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their...

Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Fukada, K.; Babich, A.; Froehling, C.; Garci?a, L. L.; Formoso, A.; Alguacil, F. J.; Cores, A.

2003-01-01

175

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

OpenAIRE

[EN] Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash) can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI) and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various subst...

Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Fukada, K.; Babich, A.; Froehling, C.; Formoso Prego, Antonio; Alguacil, Francisco Jose?; Cores Sa?nchez, A.

2003-01-01

176

Reduction of emissions from blast furnaces by using blends of coke and babassu charcoal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonization of whole babassu coconuts yields a biomass feedstock of exceptional hardness, and almost sulfur-free, which could be used in blast furnaces after blending with conventional coke. This would result in decreases in the emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as well as improved steel quality. Even though a total substitution appears possible from the chemical and mechanical standpoints, the amount of biomass necessary precludes this possibility in the immediate future. 3 refs., 1 tab.

Emmerich, F.G.; Luengo, C.A. (Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica)

1994-07-01

177

Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In prsation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl2-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

178

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

179

Injection of pulverized coal through tuyeres at blast furnace no. 3 of the Uckange plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes the direct-injection of pulverized coal through the tuyeres of an indstrial blast furnace installation. The coal used is from the Lorraine field and has a high volatile-matter content. Between 40 and 80 kg of coal were injected per tonne of cast iron. The author describes the coal storage and injection system, presents the main results of the process and attempts to forecast the coefficient of equivalence between coke and coal.

Colnot, B.

1982-11-01

180

Mineral Reactions and Slag Formation During Reduction of Olivine Blast Furnace Pellets  

OpenAIRE

The present work focuses on mineral reactions and slag formation of LKAB olivine iron ore pellets (MPBO) subjected to reducing conditions in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF). The emphasis is on olivine reactions with surrounding iron oxides. Many factors influence the olivine behaviour. The study was performed by use of micro methods; optical microscopy, micro probe analysis, micro Raman and Mössbuer spectroscopy and thremodynamic modeling. During manufacturing, in oxidising atmosph...

Ryo?sa?, Elin

2008-01-01

181

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

OpenAIRE

Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals h...

Gomes Maria de Lourdes Ilha; Osório Eduardo; Vilela Antônio Cezar Faria

2006-01-01

182

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno alto. Los cálculos, utilizando un modelo matemático, muestran que la inyección de GRC en combinación con la ICP y enriquecimiento del viento con oxígeno pueden suministrar un aumento en la tasa de carbón pulverizado hasta 300-400 kg/t arrabio y una elevación en la productividad del horno de 40-50 %. La operación del horno alto con un máximo de oxígeno en el viento (100 % del oxígeno del proceso con la excepción para el viento caliente es posible cuando se inyecta GRC.

Babich, A. I.

2002-08-01

183

Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures. PMID:15567381

Oguz, Ensar

2005-01-01

184

Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

2015-02-01

185

A Mechanism Model for Raceway Formation and Variation in a Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, a previous mechanical model is extended to predict raceway penetration in a blast furnace (BF) and to dynamically illustrate how raceway penetration varies over time after the blast velocity varies based on Newton's second law. The model is validated by industrial measurements, and more precise predictions have been obtained using the present model. Moreover, the effects of combustion reactions on the raceway shape and size are taken into account in the present model. The mechanism for raceway formation and variation revealed by the present model is as follows: Fast movements of packed bed above a raceway roof due to blast blowing rate variation make raceway size vary rapidly and form its prototype; combustion reactions modify raceway size and shape, and they maintain its stability.

Guo, Jing; Cheng, Shusen; Zhao, Hongbo; Pan, Hongwei; Du, Pengyu; Teng, Zhaojie

2013-06-01

186

Deposition of 60Co and 137Cs adsorbed on zeolite in matrices on the blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental data (leaching tests and compressive strength measurements) are presented for case the radionuclides from model water solution and radioactive waste water were uptake on natural and chemically modified granular zeolitic tuffite which show improved sorption ability and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace slags (BSF) basis. The all experiment were carried out with zeolite tuffite from Nizny Hrabovec, Slovak Republic. The natural zeolite was treated by the NaOH solution. The blends of individual components were casted into rectangular prism moulds (1 x 1 x 3 cm). The cast consisted invariably of 90% of BSF, 10% of fine zeolite and solution of water glass and to this basic mixture were added either 10 or 20% granular active, or non active zeolite during the mix formation, in excess to content of previous solid components. The water/cement ratio varied in interval 0.32-0.40. Model solutions labelled by cesium-137 or cobalt-60 have been used for sorption experiment and real waste water concentrate from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice as well. The real water consisted of cesium-134, cesium-137, cobalt-60, in borate and nitrate form. The radioactivity of dry cement casts was measured in 4? geometry. The leaching experiments were performed in three solutions: water (W), 0.03 M HCl (A) and 0.04 M NaOH (B). The mechanical properties of sample with non active granular zeolites and their corrosion characteristics as reflected by the bulk density changes. The experiments showed that leaching of radionuclides, which were sorbed from solution and radioactive waste water, in water and bases solution were negligible. Changes of radioactivity of casts, prepared from model solution, in acid solution, which were less than 5%. The mechanical strength of prepared composites is favourable and shows good compatibility of zeolitic additives with a basic matrix. Leaching experiments and mechanical strength are hopeful and show good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. 2 tabs., 3 figs

187

The behavior of potassium in the blast furnace deduced from isotope tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two tracer tests were done with radioactive potassium (42 K) on blast furnace no. 1, Pretoria Works. Some 80% of the injected 42 K was recovered in 2 1/2 days. About 95% of both radioactive and natural potassium reported in the slag. Mean residence times of 18 and 25 hours confirmed the accumulation of potassium in the furnace. In these tests the slag basicity appeared to be an adequate indicator of furnace conditions governing the behaviour of potassium. A quantitative discontinious model with varying volume CSTR's and interflow controlled according to slag basicity - could be made to fit the results of both tests. The total amounts of K2O required by the model - 4 and 9 t respectively - were larger than estimates from input/output imbalance, or from mean residence time of the tracer

188

Iron making technology with fuels and other materials injection in blast furnace tuyeres. Part 2. Pulverized coal injection (PCI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology of iron making with coal injection by tuyeres in the blast furnace is described. The influence of the main coal constituents in the furnace operation is analyzed. Information about the countries that employ this technology is given. (Author) 106 refs

189

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

190

Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC) - an efficient iron-making and power generation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new iron and power generating process, oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC), is presented. In order to support the opinion, the features of the oxygen blast furnace and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) are summarized. The relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity, as well as caloric value is calculated based on mass and energy balance. Analysis and calculation indicate that the OBF-CC will be an efficient iron-making and power generation process with higher energy efficiency and less pollution

191

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

2006-03-01

192

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used [...] in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha, Gomes; Eduardo, Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria, Vilela.

2006-03-01

193

Simultaneous utilization of neutrons and ?-rays from 252Cf for condition measurement inside a blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the possibility of the realization of a multi-function radiation gauge to meet the requirement for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of the gauge is to measure some quantities with simultaneous use of multi-radiations of neutrons and ?-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on material flow and gas flow representing the conditions inside the blast furnace. The prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252Cf (3.7 MBq), neutron moderator, lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate the blast furnace conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density (1.0-1.5 g/cm3) of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture ?-rays (6.5-8.5 MeV) from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density (0.5-2.5 g/cm3) by detecting Compton scattered ?-rays (1.0-1.5 MeV) from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. The relative accuracies in the measurement of iron bulk density and material bulk density were estimated to be within 1 and 4% in 300 s counting time, respectively. The possibility of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)(author)

194

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

195

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2008-10-15

196

Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa) have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution), Ca(OH)2 (3,5?10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N) at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solutio...

Ferna?ndez Jime?nez, A.; Puertas, F.; Ferna?ndez-carrasco, L.

1996-01-01

197

Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths  

Science.gov (United States)

The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

2013-04-01

198

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

OpenAIRE

Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or to...

Babich, A. I.; Gudenau, H. W.; Mavrommatis, K. T.; Froehling, C.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A.; Garci?a, L.

2002-01-01

199

Application of X-ray pulse analyzer for determining level and profile of blast furnace charge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray pulse analyzer for determining the level and profile of blast furnace charge 'TAIR' is developed. It is based on the time-pulse method of measurement and it includes a scanning X-ray generator, a primary converter, a detector, a data processing and representation unit, a control unit for scanning. The analyzer is tested at Magnitogorsk integrated iron-and-steel works under statical and dynamical conditions. Applicability of the X-ray pulse analyzer as an engineering device to control the process and conduction of investigations is shown

200

Mathematical model of burden distribution for the bell-less top of a blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the difficulty in measuring the burden trajectory directly in an actual blast furnace (BF), a mathematical model with Coriolis force and gas drag force considered was developed to predict it. The falling point and width of the burden flow were obtained and analyzed by the model, the velocities of particles at the chute end were compared with and without the existence of Coriolis force, and the effects of chute length and chute torque on the falling point were also discussed. The simulation results are in good agreement with practical measurements with laser beams in a 2500 m3 BF.

Teng, Zhao-jie; Cheng, Shu-sen; Du, Peng-yu; Guo, Xi-bin

2013-07-01

201

Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

1996-12-31

202

Fast neutron (14 MeV) activation analysis of fluorine in blast furnace slags  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents an application of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) for estimating the content of fluorine in blast furnace slag. The samples were irradiated for 200 sec. in a maximum neutron field of 1010 n/sec. Fluorine was detected by observing the 197 KeV gamma rays (T1/2 = 26.9 sec) following the 19 F(n,p)19 O reaction. The fluorine content was deduced by relating to standard (CaF2) samples measured in identical irradiation-measuring conditions. A maximum fluorine content of 3% was observed in our investigated samples. (Author)

203

The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag  

OpenAIRE

For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS) on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a si...

Awang H.; Aljoumaily Z. S.; Noordin N; Al-Mulali M. Z.

2014-01-01

204

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

OpenAIRE

The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at ...

El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

2010-01-01

205

Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de la retracción por secado resulta un tema relevante, pues este parámetro determina la posibilidad de fisuración, y consecuentemente el deterioro de las propiedades mecánicas y durables de las estructuras. En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia que tiene la inclusión de contenidos variables de filler calcáreo y/o escoria granulada de alto horno al cemento portland sobre la retracción por secado de los morteros elaborados con ellos. Adicional mente se ha analizado la resistencia a flexión y el contenido de agua no evaporable. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la inclusión en forma conjunta o separada de estas adiciones incrementa la retracción inicial del mortero. Aun así, los morteros con filler calcáreo presentan una menor tendencia a la fisuración que los cementos con escoria o filler y escoria.

Carrasco, M. F.

2003-12-01

206

The cycle and effect of zinc in the blast-furnace process  

OpenAIRE

This article analyzes the eff ect of zinc in the blast furnace process and it also analysis its contents in the input and output raw materials. The results obtained in the long-term research project will be used as data here. The removal of zinc from the input raw materials is very diffi cult already in the sinter production stage. This is due to its uniform distribution in the raw materials, but also due to the fact that it does not transfer into gas phase during the sintering pr...

Hendrych, M.; Vozn?a?kova?, I.; Bera?nkova?, A.; Samolejova?, A.; Janovska?, K.; Besta, P.

2013-01-01

207

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

OpenAIRE

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Mun?iz, M.

2009-01-01

208

Effect of alkali bypass dust on the hydration of granulated blast furnace slag blended cement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydration properties of blended cements made from portland cement and a waste material obtained from a Birla White Cement Factory known as an Alkali Bypass Dust were studied. The results showed that 5 to 10 percent addition of this waste material in the portland cement decreased the water requirements, accelerated the hydration, decreased the porosity and increased the compressive strengths at all the ages of hydration. Hydration properties of granulated blast furnace slag blended portland cement in presence of 5% alkali bypass dust have also been studied. The extent of hydration decreased as the amount of slag is increased but the compressive strength values were higher at 28 days.

Singh, N.B.; Bhattacharjee, K.N.; Shukla, A.K. [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-05-01

209

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-11-01

210

Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrorist bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast overpressure is the use of lightly compacted materials such as sand [1] and aqueous foam [2] as a protective envelope or barrier. According to [1], shock wave attenuation in a mine tunnel (one-dimensional case) behind a destroyed object is given by q_e ? q {1}/{1 + 4(S/q)^{1/6} b? _{mat} /L^{1/3} }where qe — effective charge, S — exposed area of the obstacle, q — TNT equivalent (grams), L — distance between charge and obstacle, b — obstacle thickness and ? mat — material density. This empirical equation is applicable only in a one-dimensional case but not for a less confined environment. Another way of protecting a structure against blast is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave.

Golub, V. V.; Lu, F. K.; Medin, S. A.; Mirova, O. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Petukhov, V. A.; Volodin, V. V.

