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1

An update on blast furnace granular coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

1997-12-31

2

Blast furnace granular coal injection system demonstration project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report discusses the demonstration of the British Steel and CPC-Macawber Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection (BFGCI) Process at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The technology is installed on Blast Furnaces C and D, each of which has a production capacity of 7000 net tons of hot metal per day. The project is part of the US Clean Coal Demonstration Program. In the BFGCI process, granular coal is injected into the blast furnace as a fuel supplement. The coal is blown with heated air through tuyeres. The injected coal reduces the requirement for coke and reductant and can reduce pollution emissions. Coal can replace up to 40% of the coke. Test operations began in November 1995 and were completed in 1999. The injection of granular coal did not cause any operating problems and reduced emissions due to decreased coke requirements. It proved economical since coal is cheaper than coke. Coal injection is also cheaper than natural gas injection. 14 refs., 5 figs., 11 photos.

NONE

1999-11-01

3

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

4

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

5

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

6

Blast furnace stove control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

7

Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

P. Besta

2014-10-01

8

The use of blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

V. Václavík

2012-10-01

9

Studies on High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, viscosities and sulphide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were investigated. The systems investigated were four component CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-CaF2 quinary systems. Viscosities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined by the rotating cylinder method using Brookfield digital viscometer model LVDV-II+ pro. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1573- 1873 ...

Shankar, Amitabh

2007-01-01

10

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and ...

Ali Azadeh; Ghaderi, S. F.

2006-01-01

11

Increasing blast furnace productivity. Is there a universal solution for all blast furnaces?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past few years there has been a major effort in the integrated plants in the US to increase blast furnace productivity. Record production levels have been reported by AK Steel using direct reduced/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) and high levels of natural gas (NG)-oxygen injection at their Middletown blast furnace. Similarly, US Steel-Gary No. 13 reported high productivity levels with PCI and oxygen enrichment. A productivity of 6 NTHM/day/100 ft{sup 3}WV was the norm in the past, but today levels higher than 11 NTHM/day/100ft{sup 3}WV have been reached on a sustained basis. These high productivity levels have been an important aspect of facility rationalization efforts, as companies seek to maximize their throughput while reducing costs. Hot metal demand in a particular plant depends on downstream capabilities in converting hot metal to saleable steel. Single vs. multi-furnace plants may have different production requirements for each facility. Business cycles may influence productivity requirements from different furnaces of a multiple furnace plant, more so for those considered as swing furnaces. Therefore, the production requirement for individual blast furnaces is different for different plants. In an effort to understand productivity improvement methods, calculations were made for a typical 8 m hearth diameter furnace using data and experience gathered on Inland`s operation. Here the authors present the results obtained in the study.

Chaubal, P.C.; Ranade, M.G. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1997-12-31

12

Oil injection into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1997-12-31

13

BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

14

Thermomechanical modelling of a blast furnace hearth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able to estimate the stress state in service. To identify the behaviour of bricks, mortars and ramming mix, characterization tests have been developed for temperatures up to 1500°C. A modified Cam-clay model is identified for the ramming mix. The masonry modelling is based on a macroscopic approach where bricks and mortars are replaced by a set of equivalent homogeneous materials accounting for the differ...

Brulin, Je?ro?me; Rekik, Amna; Blond, Eric; Josserand, Laurent; Gasser, Alain; Roulet, Fre?de?ric

2011-01-01

15

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most important regions of worldwide iron production. The prospects for future possible developments of blast furnace technology is presented, too.Findings: of this analysis show that directions of development of blast furnace technologies is characterized by: an increase the overall productivity of blast furnaces, the increase in volume blast furnaces and extending the period for campaign work of blast furnaces, systematic improving the quality of blast furnace charge, controlling its distribution, the introduction of coal dust injection and modernization of the equipments. Moreover, some specific researches were carried out e.g. a new process granulation for the control of melting materials, hybrid bonding iron ore of inferior quality, decreasing CO2 emissions in the process of sintering iron.The Chinese iron industry is oriented on modification of uneconomical structure of the iron production, excessive energy consumption and heavy impact on global environment. Research limitations/implications: Simulation calculations show that the future lines of the development of blast furnace technology should take into account: a use lower temperatures of hot blast and high blast enrichment in oxygen. b. injection of various fuels taking into account their prices in various world regions, c. the effective use of top gas, d. the possibility of eliminating blast furnace stoves. Originality/value: of the paper consist in transfer of knowledge helpful to further lowering energy for iron production and reducing harmful impact for the natural environment.

J. Mróz

2012-12-01

16

Development of waste plastics injection process in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Keihin No.1 Blast Furnace, waste plastics recycling system was installed in Oct. 1996. Before the installation of that system, the behavior of waste plastics injected into the blast furnace has been studied with the raceway hot model and the commercial blast furnace so as to investigate the possibility of effective waste plastics utilization in the blast furnace. Prom the observation of plastics particle injected into the raceway of blast furnace, it was estimated that combustibility of coarse plastics was much different from that of pulverized coal. The combustion point of coarse plastics located to deep domain in raceway compared with that of pulverized coal. Although C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons due to the decomposition of plastics was detected in in-furnace, the decomposition products of plastics in the blast furnace top gas and dust were the same as that of pulverized coal injection. The preparation method of plastics had an influence on the combustion and gasification behavior in the raceway. The coarse plastics gave high combustion and gasification efficiency compared with fine plastics and pulverized coal, and CO{sub 2} gasification rate of unburnt char derived from waste plastics was much higher than that of pulverized coal. Thus, it was concluded that coarse waste plastics could be effectively utilized as a reducing agent in the blast furnace. On the basis of above results, the waste plastics recycling system was designed. (author)

Asanuma, M.

2000-03-01

17

Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

1995-12-01

18

Hot properties of coke and blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the positions inside a blast furnace at which degradation of lump coke occurs during operation, and to shed light on the causes of this degradation, a blast furnace was overhauled and an operational analysis carried out. These studies focused on the pronounced granulization that occurs at about 3-5 m from the tuyeres. The results of the various investigations are reported and from them an explanation of blast furnace coke degradation is derived. In addition, the results of tests aimed at decreasing the amount of coke degradation in the lower part of the furnace are described. These tests involved modifying the blast furnace operating conditions and improving coke properties. 10 references.

Okuyama, Y.; Miyazu, T.; Kishimoto, S.

1983-01-01

19

A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

Andersson, Annika

2003-01-01

20

Blast furnace operating experience with pulverized coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early nineties Stelco s Hilton Works faced a shortfall in coke production due to the shutdown of three batteries. It was decided to invest in pulverised coal injection technology (PCI) to overcome this. The new facilities became operational in December 1995. The paper describes the blast furnace and PCI facilities, the effect of PCI on blast furnace operations, and operating experience with PCI. It also discusses PCI versus natural gas injection in North America. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Hutchinson, S. [Stelco Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considerin...

Verdeja, L. F.; Gonza?lez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbe?s, Mª F.

2003-01-01

22

Video monitoring of pulverized coal injection in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel approach to monitoring and control of the coal powder injection in a blast furnace is presented and discussed. Image analysis of video recordings is used as a means to estimate the instantaneous coal flow. Initial experiments at blast furnace number 3 of SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea, Sweden, are reported and firsthand results on modeling and control of a single injection line are given.

Birk, W.; Marklund, O.; Medvedev, A. [Lulea University of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Control Engineering Group

2002-04-01

23

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most...

2012-01-01

24

Silicon behaviour at the blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Views on the reduction of SiO2 at the blast furnace process began to change in the mid 70s. Nowadays it is claimed that the silicon appears in the metal not only from the slag SiO2 reduction at the liquid phase, but also from a gaseous SiO. Presented in this paper, laboratory tests were aimed on finding the effect of temperature and MgO containing in the slag on the dynamics of the Si transition to the pig iron at the liquid phase at time when slag lies on metal.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory tests carried out in laboratory on devices AGH described in detail in other studies such as [8-11]. Metal used in the study obtained by carbonizing the carbon-iron saturation assuming the values given by J. Chipman [7].Findings: Observations of industrial units in combination with laboratory tests allowed us to approximately determine the contribution of silicon from the gaseous SiO in hot metal.Research limitations/implications: Si content in the metal after the test at a constant temperature is less than taping pig iron of about 0.15 to 0.35%. This means that in addition to the reduction reaction of the silica source of silicon in the slag is reduced gaseous SiO , which is in line with those of the authors [2-5, 8-10]. This will also be the subject of the next stage of research.Practical implications: As a result, developed guidelines and proposals for the conduct of blast-furnace technology to minimize Si in pig iron.Originality/value: The AGH research team has approached to issue of SiO2 reduction complexly. The work is divided into stages. Laboratory studies combined with industry specific observations. As a result of this approach to work is possible to develop a practical technology to minimize silicon in the pig iron. Articles published in reputable journals on similar or related topics do not include all issues.

A. Klimczyk

2012-12-01

25

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

26

Effect of coke strength on blast furnace performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report on results of a study, conducted from 1979 to 1982, analyzing the effect of the strength of commercially produced coke on furnace performance, for furnaces of different volumes. The effect of coke strength on blast-furnace performance was analyzed in two directions: determination of the dependence of coke loss from fragmentation on coke strength indices; evaluation of the effect of the coke strength on melting indices. It is found that high-strength coke is needed for large-volume furnaces and that reduction in coke strength helps cause tuyere burning.

Belyshov, V.N.; Emushintsev, V.V.; Minikes, E.E.; Tsymbal, G.L.; Vakulin, V.N.

1985-09-01

27

Process control of mini blast furnaces; Controle de processo de mini altos-fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model for charcoal blast furnaces is described. This mathematical model requires low investment in sensors and is an essential tool for a stable operation of charcoal blast furnaces. (author)

Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: lfac@demet.ufmg.br; rtavares@demet.ufmg.br

2002-11-01

28

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs.

Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

2003-07-01

29

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

2003-01-01

30

Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

?. ?. Balgabekov

2014-10-01

31

Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

2010-01-01

32

Characteristics of formed coke and conventional coke in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paper presented at the 95th J.I.S.I. Congress. Examination of blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 3 at the Keihin plant after blowing out. In the case of formed coke: distribution of the charge in the stack and in the blast-pipe zone, reactivity, DI30/15 index and porosity. In the case of conventional coke: describes the influence of various factors on its thermal degradation (gasification, inertinite content, etc.), and compares the results with those of formed coke.

Miyazu, T.

1978-02-01

33

Modern blast furnaces. Part I. Planning, design and construction of Mannesmann's blast furnace B. Part II. High-performance operation of Mannesmann's blast furnace A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significantly lower investment cost, together with reduced operating costs, was achieved by Mannesmann AG by constructing a large 6600 ton/day blast furnace and relining an existing modern furnace, rather than renovating and upgrading 4 smaller furnaces. The new furnace B utilises a belt-less top, cooling plates, a novel casthouse with fume control, and sophisticated automation. High production levels, up to 9 ton/100 ft/sup 3/ of working volume per day, were obtained on the existing furnace A through equipment and operating improvements. Blast temperatures up to 2372 F, oxygen enrichment and fuel injection were employed.

Weidenmueller, H.

1983-08-01

34

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

35

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

36

Oxygen addition to blast air in cupola melting furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of a 4% higher blast air oxygen content on the smelting performance of an industrial cupola funace 1 m in internal diameter is investigated. The oxygen was supplied to the furnace with pressures between 0 and 0.39 MPa from a storage tank (1.47 MPa). Parameters measured during a 3 month smelting operation period with and without oxygen injection are given, including coke amount and coke quality, cast iron and flue gas temperatures, smelting capacity, air supply and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide content in the blast furnace gas. It is concluded that a higher air oxygen content allows a reduction in the amount of coke required or allows substitution of higher quality coke by lower quality coke. A cost benefit analysis is referred to, showing that oxygen injection into cold blast furnaces is an economic improvement, with a pay-back period of 2 years for the retrofitting investment in a 8 to 10 kt production capacity plant.

Grimm, W.; Held, W.; Zschiedrich, S.; Troetsch, L.; Kirchner, F.

1984-07-01

37

Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.

Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-03-01

38

Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

1995-12-01

39

Production and use of coal-oil mixture as blast furnace auxiliary fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the production and use of coal-oil mixture as a blast furnace auxiliary fuel. The design features of the COM plant, its operation, the COM injection circuit and the properties of COM produced and injected into the blast furnace are considered. The metallurgical effect of COM injection on blast furnace operation and the economic viability of COM as a blast furnace fuel are discussed. The trial showed that COM can replace fuel oil as a blast furnace auxiliary fuel and reduce fuel oil consumption by about 40%. The economic viability of COM production and injection into a blast furnace is mainly a function of price and availability of coal, fuel oil and coke. 8 references.

Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucair, V.D.; Jansto, S.G.

1983-01-01

40

Research into the kinetics of pulverised coal combustion in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe a programme of research aimed at increasing the rate of injection of pulverized coal in blast furnaces. In 1983 more than 70% of blast furnaces in China whose volume was over 255 mT were fitted with coal injection systems. The authors describe the methods used for collecting data from in-service blast furnaces and for analyzing the part-burnt coal; they then present the subsequent laboratory tests. 9 references.

Yong-Yi, Y.; Yen-Hui, Y.

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

A. Konstanciak

2013-04-01

42

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

43

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

44

Constructed wetlands for the remediation of blast furnace slag leachates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air-cooled blast-furnace slag (BFS), a by-product of iron production, is recycled and often used as fill material for roads and other transportation structures. The use of this material in poorly drained areas can produce a greenish leachate, with high pH, elevated sulfate and dissolved solids concentrations, and hydrogen sulfide odor. The occurrence of this leachate from BFS used as fill on I-65 in Northwest Indiana, has resulted in the Indiana Department of Transportation’s (INDOT) remedi...

2006-01-01

45

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

Verdeja, L. F.

2003-06-01

46

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

47

Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

2010-01-01

48

Production Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen of a Modificated Blast Furnace Gas Using Nuclear Energy of the High Temperature Reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated i...