211

Improved CFD Model to Predict Flow and Temperature Distributions in a Blast Furnace Hearth  

Science.gov (United States)

The campaign life of a blast furnace is limited by the erosion of hearth refractories. Flow and temperature distributions of the liquid iron have a significant influence on the erosion mechanism. In this work, an improved three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the hearth of BlueScope's Port Kembla No. 5 Blast Furnace. Model improvements feature more justified input parameters in turbulence modeling, buoyancy modeling, wall boundary conditions, material properties, and modeling of the solidification of iron. The model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with the thermocouple data available, where agreements are established within ±3 pct. The flow distribution in the hearth is discussed for intact and eroded hearth profiles, for sitting and floating coke bed states. It is shown that natural convection affects the flow in several ways: for example, the formation of (a) stagnant zones preventing hearth bottom from eroding or (b) the downward jetting of molten liquid promoting side wall erosion, or (c) at times, a vortex-like peripheral flow, promoting the "elephant foot" type erosion. A significant influence of coke bed permeability on the macroscopic flow pattern and the refractory temperature is observed.

Komiyama, Keisuke M.; Guo, Bao-Yu; Zughbi, Habib; Zulli, Paul; Yu, Ai-Bing

2014-10-01

212

High temperature properties of by-product cold bonded pellets containing blast furnace flue dust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation, the fundamental reactions occurring during the heat treatment of cold bonded pellets (CBP) comprised of iron and steelmaking by-products have been studied. Blast furnace (BF) flue dust, which contains fractions of coal and coke particles, has been included in the CBP blend as a source of solid reductant. Thermal analysis was performed on CBP samples in inert atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg C/min in order to observe their high temperature properties, specifically, the mechanisms of self-reduction within CBPs. Both endothermic and exothermic reactions were observed during heating. The gases generated during thermal analysis were analyzed using a quadropole mass spectrometer (QMS). Furthermore, CBP samples heated to several different temperatures and quenched in argon were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the decomposition of hydrates and carbonates in CBP samples contribute, as gaseous intermediates, to an earlier reduction of contained iron oxides. The gaseous intermediates are responsible for an initial gasification of carbon contained in blast furnace flue dust leading to low temperature iron oxide reduction. The step-wise reduction of iron oxides in CBPs at the given conditions begins at ?500 deg C and is nearly completed at 1200 deg C. This work can help to provide a fundamental understanding of the reduction characteristics of iron and steeduction characteristics of iron and steelmaking by-product agglomerates

213

Blast furnace slag-cement grout blends for the immobilization of technetium-containing wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically toxic process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts are shown to be very effective for retention of hydrolyzable heavy metals (including lead, cadmium, uranium, and nickel), but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive 99Tc (which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion). Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the effective diffusivity of technetium by several orders of magnitude; retention of technetium is improved by decreasing the waste loading in the grout or by increasing the proportion of blast furnace slag in the grout dry mix. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VIII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. The addition of other reductive grout admixtures (e.g., sodium sulfide, ferrous ion, and powdered iron metal) also appear to improve the retention of technetium in grout. 31 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs

214

Fixation of CO2 by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO2 emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO2 pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied. A simple thermodynamic model was used to verify our results. The feasibility of the process was also discussed, addressing energy input requirements and the consumption of chemicals. According to our experiments, the addition of NaOH, i.e. an increase in solution pH, is required for the adequate precipitation of calcium carbonate at temperatures of 30-70 deg. C and pressures of 1 or 30 bar. Preliminary process calculations showed that approximately 4.4 kg of blast furnace slag, 3.6 l of acetic acid, and 3.5 kg of NaOH would be required to bind 1 kg of CO2, resulting in 2.5 kg of 90% calcium carbonate. While the heat needed for the evaporation of the acetic acid could probably be acquired as waste heat by process integration with other processes, the electricity required for NaOH regeneration would make the process unsuitable for CO2 sequestration

215

Multi-parameter measurements in a blast furnace using interactions of neutrons and ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the possibility of multi-parameter measurements to meet the requirements for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of such measurements is to make use of multi-radiations of neutrons and ?-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on conditions of materials (iron ore and coke) inside the blast furnace. A prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252Cf, a neutron moderator, a lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, a stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate material conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture ?-rays from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density by detecting Compton scattered ?-rays from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. Finally, reducibility of iron ore was calculated by using both bulk densities. Relative accuracy of measurements was reasonable in practical use. The possibility of realization of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)

216

Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

Saxén, Henrik

2015-02-01

217

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

El-Hussiny N.A.

2010-01-01

218

Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

Saxén, Henrik

2014-08-01

219

Continual Measuring of Local Stress Values on Shell of the Blast Furnace Hearth and of Total Shell Expansion  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with installation of strain gauges on the external surface of the blast furnace shell in two rows, whereas there will be defi ned 8 measuring points in every row. The fi nal result is evaluation of data obtained during up to 45 days of the operation. In this papers are commentary and discussions to measured time behaviours. The main purpose of this measuring was investigation of impact of salamander on blast furnace shell expansion after its lay off , cooling and next startin...

Bigos?, P.; Kul?ka, J.; Mantic?, M.; C?urilla, J.

2012-01-01

220

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to the statistical analysis of the selected blast furnace process output parameter with the aim to compare two production methods.

D. Noskievi?ová

2009-10-01

221

Continual Measuring of Local Stress Values on Shell of the Blast Furnace Hearth and of Total Shell Expansion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with installation of strain gauges on the external surface of the blast furnace shell in two rows, whereas there will be defi ned 8 measuring points in every row. The fi nal result is evaluation of data obtained during up to 45 days of the operation. In this papers are commentary and discussions to measured time behaviours. The main purpose of this measuring was investigation of impact of salamander on blast furnace shell expansion after its lay off , cooling and next starting of operation.

P. Bigoš

2012-01-01

222

Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

Several numerical approaches have been proposed in the literature to simulate the behavior of modern blast furnaces: finite volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations. Despite this, there is actually no efficient method for evaluating quickly optimal operating parameters of a blast furnace as a function of the iron ore composition, which takes into account all potential chemical reactions that could occur in the system. In the current study, we propose a global simulation strategy of a blast furnace, the 5-unit process simulation. It is based on classical thermodynamic calculations coupled to a direct search algorithm to optimize process parameters. These parameters include the minimum required metallurgical coke consumption as well as the optimal blast chemical composition and the total charge that simultaneously satisfy the overall heat and mass balances of the system. Moreover, a Gibbs free energy function for metallurgical coke is parameterized in the current study and used to fine-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties calculated by the proposed thermodynamic simulation strategy are compared with reference data found in the literature and have proven the validity and high precision of this simulation.

Harvey, Jean-Philippe; Gheribi, Aïmen E.

2013-12-01

223

Application of surface contour gamma radar in automatic system for control burden surface state at a blast furnace top  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description and results of testing a quick-acting gamma radar, designed for rapid control of burden surface state on a blast furnace top, are presented. Tests showed that the radar enables to obtain rapidly important information about the character of burden material descent and peculiarities of technological process on the furnace top. Recommendations on effective application of the gamma radar in automatic control system are given

224

Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

2014-07-15

225

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2014-10-01

226

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2015-02-01

227

CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-? SST and k-? Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

2015-02-01

228

USIMINAS` blast furnaces operation with low air velocities; Operacao dos altos-fornos da USIMINAS com baixa velocidade de sopro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the main operational results obtained at USIMINAS blast furnaces, after decreasing the air velocity at its tuyeres. Special emphasis is given to the productivity increasing, effect of the higher blown rate adopted after the modification. (author). 11 figs.

Oliveira Borges, Wander de; Cota, Jose M.; Souza Carvalho, Jose de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

1989-12-31

229

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granula [...] ted blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali, Nazari; Shadi, Riahi.

2011-09-01

230

AN INVESTIGATION OF FOREIGN BY-PRODUCT COKE PLANT AND BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATER CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND REGULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to determine if more effective wastewater control technologies for by-product coke plant and blast furnace gas-cleaning wastewaters are used in foreign plants than in the U.S. Discussions were held with plant and corporate personnel at 26 plant...

231

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%. ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (% of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali Nazari

2011-09-01

232

Analysing blast furnace data using evolutionary neural network and multiobjective genetic algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately one year's operational data of a TATA Steel blast furnace were subjected to a multiobjective optimisation using genetic algorithms. Data driven models were constructed for productivity, CO{sub 2} content of the top gas and Si content of the hot metal, using an evolutionary neural network that itself evolved through a multiobjective genetic algorithm as a tradeoff between the accuracy of training and the network complexity. The final networks were selected using the corrected Akaike information criterion. Bi-objective optimisation studies were subsequently carried out between the productivity and CO{sub 2} content with various constraints at the Si level in the hot metal. The results indicate that a productivity increase would entail either a compromise of the CO{sub 2} fraction in the top gas or the Si content in the hot metal. The Pareto frontiers presented in this study provide the best possible parameter settings in such a scenario.

Agarwal, A.; Tewary, U.; Pettersson, F.; Das, S.; Saxen, H.; Chakraborti, N.

2010-07-15

233

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

234

Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

2013-06-01

235

Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

236

Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs

237

Microstructure and Properties of Zircon-Added Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Microstructure and properties of zircon-added carbon refractory specimens for blast furnace (BF) were investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a laser thermal conductivity (TC) meter. Additives could influence the matrix structures and improve the properties of specimens. With the increase of zircon powder content, the amount of SiC whiskers formed increased and their aspect ratio became larger, and the SiC whiskers tended to be distributed homogeneously. Zircon powder additions decreased the mean pore diameter and increased <1- ?m pore volume by filling in pores via SiC, improved the TC and the cold crushing strength (CCS) due to the in-situ formation of the more well-developed SiC whiskers with high TC, and significantly reduced the molten iron attack to carbon specimens.

Zhu, Tianbin; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2012-11-01

238

Characteristics of blast furnace slag leachate produced under reduced and oxidized conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the environmental conditions necessary to reproduce leachates observed emerging from blast furnace slag acting as the foundation of highways in northwest Indiana. The leachates in the field are often highly alkaline with a pungent sulfur odor, a distinct green or milky-white in color, and sulfate concentrations exceeding 2,000 mg/L. Slag was equilibrated in the laboratory under both oxidized and anoxic environments and at various slag:water ratios. Constant anoxic conditions were required to produce to green colors in the slag, but high sulfate concentrations were observed only when the suspensions were fully oxidized. Leachate from the study site appears to form as a result of a series of complex chemical reactions including fluctuating oxidized and reduced conditions. PMID:16484071

Schwab, A P; Hickey, J; Hunter, J; Banks, M K

2006-01-01

239

Fabrication of porous materials from blast furnace slag and glass materials by the hydrothermal treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Since a large amount of blast furnace (BF) slag is generated, its new recycling processes for the production of valuable materials have been required. Development of reusing method for waste glasses is also strongly demanded. The authors have tried to fabricate porous materials from those two materials by using the hydrothermal treatment. In the present work, hydrothermal hot pressing technique was conducted at 250-350°C. From BF slag, a heat-insulating material was obtained, possessing the low thermal conductivity of 0.25 W / m K. SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glass was converted into glass containing water which exhibits the foaming as low as 200°C and becomes porous glass material.

Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

240

Improvement of the Blast Furnace Viscosity Prediction Model Based on Discrete Points Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Viscosity is considered to be a significant indicator of the metallurgical property of blast furnace slag. An improved model for viscosity prediction based on the Chou model was presented in this article. The updated model has optimized the selection strategy of distance algorithm and negative weights at the reference points. Therefore, the extensionality prediction disadvantage in the original model was ameliorated by this approach. The model prediction was compared with viscosity data of slags of compositions typical to BF operations obtained from a domestic steel plant. The results show that the approach can predict the viscosity with average error of 9.23 pct and mean standard deviation of 0.046 Pa s.

Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Mengyi; Li, Xinyu; Guo, Jian; Du, Shen; Zhang, Jianliang

2015-02-01

241

Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

2014-02-15

242

Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment. PMID:25189836

Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor

2014-12-01

243

Experimental Studies on Concrete Replacing Fine Aggregate with Blast Furnace Slags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous. It is hard to imagine modern life without it. Approximately five billion tonnes of concrete are used around the world each year. The increasing popularity of concrete as a construction material is placing a huge burden on the natural sand reserves of all countries. In view of the environmental problems faced today considering the fast reduction of natural resources like sand and crushed granite aggregate, engineers have become aware to extend the practice of partially replacing fine aggregate with waste materials. In this present study blast furnace slag from two sources were replaced with fine aggregate and the properties of concrete were studied. The optimum percentages of replacement of these materials were found out. The result obtained encourages the use of these materials as a replacement material for fine aggregate.

J. Selwyn Babu

2014-04-01

244

Fe-Si droplets associated with graphite on blast furnace coke  

Science.gov (United States)

Fe-Si droplets on the surface of blast furnace (BF) coke from 25 to 50 cm at the tuyere level are mostly composed of Fe3Si, which has various shapes (round, elongated, and irregular) and penetration degrees into the BF coke matrix. The shapes and penetration degrees may depend on the saturation of molten iron by silicon during interaction with the coke matrix. The droplets are covered by a tiny shell of carbon. Graphite observed inside the droplets can be divided into two categories: well-formed tabular crystals with relatively large size and flakes with structures similar as those in cast iron. The textures of the droplets reflect composition, interaction with the coke matrix, and cooling conditions.

Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.; Kerkkonen, Olavi; Härkki, Jouko J.