W. Peschel

1985-01-01

49

Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

1997-12-31

50

Characterization of the permeability of the blast furnace lower part  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of high coal injection and high productivity operation, the coke behaviour inside the blast furnace hearth is the main parameter to control. Different and complementary investigations as radioactive and helium tracer injections, liquids and coke samplings, have been carried out at Sollac Fos BF1 using the tuyere probe to determine the hearth permeability and its evolutions as a function of the main control parameters, and to understand the hearth activity. The results of all these experiments give a very consistent picture of a heterogenous hearth with three concentric areas of various permeabilities to gas and liquids. A two concentric zones model has been built, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. It enables to evaluate the impact of the central zone on the liquids flow at the periphery. (author)

2001-06-01

51

An approach to blast furnace coke quality prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although coke cold drum mechanical strength has historically been the most relevant coke quality parameter, currently coke reactivity and post-reaction strength (CRI/CSR) are the most important parameters used to assess blast-furnace coke quality. Many models of coke quality prediction have been proposed, most of which are based on coal characteristics and limited to the same coal geographic origin, but as yet there is no universally applicable prediction formula. The present work describes a simple model of coke CRI/CSR prediction based on the assumption that the CSR of a coke produced from a blend of coals can be predicted from the CSR obtained from the cokes of the individual coals through the application of the additivity law. The additivity law was also applied to the coke cold mechanical strength indices derived from the Irsid test, which are widely employed by the European coke industry as complementary coke quality indicators. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

R. Alvarez; M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; E. Diaz-Faes; J.L.G. Cimadevilla [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-09-15

52

Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

2010-02-15

53

Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

D. Baricová

2010-04-01

54

Blast furnace sinter performance improvement; Melhoria do rendimento de sinter de alto forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the following issues of methodology maid and the accomplished actions aiming at the blast furnace sinter performance improvement: performance concept; performance historical evolution; problem boarding; influence factors; interpretation of the results; actions implementation; and economic benefit.

Santos, Ricardo Baeta; Ferreira, Antonio Marcos M.; Perez, Jose Antonio; Nobrega, Carlos A.; Madeira Filho, Nelson Santos; Silva, Jose Coutinho da; Sampaio, Silvio; Larcher, Marcos A.; Silva Filho, Jose Maximo da; Nogueira, Carlos Alberto; Ramalho Filho, Wilson; Costa, Jose Luiz Lage da; Silva, Mauro Correa da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil)

1995-07-01

55

Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blast furnace tapping. This study also discusses different hearth erosion situations and explains the rationality of blast furnace large-scale trends from the perspective of molten iron liquid level stability.

Hong-Wei Guo

2013-08-01

56

The challenges of coal injection in today's blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fourteen papers (including the keynote address) addressed various aspects of pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces, including coal quality criteria, ramping up PCI production and tuyere development. The discussion of the papers is also included.

Irons, G.A. (ed.) [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Steel Research Centre

2009-07-01

57

Coke quality for high efficiency blast furnace with high rate coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The result of extensive tests carried out by Thyssen Stahl AG to determine the coke quality required for high efficiency blast furnace operation with a high rate of pulverised coal injection is discussed. 13 figs.

Beppler, E.; Hofherr, K.; Kowalski, W. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

1996-12-31

58

Implications of the use of blast-furnace coke in the cupola  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By analyzing the effects of the use of blast furnace coke in the cupola, the paper highlights the decrease in foundry iron temperature and the cupola productivity, the increase of the sulphur content in foundry iron and that fact quality becomes worse. The authors consider that the foundry coke may be replaced by blast furnace coke up to 30%, under certain conditions presented in the paper. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Riposan, I.; Metesoi, L.; Solrudan, D.; Demidov, M.; Bria, A.

1986-09-01

59

Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL) purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning...

2005-01-01

60

Determination of cadmium in blast furnace slag by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blast furnace slag is used widely (cement, concrete aggregate and so on), it is important to measure toxic heavy metal in slag. In this study, we measured Cd in blast furnace slag by Multiple Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (MPGA) and investigated LLD (Lower Limit of Determination). As a result, LLD for Cd in slag was 1 ppm order (counting time: 3h). In each sample, Cd peak was not confirmed in this measurement. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying...

Carrasco, M. F.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Irassar, E. F.

2003-01-01

62

Blast furnace operating conditions manipulation for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative reduction behavior of wuestite samples prepared from iron ore sinter was investigated to find the optimum way for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in blast furnace technology. A series of wuestite reduction experiments was carried out using different gas mixtures. A correlation between the experimental results and real data of blast furnaces at Egyptian Iron and Steel Company (EISCO) was demonstrated in order to optimize the coke consumption inside blast furnaces. Different theoretical models were applied on real data of blast furnaces to calculate the effect of operation parameters on the coke consumption. It was found that the wuestite reducibility can be controlled and enhanced using certain ratio of H{sub 2} and CO gases. Such kind of enhancement decreases the remaining quantity of unreduced wuestite which descends to the high temperature region of blast furnace. The theoretical analysis of real data using certain values of H{sub 2} and CO shows that increasing the amount of natural gas injection in blast furnace of EISCO will decrease the degree of direct reduction of iron oxide and consequently will decrease the amount of coke consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Bahgat, Mohamed; Abdel Halim, Khaled S.; El-Kelesh, Heba Ali; Nasr, Mahmoud I. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo (Egypt)

2012-07-15

63

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak.

Tague, I.; Llewellin, P.; Burton, K.; Buchan, R.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

64

Thermal decomposition and combustion behavior of plastics into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many intensive efforts to develop the recycling technologies of waste plastics in steel works to tackle the saving of resources and the protection of the natural environment. In this study, the thermogravimetric analyses for three kinds of plastics, the combustion experiments and the theoretical approach for calculating the flame temperature in the blast furnace had been performed to understand the behavior of plastics in the raceway. The thermal decompositions of plastics were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer under the atmospheric condition. The starting temperature of thermal decomposition and the maximum weight loss point were increased in proportion to the logarithmic values of heating rate. The combustion characteristics of plastics were simulated in a coke-bed combustor. The combustion efficiency of plastics was lower than that of pulverized coal. The oxygen enrichment was found out to be one of the useful methods to increase the combustibility of plastics in raceway. The maximum injection rate of plastics was calculated based on the flame temperature. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

Heo, Nam-Hwan; Baek, Chan-Yeong; Yim, Chang-Hee [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang(Korea)

2000-12-31

65

Fuel combustion in the blast furnace raceway zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When air is introduced horizontally into the packed bed of carbonaceous particles, a heterogeneous combustion zone forms within the packed bed. Depending on the relative gas velocity at the point of introduction of the gas and the size of the packed-bed particles, these combustion zones vary from relatively quiescent regions to zones in which turbulent, high-speed, rotational motion of the particles occurs. It is shown in this review that in the past studies in this field have mostly been carried out as a result of investigations into the iron-making blast furnace. In the conducting of this research, four approaches to the problem have been adopted, these being: (i) experiments on laboratory models at room temperature, (ii) experiments on hot models in which the combustion occurs at high temperature but where a small scale of operation applies; (iii) experiments on full-scale packed beds during or after commercial operation and (iv) theoretical studies which simulate the system. Taken as a whole, the work has shown that the shape, size and combustion characteristics of packed-bed turbulent combustion zones are complex and depend on the physical and chemical nature of the carbonaceous particles which comprise the packed bed and the properties of the injected oxidising gas and any supplementary fuels employed in the process. 64 references.

Burgess, J.M.

1982-01-01

66

Improved evaluation of Australian coking coals and blast furnace cokes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large quantity of data from BHP coking test work during the past 12 years has been stored in computer files and analysed by simple statistical methods. Some useful relationships were found but the analysis has not so far led to satisfactory methods for prediction of coke physical properties from coal properties. Published coke strength prediction models were tested for Australian coals and blends but all were found unsuccessful. The data were also used to derive correlations between various pairs of coke strength indices and conversion equations have been published in a booklet. However, because of the considerable scatter in all the relationships, their accuracy is limited. Equations were also derived for the prediction of coke strength after reaction (CSR), and it was shown that CSR depends largely on coal rank and coal ash chemistry. Again, the accuracy of prediction was limited. The following four relatively new techniques for cokes were established and will be used extensively in CRL's future work: microstrength test, crystallite size measurement, microtextural analysis, and CSR test. Of these, microtextural analysis has proved invaluable and it is envisaged that its use will lead to important advances both in cokemaking research and the evaluation of cokes for blast furnace use. Research in the areas described in this report is progressing at CRL with continuing NERDDP support.

Brown, N.A.; Gill, W.W.; Coin, C.D.A.

1983-01-01

67

Sintering mechanism of blast furnace slag-kaolin ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general ceramics processing scheme by cold uniaxial pressing and conventional sintering process have been used to prepare ceramics from mixtures of blast furnace slag (BFS) and kaolin (10%, 30% and 50% kaolin). The properties of the ceramics were studied by measuring linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and mechanical properties of samples heated at temperatures from 800 oC to 1100 oC. The formed crystalline phases were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Slag melt formed at relatively low temperatures (800-900 oC) modified the sintering process to liquid phase sintering mechanism. Combination of BFS with 10% kaolin gave the highest mechanical properties, densification and shrinkage at relatively low firing temperatures. The crystalline phases were identified as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in both BFS and BFS with 10% kaolin samples. Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) phase increased with increasing kaolin contents. In the case of kaolin-rich mixtures (30% and 50% kaolin), increased expansion took place during firing at temperatures in the range 800-1000 oC. This effect could be attributed to the entrapment of released gases.

2010-09-01

68

Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

L'. Dor?ák

2010-04-01

69

A Study of the Heat Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth Lining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present thesis was to study the heat flows in the blast furnace hearth lining by experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Thermocouple data from an operating furnace have been used throughout the work, to verify results and to develop methodologies to use the results in further studies. The hearth lining were divided into two zones based on the thermocouple readings: a region with regular temperature variations due to the tapping of the furnace, and another region with...

2010-01-01

70

Evaluation of refractory lining wear of Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN) blast furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The blast furnace refractory linings are submitted to unfavourable conditions such as alkalis attack, temperature, top pressure, abrasion and so forth... After studies on distribution and installation of radioactive sources with low activities in the refractory lining, it was possible to develop a new technique of thickness evaluation and attendance of wearing in the furnace lining. The viability analysis, simulated laboratory tests, localization, identification, installations and periodical measurements of the radioactive sources are described, as well the results obtained on the present campaign of CSN Blast Furnaces. (Author)

1984-07-01

71

Coal tar injection in `A` and `B` blast furnaces at Tata Steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the total shutdown of the open hearth operation at Steel Melting Shop 1 and partial closure of Steel Melting Shop 3, at Tata Steel, coal tar became a surplus commodity. The Company has opted for new coke making facilities in order to be self sufficient in meeting its coke demand for blast furnaces. This has provided for an increased and steady production of coal tar as a by-product. Since the sale opportunities for coal tar are limited at present, and with encouraging results being obtained from the recently adopted pulverised coal injection in the `D`, `F` and `G` Blast Furnaces, it was decided to adopt coal tar injection for `A` and `B` Blast Furnaces. If the results are found economically beneficial, then coal tar injection systems shall be installed in `C` and `E` Blast Furnaces. The paper discusses the injection system, its simplicity and how it has been designed in-house for utilising unclean by-product coal tar. The operating results of tar injection in `A` Blast Furnace for four months, i.e. June-Sept `96, are also incorporated. Injection rate of more than 40 kg/thm has been achieved with commensurate benefits of coke replacement ratio better than 1.35 and improvement in average furnace productivity by more than 4% during the short period of four months. 2 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Kumar, A.; Ahmad, A.; Chatterjee, L.M. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1997-05-01

72

Two-demensional simulation program for inner states of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effects of operating conditions on the inner state of a blast furnace, mathematical models of the gas and material flow, heat transfer and chemical reaction in the blast furnace are constructed and numerical analysis is made. A case study is also performed. A simulation program is developed to analyze the two-dimensional gas flow, temperature distribution and chemical reaction in the blast furnace. To shorten the calculation time, a new algorithm is developed which serves to accelerate the convergence while ensuring accurate solutions. The algorithm is shown to achieve calculations in a practical calculation time. Calculations and measurements are compared to confirm the high performance of the program. This program makes it possible to analyze the gas flow over the whole space in a blast furnace, gas consumption efficiency and reduction rate, indicating that it provides a useful means to investigate various phenomena in a blast furnace. Furthermore, the effects of operation actions on the state in a furnace can also be determined because operation action quantities are used as boundary conditions. (10 figs, 9 refs)

Komishi, Masami; Tamura, Shigehiko; Otsuka, Yoshihisa; Hori, Ryuichi; Ono, Reiji

1987-10-01

73

Blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection at different technological conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at two blast furnaces (BFs) in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amounts is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime. (Author) 31 refs

2001-01-01

74

Comparison of dry quenched coke with wet quenched coke for blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of DQ-coke (dry quenched coke) with WQ-coke (wet quenched coke) for blast furnace operation was made. The results were as follows: a decrease in coke moisture caused a sharp rise in the top gas temperature; a decrease in coke moisture fluctuation was confirmed, and it is estimated that DQ-coke contributes to reducing furnace heat fluctuation; coke size distribution on the coke dry quenching exit side showed a clear change into small sizes; reduction of coke reactivity caused a decrease in the amount of solution loss reaction and a increase in the CO gas utilization; and since changes in blast temperature and blast moisture were used to cope with the reserve of heat capacity, the coke rate was approximately equal. The superiority of DQ-coke for blast furnace operations was confirmed. Although contribution of each factor cannot be verified, coke rate reduction can be produced as the integrated effect.

Takizawa, Y. (Kawatetsu Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan); Yasuno, M.; Hayase, K.; Okumura, K.; Karikome, Y.