2012-06-01

245

Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion [prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)] through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs

246

Solidification of arsenic and heavy metal containing tailings using cement and blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to examine the solidification of toxic elements in tailings by the use of cement and blast furnace slag. Tailings samples were taken at an Au-Ag mine in Korea. To examine the best mixing ratio of tailings and the mixture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blast furnace slag (SG) of 5:5, 6:6, 7:3, and 8:2, the 7:3 ratio of tailings and OPC+SG was adapted. In addition, the mixing ratios of water and OPC + SG were applied to 10, 20, and 30 wt%. After 7, 14, and 28 days' curing, the UCS test was undertaken. A relatively high strength of solidified material (137.2 kg cm?² in average of 3 samples) at 28 days' curing was found in 20 wt% of water content (WC). This study also examined the leachability of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) under the Korean Standard Leaching Test, and it showed that the reductions in leachabilities of As and heavy metals of solidified samples were ranged from 76 to 99%. Thus, all the solidified samples were within the guidelines for special and hazardous waste materials by the Waste Management Act in Korea. In addition, the result of freeze-thaw cycle test of the materials indicated that the durability of the materials was sufficient. In conclusion, solidification using a 7:3 mixing ratio of tailings and a 1:1 mixture of OPC + SG with 20% of WC is one of the best methods for the remediation of arsenic and heavy metals in tailings and other contaminated materials. PMID:21063751

Kim, Jung-Wook; Jung, Myung Chae

2011-01-01

247

Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

Babich, A.

2005-12-01

248

Laboratory experiments on materials for radioactive labelling of blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, the monitoring of refractory lining wear of hearth blast furnace uses for labelling of locations inside brick-work only two radionuclides 110m Ag and 60 Co. Consequently a great zone of hearth being unlabelled escapes to monitoring, leading to possible dangerous perforations. For augmentation of labelled hearth surface we have initiated research on 133 Ba, 134 Ce, 152+154 Eu, 204 Cl, and 65 Zn. It is known that it is not recommendable to use for labelling these elements in pure state because these are very reactive i.e. they are unstable, except for thallium. Moreover, at hearth and crucible temperatures they are volatile. Therefore, a major aspect that we took into consideration is the radioisotope chemical form which is used for radioactive labelling. In Ba or Eu case, oxides can be used being more stable but in Cs and Tl case, oxides are not useful; it is more suitable to employ simple or double silicates. Samples containing a mixture of pig iron, slag and silicates of the hearth furnace labelling elements have been prepared. After separation the samples were crushed and analysed by activation analysis. The obtained gamma spectra have shown the presence of Ba, Cs, and Eu separately in the slag sample into which they have been melt. (author) 2 tabs., 8 refs

249

Influence of nut coke on iron ore sinter reducibility under simulated blast furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important factors to increase the economic efficiency of the blast furnace process is to reduced coke losses (undersieve product known as nut coke). In recent years there has been increased interest in mixing nut coke in the sinter layers. In order to clarify the influence of nut coke on sinter reducibility, sinter and sinter-nut coke mixtures were isothermally reduced with 30%CO-70%N{sub 2} at 1173-1523 K using a muffle furnace supported by an on-line gas analyser. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray technique were used to characterise the microstructure and the different phases developed in the original and reduced sinter. Sinter reduced without nut coke participation exhibited reduction retardation at elevated temperatures (>1373 K) while the presence of nut coke prevented such phenomena. The rate controlling mechanism of sinter and sinter-nut coke mixture was predicted from the correlation between apparent activation energy calculations, mathematical modelling derived from gas-solid reaction model and microstructure examination.

Mousa, E.A.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W.

2010-04-15

250

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

251

Conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation on the Ch NPP Unit 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic provisions of conceptual model of the 'blast furnace' version of formation of nuclear-dangerous accumulation of the fuel containing materials (FCM) hidden in a zone of pro-melting of a under-reactor slab of the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 are formulated. Formation of the fragments of the former core (FFC) with a critical mass of uranium and lava-like FCM is considered as a result of two interconnected processes - molten core/concrete interactions and melting of FFC in a bathtub of silicate fusion that was formed of the materials 'furnace charges'

252

CONTACT STRENGTH OF MECHANOACTIVATED FINE CONCRETES FROM GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a rotary mixer-activator on the value of the contact strength of cement and aggregates got further development. Practical value. Strengthening of contact area of fine concrete in the exercise of the combined machining of all concrete mix components in the mixer-activator is achieved owing to increment of hydration degree of raw concrete components; creation of conditions for solid-phase chemical reactions between its components; structure improvement of the received material. It promotes significant increase of mechanical strength of mechanoactivated fine concretes (around 5 times in comparison with concretes, made from a non-activated mix, which makes it possible to decrease the cement consumption when manufacturing 1 m3 of concrete up to 59 %.

V. I. Bolshakov

2014-10-01

253

Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1 keV to 2 MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume and blast furnace slag, lead to significant variations in total mass attenuation coefficients. The elemental compositions of samples were analyzed using a wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer. The calculated values of total mass attenuation coefficients were discussed on the basis of different percentages of constituents of cement and cement mixed with different additives

254

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2008-03-01

255

Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods. Possible improvement by synthesis. Paper no. IGEC-1-004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed. (author)

256

Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as ? Radiation Shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (?) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher ?r value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

257

Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties  

OpenAIRE

The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomi...

Palacios, M.; Bowen, P.; Kappl, M.; Butt, H. J.; Stuer, M.; Pecharroma?n, C.; Aschauer, U.; Puertas, F.

2012-01-01

258

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

OpenAIRE

The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to ...

Noskievic?ova?, D.

2009-01-01

259

The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review  

OpenAIRE

Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concer...

Lena Johansson Westholm

2010-01-01

260

IDENTIFICATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF BINDERS FROM ALKALI-ACTIVATED MIXTURES OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH  

OpenAIRE

The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB) and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as t...

JOZEF VL?EK; LUCIE DRONGOVÁ; MICHAELA TOPINKOVÁ; VLASTIMIL MAT?JKA; JANA KUKUTSCHOVÁ; MARTIN VAVRO; VÁCLAVA TOMKOVÁ

2014-01-01

261

Silicon addition in charcoal blast furnaces. Part 1: pig iron/slag equilibrium; Incorporacao de silicio em altos-fornos a carvao vegetal. Parte 1: equilibrio gusa-escoria no cadinho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering that the silicon content in the iron is sometime the unique thermal control used in blast furnaces, it has been decided to investigate such silicon transfer in charcoal blast furnaces. The results from five industrial furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces such phenomena occurs, and the level of silicon oxidation depends on operational practices 7 refs., 7 figs.

Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Grossi [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

1987-12-31

262

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo / Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de t [...] opo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque). Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente. Abstract in english Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnac [...] e where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de, Matos; José Adilson de, Castro.

2012-03-01

263

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque. Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de Matos

2012-03-01

264

Dynamic shear strength of improved soil with B-type blast-furnace cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is attempted to apply the improved soil using cement materials as the hardening agent to the foundation ground of the important buildings for electric power plants. The current design procedure of the improved ground is based on the static strength such as the unconfined compressive strength of the improved soil. However, it is not clear whether the static strength is relevant to seismic designs where the effects of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake shall be considered. Hence, the authors studied the dynamic strength of the improved soil in comparison with the static strength, by executing a series of the cyclic triaxial tests with different loading frequencies and the consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests (CUB tests) with different axial strain rates. The tested soil specimens which have the unconfined compressive strength of about 5 MPa were made in laboratory using the mixture of a dredged marine clayey soil, a B-type blast-furnace cement (300 kg/m3) and water. Both of the CUB tests and the cyclic triaxial tests showed similar results with respect to the relationships between the strength and the strain rate. The larger the compressive strain rate was, the higher the strength became. It is concluded that the static strength could be used as a sufficiently safe value in seismic designs since the strain rate of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake is much larger than that of the static test. (author)atic test. (author)

265

Evaluation of blast furnace slag as basal media for eelgrass bed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of blast furnace slag (BFS), granulated (GS) and air-cooled slag (ACS), were evaluated as basal media for eelgrass bed. Evaluation was done by comparing BFS samples with natural eelgrass sediment (NES) in terms of some physico-chemical characteristics and then, investigating growth of eelgrass both in BFS and NES. In terms of particle size, both BFS samples were within the range acceptable for growing eelgrass. However, compared with NES, low silt-clay content for ACS and lack of organic matter content for both BFS samples were found. Growth experiment showed that eelgrass can grow in both types of BFS, although growth rates in BFS samples shown by leaf elongation were slower than that in NES. The possible reasons for stunted growth in BFS were assumed to be lack of organic matter and release of some possible toxins from BFS. Reduction of sulfide content of BFS samples did not result to enhanced growth; though sulfide release was eliminated, release of Zn was greater than before treatment and concentration of that reached to alarming amounts. PMID:19150584

Hizon-Fradejas, Amelia B; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

2009-07-30

266

Phase development and pore solution chemistry in ageing blast furnace slag-Portland cement blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace slag (BFS) cement blends have certain advantages for their encapsulation of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. However, their hydration reactions are more complex than for Portland cement because Portland cements fully react within several years whereas slag hydration takes considerably longer. Empirical testing of blends matured for short periods, up to several years, are not therefore adequate to characterise the chemical immobilisation potential of such systems. A modelling approach is required to predict long-term properties. This paper is concerned with defining the internal environment within slag-cement matrices. The important parameters for definition are pH, Eh, solubilities and speciation in the aqueous phase, and solid phase equilibria. Compatibility studies in the CaO-CaSo4-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-H2O system are described and compared with the results of X-ray diffraction on pastes aged up to 2 years. In addition, pore water compositions for slag-rich cements are given, and the potential for predicting their redox level (Eh) by extending the present model is discussed

267

Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe3O4, magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe3+/Fe2+ mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe3O4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption (?23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm.

268

Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride. PMID:18805564

Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2008-11-01

269

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

270

Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view

271

Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm. PMID:20064689

Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

2010-05-15

272

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

Zemskov, Serguey V.; Ahmad, Bilal; Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Vermolen, Fred J.

2013-02-01

273

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

2010-04-01

274

on the Structure and Viscous Behavior of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provided a fundamental analysis of the viscous behavior and structure of Ti-bearing blast furnace slags modified by different B2O3 additions with a basicity (CaO/SiO2) range of 0.5-0.9. The viscosity of slag melts was measured by rotating cylinder method, and the results showed that both slag viscosity and apparent activation energy for viscous flow remarkably decreased with B2O3 addition. To connect the viscosity variation of slags to the melt structure, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was performed. The results indicated that B2O3 acted as a typical network forming oxide, which was introduced into the network and existed dominantly as a two-dimensional structure, BO3 triangular. With the increase of B2O3 content, the stretching vibration of BO3 triangular gradually became more pronounced, which resulted in a simpler and less complex structure and caused the decrease of slag viscosity.

Sun, Yongqi; Liao, Junlin; Zheng, Kai; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

2014-10-01

275

Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

2013-12-01

276

Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q2(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q0, Q1, Q2(1Al) and Q2(where Qn(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO4] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO4]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO4] species (27Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species (27Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

277

Strength properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash (FA) are by-products of thermal power plants. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) is developed during iron production in iron and steel plants. This research was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength property and some durability characteristics of concrete incorporating FA, CBA, and GBFS. FA is used as an effective partial cement replacement; CBA and GBFS are used as partial replacement for fine aggregate without grinding. Water absorption capacity, unit weight and compressive strengths in 7, 28, and 90-day ages were assessed experimentally. For these experiments, concrete specimens were produced in the laboratory in appropriate shapes. The samples are divided into two main categories: M1, which incorporated CBA and GBFS; and M2, which incorporated FA, CBA, and GBFS. Remarkable decreases are observed in compressive strength and water absorption capacity of the concrete; bulk density of the concrete is also decreased. It can be concluded that if the content of CBA and GBFS is limited to a reasonable amount, the small decreases in strength can be accepted for low strength concrete works. PMID:16580833

Ozkan, Omer; Yüksel, Isa; Murato?lu, Ozgür

2007-01-01

278

Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

2011-08-01

279

Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90° C  

Science.gov (United States)

Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90° C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q2(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q0, Q1, Q2(1Al) and Q2 (where Qn(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO4] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO4]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO4] species (27Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species (27Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

Zhang, Bo; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; Brown, I. W. M.

2009-07-01

280

on the Crystallization Behaviors of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper investigates how the P2O5 addition influences the crystallization behaviors of Ti-bearing blast furnace (Ti-BF) slags with different basicity using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique. It was found that the basicity showed a significant effect on the crystallization behaviors of the Ti-BF slags, and the trend of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased while the trend of formation of dendrite crystal increased with increasing basicity. The addition of P2O5 was found to promote the formation of rod-shape crystal. The basicity and crystallization temperature that the rod-shape crystal could be formed increased, while the incubation time of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased with increasing P2O5 content. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe the morphology and determine the crystalline phase of the Ti-enriched crystals. The results indicated that the rod-shape crystal was rutile. The kinetics of the formation of rutile was studied, and the mechanism of crystallization and growth was further discussed. The results indicated that the crystallization of rutile was one-dimensional interface-controlled growth, and the nucleation rate varied with the holding time.