1982-01-01

75

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emission would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal injection PCI rate and oxygen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxygen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50% Blast furnace operation with full oxygen blast (100 % of process oxygen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected. (Author) 54 refs

2002-01-01

76

Water leak detection in the cooling system of the blast furnace walls, by using radiotracer techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The walls of a blast furnace are cooled by water that circulates through a system of copper plates inserted in the reflactory lining. These plates are fed by two independent annular pipes (or distribution rings) located around the furnace at different levels. Tritiated water was continuously injected in the upper ring, to investigate the presence of leaks in the plates fed by that distribution ring. During and after injection, water samples were periodically collected at the top of the blast furnace by condensing moisture from exit gases. The tritium activity, when present in the samples, indicates the existence of leaks in the cooling plates and, in some cases, allows to estimate the total water flow rate entering the blast furnace. Actual applications of this techniques are described. (Author)

1984-08-06

77

Char refiring under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is attempt in pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace tuyeres to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. The unburned char can cause problems in the blast furnace operation, such as reduced permeability, undesirable gas/temperature distribution, excessive coke erosion and significant char carryover. In the near tuyere region the coal is injected with air but the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere w...

A?lvarez Rodri?guez, Diego; Casal Banciella, M. ª. Dolores; Go?mez Borrego, A?ngeles; Oso?rio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C. F.

2007-01-01

78

Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

2011-10-11

79

Coke reactivity under blast furnace conditions and in the CSR/CRI test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims to study the high-temperature strength of coke. Mechanisms of disintegration were evaluated using basket samples charged into LKAB's experimental blast furnace prior to quenching and dissection. Coke charged into basket samples was analysed with CSR/CRI tests and compared with treated coke from the blast furnace. Results from tumbling tests, chemical analyses of coarse and fine material, as well as light optical microscopy studies of original and treated coke have been combined and evaluated. The results indicate a correlation between the ash composition and the CSR values. Differences in the texture of the coke were noted with light optical microscopy, and a significant change in the coke texture during the CSR/CRI test conditions was found. The results suggest that the main reaction between coke and CO{sub 2} took place in isotropic areas, which was especially pronounced in coke with a low CSR. Signs of degradation were apparent throughout the coke pieces that have undergone CSR/CRI testing, but were less observable in coke reacted in the blast furnace. The results indicate that reaction with CO{sub 2} is generally limited by the chemical reaction rate in the CSR/CRI test, while in the blast furnace the reaction is limited by the diffusion rate. Coke degradation is therefore mostly restricted to the coke surface in the blast furnace. (orig.)

Lundgren, Maria; Bjoerkman, Bo [Lulea Univ. of Tech., Lulea (Sweden); Sundqvist Oekvist, Lena [Swerea MEFOS, Lulea (Sweden)

2009-06-15

80

Tendency in development of radioisotope methods for control and automatization of blast furnaces and metallurgical processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To raise labour productivity in the metallurgy industry and to improve performance of blast furnaces in the period between capital repairs, a row of nuclear methods has been developed or was at the stage of experimental testing. Review is given of the tendencies of development of radioisotope methods of control and automatization of the blast furnace and metallurgic processes. Descriptions are given of nuclear methods for control and automatization of processes of materials transportation; continuous determination of the level of materials loading into the throat of blast furnace; observation of the wear of refractory lining of blast furnaces; determination of specific activity of cast iron; determination if the pre-set maximum and minimum levels of materials in bunkers on blast furnace bridge. Description is given of radiation sources of different activity, placed into containers, specific for each case of application as well as description of probes, - radiation detectors with Geiger-Mueller gas discharge counters. Depending on the field of application, probes can have a water cooling system. Description is given of probes commutation diagram as well as of the central part of installation ensuring processing of information coming from prodes and having control elements for automation of observation of technological processes and their control. The results are reflected on a mnemonic diagram for each of the process observed

1978-09-29

 
 
 
 
81

EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

2011-03-01

82

Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods : possible improvement by synthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace process is a very important unit process in the metallurgical industry. The blast furnace reduces iron oxide to molten iron in a single process. However, it is also part of a bigger system consisting of peripheral equipment such as hot stoves, blowers, cooling equipment and raw materials handling. This paper described the different methods that have been developed to interpret the blast furnace process. In particular, it described and compared the Reichardt and Rist methods with pinch analysis which was developed in the 1970s as a method for energy analysis and optimization of industrial systems. It described various methods for analyzing energy and mass exchange with reference to Reichardt's blast furnace heat balances; pinch analysis for energy integration; pinch analysis for mass integration; and, Rist's diagram for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen balances in iron ore reduction. The challenges, opportunities and advantages of pinch analysis were also discussed. Pinch analysis uses temperature-enthalpy diagrams to graphically evaluate the heat exchange capability of a defined system. It has been described as an interesting method for establishing the blast furnace heat balance. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs.

Ryman, C. [Metallurgical Research Inst., Lulea (Sweden)]|[Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Grip, C.E. [SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden)]|[Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Franck, P.A. [CIT Industriell Energianalys AB, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wikstrom, J.O. [Metallurgical Research Inst., Lulea (Sweden)

2005-07-01

83

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14

84

The cycle and effect of zinc in the blast-furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the effect of zinc in the blast furnace process and it also analysis its contents in the input and output raw materials. The results obtained in the long-term research project will be used as data here. The removal of zinc from the input raw materials is very difficult already in the sinter production stage. This is due to its uniform distribution in the raw materials, but also due to the fact that it does not transfer into gas phase during the sintering process. The content of Zinc compounds was experimentally measured in the lining. The quantity of penetrated Zinc is different in different parts of the blast furnace. As demonstrated by the research, zinc repeatedly enters the blast furnace process, which leads to its circulation.

M. Hendrych

2013-04-01

85

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

86

Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de escoria, mientras que a edades más avanzadas se trasladan a mayores contenidos de puzolana y escoria.

Irassar, E. F.

2006-09-01

87

Replacement of premium fuels by coal injection at the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of replacing premium fuels such as oil and natural gas by pulverised coal at the blast furnace are being studied at BHP's Central Research Laboratories using a high temperature simulation of the blast furnace combustion zone. In the simulation experiments, coke is consumed by a hot air blast in a turbulent swirling combustion zone (a raceway). Pulverized coal is injected into the hot air blast upstream of the recovery zone, and the combustion rate of coal and the effects of coal injection on the recovery zone are being evaluated. This is achieved through the use of high-temperature fibreoptic techniques for visual examination of the racewayzone, and coke and coal particle temperature measurement. The gas flows within the zone are also being modelled mathematically.

Taggart, I.J.

1982-01-01

88

Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

89

Properties of coke sampled at tuyere level and its correlation with operational data of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The short article is a synopsis of a paper presented to the 107th Meeting of the ISIJ in April 1984. It reports a correlation of the properties of coke sampled at tuyere level with blast furnace operation and permeability resistance. The fraction of fine coke production at tuyere level decreases as the flame temperature decreases, tuyere blast velocity decreases and the index of coke strength after reaction increases.

Inagaki, N.

1984-01-01

90

Experiments at Sollac Dunkerque and Sollac Fos on coke quality and its influence on blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three investigations are reported: (1) the effect of a reduction in coking time on coke strength, and the modification of the coal blend to compensate for the strength decrease; (2) the breakage and stabilisation of coke between coke ovens and blast furnaces; (3) the effect of coke quality on blast furnace permeability, tapping characteristics and hearth conditions.

Le Mouel, D. (and others)

1992-05-01

91

Investigation of slag/char/gas interactions during pulverised coal injection in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of pulverised coal (PC) as a tuyere injectant in ironmaking blast furnace is a practice that has gained widespread acceptance, especially due to increasing needs to replace partly the metallurgical coke and increase the life of the ageing coke ovens. This paper compares the interactions of a typical blast furnace slag with four different carbonaceous materials in order to understand the influence of the ash content of the carbonaceous material on the interactions. The fundamental understanding of the slag/char/gas interaction phenomena has been developed by measuring the dynamic contact angle at the slag/char interface. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-12-31

92

Blast-furnace injection of pulverised coal at the Kobe Steel Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kobe Steel have developed a number of techniques for pulverised coal injection systems, these having been adapted for use on medium and large-scale blast furnaces. The authors describe such an application on two blast furnaces of 1845 and 3850 m/sup 3/ capacity respectively. They describe the studies and tests undertaken to develop the technique, present the operating features of the process developed by Kobe and describe the operational installations constructed for the industrial scale plant, giving the various technical constraints which had to be taken into account. The pulverised coal injection rate is soon expected to exceed 80 kg/t.

Tanaka, K.; Yabata, T.

1985-10-01

93

The effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts were made to study the effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke at Tata Steel. Plant trial indicated that when soaking time was increased the +50 mm size coke, mean size, and M{sub 40} indices improved. The CSR value exhibited no significant improvement after a certain limit. This may be due to stability of coke structure improvement in coke quality by increasing soaking time. To achieve the maximum improvement in coke cost, loss of output and heat consumption may be compensated by decreasing coke rate and improving productivity in the blast furnace. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

2004-07-01

94

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information...

Ghosh D.; Krishnamurthy V.A.; Sankaranarayanan S.R.

2010-01-01

95

Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.)

96

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

97

Practice of promoting pulverized coal injection rate at no.4 blast furnace of China Steel Corporation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2006, the China Steel Corporation (CSC) upgraded the injection system of its no.4 blast furnace to increase the pulverized coal (PC) rate which averaged 136 to 143 kg/thm. This paper described the scheduled shutdown of the furnace in May 2007 in order to modify it from a dilute phase injection system to a dense phase system using the technology of the Kuettner Company. Through proper burden distribution and operational parameter adjustments, the pulverized coal (PC) rate was increased to 178 kg/thm by November 2007, corresponding to a 65 t/hr injection rate with a productivity of 2.58 t/m{sup 3}/d. This paper described the challenges encountered following commissioning as well as the strategies of process control. The main differences between the existing and new injection system were that nitrogen was used to substitute compressed air as the conveying gas and the coal to gas ratio was increased from about 10 to 30 kg/kg. As a result, the transport method and the operation pressure had to be reassessed. This paper described the coal blend injection; screening facility for coal preparation; location of the distributor; and coal accumulation in the coal flow meter. The blast furnace adjustments included burden thickness control; burden distribution adjustment; improvement of raw material quality; and theoretical flame temperature adjustment. The upgrade project has proven to be very successful and has improved the competitiveness of CSC blast furnace no.4 significantly. Plans to upgrade the no.2 and no.3 blast furnaces are underway. Once completed, the operating cost and coke consumption of the blast furnaces will be reduced considerably. The modification to dense phase conveying system has shown that coal with high Hardgrove Index requires a higher driving force in the pneumatic dense phase transport and that coal mill equipped with a rotating classifier is recommended along with screens at the upstream of the feed tank. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

Liang, N.W.; Chang, C.T [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2008-07-01

98

The development by Sumitomo Metal Industries of a new ironmaking process to replace blast furnace ironmaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sumitomo Metal Industries has developed a revolutionary new oxygen ironmaking process which is suited to the present scarcity of good quality metallurgical coal and the deterioration in the quality of iron ore. The principal fuel of the new process is pulverized coal. The reduction and melting functions of the blast furnace are separated and assigned to a shaft-type reducing furnace and a molten gasification furnace. This allows the use of low-grade iron ore coke. In addition, the combustion of pulverized coal in conjunction with pure oxygen injection makes possible the lowering of the coke ratio. (In Japanese)

1983-01-01

99

Numerical investigation of simultaneous injection of pulverized coal and natural gas with oxygen enrichment to the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multiple injection of carbonaceous materials and oxygen enrichment in the blast furnace has received especial attention in the recent years due to its possibility of considerably decrease in coke rate and increase of the productivity. This paper introduces a modeling of the co-injection of pulverized coal and natural gas into the blast furnace through the tuyere. This model treats the blast furnace as a multi-phase reactor and five phases are treated simultaneously: gas, lump solids (iron ore, sinter, pellets and coke), pig iron, molten slag and pulverized coal. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are solved simultaneously based on the finite volume method. Firstly pulverized coal is simulated and afterwards only natural gas is investigated and compared with the all coke operation. Finally, the combined practice is suggested in order to improve the actual blast furnace operation. The simulation results have contributed to better understanding the blast furnace phenomena with multiple injectants, and supported new improvements in the furnace operation. The results obtained in this investigation have shown the possibility of considerable advances in the actual blast furnace operation such as increase in productivity, lower silicon content in hot metal and decrease of the coke and slag rates. In addition, the total amount of the greenhouses in the off gas is decreased, which contributes to make the blast furnace process cleaner.

de Castro, J.A.; Nogami, H.; Yagi, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil)

2002-07-01

100

Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out. PMID:22128000

Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Slag optimization in charcoal blast furnaces; Otimizacao de escorias de altos-fornos a carvao vegetal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, it is shown the optimum composition of charcoal blast furnace slag using phase diagrams. The results are compared with industrial data and some possible changes in slag composition and mass are also suggested. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli; Lopes, Leonardo Braga Polido; Goncalves, Alexandre Ferreira [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1987-12-31

102

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

2002-01-01

103

Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion Program: Injection into a Blast Furnace.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and ...

S. G. Jansto A. Mertdogan L. A. Marlin V. D. Beaucaire

1982-01-01

104

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

105

Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range in the thermal reserve zone of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

2005-07-01

106

Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range equivalent to the thermal reserve zone temperature of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10 kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corporation Ltd, Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Processing Technology Centre

2006-03-15

107

Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

A. Konstanciak

2012-12-01

108

Limestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites.

Courard, Luc; Michel, Fre?de?ric

2014-01-01

109

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

110

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is a part of the research project High oil injection rates in a blast furnace, which is a part of the National Energy Research Program SULA 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the test rig and in the interpretation of the results. It has to be noted, however, that the surface tension of the test liquids was higher than what would have been desirable and that full similarity between model experiments and the actual blast furnace was therefore not achieved. The experiments were recorded on video tapes for visual observation of the injection process. A Malvern Particle Sizer was used for the measurement of the spray drop size distributions. The results show that the mean size of the drops increases with increasing liquid flow rate and with increasing surface tension of the liquid and that the mean size of the drops decreases with increasing velocity of the blast and with increasing diameter of the injection lances. The mean size of the drops was found to be independent of the viscosity of the liquid. A correlation equation was fitted to the experimental data and good fit was obtained. A correlation equation in dimensionless form was also developed. The results were compared with correlation equations presented in the literature. (18 refs.)

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-12-31

111

Soaking bar technology on a single-taphole blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soaking bar technology is not new and has been practiced for many years in Europe and Asia. Based on two years experience at the Gary works, the following conclusions can be reached: The technology is viable, especially on high productivity facilities; Training is important to insure a smooth transition of operation; Taphole clay is the single most important part of the technology; Soaking bar practice allows a shift in single-taphole furnace casting philosophy to a longer, slower casting mode to more closely match furnace smelting rate and, thus, enhance stability of furnace operations. Existence, or addition, of facilities such as tilting spouts and/or slag pits will further enhance the stabilizing effects of soaking bar practice. Economics are site specific and can be attractive under the appropriate circumstances. Quality parameters may be enhanced by the use of this technology.

O' Donnell, E.M. (USX Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States). South Blast Furnaces); Mikaloff, G.G. (USX Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States). Gary Works); Yount, J.G. Jr. (USX Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States). U.S. Steel Group)

1993-10-01

112

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information is available for High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags, since much of the open literature deals with Low Alumina Slags, with alumina content less than 15 weight percentage. High Alumina slags (alumina content in the range of 15% to 30% are predominantly encountered in Indian Blast Furnaces. It appears that these slags have higher viscosity and lower sulphide capacity than the low alumina slags. The effect of chemical composition / ionic structure on viscosity has been interpreted in this work, using the chemical parameter of optical basicity. Data reported in the literature have been used, along with the values of liquidus temperature, for high alumina slags. Three slag systems, i.e., CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 have been considered in this work. The trends observed are discussed in the paper.

Ghosh D.

2010-01-01

113

Upgradation of coke quality and improvement in blast furnace productivity under Indian conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarises improvements brought about in actual operations at Tata Iron and Steel Co Ltd (TISCO) over the years. Coke strength has been improved by progressive reduction in coke ash levels and by improving coal crushing fineness. Consistency has been improved by changing coal blending strategy after reclassifying the coals that were being received. Ash levels were brought down by increasing the content of washed coal from TISCO's collieries and washeries. Further reduction in ash with corresponding increase in coke strength was achieved by replacing high ash purchased coals with low ash prime coking coals of Australian origin. Alongside, there has also been a continuous improvement in hot blast temperature coupled with higher blast humidities. Variable throat armour has been introduced in three of the six blast furnaces over the last five years. With reduction in coke ash, there has been a switch over to low slag volume operation. Coke sizing has been changed to 30-80 mm from 40-100 mm to improve furnace permeability. Productivity problems due to circulating alkalies have been effectively contained. Steady improvement in coke ash and coke strength concomitant with other measures has resulted in a directly related increase in blast furnace productivity. Coke rates have reduced. RandD work at TISCO has shown that stamp charging of coal is superior to other precarbonisation techniques when using Indian coals. Stamp charging has given the highest increase in coke strength while being least sensitive to blend changes. Based on this consideration, TISCO is putting up a new stamp charged coke oven battery at Jamshedpur to continue improving blast furnace productivity further, in future. 16 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Venugopal, T.; Singh, D.P.

1988-03-01

114

Fundamental study on carbon composite iron ore hot briquette used as blast furnace burden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon composite iron ore hot briquette (CCB) is the product of fine iron ore and fine coal by hot briquetting process, which attracts more and more attention as a new type of ironmaking raw materials aiming to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the coke consumption of blast furnace. This paper is devoted to experimental study on metallurgical properties of CCB and numerical simulation of the BF operation with CCB charging. At first, the metallurgical properties of CCB, including cold crushing strength, RDI, RSI, reducibility, high temperature strength, and softening and dripping are experimentally tested and compared with the common burdens, which revealed that the CCB possesses the required metallurgical properties and is suitable to use as the blast furnace burden. Then, the effects of charging CCB on the dripping properties of comprehensive burdens are elucidated based on the experiments under simulated blast furnace conditions. The results showed that the maximum charging ratio of CCB in the iron burdens is 40%-50% for achieving appropriate dripping properties of the mixed burdens. Finally, a multi-fluid blast furnace model is used to simulate BF operation with CCB charging. According to model simulations, charging CCB will cause the temperature level to decreases in the furnace and the location of the cohesive zone shifts downward. On the other hand, the productivity tends to increase while coke rate and total reducing agent rate decrease, the heat efficiency improves remarkably and the operation performance of BF is effectively enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Chu, Man-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gen; Wang, Zhao-cai [Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Yagi, Jun-ichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan)

2011-05-15

115

Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique significantly improved the quality of the interfacial transition zone in mortars subjected to carbonation shrinkage. Consequently the frost salt scaling durability of blast furnace slag mortars wa...

Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

2011-01-01

116

The analysis of quality of ferrous burden materials and its effect on the parameters of blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the effect of the quality of ferrous burden materials on the parameters of blast furnace process is presented in this paper. First, the quantitative and qualitative analysis of ferrous burden materials used in blast furnace process was made. The chemical composition, mainly iron content, is the basic quality parameter taken into consideration. Then, the dependence of parameters of process on the quality parameters of burden materials will be calculated.

E. Kardas

2013-04-01

117

Numerical simulation of flow in the raceway of blast furnace with heavy oil combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is to simulate the flow and combustion in the raceway of an industrial blast furnace with heavy oil as an injection fuel. The raceway shape is estimated from the force balance. Different geometry models have been used in order to find a suitable model which allows appropriate solution for the flow. The velocity vector plot, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, and temperature distributions have been given. Predictions provide some insight into the flow mechanisms in the blast furnace and some useful information of engineering interests. Results show that there appear a recirculation zone located in the up-left region outside the raceway and a vortex below the raceway, and that the main flow moves upwards to the outlet. The flame penetrates into the raceway about two-fifth of its depth. (orig.) 15 refs.

Xia, Jiliang; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A.; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1998-12-31

118

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

2011-01-01

119

New means for the evaluation of coke quality in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important functions of coke in a blast furnace is to maintain sufficient permeability of the burden. Results are reported from a study undertaken to improve the knowledge of the actual behavior of coke in the blast furnace. New assessment procedures are described which were developed to evaluate the fundamentals of mechanical behavior of coke at room temperatures and to assess coke strength after partial gasification and coke strength at high temperatures. Results show that the compressive strength of coke is slightly increased as temperatures increase from ambient to 1500 C while the elastic modulus significantly drops. The extent of coke degradation from carbon solution loss reaction depends mostly on the rank of coals used in the coking blend. Coke strength after gasification is improved. (CKK)

Jeulin, D. (IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz, France); Steiler, J.M.; Duchene, J.M.; Isler, D.

1982-01-01

120

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion. 

Juan Lizarazo Marriaga

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

122

Effect of coke strength after reaction (CSR) on blast furnace performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is divided into two parts: a) review of factors affecting CSR and the influence of CSR on blast furnace performance and b) relationship of CSR to cold strength properties and incorporation of coke properties for development of a new CSR prediction model that takes into account hardness (abrasion index), carbon form (gasification reactivity), and coke ash chemistry (catalysts for gasification). 95 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Best, M.H.; Burgo, J.A.; Valia, H. [United States Steel Corporation, Monroeville, PA (United States)

2002-07-01

123

Mineral Reactions and Slag Formation During Reduction of Olivine Blast Furnace Pellets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work focuses on mineral reactions and slag formation of LKAB olivine iron ore pellets (MPBO) subjected to reducing conditions in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF). The emphasis is on olivine reactions with surrounding iron oxides. Many factors influence the olivine behaviour. The study was performed by use of micro methods; optical microscopy, micro probe analysis, micro Raman and Mössbuer spectroscopy and thremodynamic modeling. During manufacturing, in oxidising atmosph...

Ryo?sa?, Elin

2008-01-01

124

Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively satisfactory level of compressive strength and contributed to the significantly denser pore structure.

Bagel, L. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Construction and Architecture

1998-07-01

125

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

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Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals h...

Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes; Eduardo Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

2006-01-01

126

Evaluating the metrology of the standard method of determining blast furnace coke strength  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coke strength increases in significance as blast furnace and metallurgical plant gain in size and output requirement. The article underlines the need to apply error computation standards to strength testing routines. The mean square deviation was found for cokes from different plants, related to a single strength determination for M25 and M10, and amounted to 0.61 and 0.35% respectively. The future standards should include a correlation factor for permitted tolerance as between parallel determinations.

Filippova, A.A.; Kogan, L.A.; Kapeliovich, L.V.; Chevlytko, N.K.; Skorokhod, V.V.; Matyshonkova, A.Ya.; Chuparev, E.F.; Zubkovskaya, V.G.

1981-03-01

127

Effect of coke strength after CO/sub 2/ reaction (CSR) on the blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a summary of a paper given to the 104th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Meeting in September, 1982. In Nippon Steel Corp., coke strength after CO/sub 2/ reaction (CSR) is adopted as the index that represents the coke quality at temperatures above 1000 C. In this report, test results obtained on the Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace are analysed for the quantitative determination of the CSR effect.

Abe, Y.

1983-01-01

128

Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl2-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

2003-01-01

129

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno alto. Los cálculos, utilizando un modelo matemático, muestran que la inyección de GRC en combinación con la ICP y enriquecimiento del viento con oxígeno pueden suministrar un aumento en la tasa de carbón pulverizado hasta 300-400 kg/t arrabio y una elevación en la productividad del horno de 40-50 %. La operación del horno alto con un máximo de oxígeno en el viento (100 % del oxígeno del proceso con la excepción para el viento caliente es posible cuando se inyecta GRC.

Babich, A. I.

2002-08-01

130

Use of wastes from soapstone to add into blast furnace powder injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Minas Gerais area of Brazil has an abundance of soapstone, a rock essentially composed of talc. Although the soapstone is only used for handicrafts, large quantities of waste are generated, causing many environmental problems. This study examined the economic feasibility of using such wastes in a steel mill. A soapstone powder was mixed with charcoal powder injection (CPI). The purpose of the study was to stimulate independent producers of pig-iron that do not have the capacity to inject pulverized coal into their blast furnaces and to increase competition in the global market. The paper presented background information on total production of pig-iron in Brazil and the number of companies using blast charcoal furnaces and CPI. A model representing the structure of coke in the tuyeres of the blast furnaces was also illustrated. The paper then discussed the material and methods for the study, with particular reference to charcoal; soapstone; and simulation of combustion process. Results that were presented included a chemical and physical analysis of charcoal used; results from BET analysis; chemical analysis of soapstone sample; and results obtained in the ultra high thermal gradient simulator. It was concluded that the combustion rate increased when soapstone was added to the charcoal. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

Assis, P.S.; Soares, W.S.; Martines, M.E. [Federal Univ. of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2009-07-01

131

Blast furnace slag utilisation in mine backfill: implications for sustainable development and greenhouse gas reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substitution of all or part of the 270 kilotonne per annum (ktpa) of blast furnace slag from BHP's Whyalla blast furnace for Portland cement in the preparation of low strength concrete (cemented aggregate fill or CAF) usually used to fill stopes created by underground hard-rock mining of ore, is discussed. This substitution would give a significant cost reduction for CAF, and allow for a future increase in the use of mine tailings. It could also help reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission by 100ktpa of carbon dioxide equivalent, avoiding the quarrying of dolomite aggregate (constituent of CAF), and the ability to backload copper products shipped from Whyalla, giving a significant reduction over current road transport distances. While the chemistry of CAF production using waste water, tailings and cementitious materials is complex, it it expected that if the substitution of blast furnace slag for cement is successful, it will represent substantial inter-business integration of economics and social benefits and at the same time yield significant environmental benefits. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Rigby, G.D.; Wibberley, L.J. [BHP Minerals Technology, Wallsend, NSW (Australia); Cao, H.T. [CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

2001-07-01

132

Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

2007-07-01

133

Computational Study of Blast Furnace Cooling Stave using Heat Transfer Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the metallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is hence a matter of trade-offs and differs for every metallurgical application. This paper gives a systemic study and review of blast furnace cooling stave lining materials used in the metallurgical industries based on heat transfer analysis. Additionally, the paper describes a model which will be modeled and implemented using Pro- E modeling software. The model will further be utilized for the analysis of the behavior of lining materials at different loads through heat transfer analysis by finite element method software called ANSYS. In this study two different types of bricks like silicon carbide brick and high alumina bricks will be taken for the lining material of the blast furnace cooling stave as well as two different types of skull is considered, in which the first is having negligible thickness and the other one is having certain thickness, (thickness in mm is considered, so, with these two skulls, the heat transfer analysis will be done at different temperatures (loads from 773k to 1573k in order to compare which lining will give better results than the other.

Akash Shrivastava,

2012-11-01

134

Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal.

Chen, W.H.; Du, S.W.; Yang, T.H. [National Taiwan Ocean University, Chilung (Taiwan). Dept. of Marine Engineering

2007-07-15

135

Productivity and performance of small scale blast furnaces; Produtividade e performance de altos fornos de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents some data concerning the re-start of the blast furnace number 2 of Mannesmann siderurgic company. The main characteristics concerning the operation with 100% coke fuel and the measurements adopted to increase the furnace productivity are described 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

Melo, Vamberto Ferreira de; Grandin, Friedrich Hans G.; Lanna, Pitagoras Gomes de; Castello Branco, Marco Antonio S.C. [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1994-05-01

136

Model of the ore-to-coke distribution in the blast furnace shaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, an approach to estimate the burden distribution on-line in the blast furnace is briefly outlined. The method is mainly based on temperature measurements from an above-burden probe in combination with a simplified static model of the conditions in the upper part of the furnace, which together yield a picture of the burden distribution. Similar methods, but using a different set of measurements have been reported by other investigators. The method proposed in this paper is tested on data logged at the BF2 of SSAB in Luleaa, Sweden. The results of the model were found to be in general agreement with layer thickness estimates from a profile meter at the furnace. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Nikus, M.J.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi University, Aabo (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

2002-07-01

137

Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC) - an efficient iron-making and power generation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new iron and power generating process, oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC), is presented. In order to support the opinion, the features of the oxygen blast furnace and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) are summarized. The relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity, as well as caloric value is calculated based on mass and energy balance. Analysis and calculation indicate that the OBF-CC will be an efficient iron-making and power generation process with higher energy efficiency and less pollution

2003-06-01

138

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

2006-03-01

139

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used [...] in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha, Gomes; Eduardo, Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria, Vilela.