Sun, Yongqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

2014-08-01

281

Production of carbon included sinter and evaluation of its reactivity in a blast furnace environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the reduction in the amount of the CO{sub 2} emission has become an important issue. It is important to increase the reactivity of iron sources used in a blast furnace to decrease of CO{sub 2} emission. Therefore, the carbon composite iron ore agglomerates are significant. The production experiments of a new agglomerate named CIS (Carbon Included Sinter), where green balls were granulated by a model pan pelletizer were carried out using pot tests. The reduction of produced CIS with CO-CO{sub 2} gas mixture were examined, and were compared with that of ordinary sinter ore. Also, the softening and melting property tests of 50% CIS-50% sinter mixed layer were carried out and compared with the results using 100% sinter layer. The results are summarized as follows: (1) A new agglomerate, which an anthracite particle was surrounded by a shell with the same components as ordinary sinter ore, was produced by sintering pot test. (2) When CIS was reduced by CO-CO{sub 2} gas mixture at 1, 273 K, the degree of reduction achieved 80% in 120 min, even though ordinary sinter ore achieved less degree of reduction. (3) 250 g CIS-250 g ordinary sinter ore packed bed achieved 1/3 maximum pressure drop of 500 g ordinary sinter ore packed bed in the softening-melting property test.

Kamijo, C.; Matsumura, M.; Kawaguchi, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

2009-07-01

282

Effect of blast furnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs) before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+). Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM III (Portland cement + blast furnace slag) cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material. (authors)

283

The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag  

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Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

Awang H.

2014-01-01

284

Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? BFG or BFG+COG was burned in steel mill boilers. ? BFG was gradually added to replace COG in on-site experiments. ? As COG was decreased, the flame remained stable. ? Decreasing COG while keeping heat input constant reduced CO2 and NOx emissions. -- Abstract: In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO2 and NOx emissions.

285

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

286

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

287

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y-1 for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y-1. (authors)

288

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.

Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.

2009-04-01

289

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

2007-08-01

290

Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluorgypsum contents and lower Portland cement contents. These cements generated heats of hydration of 40–57 KJ/Kg after 28 hours, which are lower than portland cement.Se realizó la caracterización de la hidratación, desarrollo de resistencia y la composición de los productos de hidratación de los cementos supersulfatados durante las primeras 48 horas y hasta 360 días. Se estudiaron dos composiciones de 80% de Escoria de alto horno, 10–15% de Fluoryeso y 10–5% de Cemento portland, se curaron en condiciones secas y húmedas. Los principales productos de hidratación fueron etringita y C-S-H desde las primeras horas y hasta 360 días, como se evidenció por difracción de rayos X, análisis térmico y microscopía electrónica de barrido. La resistencia se favoreció con mayor contenido de fluoryeso y bajos contenidos de cemento portland. Estos cementos generaron calores de hidratación de 40–57 KJ/Kg después de 28 horas, los cuales resultan más bajos que los generados por el cemento portland.

Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.

2015-03-01

291

Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5?10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5?10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

Fernández Jiménez, A.

1996-03-01

292

Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

Sánchez, R.

2011-06-01

293

[Emission characteristics of PM2.5 from blast furnace iron making].  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to online analyze the PM2.5 particle size and mass concentration distribution in the trapping field and ore tank of blast furnace iron-making plant. Results showed that the grain number concentration of PM2.5 in trapping field after dust removal was in the range of 10(5)-10(6)cm-3 , and the particle size was mainly below 0. 1 ?m. While the grain number concentration of the PM2.5 in ore tank after dust removal was in the range of 10(4)-10(5) cm-3, the particle size was mainly below 1.0 ?m, and the mass concentration distribution showed a single peak. The micro-morphology of PM2.5 monomer was mainly divided into two categories, spherical particles and irregular aggregates. Chemical composition analysis indicated that the concentrations of water soluble SO(2-)(4) , K+ , Ca2+ were higher than other ions in PM2.5, with the percentage of 10. 32% -28.55% , 10. 36% -12. 15% , 3.97% -15. 4% , respectively. The major elements was Fe, Si, Al, with 16. 8% -31. 62% , 2. 24% -8.76% , 1.24% -5. 89% of total mass, respectively; organic carbon and elementary carbon were 2. 7% -4. 6% and 0. 8% -1. 3% , respectively. The emission factors of PM2.5 in trapping field and in ore tank after dust removal were ranged from 0.045 to 0.085 kg t(-1) and 0.042 to 0.071 kg t-1, respectively. PMID:25518643

Fan, Zhen-zhen; Zhao, Ya-li; Zhao, Hao-ning; Liang, Xing-yin; Sun, Jing-wen; Wang, Bao-gui; Wang, Ya-jun

2014-09-01

294

Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relación escoria/metacaolín son los parámetros más relevantes.

Higuera, I.

2012-06-01

295

BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

2013-12-01

296

Design of a 100 MW blast furnace gas power station under consideration of fuel specific and application specific basic conditions; Auslegung eines 100 MW - Hochofengaskraftwerkes unter Beruecksichtigung der brennstoff- und anwendungsspezifischen Rahmenbedingungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blast furnace gas develops with the pig iron production. Due to the increasing energy prices and due to the discussions on the climate the energetic utilization of blast furnace gas as a non-standard fuel increasingly gains in importance. The ROGESA Roheisengesellschaft Saar mbH (Dillingen, Federal Republic of Germany) initiated a project for the construction of a blast furnace gas power station and a project company. With its most modern equipment technology, the blast furnace gas power station contributes to the efficient power supply of the steel-plant site Dillingen. The contribution under consideration describes the realized plant concept and considerations which led to this plant concept.

Bies, Dietmar; Mueller, Robert [Evonik New Energies GmbH (Germany)

2008-07-01

297

A new method of embedding 60Co tracing spots in the study of erosion of blast furnace lining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method-tube embedding method for monitoring the erosion feature of blast furnace lining with 60Co tracers is described. Instead of the traditional' refractory boring method', the present method is to embed specific carbon steel tubes at the predetermined spots in advance during the lining of blast furnace. After the lining work is accomplished, the holes were bored on the furnace casing and 60Co tracers are put into the tubes with special tools and then the holes are padded and sealed with carbon trimmed materials. This will eliminate the interference caused by the parallel and crossing processes of embedding 60Co and refractory lining, and avoid the constructors from being irradiated by 60Co. The construction and usage of the special tools, such as container for trasporting 60Co and spray gun are also described. As the radiatoin absorbing coefficient of the tubes sealed with carbon trimmed materials is low, the dose of 60Co used at every spot and the specific pollution activity of the site and molten iron can be decreased to a lower level than the requirement of National Specification

298

On the possibility of usage of Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 for labelling of blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the augmentation of the number of the types of radionuclides suitable for labelling of the blast furnace hearth are presented. Accounting for physical, chemical, nuclear and technological properties which must be fulfilled for this purpose, it is concluded that Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 are appropriate. Using a mathematical modelling method the minimum specific detectable activity has been calculated for contaminated cylindrical slag samples measured with a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. These results have been tested by measurements on extended plane sources of Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 of activities between 200 Bq and 1500 Bq. (Author)

299

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized a...

Monaliza Maia Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira Cunha; José Augusto Martins Corrêa

2012-01-01

300

Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3?nH2O) and NaOH solution (of variable concentration). Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (?) was determined from hydration ...

Ferna?ndez-jime?nez, A.; Puertas, F.

1997-01-01

301

A Novel Conversion of Ti-Bearing Blast-Furnace Slag into Water Splitting Photocatalyst with Visible-Light-Response  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel visible-light-response photocatalyst was prepared through the heat treatment of Ti-bearing blast-furnace slag with sodium nitrate and subsequently leaching processes in which most of the SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO in Ti-slag (TS) have been separated. The photocatalytic activity of the TTS was studied by observing the evolution of H2 under the UV-Vis and visible light. Compared with the TS and commercial perovskite CaTiO3, the sample prepared exhibited an exclusive visible-light-response activity and enhanced H2 evolution.

Lü, Huihong; Li, Ning; Wu, Xingrong; Li, Liaosha; Gao, Zhifang; Shen, Xingmei

2013-12-01

302

Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems  

OpenAIRE

This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy a...

Meji?a, J. M.; Meji?a Gutie?rrez, R.; Puertas, F.

2013-01-01

303

Injection of coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures by blast furnace`s tuyere; Injecao de misturas de finos de carvoes mineral e vegetal atraves das ventaneiras do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, fines injection by tuyere contributes directly to iron pig production in terms of reducing costs. Talking about Brazilian case, this paper has studied coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures combustion under conditions similar to blast furnace`s. In conclusion, this simulation showed that the mixture has presented a better performance than the other presented by coal fines or charcoal fines separately. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

Weber, Stephan Heinz J.V. [Industria de Aco Korf S.A. (IKOSA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica; Birkhauser, Lothar [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gudenau, Heinrich W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

1991-12-31

304

The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

2014-04-01

305

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

306

Implementation of top turbine of blast furnace 3 - USIMINAS Ipatinga; Implantacao da turbina de topo do alto-forno 3 - USIMINAS Unidade Ipatinga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of turbine for energy recovery from top gas from blast furnace is aligned with the strategic objectives of USIMINAS Ipatinga to increase their own power generation, reduce environmental impacts and improve operational control of pressure from the top. This study aimed to present the progress in controlling the top pressure and electric power generation using turbine drawing gas kinetic energy. Will be addressed by developing methods used to control the pressure of the top from the start of operation of Blast Furnace 3 to the present day. Will also be discussed operating procedures and expected performance. (author)

Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

307

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha / Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica [...] . Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada. Abstract in english This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to [...] mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F., Vieira; C. A. C. M., Dias; A. V., Mothé; R., Sánchez; S. N., Monteiro.

2007-12-01

308

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F. Vieira

2007-12-01

309

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la presencia de char, muestra que con el aumento de la concentración del char, la resistencia del coque después de la reducción se hace más pequeña. La reactividad del char con el CO2 es más elevada que con la del coque. Por tanto, el char se consume con preferencia. En presencia del char inyectado aumentan el volumen total de poros del coque y la resistencia al desgaste. Se ha estudiado la reactividad y microestructura del coque con la presencia de distintos tipos de cenizas. Se observaron muchas esferas de ceniza sobre la superficie matriz del coque y el tamaño de las esferas depende de la naturaleza de las cenizas.

Gudenau, H. W.

2003-10-01

310

Iron making technology with fuels and other materials injection in blast furnace tuyeres. Part 3. Injection of fuels mixtures and other non fuel materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injection of non fuel materials (iron ores, flux s, slags, ilmenite sands), siderurgical wastes, plastics, and others, both in single form and in mixture with pulverized coal, is analyzed. As the characteristics of the injected materials, variations in the operation of blast furnace can be introduced. (Author) 47 refs

311

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

312

Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time. PMID:17532623

Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

2008-04-01

313

Integration of the blast furnace route and the FINEX {sup registered} -Process for low CO{sub 2} hot metal production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace is the most important process for the production of hot metal. An integral part of this process route is the coking of coal and sintering of fine ore. The FINEX {sup registered} -process is a new technology for hot metal production which uses untreated fine ores and coal instead of sinter and coke. This paper deals with the investigation of integration concepts of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered}. Low reduced iron (LRI) and/or reducing gas are/is produced in FINEX {sup registered} and are/is considered as substitute/s of burden and fuel in the blast furnace, respectively. In the article the overall fuel demand and CO{sub 2} emissions for the integration of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered} are shown. For that reason two case studies for the integration are carried out and compared with the base case, that is, the two-independent processes. The CO{sub 2} emissions are calculated considering the fuel and electric power consumption of the different cases. (Copyright copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Thaler, Christoph; Schenk, Johannes L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Chair of Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria); Tappeiner, Tamara; Kepplinger, Werner L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria); Plaul, Jan Friedemann [Siemens VAI Metals Technologies GmbH, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Stefan [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

2012-02-15

314

Development of an Operation Support System for the Blast Furnace in the Ironmaking Process: Large-scale Database-based Online Modeling and Integrated Simulators  

Science.gov (United States)

In the pig-ironmaking process, factors that cause operation malfunctions have increased with both the enlargement of the blast furnace and the increasing use of low quality ore. Therefore, an operation support system that predicts blast furnace performance is demanded. This paper reports the development of a blast furnace operation support system with an integrated simulator and “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM).” To develop the integrated simulator, a sophisticated burden distribution model is integrated with a two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state by using Java technology. Moreover, an integrated simulator for the partial non-stationary state is developed by modifying the two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state. To incorporate the LOM system into the operation support system, a cross-platform LOM system with general versatility is rebuilt by an existing LOM system. The operation support system is realized by the simulator of the physical modeling method and the LOM of the local modeling method. As a result, the operation support system predicts a dynamic molten pig-iron temperature in the blast furnace. The operation support system is expected to provide staff with useful information.