140

Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H. [AG der Dillinger Huettenweke, Dillingen (Germany); Grisse, H.J. [Dango and Dienenthal Siegen (Germany); Speranza, B.E. [Dango and Dienenthal, Inc., Highland, IN (United States)

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Analyses on dynamic solid flow in blast furnace lower part by deadman shape and raceway depth measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As one of the factors of frequent troubles that occur in the transition period from all-coke operation to PC injection operation in blast furnace as well as increased troubles in recent years, increased size of the blast furnace and high-productivity operation are pointed out. Consequently, great importance is attached to burden distribution control and burden descent condition, or control of melting zone, deadman shape, solid flow at the lower part of furnace and others. In the present study, the reduced stockline surface profile was measured by the reflection intensity of microwave struck from the furnace top after blow-off with stockline reduced, and investigation was made on the countermeasures for changes in the raceway depth and furnace body profile during operation. As a result, it has been clarified that flow-down of coke into the lower part of blast furnace and inflow into the raceway are greatly subject to the existence of deadman which is the packed structure of the lower part of furnace, and further, they are closely related to dynamic behavior of the raceway and affect changes of the furnace body profile.

Matsui, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Imai, T.; Goto, A. [Kobe Steel Ltd,, Katogawa (Japan). R& amp; D Laboratory

2006-12-15

142

Analyses on dynamic solid flow in blast furnace lower part by deadman shape and raceway depth measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As one of the factors of frequent troubles that occur in the transition period from all-coke operation to PC injection operation in blast furnace as well as increased troubles in recent years, increased size of the blast furnace and high-productivity operation are pointed out. Consequently, great importance is attached to burden distribution control and burden descent condition, or control of melting zone, deadman shape, solid flow at the lower part of furnace and others. In the present study, the reduced stockline surface profile was measured by the reflection intensity of microwave struck from the furnace top after blow-off with stockline reduced, and investigation was made on the countermeasures for changes in the raceway depth and furnace body profile during operation. As a result, it has been clarified that flow-down of coke into the lower part of blast furnace and inflow into the raceway are greatly subject to the existence of deadman which is the packed structure of the lower part of furnace, and further, they are closely related to dynamic behavior of the raceway and affect changes of the furnace body profile.

Matsui, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Imai, T.; Goto, A. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-07-01

143

Technical evaluation of use of charcoal and rice crust mixtures for their injection in the blast furnaces tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many iron and steelmaking companies in Brazil use charcoal blast furnaces in the integrated steel plants and pig-iron production. As a result of increased production and higher operational stability of blast furnaces, the steelmaking industry has been developing the use of charcoal powder injection (CPI) in the tuyeres of the blast furnace. The trend of the steelmaking industry to replace the charcoal in the pig-iron production demonstrates the need for fuel alternatives for the blast furnaces process. This paper described an experiment in which CPI was used in combination with rice rind. The simulation equipment considered the peculiarities of the charcoal blast furnace. The effect of the mixture of charcoal and rice rind were correlated with combustion rate and injection rate. The paper presented the material and methods, with particular reference to sample preparation; milling process; charcoal samples; and simulation of combustion process. It was concluded that even with different injection rates, the combustion rate was equivalent, meaning that the pig-iron production became more economic with a higher injection rate. 8 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

Assis, P.S.; Lage, A.O.; Morais, D.F.; Siveira, N.C. [Federal Univ. of Ouro Preto, Minais Gerais (Brazil)

2009-07-01

144

Characterization of core-drilled cokes in a working blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A batch of tuyere-level core-drilled cokes, taken from a blast furnace working with coal injection has been characterized using a battery of analytical techniques. These included size exclusion chromatography (SEC), FT-Raman Spectroscopy (FT-RS) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). SEC tests on NMP-extracts of cokes taken from zones where temperatures were ca. 1500{sup o}C, showed the presence of heavy soot-like material (ca. 107-108 u apparent mass). By contrast, cokes in higher temperature zones (ca. 2000{sup o}C), only gave small amounts of extractable material with up to ca. 105 u apparent mass. The presence of soot-like material indicated the conversion-unfavoured locations at the tuyere-level. FT-Raman spectra of NMP-extracted cokes varied: the area ratios of D (at 1288-1295cm{sup -1}) to G (at ca. 1596cm{sup -1}) bands decreased as the exposure temperature increased. The random (r) fractions decreased with increasing exposure temperature, whereas, the graphitic (G) fractions increased whilst the defect (D) fraction showed a more complex variation with temperature. The latter is a likely indicator of graphitization of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. The Raman spectral results were validated by XRD analyses of the demineralised and NMP-extracted cokes. Raceway coke possessed the largest crystalline dimensions and closest inter-layer spacing because it had encountered highest temperatures as well as iron catalysis. The combination of SEC and Raman spectrometry on core-drill samples has provided information relevant for maintaining stable operation in a blast-furnace operating with coal injection. 13 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Shanning Dong; Nigel Paterson; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-07-01

145

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

2008-01-01

146

The influence of blast-furnace gas cofiring on the combustion efficiency of pulverised coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was carried out to identify the parameters controlling the burnout of coal particles when cofired with blast-furnace gas (BFG) under boiler conditions. The experiments were conducted in a bench-scale furnace with a base-line coal cofired with various amounts of BFG. Results indicate that the burnout problems with BFG cofiring were due to the cooler flame temperatures and shorter residence times associated with the high inert content of BFG, and due to the fall in oxygen partial pressure for the coal particles because of the early consumption by BFG. The data also suggest that the base-line coal is a low-reactivity fuel. Five candidate coals were tested, and they indicated that a significant improvement in carbon conversion could be achieved with more reactive coals. One coal was selected and subsequently tested in the boiler, and yielded consistent results. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Ho, T.Y.; Ou, J.J.; Wu, C.C.; Maly, P.M.; Wu, K.T.; Chen, S.L. (China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Steel and Aluminium Research and Development Department)

1994-03-01

147

Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

1995-12-01

148

The Whyalla No. 2 blast furnace life extension with improved productivity and quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of the Whyalla No. 2 Blast Furnace has previously been reported, and at the time of that report it was planned that the furnace would be relined in January 1993. The actions and improvements previously reported have proved to be more beneficial than it was initially thought possible, and have since been progressed to the stage where a campaign life in excess of 15 years is now realistically targeted. This paper highlights the actions that have proved successful in exceeding 12 years of campaign life and current average productivity of 2.1 t/m[sup 3]/d I.V., fuel rate of less than 500 kg/thm and Hot Metal Silicon standard deviation less than 0.1%.

Ward, R.F.; Broadbent, P.F.; Tsalapatis, J.

1993-01-01

149

Gas flow modelling on blast furnaces; Modelamento do escoamento gasoso em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, gas flow in the blast furnace has been analyzed on the basis of a bi-dimensional mathematical model, involving simultaneous solution of momentum and continuity equations. The velocity profile of gas flow in front of the crucible, the influence of numerical methods employed for resolution of equation as well as the effect of structural configuration of the different layers of the solid bed on the velocity profile of the gas have been analyzed. (author). 22 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Miwa, Eloy K. [ELMA Consultoria e Projetos Industriais (Brazil); Seshadri, Varadarajan [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

1991-12-31

150

Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable sourc...

Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado; Eduardo Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

2010-01-01

151

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at ...

El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

2010-01-01

152

The use of coke in small size blast furnace; Emprego de coque em alto-forno de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was carried out by Mannesmann Company, Brazil, during the period of 26/09 to 04/12/89, charcoal substitution by coke in the blast furnace II, whose blown-air heating is made by glandons and can reach up to 800 degrees Celsius temperature. A decrease of 30% in blast furnace productivity, caused by calorific power decreasing in the gas from the top that feeds heat generating was observed. The use of 100% pellets in the loading has showed to be inert on the productivity and specific consumption of carbon. The desulfurization rate, thus, the slag volume, has shown to be important to the productivity control of blast furnace II. 3 tab., 2 figs.

Carvalho, Edson A. de; Melo, Vamberto F. de [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1990-12-31

153

New vision to the project of gas purification on blast furnaces; Novo enfoque para projeto de depuracao de gas em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pioneer utilization of multi cyclone in primary air depuration on depuration systems of blast furnace is presented. Technical impurity indexes carried out with those system on depuration circuit, economic evaluation of the project, technical advantages of those new scheme on blast furnaces depuration gas in the ACESITA enterprise are also analysed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs

Miwa, Eloy K.; Silva, Guido E.P. [Acos Especiais Itabira (ACESITA), MG (Brazil)

1986-12-31

154

Optimization of physical parameters of discrete element method for blast furnace and its application to the analysis on solid motion around raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of solid motion in the vicinity of raceway of the blast furnace has been carried out by discrete element method (DEM). The physical properties of particle for DEM calculation are important factors to simulate precisely the solid motion in the blast furnace. In order to represent the feature of burden such as coke in the lower part of the blast furnace, the rolling friction was cautiously determined. Through the simulation results, it was found in the result of simulation that the contact friction and the rolling friction have a great influence on the solid motion especially in the lower part of blast furnace. In the present study, the contact friction of actual coke used for blast furnace was experimentally measured. The optimum combinations of contact and rolling friction coefficients were derived from the angle of repose obtained from the DEM. On the basis of the physical parameters optimized for blast furnace, the solid motion around the raceway where the ununiformity was remarkable in blast furnace was analyzed. The influence of variation of raceway is examined to clarify the motion of coke in the lower part of blast furnace. According to the results, it was found that the height of deadman varied with changing the depth of raceway. The interval of tuyeres seriously influences on the ununiformity of solid motion in the direction of circumference. Owing to DEM based on the optimized physical parameters, three dimensional analysis of solid motion containing the ununiform region became possible.

Natsui Shungo; Ueda Shigeru; Oikawa Masashi; Fan Zhengyun; Kano Junya; Inoue Ryo; Ariyama Tatsuro [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

2009-07-01

155

Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

Several numerical approaches have been proposed in the literature to simulate the behavior of modern blast furnaces: finite volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations. Despite this, there is actually no efficient method for evaluating quickly optimal operating parameters of a blast furnace as a function of the iron ore composition, which takes into account all potential chemical reactions that could occur in the system. In the current study, we propose a global simulation strategy of a blast furnace, the 5-unit process simulation. It is based on classical thermodynamic calculations coupled to a direct search algorithm to optimize process parameters. These parameters include the minimum required metallurgical coke consumption as well as the optimal blast chemical composition and the total charge that simultaneously satisfy the overall heat and mass balances of the system. Moreover, a Gibbs free energy function for metallurgical coke is parameterized in the current study and used to fine-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties calculated by the proposed thermodynamic simulation strategy are compared with reference data found in the literature and have proven the validity and high precision of this simulation.

Harvey, Jean-Philippe; Gheribi, Aïmen E.

2013-12-01

156

Possibilities of more accurate differentiation of mechanical properties of blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses methods used in Czechoslovakia and the USSR and the ISO standard popular in the European Community for determining mechanical properties of blast furnace coke. Methods based on the MICUM drum are comparatively evaluated: the CSN national standard, the GOST standard (USSR) and the ISO standards. The conventional MICUM tests are described. Grain size distribution of coke before and after the MICUM test is analyzed. Quantity ratio of coke grains below 1O mm and above 4O mm is determined after 1OO and 5OO drum revolutions. Principles of the IRSID test are also described. For blast furnace coke the proportion of coke grains with size exceeding 2O or 25 mm is most significant. Wear resistance of coke is determined by measuring the proportion of coke fines with size below 1O mm. Practical use of the three standards is evaluated. Tests carried out in a coking plant are analyzed and their results are shown in 4 tables. Accuracy of the three methods is evaluated. Practical recommendations on coke sampling and the MICUM test of coke mechanical properties are made. (13 refs.)

Kessler, M.F.

1982-06-01

157

Fixation of CO2 by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO2 emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO2 pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied. A simple thermodynamic model was used to verify our results. The feasibility of the process was also discussed, addressing energy input requirements and the consumption of chemicals. According to our experiments, the addition of NaOH, i.e. an increase in solution pH, is required for the adequate precipitation of calcium carbonate at temperatures of 30-70 deg. C and pressures of 1 or 30 bar. Preliminary process calculations showed that approximately 4.4 kg of blast furnace slag, 3.6 l of acetic acid, and 3.5 kg of NaOH would be required to bind 1 kg of CO2, resulting in 2.5 kg of 90% calcium carbonate. While the heat needed for the evaporation of the acetic acid could probably be acquired as waste heat by process integration with other processes, the electricity required for NaOH regeneration would make the process unsuitable for CO2 sequestration

2008-09-01

158

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

El-Hussiny N.A.