Ogai, Harutoshi; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Uchida, Kenko; Matsuzaki, Shinroku; Ito, Masahiro

315

The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on Phosphorus (P removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%, P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

Lena Johansson Westholm

2010-10-01

316

Potential usage of 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in labelling of the blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of the study concerning the possibility to use the radionuclides 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in the labelling of the blast furnace hearth for monitoring the wear out of the refractory lining. One presents a mathematical modelling method, based on a Monte Carlo procedure which has been used to simulate the transmission of the gamma radiations in a radiometric system containing cylindrical samples of slag and a NaI(Tl) scintillation type detector. The detection probability per decay obtained with a computer program, for a sample in which one of the considered radionuclides is uniformly distributed, is used to estimate the minimum specific detectable activity; the adequate set of parameters different for each arrangement has been: radiation background, threshold energy of the detecting equipment and the measuring time interval. (author) 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

317

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno / Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperatu [...] re two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

Monaliza Maia, Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira, Cunha; José Augusto Martins, Corrêa.

318

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

319

Investigation of SrSO/sub 4/ desulfurization during reductive roasting of celestite ore with blast-furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the method of statistic planning of an experiment, the SrSO/sub 4/ desulfurization process has been studied in the case of reductive roasting of celestine with the use of blast-furnace coke. The main factors that determine the rate of the SrSO/sub 4/ desulfurization are the roasting temperature and charge components dispersity. The desulfurization rate increases proportionally to the increase in the roasting temperature and dispersity of the reaction mixture components. To decrease the SrSO/sub 4/ desulfurization and the concentration of sulfur-containing components in gases released at rather a high celestine reduction rate, the roasting is recommended to proceed at the temperature of 1100 to 1150 deg, in this case it is necessary to limit the content of small (less than 3.2 mm) fractions of reagents.

Alekseev, V.I.; Gitis, Eh.B.; Shakhunova, L.P.; Zav' yalova, N.D.

1983-05-01

320

Investigation of SrSO4 desulfurization during reductive roasting of celestite ore with blast-furnace coke  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of statistic planning of an experiment, the SrSO4 desulfurization process has been studied in the case of reductive roasting of celestine with the use blast-furnace coke. The main factors that determine the rate of the SrSO4 desulfurization are the roasting temperature and charge components dispersity. The desulfurization rate increases proportionally to the increase in the roasting temperature and dispersity of the reaction mixture components. To decrease the SrSO4 desulfurization and the concentration of sulfur-containing components in gases released at rather a high celestine reduction rate, the roasting is recommended to proceed at the temperature of 1100 to 1150 deg, in this case it is necessary to limit the content of small (less than 3.2 mm) fractions of reagents

321

Utilization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag as an alternative silica source in reactive powder concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is an ultra high strength cement-based material. Cement and silica fume (SF) content of RPC are generally rather high compared to the conventional concrete. The aim of this study is to decrease the cement and SF content of RPC using with fly ash (FA) and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The effect of these mineral admixtures on compressive strength of RPC has been investigated under autoclave curing. In the first stage, the effect of autoclave time and SF content on compressive strength was determined. In the second stage, SF was gradually decreased and cement was replaced with FA and/or GGBFS at different proportions. The microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test results indicate that, the utilization of FA and/or GGBFS in RPC is possible without significant mechanical performance loss. SEM micrographs revealed the tobermorite having different morphology. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Halit Yazici; Huseyin Yigiter; Anil S. Karabulut; Bulent Baradan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty

2008-09-15

322

IDENTIFICATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF BINDERS FROM ALKALI-ACTIVATED MIXTURES OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as their final properties. The amorphous character of the hydration products makes evaluation of the phase composition of hardened AAB difficult and significantly limits the number of experimental techniques suitable to characterise their phase composition. It was observed that measuring the pH of water extracts obtained from the alkali-activated mixtures can give supplementary information about the process of hardening of alkali-activated mixtures of GBFS and fly ash.

JOZEF VL?EK

2014-03-01

323

The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Nanoparticles in concrete. ? Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. ? Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(use of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

324

Sulfur Transfer via Gas Phase in Iron-making Blast Furnace under Intensive Coal Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The steel industry will move toward more value additive products in the future. In order to support the value additive steel products, iron sources have to be secured with stable operation of furnaces and control of furnace have to be evolved. Environment consciousness including CO2 reduction leads more toward lower reducing agents ratio operation. It is common technical issue on both the more value additive products the environment consciousness to control the sulfur in the hot metal, slag and gas phase.In the present study, the amount of sulfur gasification was measured by combustion experiments with the attention on the simultaneous gasification of sulfur with carbon. By description of sulfurization from gas to burden materials based on the temperature distribution measured in actual furnace, the amount of sulfur transferred to gas was evaluated.

Yoshiyuki, Matsui; Rikizou, Tadai; Kenji, Ito; Tadasu, Matsuo; Korehito, Kadoguchi; Reiji, Ono

325

Study of the devitrification and hydration of vitreous, high-magnesia blast-furnace slag by means of differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) curves are presented for vitreous blast-furnace slag with a high magnesia content and an explanation for the various peaks on the curves is given. It is shown how DTA data can be used to estimate the slag content of mixtures of unhydrated Portland cement and granulated blast-furnace slag. DTA thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data are presented for blast-furnace slag hydrated in ambient conditions, in boiling water and in steam at 215 degrees Celsius. The products of hydration are mentioned. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the magnesium in the slag during hydration

326

Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study  

OpenAIRE

[EN]The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast...

Higuera, I.; Palomo, J. G.; Va?zquez, T.; Varga, C.; Gil-maroto, A.; Puertas, F.

2012-01-01

327

Nuclear methods applied in Romania in determining wear of blast furnace refractory lining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At different points and in different depths of the refractory lining, radionuclides 60Co, 110mAg, 204Tl are placed. With the wear of the lining the radioisotopes get into contact with the pig iron in which they dissolve. The loss of isotopes which indicates the wear of the lining is detected in two ways in dependence on their location. Isotopes from the furnace bottom are detected in pig iron and in the slag, isotopes from the walls of the hump of the shaft are detected by probes placed on the furnace casing. Also applicable are methods based on the photoneutron effect. Be or BeO targets in form of a plate are placed at pre-set points in the lining. The condition of the beryllium plates is monitored using gamma radiation and neutron detectors. When wear affects the plate, the plate will disintegrate and this will show by loss of the detector signal. (J.B.). 1 fig

328

SOLIDIFICATION ACCELE RATION AND SOLIDIFIED SHEAR STRENGTH EVALUATION OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG  

Science.gov (United States)

From the results of site observations, granulated bl ast furnace slug (GBFS) is solidifying w ith time. It takes a long time to solidify the whole of GBFS, b ecause GBFS observed was no t fully solidified in 18 months. It means if GBFS is used with relied on its solidification, a treatment for acceleratin g the solidification of GBFS is needed. For discus sing this point, the condition for solidifying GB FS is checked in series of laboratory experiments. It was clarified that adding micro powder of furnace slag to GBFS is effective for accelerating the solidification of GBFS unde r sea water. Failure crite ria of solidified GBFS are explained with internal friction a ngle and cohesion intercept. Failure criteria for residual condition of GBFS are explained by internal friction angle only. These parameters can be estimated from a single triaxial experiment.

Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Kenji; Kimura, Junji; Mizutani, Taka-Aki

329

The Balance of Titanium and Vanadium in the Blast Furnace with the Use of Sinter Containing a Titanium-Vanadium-Magnetite Concentrate  

OpenAIRE

The investigation concerned the use of sinter containing a titanium-vanadium-magnetite concentrate for the production of pig iron. Sinter containing 0,46 to 0,51 % TiO2 and 0,056 to 0,060 % vanadium was used for pig iron production in the blast furnace. Introducing 200 kg of this concentrate to the1 Mg sinter mix did not cause any deterioration of sinter quality.

Budzik, R.

2007-01-01

330

Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application  

OpenAIRE

The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF) slag modified by coal ash (CA). The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The ...

Dawei Zhao; Zuotai Zhang; Xulong Tang; Lili Liu; Xidong Wang

2014-01-01

331

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization  

OpenAIRE

In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on ...

Raffaele Cioffi; Francesco Colangelo

2013-01-01

332

Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

333

Effect of cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of perovskite in high titanium-bearing blast furnace slag  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of cooling rate on the crystallization of perovskite in high Ti-bearing blast furnace (BF) slag was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Results showed that perovskite was the primary phase formed during the cooling of slag. On the slag surface, the growth of perovskite proceeded via the successive production of quasi-particles along straight lines, which further extended in certain directions. The morphology and structure of perovskite was found to vary as a function of cooling rate. At cooling rates of 10 and 30 K/min, the dendritic arms of perovskite crossed obliquely, while they were orthogonal at a cooling rate of 20 K/min and hexagonal at cooling rates of 40 and 50 K/min. These three crystal morphologies thus obtained at different cooling rates respectively corresponded to the orthorhombic, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures of perovskite. The observed change in the structure of perovskite could probably be attributed to the deficiency of O2-, when Ti2O3 was involved in the formation of perovskite.

Liu, Lu; Hu, Mei-long; Bai, Chen-guang; Lü, Xue-wei; Xu, Yu-zhou; Deng, Qing-yu

2014-11-01

334

Investigative monitoring within the European Water Framework Directive: a coastal blast furnace slag disposal, as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of estuarine and coastal waters, with the most important objective being to achieve 'good ecological status' for all waters, by 2015. Hence, Member States are establishing programmes for the monitoring of water quality status, through the assessment of ecological and chemical elements. These monitoring programmes can be of three types: surveillance monitoring; operational monitoring (both undertaken on a routine basis); and investigative monitoring (carried out where the reason of any exceedance for ecological and chemical status is unknown). Until now, nothing has been developed in relation to investigative monitoring and no clear guidance exists for this type of monitoring, as it must be tackled on a 'case-by-case' basis. Consequently, the present study uses slag disposal from a blast furnace, into a coastal area, as a case-study in the implementation of investigative monitoring, according to the WFD. In order to investigate the potential threat of such slags, this contribution includes: a geophysical study, to determine the extent of the disposal area; sediment analysis; a chemical metal analysis; and an ecotoxicological study (including a Microtox test and an amphipod bioassay). The results show that metal concentrations are several times above the background concentration. However, only one of the stations showed toxicity after acute toxicological tests, with the benthic communities being in a good status. The approaches used here show that contaminants are not bioavailable and that no management actions are required with the slags. PMID:18385866

Borja, Angel; Tueros, Itziar; Belzunce, Ma Jesús; Galparsoro, Ibon; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Revilla, Marta; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano

2008-04-01

335

Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

2009-07-30

336

Combustion tests of hydrocarbons in the absence of air with a view toward massive injection blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion tests of fuel oils and natural gas in air deficiency were carried out in a model blast furnace to examine the use of such fuels in place of the more expensive coke. Large amounts of fuel oil or natural gas could be injected through the injector originally used as a hot air injector for coke gasification without a temperature drop. The feed rate amounted to 155 g liquid fuel/m/sup 3/ air, corresponding to an air-excess coefficient of 0.58. The gas formed is composed of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor. The oxygen contained in the combustion air, CO/sub 2/, and water reacts with the highly reactive coke to yield a gas composed practically entirely of CO and hydrogen for the reduction process. The unburned hydrocarbon and soot formation could be reduced substantially by shock-wave tubes for feeding the oil. The soot content in the reducing gas fell sharply as the shock wave intensified.

Della Casta, H.; Jusseau, N.; Borgnat, D.; Eyglunent, B.

1972-01-01

337

Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 °C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 °C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 °C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass.

Elalaily, N. A.; Khalil, Magda M. I.; Ahmed, L. S.

2007-03-01

338

Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

2009-08-15

339

Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal

340

Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

2014-01-15

341

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

2012-10-15

342

Production of iron/carbon composite as a recycle media for blast and revolving furnace using low rank coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of low rank coal is indispensable to qualify the future demand of energy. Low rank coal, however, has several disadvantages such as low calorific value, so we should develop a new technology of using it effectively. On the other hand, as for the steel manufacturing process, we must think about an effective utilization of iron sludge and scrap. In this paper, we present a new method to produce a iron/carbon function material utilizing a large amount of functional groups in low rank coal which can be used as a iron recycling media to blast and rotary furnaces. The method is as follows: The low rank coal was oxidized for 2 h at 70{sup o}C by nitric acid to introduce a large amount of carboxyl functional group and was impregnated by FeCl{sub 3}. Through pyrolyzing the Fe-impregnated coal pure iron crystal/cabon composite was successfully produced above 760{sup o}C. As an option, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite was also successfully produced by the oxidation or gasification of it at low temperature. The iron species in these composites were reduced by carbon with evolving CO and CO{sub 2} at high temperature. Thus, it is clarified that the proposed method is attractive for producing an alternative materials of coke/iron ore and a recycle media of scrap using low rank coal. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kazuhiro Mae; Isao Hasegawa; Atsushi Inaba [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2003-07-01

343

The role of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Nanoparticles in concrete. {yields} Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. {yields} Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-25

344

Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace; Prediccion y simulacion, mediante logica difusa, de la temperatura de salida del arrabio en un horno alto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs.

Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CENIM. Madrid (Spain); Menendez, J. L. [ACERALIA. Gijon Asturias (Spain)

2000-07-01

345

Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

Mejía, J. M.

2013-09-01

346

Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

Safi, B.

2011-09-01

347

The temperature of the boundary pig iron/refractory as variable to determine the corrosion mechanism of the blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wear of materials in the blast furnace could be carried out under the consideration of abrasion mechanisms or with the prevalence of the components chemistries and erosive resulting as of the circulation of flowing on the refractory. Nevertheless, although in determining situations the abrasion or the components chemistries could result the control mechanism, it is necessary to consider, that all the abrasion, erosion, chemical corrosion, adhesion and thermal waste-thermal shock they cooperate to the degradation of the refractory of blast furnace. For whatever the mechanisms that intervene in the wear of the materials, it results interesting to know the temperature boundary of the refractory with the solids, liquids or present gases in the furnace. In the report, it will be developed from specific form, the importance that has the temperature in the boundary refractory-pig iron on the wear of the materials of the hearth. The different hypothesis of transport (energy, quantity of movement and material) more adequate for the obtaining of the boundary temperatures will be discussed. (Author) 11 refs

348

Temperature profile of the blast furnace tap hole wall; Monitoramento da temperatura e modelamento matematico do furo de corrida de alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USIMINAS blast furnace 3 tap hole wall was modeled using Finite Element Method (FEM), applying the software ANSYS 5.1 aiming to determine the temperature profile, in the wall and in the tap hole mix. This analysis allowed a visualization of the thermal cycle of the tap hole, during and after tapping. The temperature profile obtained was checked by measurement of the tap hole mix temperature, using a probe containing several thermocouple which was introduced through the hole after plugging. The paper compares the results of the profiles from FEM and those measured directly in the tap hole wall and mix. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Scudeller, Luis Augusto Marconi; Andrade, Sidmei Oswaldo Costa de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Pandolfelli, Victor Carlos; Anchieta Rodrigues, Jose de [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

1996-12-31

349

Environmental impacts of early metallurgy in Moshyttan : A study of one of Europe's oldest blast furnaces, using three lakes records in Nora bergslag  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the environmental effects of Moshyttan, one of the earliest known blast furnaces in Europe (ca. 11th century). The study was based on the analysis of three lake records in the immediate surroundings of the smelter. Fickeln lies directly downstream and is the main recipient of waterborne pollution. Mosjökälla lies directly upstream and served as the main water reservoir for the water-powered bellows. Kramptjärnen lies 1 km to the NW in a separate catchmen...

Myrstener, Erik

2013-01-01

350

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ? The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that withoutro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO42- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO42- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO42- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m?2, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

351

Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

Palacios, M.

2012-12-01

352

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

353

Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42-/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO42- favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

354

Use of pulse-type x-ray analyzers to determine the level and profile of the stock in a blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Leningrad Scientific-Industrial Association Burevestnik collaborated with the Chermetavtomatika Scientific-Industrial Association and the TsNIIchermet to develop a pulse-type x-ray analyzer to determine the level and profile of the stockline in a blast furnace for purposes of monitoring and optimizing the control of the smelting process. The analyzer is called ''TAIR'' and is based on the transit-time method of measurement. It includes a scanning x-ray generator, transducer, detector, data analysis and display block, and scanning control block. The generator consists of an x-ray tube, a modulator, and a high-voltage plate power source for the tube. The analyzer made it possible to adjust the instruments on the furnace during operation. Besides the stockline profile, the analyzer can be used to determine the thickness of the layer of the charge and the rate of descent of the charge. It can also produce the characteristics of the gas in the furnace above the stock

355

Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag  

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Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3?nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (? was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-?1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3?nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (? se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidratación para valores de ? > 0,5 es la difusión. Este proceso viene descrito por la ecuación de Jander[D3=(1-(1-?1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. La energía de activación obtenida para dicho proceso es del orden de 50-58 kj/mol.

Fernández-Jiménez, A.

1997-06-01

356

PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

2010-04-15

357

The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

358

Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

359

A study of the process of desulfurization of SrSO4 in reductive annealing of celestine ore in a mixture with blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic factors which determine the degree of desulfurization of SrSO4 during reductive annealing of celestine in a mixture with solid carbon bearing reducers are the annealing temperature and the dispersion of the stock components. The degree of desulfurization and, consequently, portion of the acid soluble compounds in the reduction product are increased proportional to the increase in the annealing temperature and the dispersion of the components of the reaction mixture. To reduce the desulfurization of SrSO4 and the concentration of sulfur bearing components in waste gases with a quite high reduction speed of celestine, its annealing in a mixture with blast furnace coke should be performed in industrial conditions at a temperature of 1,100 to 1,150 degrees, where the content of fine (less than 3.2 millimeters) fractions of the reagents must be limited.

Alekseyev, V.I.; Gitis, E.B.; Shakhunova, L.P.; Zavyelova, N.D.

1983-01-01

360

Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

2011-07-01

361

Strength, leachability and microstructure characterisation of Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag solidified MSWI fly ash.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were measured and analysed. For the leachability of unstabilized MSWI fly ash it was found that the concentrations of Pb and Cr exceeded the leaching toxicity standard. Cementitious solidification of the MSWI fly ash by Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (NS) was investigated. Results show that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standards after 28 days of curing. The heavy metals were immobilized within the hydration products such as C-S-H gel and ettringite through physical encapsulation, substitution, precipitation or adsorption mechanisms. PMID:17985665

Zhang, Dajie; Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; He, Xinghua

2007-10-01

362

Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1 com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade.Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1 and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

Juliana Garcia Carvalho-Pupatto

2003-11-01

363

Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz / Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terr [...] as altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1) com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade. Abstract in english Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment [...] was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1) and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

Juliana Garcia, Carvalho-Pupatto; Leonardo Theodoro, Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol; Munir, Mauad; Rosemeire Helena da, Silva.

1323-13-01

364

Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos / Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo [...] (na operação de tamponamento do forno), toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico) para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos. Abstract in english The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Ad [...] ditionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

A. S., Ribeiro; G. F. B. Lenz e, Silva; H. C., Bassalo; P., Bonadia Neto; V. C., Pandolfelli.

2013-03-01

365

Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo (na operação de tamponamento do forno, toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos.The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Additionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

A. S. Ribeiro

2013-03-01

366

Combustion characteristics of coke and charcoal mixtures aiming injection through the blast furnace tuyeres; Caracteristicas de combustao de misturas de coque e carvao vegetal visando a injecao atraves das ventaneiras do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aiming the injection rate maximizing and minimizing environmental problems resulting from the coal fines generated when using coke by charcoal fueled steel plant, charcoal and coke fines mixture combustion tests has been performed under conditions similar to the region front of blast furnace tuyeres. The results obtained show the un viability of injecting only coke fines due to the volatiles low contents. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

Sausmikat, Grace Ribeiro; Figueira, Renato Minelli [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

1995-12-31

367

Influence of micro pore on reducibility and permeability of sinter above 1000degC in blast furnace; 1000degC ijo no koro koon ryoiki ni okeru shoketsuko no kangensei, tsukisei ni oyobosu bisai kiko no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the influence of micro pore in sinter on the reducibility and permeability of actual blast furnace, the properties of actual sinter sample above 1000degC were measured by use of the apparatus reported in the past and the micro pore volume distributions under 400{mu}m were measured by the mercury porosimeter. The properties of 10 kinds of actual sinter sample with almost the same chemical compositions were measured and the relation between the sinter properties and the operation results of blast furnace at which the sinter was used by 80% in burden was examined concerning the reducibility and permeability. As a result of these analyses, the mean diameter of micro pore under 400{mu}m (MDMP) was derived as the controlling factor affected on the reducibility and permeability of blast furnace. As the micro pore under 1 {mu}m is generated abundantly in the sinter with small MDMP during reduction, the reduction is accelerated above 1000degC, especially above 1200degC and the FeO contained melt is also reduced. As the FeO contained melt is difficult to enter into the micro pore under 1{mu}m, the reduced metal with abundant micro pore under 1{mu}m is generated and suppresses the metal agglomeration. The technology to reduce MDMP in sinter is expected to be developed from now on. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Yamaguchi, K.; Higuchi, K.; Hosotani, Y.; Oshio, A.; Kasama, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-10-01

368

Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

2015-01-01

369

Improvement of ground granulated blast furnace slag on stabilization/solidification of simulated mercury-doped wastes in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigated the effectiveness of (ground granulated blast furnace slag) GGBFS-added chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) matrix on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury chloride and simulated mercury-bearing light bulbs (SMLB). The results showed that the maximal compressive strength was achieved when 15% and 10% ground GGBFS was added for HgCl(2)-doped and SMLB-doped CBPC matrices, respectively. The S/S performances of GGBFS-added matrices were significantly better than non-additive matrices. As pore size was reduced, the leaching concentration of Hg(2+) from GGBFS-added CBPC matrix could be reduced from 697 microg/L to about 3 microg/L when treating HgCl(2). Meanwhile, the main hydrating product of GGBFS-added matrices was still MgKPO(4).6H(2)O. The improvement of S/S effectiveness was mainly due to physical filling of fine GGBFS particles and microencapsulation of chemical cementing gel. PMID:18289781

Liu, Zhongzhe; Qian, Guangren; Zhou, Jizhi; Li, Chuanhua; Xu, Yunfeng; Qin, Zhe

2008-08-30

370

Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

Dawei Zhao

2014-05-01

371

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH)2-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH)2 and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH)2 occurs only with the use of Ca(OH)2, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO3), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH)2. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH)2, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH)2 causes some degree of carbonation

372

Comportamento de tipos de escórias de siderurgia como corretivo da acidez do solo Conduct of blast furnace slags on the correction of soil acidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o comportamento de tipos de escórias da siderurgia nacional, na correção da acidez de solo argilo-arenoso do Terciário, foi instalado um ensaio comparando-as com o de um calcário dolomítico. Empregaram-se 6.000 quilogramas por hectare de todos os materiais estudados, em canteiros mantidos com vegetação espontânea roçada, periòdicamente. Os resultados mostraram que o calcário dolomítico foi o mais eficiente, seguido pelas duas escórias. Estas mostraram-se, também, eficientes no contrôle à acidez, mas sem diferenças significativas entre si.With the purpose to examine the behavior of two types of blast furnace slags in the combat against soil acidity, a test was installed comparing them with a dolomitic limestone. This test was established in soil of the Pinda series, at the Experiment Station of the Departamento da Produção Animal, in the Pindamonhangaba county, Paraiba River valley, during a 23-mouths period. Six thousand kilograms per hectare of all the materials studied were utilized and the ploots were kept without cultivation, being cleaned periodically of the natural vegetation. The results obtained showed that the limestone was the most efficient, followed by the two types of scoria with no difference between them revealing themselves also efficient in the control of acidity.

A. Gentil Gomes

1965-01-01

373

Comportamento de tipos de escórias de siderurgia como corretivo da acidez do solo / Conduct of blast furnace slags on the correction of soil acidity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de verificar o comportamento de tipos de escórias da siderurgia nacional, na correção da acidez de solo argilo-arenoso do Terciário, foi instalado um ensaio comparando-as com o de um calcário dolomítico. Empregaram-se 6.000 quilogramas por hectare de todos os materiais estudados, em [...] canteiros mantidos com vegetação espontânea roçada, periòdicamente. Os resultados mostraram que o calcário dolomítico foi o mais eficiente, seguido pelas duas escórias. Estas mostraram-se, também, eficientes no contrôle à acidez, mas sem diferenças significativas entre si. Abstract in english With the purpose to examine the behavior of two types of blast furnace slags in the combat against soil acidity, a test was installed comparing them with a dolomitic limestone. This test was established in soil of the Pinda series, at the Experiment Station of the Departamento da Produção Animal, in [...] the Pindamonhangaba county, Paraiba River valley, during a 23-mouths period. Six thousand kilograms per hectare of all the materials studied were utilized and the ploots were kept without cultivation, being cleaned periodically of the natural vegetation. The results obtained showed that the limestone was the most efficient, followed by the two types of scoria with no difference between them revealing themselves also efficient in the control of acidity.

A. Gentil, Gomes; Hermano, Gargantini; H. Garcia, Blanco.

374

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

2013-12-15

375

Impaction of particle streams on a granular bed  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaction of particle streams on granular beds can be observed in various processes. One typical example is the burden distribution in an ironmaking blast furnace. The stream of heavy iron-bearing pellets impacts the pre-formed coke surface at the blast furnace throat region. The coke layer then can move and collapse. The formed burden profile is important in controlling the radial distribution of gas flow, and hence productivity and stability. In this paper, the impaction of pellets on the coke surface is investigated using discrete element method. A 90 degree sector is modelled with a pre-formed coke surface impacted by pellets flowing from a rotating chute. Microscopic analysis on the flow and force structures is carried out to examine the impaction with different chute angles and discharge rates.

Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing; Tsalapatis, John; Pinson, David

2013-06-01

376

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo / Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. [...] Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos. Abstract in english This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel produ [...] ction by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano, Gargantini; A. Gentil, Gomes.