2010-01-01

159

Use of blast-furnace slag in making durable concrete for waste management repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste repositories for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste rely greatly on the durability of concrete for their required 500-year service life. A research program is in progress based on laboratory testing of concretes containing either Type 1 cement or cements containing 65 and 75 percent of blast-furnace slag, each at 4 water-cement ratios. It has been established that the degradation of the concrete will depend on the rate of ingress of corrosive agents - chlorides, sulphate ions and CO2. The ionic profiles and the kinetics of diffusion of these ions in the concretes have been measured by Secondary Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) techniques, and the results plotted according to a mathematical model. Predictions for service life of the concrete have been made from this model. These predictions have been correlated with properties of the concrete obtained from micro-structural, thermochemical and permeability measurements. The improvements in concrete durability due to blast-furnace slag additions are illustrated and discussed

1990-05-01

160

Blast furnace gas-fired industrial power plant with improved efficiency; Wirkungsgradoptimiertes Industriekraftwerk mit Hochofengasfeuerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within 34 months, RWE Power AG has erected a co-generation power plant in Duisburg-Hamborn. The plant is fired by blast furnace gas from the blast furnaces of Thyssen-Krupp-Stahl AG (TKS), Duisburg, and by coke-oven gas from the new coke plant in Duisburg-Schwelgern. Natural gas is used for plant start-up and as back-up fuel. For the realisation of a firing system for three fuels, and in view of the fluctuating volume and quality of the fuels, a total of 12 burners was arranged in the combustion chamber. (orig.) [German] Nach 34-monatiger Bauzeit hat das Heizkraftwerk am 1. August 2003 den kommerziellen Betrieb aufgenommen. Die Feuerung ermoeglicht es, bis zu drei verschiedene Brennstoffe unterschiedlicher Menge und Qualitaet einzusetzen. Neben moderner NO{sub x}-armer Verbrennungstechnik kommt erstmals in einem Dampferzeuger, der mit Gasen aus einem Stahlwerk befeuert wird, eine DENOX-Anlage zum Einsatz. Im Dampferzeuger wurden in umfangreichem Masse neue Werkstoffe eingesetzt. Trotz der fuer einen Hochofengas-Dampferzeuger relativ hohen Dampfparameter konnte der Einsatz von austenitischen Werkstoffen vermieden werden. (orig.)

Sticher, W.; Goette, C. [RWE Power AG, Regenerative Stromerzeugung, Essen (Germany); Knizik, E. [Babcock Borsig Power Systems, Oberhausen (Germany)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace. Masuunin raskaan polttooeljyn ruiskutuksen kokeellinen tutkimus pienoismalleilla  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is part of the research project 'High oil injection rates in a blast furnace' which is part of the National Energy Research Program Sula 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the testing rig and in the interpretation of the results.

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-01-01

162

A thermodynamic study of silicon containing gas around a blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The equilibrium conditions for silicon transfer from ash to the liquid metal phase via SiO gas have been discussed by several authors. However, no published calculations have been found using the most modern thermodynamic models available. Since there are major differences in the results of calculations using different thermodynamic models and the models are continuously being improved, new equilibrium calculations on SiO and SiS gas formation have been performed using the recently developed models. Different ingoing compositions of coke ash, coal powder ash and blast air were used in the calculations. The compositions chosen represent blast furnace no. 3 at SSAB in Lulea, Sweden. Temperature was found to be the major factor influencing the equilibrium silicon level in the gas phase. At low temperatures (below 1600{sup o}C the total gas pressure was also seen to influence the silicon content in the gas phase. The main reason for this is that below 1600{sup o}C, the amount of liquid slag at equilibrium increases with the total gas pressure. Liquid slag contains large amounts of silica that then can not be found in the gas phase. Higher carbon activity is usually expected to result in higher SiO gas levels in the blast furnace. The equilibrium calculations show that increased carbon activity increases the amount of silicon in the gas phase at temperatures up to about 1600{sup o}C, but that at higher temperatures SiC is formed that decreases the equilibrium silicon level in the gas phase.

Gustavsson, J.; Andersson, A.M.T.; Jonsson, P.G. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

2005-07-01

163

Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

2014-07-15

164

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%. ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (% of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali Nazari

2011-09-01

165

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granula [...] ted blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi.

166

On-line and off-line applications of heat and mass balance model for blast furnaces at Tata Steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using steady state heat and mass balance equations for the wustite reduction zone of a blast furnace, a computer model to estimate the fuel rate has been developed. The model was useful in quantifying the influence of common operating variables on fuel rate, quantifying the influence of burden quality e.g. percentage of sinter in burden, sinter RDI, etc. as well as the benefits in fuel rate by high blast humidity operation under Tata Steel`s operating conditions. A linerarised relationship developed with the help of the model was found to correlate well with the operating data and is currently being used on-line in the `G` Blast Furnace for process analysis and control. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Ramna, R.V.; Das, A.K. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1997-05-01

167

Use of wood in charcoal blast furnaces; Uso de madeira em altos-fornos a carvao vegetal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of experiences that have been developed in the blast furnace 2, Belgo Mineira - Sabara, Brazil, are reported. During eleven days, wood (11,5% dry weight) and charcoal (88,5% dry weight) have been charged. It has been calculated operational index through mass and heat balances. In this period the production decreased 8,9% and carbon consumption decreased 1% compared to the period with charging only charcoal. The role of the volatiles was fundamental to get a better reduction of metallic burden in the upper region of the blast furnace. The increase of pressure in the gas pipe (between the furnace and the dust catcher) was the only operational problem. (author). 3 tabs.

Juvillar, Joaquim B.; Santos, Jose A. dos; Castro, Paulo F. de [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo Mineria, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Castro, Luiz F.A. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1990-12-31

168

Treatment of muds issued from blast furnaces with a view to recycle in process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iron and steel industry of the European Community produces annually about 500 000 t of sludge coming from the blast furnace gases dedusting. As such, these iron bearing residues cannot be recycled in the iron and steel making process, mainly owning to the few percent of zinc they content. CRM/Cebedeau recommends a hydrometallurgical process to allow for their recycling. It consists in the most possible selective lixiviation of zinc in an acidic medium, at the atmospheric pressure and at a low temperature. The basic reagent is a spent chlorydric pickling bath, previously oxidised with chlorine. Based on the experience gained in a laboratory pilot installation, the extraction yields obtained are between 80 and 99%, depending upon the sludge characteristics and the operating conditions. The treatment costs (including amortization) are in the range of 90-120 Ecu/t of dry matter. (author). 5 tabs.

Josis, C.; Brouhon, J.M.; Rasquin, A.; Tusset, V. (Centre de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

1993-12-01

169

The development of pulverized coal injection lance with air cooling in No. 3 blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the improvement of transporting PC and the promotion of PC combustion efficiency. It was effective to use the air-cooled coaxial lance to prevent the lance from clogging and erosion. From the results of experiments and simulations on PC combustion, it was found that the combustion efficiency of double lances was better than that of single lance. Therefore, the system of double air-cooled coaxial lance has been developed and established at No. 3 blast furnace (BF) of China Steel Corporation. Through proper burden distribution, the adjustment of theoretical flame temperature and the reduction of slag rate, the PCI rate has been increased with higher productivity. The total benefit of this project is estimated to be 131 million per year in terms of the reduction of fuel cost at No. 3 BF. The greenhouse effect is alleviated with the reduction of total carbon dioxide emission. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Yeh, C.; Ho, C.; Du, S.; Chou, C.; Hsu, C. [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

2002-07-01

170

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

2009-01-01

171

Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

2013-06-01

172

Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs

2009-01-01

173

Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

2014-02-15

174

Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

2011-01-01

175

Efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement for immobilizing simulated borate radioactive liquid waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement (Spanish CEM III/B) for immobilizing simulated radioactive borate liquid waste [containing H3BO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na(OH)] has been evaluated by means of a leaching attack in de-mineralized water at the temperature of 40 degrees C over 180 days. The leaching was carried out according to the ANSI/ANS-16.1-1986 test. Moreover, changes of the matrix microstructure were characterized through porosity and pore-size distribution analysis carried out by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TG). The results were compared with those obtained from a calcium aluminate cement matrix, previously published. PMID:12365786

Guerrero, A; Goñi, S

2002-01-01

176

Heavy metals adsorption on blast furnace sludges; Adsorcion de metales pesados sobre lodos de horno alto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of industrial liquid effluents have high contents of heavy metals. The recovery of these metals is environmental and economically interesting. In this work we study the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents. The adsorption of Pb``2+, Zn``2+, Cd``2+, Cu``2+ and Cr``3+ on the sludge was investigated by determination of adsorption isotherms. The effect of time, equilibrium temperature and concentration of metal solution on sludge adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langumuir and the thermodynamic values {Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S corresponding to each adsorption process were calculated. Blast furnace sludge was found to be an effective sorbent for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr-ions within the range of ion concentrations employed. (Author) 5 refs.

Lopez-Delgado, A.; Perez, C.; Lopez, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

1998-10-01

177

Technology for blast furnace gas enrichment with LPG for high temperature regenerators; Tecnologia de enriquecimento de gas de alto forno com GLP, para regeneradores de alta temperatura  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Belgo Mineira blast furnace A was designed to produce 3,000 tpd of pig iron, applying the tech of coal fines injection at a rate over 160 kg/ton, requiring a temperature of 1,200 deg C in the blast furnace, and also the oxygen enrichment over 6%. To reach this temperature, the regenerators has been designed to burn fuel gases with heat value lower than 5,400 kJ/Nm{sup 3}. This paper shows the technology applied to blend the blast furnace gas with LPG and the temperature control system for the blast air. The LPG is a heat value gas ideal for the enrichment of the blast furnace gas. The LPG system was designed to be 100% reliable, in order to guarantee gas delivering in any situation, regarding quality and quantity as well. (author)

Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro; Wiermann, Alfeu [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo Mineira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Monteiro, Denis Pinto; Silva, Expedito Jose da [Companhia Ultragaz S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2001-07-01

178

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value in concrete. Applications and limits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience.

Recientemente se ha incorporado un valor del coeficiente de eficacia K para la escoria de horno alto en la norma europea EN 206-1:2000. Los valores propuestos en los grupos de trabajo eran muy diversos ya que en algunos casos sólo consideraban la resistencia mecánica para su determinación mientras que en otros se remarcaba la importancia de tener en cuenta, además, aspectos relativos a la durabilidad del hormigón con dicha adición. En el presente artículo se discuten las ventajas y desventajas de proponer unos valores del coeficiente de eficacia K más o menos conservadores. La conclusión final se resume con la propuesta de una recomendación lógica que consiste en trasladar a cada país la elección del coeficiente K para que pueda aplicarse a los hormigones empleados en su territorio; tales valores de K deberán ser seleccionados de acuerdo con la experiencia de cada uno de los países.

Sanjuán, M. A.

2011-06-01

179

Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

Babich, A.

2005-12-01

180

Distribution of the blast furnace gas in V and M of Brazil during the reduction of production; Distribuicao de GAF na V e M do Brasil durante a reducao de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

V e M do Brasil is an integrated steel mill with the production of seamless steel pipe. The manufacture process comprises two charcoal blast furnaces that have blast furnace gas as a by-product. The use of natural gas is complementary to the blast furnace gas in the mills. The appropriate planning of these intakes during the crisis had as premise the best use of blast furnace gas and minimizing the use of natural gas. With this planning, it was possible to optimize the use of blast furnace gas reducing 8% of natural gas cost. (author)

Lana, Camila Soares; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Soares, Lis Nunes; Valentim, Rodrigo Freitas [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Control of sinter quality for blast furnaces of SAIL through characterization of high temperature properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality of blast furnace (BF) burden materials and their performance inside the furnace have attracted increased importance worldwide. High productivity, low fuel rate and stable operation of BF can be achieved by suitably controlling the quality of input materials particularly that of sinter which is the main constituent of the burden. Reduction Degradation Index (RDI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Softening-melting characteristics are some of the quality indicators of sinter. The effect of chemical composition of sinter in the ranges of CaO/SiO{sub 2} 1.4--2.0, FeO 4.0--8.0, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1.3--2.0 and MgO 1.2--2.0 on the above mentioned properties have been reported in literature. Due to the peculiarity of Indian raw materials, i.e., high ash content of coke and high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of iron ore, the sinter composition varies over a wide range of CaO/SiO{sub 2} 2.0--2.5, FeO 8--11%, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2--4% and MgO 2--5% in different plants of SAIL. This paper discusses the effect of above constituents in higher ranges as compared to earlier study on RDI, RI and Softening-melting properties so that sinter composition can be optimized for achieving desirable properties for better BF performance.

Mishra, U.N.; Thakur, B.; Mediratta, S.R. [Steel Authority of India Limited, Bihar (India). Research and Development Centre

1996-12-31

182

Pelletizing of charcoal fines and powder from blast furnace collector; Pelotizacao de finos de carvao vegetal e do po do coletor de alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, results of the investigation on pelletizing of coal fines as well as blast furnace flue dust using a laboratory disk pelletizer have been reported. The objective of the work has been to investigate the possibility of producing an agglomerate, using different binders, for use in blast or electric furnaces without thermal treatment. The quality of the pellets produced were evaluated by the following methods: tumbler tests, after heating and partial gasification; gasification in CO{sub 2} atmosphere. The results obtained have been compared to those obtained for normal charcoal used as blast furnace charge. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

Mourao, Fabio Lima; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Seshadri, Varadarajan [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

1991-12-31

183

Results obtained from the injection of granulated coal into blast furnaces at BSC's Scunthorpe plant. [British Steel Corporation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The British Steel Corporation is currently developing a new system for the injection of granulated coal (< 3 mm) in place of the more usual pulverised feed (< 0.075 mm). The authors explain the reasons behind the new blast-furnace charging process and describe the coal-injection system, the stocking arrangements, the injection operation itself, the protection of the blast furnace and the types of coal injected; they then examine coal combustion and the operation of the blast furnace, and finally mention the pneumatic coal delivery installation. 2 references.

Maldonado, R.; Hanniker, G.

1985-08-01

184

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque. Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de Matos

2012-03-01

185

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo / Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de t [...] opo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque). Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente. Abstract in english Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnac [...] e where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de, Matos; José Adilson de, Castro.

186

Deposition of "6"0Co and "1"3"7Cs adsorbed on zeolite in matrices on the blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental data (leaching tests and compressive strength measurements) are presented for case the radionuclides from model water solution and radioactive waste water were uptake on natural and chemically modified granular zeolitic tuffite which show improved sorption ability and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace slags (BSF) basis. The all experiment were carried out with zeolite tuffite from Nizny Hrabovec, Slovak Republic. The natural zeolite was treated by the NaOH solution. The blends of individual components were casted into rectangular prism moulds (1 x 1 x 3 cm). The cast consisted invariably of 90% of BSF, 10% of fine zeolite and solution of water glass and to this basic mixture were added either 10 or 20% granular active, or non active zeolite during the mix formation, in excess to content of previous solid components. The water/cement ratio varied in interval 0.32-0.40. Model solutions labelled by cesium-137 or cobalt-60 have been used for sorption experiment and real waste water concentrate from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice as well. The real water consisted of cesium-134, cesium-137, cobalt-60, in borate and nitrate form. The radioactivity of dry cement casts was measured in 4? geometry. The leaching experiments were performed in three solutions: water (W), 0.03 M HCl (A) and 0.04 M NaOH (B). The mechanical properties of sample with non active granular zeolites and their corrosion characteristics as reflected by the bulk density changes. The experiments showed that leaching of radionuclides, which were sorbed from solution and radioactive waste water, in water and bases solution were negligible. Changes of radioactivity of casts, prepared from model solution, in acid solution, which were less than 5%. The mechanical strength of prepared composites is favourable and shows good compatibility of zeolitic additives with a basic matrix. Leaching experiments and mechanical strength are hopeful and show good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. 2 tabs., 3 figs

1995-11-20

187

Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1 keV to 2 MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume and blast furnace slag, lead to significant variations in total mass attenuation coefficients. The elemental compositions of samples were analyzed using a wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer. The calculated values of total mass attenuation coefficients were discussed on the basis of different percentages of constituents of cement and cement mixed with different additives

2008-10-01

188

Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods. Possible improvement by synthesis. Paper no. IGEC-1-004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed. (author)

2005-06-12

189

Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods. Possible improvement by synthesis. Paper no. IGEC-1-004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed. (author)

Ryman, C. [MEFOS-Metallurgical Research Inst. AB, Lulea (Sweden); Lulea Univ. of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer.ryman@mefos.se; Grip, C.-E. [SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden); Lulea Univ. of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, Lulea (Sweden); Franck, P.-A. [CIT Industriell Energianalys AB, Chalmers teknikpark, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wikstrom, J.-O. [MEFOS-Metallurgical Research Inst. AB, Lulea (Sweden)

2005-07-01

190

Silicon addition in charcoal blast furnaces. Part 1: pig iron/slag equilibrium; Incorporacao de silicio em altos-fornos a carvao vegetal. Parte 1: equilibrio gusa-escoria no cadinho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering that the silicon content in the iron is sometime the unique thermal control used in blast furnaces, it has been decided to investigate such silicon transfer in charcoal blast furnaces. The results from five industrial furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces such phenomena occurs, and the level of silicon oxidation depends on operational practices 7 refs., 7 figs.

Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Grossi [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

1987-12-31

191

Development of knowledge on combustion and ash behavior of pulverized coals injected in ArcelorMittal Tubarao blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study between the mineral coals used by ArcelorMittal Tubarao has been carried out, aiming at determining complementing criteria to the current energy model for the mineral coals purchasing qualification used for injection in the blast furnace. Material characterization techniques were employed allowing the mapping of the characteristics of the coals which potentially affect the stability of the pig iron production process.

Defendi, G.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Correa, M.; Cruz, R.; Rezende, R.; Osorio, E.; Parreiras, R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2008-07-15

192

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was...

Noskievic?ova?, Darja

2009-01-01

193

Estimation of the inner states by the use of the model to evaluate the influence of sinter and coke properties at blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examination was made on the behavior of the charges in the blast furnace. The reduction-powdering model of a sintered ore was incorporated into the two-dimensional mathematical model of a blast furnace. With the increase in the reduction-powdering factor, the indirect reductio of the ore is progressed, resulting in an enhancement in the gas utilization ratio in the furnace top. For the purpose of maintaining the pig-iron melting at a constant temperature, the increase in the ratio of ore to coke from 3.25 to 3.75 gives a reduction in the temperature in the upper blast furnace. The decrease in the particle size of the charged sintered ore enhances the reduction-performance of the ore and the solid-gas heat exchange effect. Then, the coke behavior in the blast furnace is incorporated into the two-dimensional mathematical model for a blast furnace. The particle size and the strength of the coke is rapidly reduced in the solution loss zone and lower. The apparent reduction in the coke strength accelerates the decrease in the particle size of the coke toward the tuyere. After the coke reaction, the strength of the coke is increased to inhibit the solution reaction, accompanied with elevation in the in-furnace temperature and enhancement of the gas utilization ratio. (14 figs, 11 refs)

Kurita, Koichi; Iwanaga, Yuji; Motoshige, Masahiro; Aminaga, Yoichi

1987-11-01

194

Effect of blast furnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs) before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+). Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM III (Portland cement + blast furnace slag) cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material. (authors)

2012-11-12

195

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

2013-02-08

196

Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

2013-12-01

197

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

2011-01-01

198

Grade T coals as substitutes for coke in non-blast-furnace processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the shortage of coke, one way to provide consumers with solid fuel and increase production efficiency is partial or complete replacement of coke with poor-caking coals. This article describes the properties of the most promising coals of this grade from the Kuzbas. It has been shown that it is both possible, and expedient to use coals from the Krasnobrodskii and Krasnogorskii pits in agglomeration and electrothermal processes and in shaft-type lime kilns. While requirements vary widely, one requirement common to all possible consumers is that the coal pyrolysis products contain little or no tar, which can be deposited on surfaces lying in the path of the gases and pollute the atmosphere or final products; another requirement is minimum coal caking capacity (since the components in non-blast-furnace processes would otherwise cake). The coal must also be of the appropriate size class, have adequate reactivity with respect to oxygen and various oxides when heated, and have satisfactory thermostability (in lumps). These requirements are most fully satisfied by grade T coals, particularly the poor-caking coals of the Kuzbas, of which there are substantial reserves.

Gryaznov, N.S.; Frishberg, V.D.; Nechaeva, G.I.; Zhuravleva, D.D.; Nefedov, P.Ya.; Sukhorukov, V.I.; Ryvkin, I.Yu.; Chevlytko, N.K.

1977-01-01

199

Business diversification in blast furnace steel makers. Koro kakusha no takakuka no jokyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scenarios are presented for the current business diversification and future business developments by the three Japanese blast furnace steel makers (Kawasaki Steel, Kobe Steel and Shin Nippon Steel). The conceptions for their advancement into the 2lst century are more or less similar. The business diversification commenced for Kawasaki Steel in 1985, Kobe Steel in 1989 and Shin Nippon Steel in 1987, all taking a pattern of tree-like development into related businesses starting from the basic industry. Their new businesses may be summarized generically as: electronics industry (LSI, silicon, electronic devices, information and communication); new material related business (ferrite, ceramics, metal powder, metal foils); chemical business (plastics, etc.); engineerings (architecture, urban andregional developments, etc.); and service business (system network development, lease business, real estate, leisure business, etc.). Endeavors are made also on full-scale entity into tertiary industries, and amenity field. M A and joint venture businesses are attempted in wide scale and positive manners also in overseas countries. 6 fige., 4 tads.

1991-11-01

200

Phase development and pore solution chemistry in ageing blast furnace slag-Portland cement blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace slag (BFS) cement blends have certain advantages for their encapsulation of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. However, their hydration reactions are more complex than for Portland cement because Portland cements fully react within several years whereas slag hydration takes considerably longer. Empirical testing of blends matured for short periods, up to several years, are not therefore adequate to characterise the chemical immobilisation potential of such systems. A modelling approach is required to predict long-term properties. This paper is concerned with defining the internal environment within slag-cement matrices. The important parameters for definition are pH, Eh, solubilities and speciation in the aqueous phase, and solid phase equilibria. Compatibility studies in the CaO-CaSo4-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-H2O system are described and compared with the results of X-ray diffraction on pastes aged up to 2 years. In addition, pore water compositions for slag-rich cements are given, and the potential for predicting their redox level (Eh) by extending the present model is discussed

1988-10-10

 
 
 
 
201

Characterization of granulated blast furnace slag for Portland Cement replacement in concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A developmental blast furnace slag ground in the laboratory has been characterized as a potential replacement for concreting and mine backfill applications. The slags were characterized by a range of techniques including particle size analysis, specific gravity, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and x-ray powder diffractometry. It was found that the slag was highly vitreous and could be characterized as a calcium magnesium aluminosilicate glass with melilite as the minor crystalline component. The hydration of slag-cement pastes was investigated by following chemical composition of expressed pore fluids, calcium hydroxide and chemically bound water by thermal analysis, phase composition by XRD, and microstructural features. Thermal analysis indicates that calcium hydroxide is probably not formed to any significant extent by hydration of the slags. Phase and microstructural characterization of the slag-cement pastes indicates that portlandite, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, is present in lower concentration than the control. The pore structures of the slag-cement pastes were investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry and their permablility to water at 500 psi.

Hemmings, R.T.; Cornelius, B.J.

1985-01-06

202

Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? BFG or BFG+COG was burned in steel mill boilers. ? BFG was gradually added to replace COG in on-site experiments. ? As COG was decreased, the flame remained stable. ? Decreasing COG while keeping heat input constant reduced CO2 and NOx emissions. -- Abstract: In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO2 and NOx emissions.

2011-07-01

203

Evaluation of the durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast-furnace slag based plasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to evaluate the differences in chemistry, morphology, mechanical properties and durability of different types of commonly used plasters and a mortar composed of a blast-furnace slag and hydrated lime. The following tests were performed to study the durability of the rendering mortars: (1) acid attack, efflorescence simulation by salt diffusion, freeze/thaw cycles, Taber abrasion, sulphate aggression and weathering. These tests were selected because they represent the main causes of chemical or physical degradation of building materials. The plasters were examined for the following physical properties: compressive strength, adhesion on brick, water absorption, specific gravity, total porosity, and water vapour permeability. X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravitational DSC, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the chemical effects related with the acid and sulphate attack and the hydration kinetics of different renders at 1 and 28 days. Slag normally improves the durability of concrete and mortars. For this reason, slag could potentially be used as rendering mortar in masonry construction and old buildings. It is more desirable than normal plaster because of its low cost, energy savings, durability and good mechanical properties. It was noted that the product should be properly formulated to have low water absorption, high permeability, low content of calcium hydroxide and no calcium carbonate. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 20 figs.

Cerulli, T.; Pistolesi, C.; Maltese, C.; Salvioni, D.

2001-07-01

204

Stabilizing burden trajectory into blast furnace top under high ore to coke ratio operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It becomes still more important to control the falling trajectory in order to stabilize burden distribution control under intensive coal injection in a blast furnace. The present report clarifies the effect of ore falling trajectory on coke collapse in a two-dimensional bell-less burden distribution test and the effect of burden particle size on the falling trajectory, which serves as a disturbance factor. There has been no analysis on the motion on a bell-less rotating chute and falling parabolic motion as a mass flow, and particle dynamics are applied, and it is presently difficult to predict changes of the falling trajectory as a mass flow. Therefore, a falling trajectory measuring technique was developed utilizing acceleration sensors that can continuously measure the falling trajectory of burdens, in particular, the main stream position and the falling width, and was applied to Kobe BF3 (3rd campaign) (inner volume: 1 845 m{sup 3}; blown in on April 5, 1983). It has been confirmed that this falling trajectory measuring technique has enabled the measurement of the falling trajectory which is subject to centrifugal force on the rotating chute, a discharge flow rate from a top hopper, and particle size segregation, and which varies in time series, and furthermore, the physical main stream position that is determined by the mass flow rate can be determined uniquely.

Matsui, Y.; Kasai, A.; Ito, K.; Matsuo, T.; Kitayama, S.; Nagai, N. [Kobe Steel Ltd, Hyogo (Japan). R& D Lab.

2003-07-01

205

Stabilization of chloro-organics using organophilic bentonite in a cement-blast furnace slag matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of cement-based stabilisation/solidification treatment to organic-containing wastes is made difficult by the adverse effect of organics on cement hydration. The use of organophilic clays as pre-solidification adsorbents of the organic compounds can reduce this problem because of the high adsorption power of these clays and their compatibility with the cementitious matrix. This work presents an investigation of the effect on hydration kinetics, physico-mechanical properties and leaching behaviour of cement-based solidified waste forms containing 2-chlorophenol and 1-chloronapthalene adsorbed on organophilic bentonites. These were prepared by cation exchange with benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride and trimethyloctadecylammonium chloride. The binder was a 30% pozzolanic cement, 70% granulated blast furnace slag mixture. Several binder-to-bentonite ratios and different concentrations of the organics on the bentonite were used. Kinetics of hydration were studied by measurement of chemically bound water and by means of thermal and calorimetric analyses. Microstructure and other physico-mechanical properties of the solidified forms were studied by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy and unconfined compressive strength measurement. Leaching was checked by two different leaching tests: one dynamic, on monolithic samples, and the other static, on powdered samples. This study indicates that the incorporation of the organic-loaded bentonite in the binder matrix causes modifications in the hardened samples by altering cement hydration. The effects of the two organic contaminants are differentiated. PMID:11530921

Cioffi, R; Maffucci, L; Santoro, L; Glasser, F P

2001-01-01

206

Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q2(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q0, Q1, Q2(1Al) and Q2(where Qn(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO4] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO4]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO4] species (27Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species (27Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

2009-07-23

207

Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relación escoria/metacaolín son los parámetros más relevantes.

Higuera, I.

2012-06-01

208

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

2007-08-01

209

BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

2013-12-01

210

Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

Sánchez, R.

2011-06-01

211

Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC). When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and t...

2011-01-01

212

Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy a...

Meji?a, J. M.; Meji?a Gutie?rrez, R.; Puertas, F.