377

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L. Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos.This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L. Merril was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3. The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

1962-01-01

378

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

379

Combined biological treatment of coke plant waste water and blast furnace scrubber; Traitement biologique combine des eaux usees de la cokerie et des eaux de lavage des hauts-fourneaux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complete text of publication follows: due to the presence sometimes of potential toxic compounds, serious problems can occur in biologically treating coke plant waste water. After removing solids and heavy metals from the blowdown of blast furnace recycle systems, it still contains significant amounts of COD and TKN. At Hoogovens Slaal in lJmuiden, the combined biological treatment of these waste water flows has proven to be beneficial in a long term pilot-plant test. In 2000, an installation of the Carrousel-type with a capacity of 350 m{sup 3}/h will be put into operation on industrial scale. Removal efficiencies are expected to be > 90 % COD and > 98 % CN, the TKN concentration in the effluent will be lower than 25 mg/l. (author)

Van Hoorn, A. [Hoogovens Stall (Netherlands)

1999-11-01

380

EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE UNIDADES SÍLICO-CALCÁREAS A PARTIR DE ESCORIA DE ALTO HORNO Y CAL HIDRÁULICA PARA MAMPOSTERÍA / EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SILICON - CALCAREOUS UNITS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND HYDRAULIC LIME FOR MASONRY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo estudia la posibilidad de fabricar elementos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería a partir de dos tipos de materias primas como son las escorias de Alto Horno y las cales hidráulicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron algunas propiedades físicas de las probetas fabricadas con los [...] anteriores materiales con respecto a la Norma Técnica Colombiana, para 5 tipos de mezclas que varían entre 10 y 50 % de cal. Los resultados mostraron que es factible la fabricación de ladrillos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería que cumplen con la NTC 922. Abstract in english The present paper studies the possibility of making silicon-calcareous elements for masonry from two types of raw material like the blast furnace slag and hydraulic limes. In the present study some physical properties of samples made according to the Norma Técnica Colombiana with the previously ment [...] ioned materials were evaluated for 5 types of mixtures that vary among 10% and 50% of lime. The results show that the silicon -calcareous brick manufacture is feasible for masonry that fulfills the NTC 922.

NILSON, ARIEL LEÓN; NÉSTOR RICARDO, ROJAS REYES; BERNARDO, UMBARILA SUÁREZ; M. OSWALDO, BUSTAMANTE R..

2009-12-01

381

Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-12-21

382

An investigation of the reaction capability of blast furnace and petroleum coke as applied to reductive annealing of celestine. Issledovaniye reaktsionnoy sposobnosti domennogo i neftyanogo koksa primenitel'no k vosstanovitelnomu obzhigu tselestina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate the reaction capability of reducers with the use of a statistical experiment planning method, the mathematical dependencies of the degree of reduction of SrS04 (in percent) on the basic controllable parameters which effect the reduction process are acquired. These parameters are: the celestine to carbon ratio by mass (x1); temperature (x2) and duration of roasting (x3); the size of the particles of the celestine and the reducer (x4 and x5). These equations may be used for calculating the degree of reduction of celestine by oil and blast furnace coke with a change in the industrial parameters in the following limits: x1 = 1 to 5; x2 = 950 to 1,150 degrees; x3 = 20 to 100 minutes and x4 and x5 are 0.25 to 3.25 millimeters. Analysis of the acquired dependencies showed that the reduction of celestine at 1,050 degrees and below occurs more intensively when petroleum coke is used. It is established that the use of petroleum coke for carbothermal opening of celestine in a commercial technology is preferable.

Alekseyev, V.I.; Gitis, E.B.; Shakhunova, L.P.; Strigunov, F.I.

1984-01-01

383

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

384

Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH. Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora.The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

Jorge L Fernández

2010-01-01

385

Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratio on the strength of alkaline activated ground blast furnace slag-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash based concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Effects of H2O/Na2O on GBFS-POFA alkaline activated concrete are investigated. • High H2O/Na2O contents enhance dissolutions/workability at the expense of strength. • Lower H2O/Na2O molar ratios aid compressive strength of the products. • Increase in H2O/Na2O favours the reactivity of Ca and the products molecular bonds. • Low H2O/Na2O positively affects the microstructural density of the products. - Abstract: Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratios (MRs) on the developed alkaline activated pozzolanic solid wastes (PMs)-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash (UPOFA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS)-were studied by using the constant mass of combined activators (10 M NaOHaq + Na2SiO3aq of silica-modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 3.3).The free water content (FWC) expressed as FWC/(PMs) varied from 0.02 to 0.1 by mass while the total H2O/Na2O MRs ranged from 18.9 to 23.1 The findings revealed that increase in H2O/Na2O MRs negatively affects the strength but positively impact the mixture workability (consistency). The microstructural morphology examination using Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) reveals the contribution of H2O/Na2O MRs to the product nature, compactness, and the reactivity of Ca2+ and Al3+ while Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicates that H2O/Na2O ratios contributed to the product amorphousity and carbonation process but sparingly affected its formed polymerized structural units (SiQn(mAl), n = 2 and 3)

386

Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria / Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV) sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH). Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron [...] polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV) on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the [...] above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

Jorge L, Fernández; Jorge D, Sota; Ricardo O, Carbonari; Roberto, Romagnoli.

387

Identification of the influence of blast-furnance working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnance gas  

OpenAIRE

The application of theoretical empirical mathematical model the of blast furnace and energy characteristics of a Cowper stove to identify the influence of working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnace-gas has been discussed. Results of exemplary calculations have also been presented.

Stanek Wojciech; Ziebik Andrzej

2003-01-01

388

Identification of the influence of blast-furnance working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnance gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of theoretical empirical mathematical model the of blast furnace and energy characteristics of a Cowper stove to identify the influence of working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnace-gas has been discussed. Results of exemplary calculations have also been presented.

Stanek Wojciech

2003-12-01

389

Mezcla ternaria de cemento Portland, escoria de alto horno y piedra caliza: Resistencia mecánica y durabilidad / Ternary mixture of Portland cement, blast furnace slag and limestone: Mechanical Strength and Durability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los cementantes compuestos, basados en la sustitución parcial del cemento por otros minerales y/o subproductos industriales, surgen como una alternativa sostenible técnica y ambientalmente. Se basan en la introducción de dos o más adiciones para obtener mejores propiedades finales a través de los ef [...] ectos sinérgicos de sus componentes. El presente trabajo estudia el efecto en las propiedades de desempeño de un cemento portland cuando se incorpora adición de caliza (hasta 20%) y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno (hasta 30%), para generar una mezcla ternaria. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron resistencia a la compresión, absorción y porosidad, succión capilar, permeabilidad a cloruros, y resistencia química de los morteros expuestos a sulfatos. Los resultados indican que la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los cementos ternarios es hasta un 35% superior con relación al mortero de referencia y a su vez presentan menores coeficientes de succión capilar, confirmando la acción tanto de carácter físico como químico de los materiales de adición. Respecto a la resistencia al ataque por sulfatos el mejor comportamiento lo presento la mezcla con menor porcentaje de caliza; en este caso se determinaron los productos de reacción formados utilizando difracción de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Abstract in english The blended cements based on partial replacement of cement by other minerals and / or industrial by-products arise as a technically and environmentally sustainable alternative. These cements are based on the introduction of two or more additions for better final properties through the synergistic ef [...] fects of its components. The present research examines the effect on the performance properties of Portland cement with addition of limestone (up to 20%) and blast furnace slag (up to 30%), to generate a ternary mixture. The compressive strength, absorption and porosity, capillary suction, chloride permeability, and chemical resistance of mortars exposed to sulfates were evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of the cements ternary is up to 35% higher with respect to the reference mortar and in turn have lower coefficients of capillary suction, confirming the action of both physical and chemical nature of the materials addition. The best performance of resistance to sulfates attack was found in mixture with minor proportion of limestone. The characterization of the reaction products was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Jherson, E. Díaz; Silvia, R. Izquierdo; Ruby, Mejía de Gutiérrez; Marisol, Gordillo S.

2013-12-01

390

Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais / Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de t [...] extura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0) pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura. Abstract in english This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0) by the TRB System and as NS' by the [...] MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

Rodrigo Zorzal, Velten; Alexandre Pelissari, Sant' Ana; Dario Cardoso de, Lima; Cláudio Henrique de Carvalho, Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de, Carvalho; Lauro Gontijo, Couto; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

2006-04-01

391

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

392

Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace  

OpenAIRE

Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

Baricova?, D.; Futa?s?, P.; Pribulova?, A.; Fedorko, G.; Demeter, P.

2012-01-01

393

Tube furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

394

Furnace assembly  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

395

Reduction of tungsten from its anhydride with hydrogen in a horizontal tube furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five-zone multi-tube furnaces with hydrogen countercurrent have been used to investigate kinetics of tungsten reduction and effect of various conditions on reduction degree and granularity of tungsten powder. Presented are dependences of WO3 reduction degree upon H2 consumption in a furnace channel and amount of WO3 charged into countainers. Relationship is established of tungsten powder granularity to WO3 granularity, hydrogen consumption WO3 layer thickness, rate of container motion in the furnace, temperature distribution over the furnace length, hydrogen humidity at the furnace entrance. It is shown, that the dependence of tungsten powder granularity on reduction process parameters is generally linear. The obtained equation can be applied to investigation of the process, as well as to its optimization

396

Crystal Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A "melt recharging" technique which eliminates the cooldown and heating periods in a crystal "growing" crucible, resulted from a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Kayex Corporation program. Previously, the cost of growing the silicon solar cells had been very high. The JPL/Kayex system improved productivity by serially growing crystals from the same crucible using a melt recharger which made it possible to add raw silicon to an operating crucible. An isolation value, developed by Kayex, allowed the hopper to be lowered into the crucible without disturbing the inert gas atmosphere. The resulting product, a CG6000 crystal growing furnace, has become the company's major product.

1985-01-01

397

Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

398

Melting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a melting furnace to be used for reducing the volume of low radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear power plant, which can start and stop flowing of the wastes repeatedly. Namely, a molten slag nozzle made of alumina ceramics is disposed to a molten slag exit extended downwardly from molten slag pool of the reactor main body. Induction coils are disposed to the outer circumference of the molten slag nozzle and connected to a high frequency power source. Further, a tungsten rod is disposed to the inside of the molten slag nozzle. With such a constitution, when an appropriate amount of the molten slag is stored, high frequency current is flown to the induction coils to inductively heat the tungsten rod. The slag clogging the molten slag nozzle is melted, and the slag of the molten slag pool is discharged. Then, the electric current of the induction coil is cut off so that the molten slag nozzle is cooled spontaneously, then the slag in the nozzle is solidified and clogs the nozzle. The discharge of the molten slag is stopped. The operation is repeated to discharge and stop the molten slags. (I.S.)

399

Brain injuries from blast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts. PMID:22012085

Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

2012-01-01

400

Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

Senk, D.

2005-12-01

401

Extra-furnace decarbonization of metal for vacuum induction smelting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Zlatoust metallurgical works the process has been developed and introduced of deep extra-furnace decarbonization of a high-chromium alloy (13% Cr) in the course of air blasting in a vacuum. The metal obtained is used as initial billet for vacuum induction smelting of especially low-carbon stainless steels, thus saving low-carbon ferrochrome and nickel

402

Granular Thermodynamics  

OpenAIRE

We present experimental evidence for a strong analogy between quasi-2D uniform non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) of excited granular materials and equilibrium thermodynamics. Under isochoric conditions we find that the structure of granular NESS, as measured by the radial distribution function, the bond order parameter, and the distribution of Voronoi cells, is the same as that found in equilibrium simulations of hard disks. Three distinct states are found corresponding to a gas, a dense g...

Shattuck, M. D.; Ingale, R. A.; Reis, Pedro Miguel

2009-01-01

403

Commercial vacuum melting furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principles of operation and main design peculiarities are described for domestic and foreign commercial vacuum electron beam and arc furnaces used for melting refractory metals and alloys. A schematic representation is made for various furnaces and their specifications are given

404

Heat treatment furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

405

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

406

Induction Furnace - A Review  

OpenAIRE

A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the p...

Gandhewar, Vivek R.; Bansod, Satish V.; Borade, Atul B.

2011-01-01

407

Ultra high intensity blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of ultra high intensity blasting was introduced through the Amira Amsri program, a research project initiated to explore the potential benefits from integrated blasting and comminution processes without the traditional constraints of blast design. Depending on the impact of various factors, such as actual blast fragmentation, rock pre-conditioning and comminution plant operating cost changes, the study showed through simulations that there was significant potential for savings in operating cost (per tonne) and energy consumption across the combined blasting/comminution extraction cycle through the application of very high blasting energies. As a result of this research work, a world leader explosives supplier investigated the feasibility of employing a high energy blast with powder factors in the vicinity of 4-5kg/m3 that could be applied in a real world mine, without compromising safety and blast damage concerns, leading to a new patent. Overall, it can provide 25% comminution energy savings, increase comminution plant throughput, and reduce overall extraction costs by up to 20%.

Ziemski, Marcin [Sustainable Minerals Institute (Australia)

2010-07-01

408

Blast furnace refractory lining wear status using radioactive sources. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radioactive sources provides a means of determining the performance of new lining designs and new refractories less than campaign time periods, thereby allowing material and/or design changes for improved service. In this two-part article, which is from a paper presented at the AIME 1974 Ironmaking Conference, Part I deals with the techniques of the method. A description is given of the use of radioactive 60Co in sizes ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 millicuries in the refractory lining. The 60Co sources are encapsulated with stainless steel cylinders, with their caps heliarc welded. The cylinders are small

409

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the process called ECAD (Equal Channel Angular Drawing) is studied. A material is passed through a die with a constant transverse section, which contains an angle, generally, between 90 degree centigree and 135 degree centigree. For this purpose, three aluminium alloys are processed: 1370, 6101 and the 6061 alloy by the routes A, B and C. The evolution of the microstructure is observed according to the number of passes (N) and the thermal treatment. Observations by optical and SEM microscopy show the refinement in the grain size of these alloys in relation to the starting alloy. In addition, a simulation of the process with 90 degree and 120 degree centigree angles by using Finite Elements Modelling (FEM) is performed. Low friction conditions (?=0,01) and high friction conditions (?0.4) are assumed in order to establish the friction conditions that lead to the highest deformation values and allow to obtain a high homogeneity. The results obtained with the 1370 alloy show grain sizes of 7 (m after the first passage of ECAD performed by the Route C. Hence, the processing of alloys by the ECAD process would have industrial applicability if a final passage through a calibrated die is performed in order to obtain a constant cross section of the processed alloys. (Author) 30 refs

410

Radioactivity measurements at blast-furnace company Hoogovens IJmuiden (Netherlands)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a summary measurement of Pb-210, Po-210 emissions in Dutch aquatic and air systems. An investigation was carried out by ECN on assignment of the Hoogovens Groep company in IJmuiden (Netherlands). Natural radionuclides in soils and production, dissolved in water and air were investigated. These samples were prepared by Hoogovens Groep company between March and October 1990. Gamma-spectroscopic measurement was carried out from the decay chains of U-238, Th-232 and K-40. Meanwhile, radiochemistry method was used to determine Po-210 and Pb-210. Detailed data were given in the appendix. (author). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 92 tabs

411

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 degree centigrade). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} slag system under a reducing atmosphere (P{sub C}O/P{sub C}O2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe2O{sub 3} system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO{sub 2} mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO{sub 2} mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO{sub 2}) and diminishing the Fe/SiO{sub 2} ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. (Author) 13 refs.

Perez, M.; Romero, A.; Hernandez, A.; Almaguer, I.; Benavides, R.

2012-11-01

412

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 degree centigrade). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-Fe2O3 slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-Fe2O3 system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2) and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-Fe2O3 system. (Author) 13 refs.

413

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

Pérez, M.

2012-06-01

414

Production and quality of blast furnace coke in Ukraine  

OpenAIRE

?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????. ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????...

Kovalov, Yevgen

2007-01-01

415

Plasmas Granulares  

OpenAIRE

Los plasmas granulares son gases total o parcialmente ionizados que, además de iones electrones y átomos neutros, contienen partículas sólidas con carga eléctrica. Dichas partículas cargadas, de tamaño mesoscópico, dan lugar a nuevos fenómenos colectivos con una dinámica característica. Este tipo de plasmas aparecen en sistemas físicos tan diversos como son los reactores de fusión por confinamiento magnético, los sistemas de procesado de semiconductores o en medios astrofísicos...

Conde Lo?pez, Luis; Donoso Vargas, Jose Manuel; Sa?nchez Torres, Antonio; Tkachenko, Igor Mijail; Cal, Eduardo La; Carralero Ortiz, Daniel; Pablos, Jose? Luis

2011-01-01

416

BLAST+: architecture and applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

Bealer Kevin

2009-12-01

417

Analysing aspects of the performance of an ironblast furnace  

OpenAIRE

A mathematical model has been developed, simulating various aspects of an iron blast furnace, for the purpose of analysing its behaviour. This involved the simulation of a counter current compressible gas flow, through a packed bed, dealing with the momentum and thermal energy of both phases. Directional resistances were added to the gas momentum, so as to account for the interphase friction caused by the packed bed. This enabled the prediction of the cohesive zone geometry, together with the...

Fenech, Keith Alexander

1987-01-01

418

Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

D. Baricová

2012-01-01

419

Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno / Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo dos fenômenos fluido-dinâmicos de escoamento em meios porosos tem sido de grande interesse por diversas áreas das ciências, de forma a se avaliar não só a permeabilidade do material, mas também analisar o comportamento do fluido permeante quando no interior destes materiais. Tratando-se de [...] compósitos à base de cimento, a mensuração da permeabilidade torna-se fundamental para que sua durabilidade possa ser estimada, pois é a permeabilidade que controla a taxa de ingresso e movimentação de agentes deletérios no interior destes materiais. Dessa forma, diversas metodologias e equacionamentos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para prever a permeabilidade de materiais à base de cimento. No entanto, várias discrepâncias e disparidades nos resultados têm sido encontradas. Dentre as metodologias empregadas para mensurar a permeabilidade de meios porosos, encontra-se a desenvolvida por Thenoz, a qual tem demonstrado bons resultados em materiais à base de cimento. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa, por meio de ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar, realizado de acordo com a metodologia de Thenoz, avaliar o comportamento fluido-dinâmico do ar durante o ensaio de permeabilidade em argamassas. Para isto, foram utilizadas argamassas preparadas com dois tipos de cimento Portland (CP II E - 32 e CP III - 32), duas relações água/cimento (0,5 e 0,6) e ensaiadas em idades de 14 e 28 dias. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível observar que durante o escoamento a compressibilidade do ar pode ser ignorada e o regime de escoamento pode ser considerado como laminar, demonstrando que a metodologia proposta por Thenoz e o equacionamento matemático empregado pode resultar em coeficientes de permeabilidade ao ar confiáveis, pois fenômenos e considerações que poderiam influenciar neste tipo de escoamento podem ser negligenciados. Abstract in english Fluid-dynamic phenomena study in porous media flow has been of great interest for diverse areas of sciences. These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring [...] of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32), two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6) and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

V. M., Pereira; E., Carvalho; P. S., Bardella; G., Camarini.

2008-06-01

420

Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo dos fenômenos fluido-dinâmicos de escoamento em meios porosos tem sido de grande interesse por diversas áreas das ciências, de forma a se avaliar não só a permeabilidade do material, mas também analisar o comportamento do fluido permeante quando no interior destes materiais. Tratando-se de compósitos à base de cimento, a mensuração da permeabilidade torna-se fundamental para que sua durabilidade possa ser estimada, pois é a permeabilidade que controla a taxa de ingresso e movimentação de agentes deletérios no interior destes materiais. Dessa forma, diversas metodologias e equacionamentos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para prever a permeabilidade de materiais à base de cimento. No entanto, várias discrepâncias e disparidades nos resultados têm sido encontradas. Dentre as metodologias empregadas para mensurar a permeabilidade de meios porosos, encontra-se a desenvolvida por Thenoz, a qual tem demonstrado bons resultados em materiais à base de cimento. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa, por meio de ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar, realizado de acordo com a metodologia de Thenoz, avaliar o comportamento fluido-dinâmico do ar durante o ensaio de permeabilidade em argamassas. Para isto, foram utilizadas argamassas preparadas com dois tipos de cimento Portland (CP II E - 32 e CP III - 32, duas relações água/cimento (0,5 e 0,6 e ensaiadas em idades de 14 e 28 dias. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível observar que durante o escoamento a compressibilidade do ar pode ser ignorada e o regime de escoamento pode ser considerado como laminar, demonstrando que a metodologia proposta por Thenoz e o equacionamento matemático empregado pode resultar em coeficientes de permeabilidade ao ar confiáveis, pois fenômenos e considerações que poderiam influenciar neste tipo de escoamento podem ser negligenciados.Fluid-dynamic phenomena study in porous media flow has been of great interest for diverse areas of sciences. These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32, two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6 and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

V. M. Pereira

2008-06-01

421

Induction Furnace - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

Vivek R. Gandhewar

2011-09-01

422

Space station furnace facility  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-07-01

423

Franklin Furnace Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

424

A high temperature furnace  

OpenAIRE

A high temperature furnace has been developed which operates directly from the mains voltage (240 V). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heating element in the form of a high resistance wire held onto ceramic insulators. Temperatures up to ca. 2 000 °C are achievable but are limited by the present choice of ceramic.

The Sample Environment Group,

1984-01-01

425

Blasting: Another environmental woe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The much increased use of explosives to move and extract rock masses in construction and mining over the past two decades has resulted in a plethora of complaints from the general public in areas of close proximity to public facilities, communication, and transportation systems. Air blasts and ground vibrations caused by explosive detonation can have desultory and damaging effects to public and private property, impose adverse effects on underground mining operations, and change the course of flow or effect the availability of surface and groundwater. Attempts to prevent damage and alleviate problems from blasting have been initiated by the federal and state governments by the promulgation of rules and regulations to prevent against vagrant and negligent blasting procedures. The Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) provides regulations in the Federal Register on March 8, 1983, with particular reference to surface mining practices. Most of the states have adopted to OSMRE guidelines to enforce these rules and regulations

426

Maxillofacial blast injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast injuries cause specific lesions and occur more often than previously, because of the wide use of explosives. This is especially the case in wartime. More and more people lose their lives every day due to blast injuries. The mechanism of the injury and pathophysiology of this trauma are discussed. The clinical effects as well as management are presented. The most dramatic effects observed are fractures to the middle third of the face, reported here for the first time, with their management. New fracture lines are typically seen in fractures of the mandible due to the blast wave effects. This presentation should help in the prevention and management to save the lives of patients in future. PMID:7790513

Shuker, S T

1995-04-01

427

Investigation of tungsten reduction in tube-type furnaces using computerized simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of mathematical simulation the process of tungsten reduction from WO3 in five-zone multitube furnaces with hydrogen counterflow has been studied. Kinetic curves of tungsten reduction for a comparatively wide range of temperature, mass of tungsten anhydride loaded in containers, consumption and humidity of hydrogen are obtained. Conditions of the obtaining tungsten of different granularity are determined

428

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

Science.gov (United States)

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

429

An improved gas extraction furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

Wilkin, R. B.

1972-01-01

430

BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ?8.7 deg2 centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5? in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

431

Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality  

OpenAIRE

Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite) and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition ...

Pribulova?, A.; Futa?s?, P.; Baricova?, D.

2012-01-01

432

DIRECT COURSE blast shelter entranceway and blast door experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DIRECT COURSE Event is a planned high-explosive simulation of a 1-kt height-of-burst nuclear weapon. Three entranceway experiments will be fielded, one full size complete with two blast doors to document structural response and loading in the simulated 1-kit blast environment. Also, two 1/10-scale models, one double and one single entrance configuration, will be used to obtain blast pressure data that can be scaled to a 1-Mt blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast doors for the key worker blast shelter

433

Tube splitting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application concerns a methane splitting plant, in which the heat produced in a nuclear reactor is directly used (i.e. without an intermediate circuit) in a process requiring heat, in order to split a CH4/H2O mixture by supplying heat and using a catalyst, into H2, CO and CO2. Coal can be gasified into methane with the hydrogen of the split gas obtained, or the split gas is used as a heat carrier in transporting the heat energy obtained in the high temperature reactor to a remove energy consumption location, where the split gas is again converted to methane by catalysis and the heat released is used. The methane splitting furnace is accommodated in the prestressed concrete pressure vessel with the high temperature reactor and the steam raising unit. The splitting furnace consists of three cylindrical spaces above one another, the primary circuit helium coming from the blower and flowing back to the high temperature reactor flows through the lowest space, which gives up its heat to the methane splitting tube projecting into it from above. Above this space there is the methane space, which has methane supplied to it from outside by a pipeline and which distributes it to the splitting tubes leading downwards. Each splitting tube contains a coaxial inner tube, in which the split gas produced is taken upwards to the top cylindrical space, from which the split gas is taken away by a pipeline. The design of the splitting furnace according to the invention, is simple and compact, requires little space and makes quick catalyst change and easy fitting and removal of the tube splitting furnace possible. (RB)

434

Neurological Effects of Blast Injury  

OpenAIRE

Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the cu...

Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

435

Simulation of Induction Furnace and Comparison with Actual Induction Furnace  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, at first, a matlab simulation ofinduction furnace model optimized resonant capacitor isdesigned for a practical induction furnace with parallel resonantinverter. Then rectifier and inverter snubber circuit are designedand voltage, current, THD and power were measured. Thismeasured value is compared with actual working industryfurnace data and conclusion is made that when furnace is notoperate at full load that time its power factor is very low andTHD is high.

Solanki, Viralkumar J.; Joshi, Dr S. R.; Chavda, Prof J. K.; Mokariya, Prof K. L.

2013-01-01

436

Simulation of Induction Furnace and Comparison with Actual Induction Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, at first, a matlab simulation ofinduction furnace model optimized resonant capacitor isdesigned for a practical induction furnace with parallel resonantinverter. Then rectifier and inverter snubber circuit are designedand voltage, current, THD and power were measured. Thismeasured value is compared with actual working industryfurnace data and conclusion is made that when furnace is notoperate at full load that time its power factor is very low andTHD is high.

Viralkumar J Solanki

2013-09-01

437

Carbon-free induction furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 16500C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials

438

Carbon-free induction furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effect