2013-01-01

213

Injection of coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures by blast furnace`s tuyere; Injecao de misturas de finos de carvoes mineral e vegetal atraves das ventaneiras do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, fines injection by tuyere contributes directly to iron pig production in terms of reducing costs. Talking about Brazilian case, this paper has studied coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures combustion under conditions similar to blast furnace`s. In conclusion, this simulation showed that the mixture has presented a better performance than the other presented by coal fines or charcoal fines separately. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

Weber, Stephan Heinz J.V. [Industria de Aco Korf S.A. (IKOSA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica; Birkhauser, Lothar [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gudenau, Heinrich W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

1991-12-31

214

Implementation of top turbine of blast furnace 3 - USIMINAS Ipatinga; Implantacao da turbina de topo do alto-forno 3 - USIMINAS Unidade Ipatinga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of turbine for energy recovery from top gas from blast furnace is aligned with the strategic objectives of USIMINAS Ipatinga to increase their own power generation, reduce environmental impacts and improve operational control of pressure from the top. This study aimed to present the progress in controlling the top pressure and electric power generation using turbine drawing gas kinetic energy. Will be addressed by developing methods used to control the pressure of the top from the start of operation of Blast Furnace 3 to the present day. Will also be discussed operating procedures and expected performance. (author)

Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

215

The use of charcoal-based blast furnace gas in internal combustion engines for electric power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG, the electric power utility in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which is based mainly on hydroelectricity, is evaluating electricity generation alternatives including cogeneration and the use of waste energy. There is a significant power potential from firing the surplus of blast furnace gas released by the charcoal-based pig-iron production process that is extensively used in Minas Gerais. In this process, 60% of the blast furnace gas (BFG), which has a low calorific value (LCV) of about 850 kcal/Nm{sup 3}, is used in the production process. The remaining 40% is released into the atmosphere or burned in flares. This energy is lost, and a considerable amount of pollution is released into the surrounding area, because the gas carries charcoal and iron particulate matter. The estimated potential for producing electricity from the waste gas is around 180 MW spread among 70 generation units. This potential is enough to furnish the pig-iron producers with electricity and even to have a 130 MW surplus to sell to the electrical grid throughout the year once the industries operate full time. This would decrease the production costs and increase the sector competitiveness. Since the alternatives of firing the gas in either boilers or gas turbines do not seem to be cost-effective, owing mainly to scale factor, CEMIG is evaluating the alternative of firing gas in internal combustion engines coupled to a generator. (author)

Vasconecelos, E.C.; Barros, D.M.C.R.C. de; Santana, C.G. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

1997-07-01

216

The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

2014-04-01

217

Shutting down of the second blast furnace of the brazilian National Steel Company with low charges; Apagamento do alto forno n. 2 da CSN com carga baixa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows a technical report of the shut-down steps of the second blast furnace of the brazilian National Steel Company. The steps of planning, charge shut-down, furnace preparing and monitored operations are analyzed. The final results of this operation was successful, resulting on coke and labor economy and it was realized under international guidelines of safety. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Bariquelo, Luis E.; Rodrigues, Cirilo R.D.; Paula Sarchis, Darcio de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [and others

1991-12-31

218

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha / Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica [...] . Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada. Abstract in english This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to [...] mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F., Vieira; C. A. C. M., Dias; A. V., Mothé; R., Sánchez; S. N., Monteiro.

219

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F. Vieira

2007-12-01

220

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la presencia de char, muestra que con el aumento de la concentración del char, la resistencia del coque después de la reducción se hace más pequeña. La reactividad del char con el CO2 es más elevada que con la del coque. Por tanto, el char se consume con preferencia. En presencia del char inyectado aumentan el volumen total de poros del coque y la resistencia al desgaste. Se ha estudiado la reactividad y microestructura del coque con la presencia de distintos tipos de cenizas. Se observaron muchas esferas de ceniza sobre la superficie matriz del coque y el tamaño de las esferas depende de la naturaleza de las cenizas.

Gudenau, H. W.

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Probing the dead man of the blast furnace through a tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of sampling at Solmer's no. 2 furnace are reported. Among other things, the variations in coke size and strength along the radius of the furnace, the importance of the coke as a source of silicon in the iron, and the accumulation of alkalis in the coke are discussed. The coke in the dead man appeared to be little gasified throughout its mass, representing the 'kernel' of the skip coke.

Helleisen, M. (and others)

1987-11-01

222

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

223

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace; Prediccion mediante redes neuronales de la temperatura de arrabio de un horno alto. Temperatura subyacente de arrabio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

Cantera, C.; Jimenez, J.; Varela, I.; Formoso, A.

2002-07-01

224

Ten years of operating of the blast furnace of `Belgo-Mineira` Steel Company, Brazil; Dez anos de operacao do alto forno 5 da Belgo-Mineira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the operational performance development of the blast furnace of the Belgo-Mineira Steel Company, Brazil. The major modification introduced in this period was the substitution of its roof for a without- cone one. The results of the partial coke utilization was also analyzed. 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Braga, Raimundo N.B.; Souza, Ildeu A. de; Silva, Marco A.M. e [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo-Mineira (CSBM), Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

1991-12-31

225

Integration of the blast furnace route and the FINEX {sup registered} -Process for low CO{sub 2} hot metal production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace is the most important process for the production of hot metal. An integral part of this process route is the coking of coal and sintering of fine ore. The FINEX {sup registered} -process is a new technology for hot metal production which uses untreated fine ores and coal instead of sinter and coke. This paper deals with the investigation of integration concepts of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered}. Low reduced iron (LRI) and/or reducing gas are/is produced in FINEX {sup registered} and are/is considered as substitute/s of burden and fuel in the blast furnace, respectively. In the article the overall fuel demand and CO{sub 2} emissions for the integration of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered} are shown. For that reason two case studies for the integration are carried out and compared with the base case, that is, the two-independent processes. The CO{sub 2} emissions are calculated considering the fuel and electric power consumption of the different cases. (Copyright copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Thaler, Christoph; Schenk, Johannes L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Chair of Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria); Tappeiner, Tamara; Kepplinger, Werner L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria); Plaul, Jan Friedemann [Siemens VAI Metals Technologies GmbH, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Stefan [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

2012-02-15

226

Experiences with the utilization of waste plastics in blast furnaces; Erfahrungen mit der Altkunststoff-Verwertung im Hochofenprozess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a worldwide production of 1,417 million tons in 2010 steel is the most important metallic construction material. At the end of the life cycle steel is recycled completely. Subsequently, plastics follow with a worldwide production of 265 million tones in 2010. In contrast to the production of steel the recycling of plastics at the end of the life cycle resulted in a plurality of process solutions. Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Linz, Austria) has opened a new niche process by implementing recycling rates. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the use of waste plastics as a substitute for primary raw materials and as a reducing agent in blast furnaces.

Buergler, Thomas [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Unternehmensbereich Roheisen; Kieberger, Nina [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Projekt Kunststoffeinblasanlage

2012-11-01

227

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno / Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperatu [...] re two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

Monaliza Maia, Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira, Cunha; José Augusto Martins, Corrêa.

228

The radiation stability of ground granulated blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement grouts containing organic admixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom, cement grouts based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are used extensively for immobilizing radioactive wastes. These grouts have excluded organic admixtures in order to reduce process complexity and uncertainties, regarding the performance of organic admixtures with BFS/OPC grouts, particularly under irradiation. This study has investigated the effects of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde and naphthalene condensates on grout properties. The results show grout settlement and strengths increase on addition of additives, with the additives remaining largely in the pore solution. Under irradiation the additives breakdown liberating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Strength and product dimensions are unaffected by irradiation.

Palmer, J.D.; Fairhall, G.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

1993-12-31

229

IDENTIFICATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF BINDERS FROM ALKALI-ACTIVATED MIXTURES OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as their final properties. The amorphous character of the hydration products makes evaluation of the phase composition of hardened AAB difficult and significantly limits the number of experimental techniques suitable to characterise their phase composition. It was observed that measuring the pH of water extracts obtained from the alkali-activated mixtures can give supplementary information about the process of hardening of alkali-activated mixtures of GBFS and fly ash.

JOZEF VL?EK

2014-03-01

230

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

231

Sulfur Transfer via Gas Phase in Iron-making Blast Furnace under Intensive Coal Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The steel industry will move toward more value additive products in the future. In order to support the value additive steel products, iron sources have to be secured with stable operation of furnaces and control of furnace have to be evolved. Environment consciousness including CO2 reduction leads more toward lower reducing agents ratio operation. It is common technical issue on both the more value additive products the environment consciousness to control the sulfur in the hot metal, slag and gas phase.In the present study, the amount of sulfur gasification was measured by combustion experiments with the attention on the simultaneous gasification of sulfur with carbon. By description of sulfurization from gas to burden materials based on the temperature distribution measured in actual furnace, the amount of sulfur transferred to gas was evaluated.

Yoshiyuki, Matsui; Rikizou, Tadai; Kenji, Ito; Tadasu, Matsuo; Korehito, Kadoguchi; Reiji, Ono

232

Process characteristics of a commercial-scale oxygen blast furnace process with shaft gas injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed process involves blowing normal-temperature oxygen through the tuyeres and hot gas into the shaft, as a result of which a high coal injection rate and lower-strength coke can be used. Tests with an experimental furnace are reported and mathematical simulations are used to evaluate the process characteristics on a commercial scale.

Ohno, Y. (and others)

1992-01-01

233

Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace tuyeres three of the Usiminas, Ipatinga Plant; Injecao de gas natural nas ventaneiras do alto-forno 3 da Usiminas, Usina de Ipatinga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduction in production costs is a major strategic objectives of Usiminas and the use of natural gas in the Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) contribute to achieve this goal. The use of natural gas as fuel in the BF 3 to reduce the use of metallurgical coke (main fuel) and reduces production losses during periods of maintenance in the pulverized coal injection system and improving operational control of the Blast Furnace. The work presents the deployment of the natural gas injection and the performance obtained by the BF 3 from the start of injection, with a focus on reducing consumption of metallurgical coke and stable operation of blast furnace (author)

Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de; Hostt, Helton [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Reducao

2011-12-21

234

The Balance of Titanium and Vanadium in the Blast Furnace with the Use of Sinter Containing a Titanium-Vanadium-Magnetite Concentrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation concerned the use of sinter containing a titanium-vanadium-magnetite concentrate for the production of pig iron. Sinter containing 0,46 to 0,51 % TiO2 and 0,056 to 0,060 % vanadium was used for pig iron production in the blast furnace. Introducing 200 kg of this concentrate to the1 Mg sinter mix did not cause any deterioration of sinter quality.

Budzik, R.

2007-01-01

235

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on ...

Francesco Colangelo; Raffaele Cioffi

2013-01-01

236

Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Green Helmet Project (China, Steel industry - Blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine); 1999 nendo green helmet jigyo (Chugoku Seitetsugyo) koro rochoatsu hatsuden setsubi chosa hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), installed on the No. 4 blast furnace of Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Company, Sichuan, China, started its operation in 1998. For the promotion and support of effective energy utilization based on the results of this implementation, guidance was given and enlightening endeavors were made for TRT technology popularization through training of specialists in the associated fields of work. The efforts were made at three steelmaking plants, that is, Baosteel (Group) Shanghai Meishan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Nanjing, Jiangsu; Taiyuan Iron and Steel (Group) Company Ltd., Taiyuan, Shanxi; and Baotou Iron and Steel (Group) Company Ltd., Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Through the cooperation of China's State Bureau of Metallurgical Industry and the steel makers involved, the operating conditions of the existing TRTs of Chinese manufacture were investigated at the Shanghai Meishan plant and advice and guidance were given for improvement on their operation and facilities. At the Taiyuan plant, advice and guidance were given about the installation now in progress of TRT facilities on the No. 4 blast furnace and about a plan of TRT installation on the No. 3 blast furnace. At the Baotou plant, the operating conditions of the existing No. 4 blast furnace of Chinese manufacture were investigated, and advice and guidance were given about facilities improvement and future installation of TRTs on blast furnaces not yet provided with TRTs. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

237

Injection of pulverized coal into the tuyeres of a blast furnace using a static distributor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the developments of Paul Wurth in the field of Pulverized Coal Injection Systems. Systems with individual (tuyere) flow rate control as well as the development of the static distributor process are discussed. The basic process features of the static distributor are presented. These include dense phase pneumatic conveying and the splitting-up of the pulverized coal main flow into the individual flows to the hot blast tuyeres by the means of the critical speed tuyeres. The main equipment components of a static distributor injection system are presented. The special features of installed plants installed are described. A discussion of operating experience, capability and limits of the process closes the paper with an outlook to the extension towards individual control and oxygen injection.

Ulveling, L. [Paul Wurth, S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

1994-12-31

238

Operation of the blast furnace gas distribution in V and M of Brazil; Operacao do sistema de distribuicao de GAF na V e M do Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

V and M do Brasil is an integrated steel mill with the production of seamless steel pipe. The manufacture process comprises two charcoal blast furnaces which an average generation of blast furnace gas (BFG) of 120.000 Nm{sup 3}/h. Due to the presence of carbon monoxide in its composition it is considered as a fuel and used in 14 equipment of heating process in Barreiro mill. It is a considerable heating source corresponding to 60% of the total thermal energy used in these equipment where the natural gas (NG) is used to fulfill the energetic needs. The operation of the BFG distribution among the consumers happens in an instantaneous way according to the blast furnace generation and consumers demand recognizing a complexity in this process. The optimization in BFG consumption assures a reduction in the NG consumption and consequently in the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the optimization of the byproduct consumption considering a new approach of the distribution operation of this fuel among the consumers without cost including the operational process awareness by the operation people, patterning the operation and planning. (author)

Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Lana, Camila Soares; Valentim, Rodrigo Freitas; Lupp, Adilson Geraldo [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

239

Preparation of. beta. -spodumene glass-ceramics from blast furnace slag. Koro slag wo genryo to shita. beta. -spodumene kei kesshoka glass no seizo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Li {sub 2} O-CaO-Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} -SiO {sub 2} (LCAS) glass-ceramics were prepared from blast furnace slag by quenching in water after heating at 1,450 {degree} C for 3 hours. Blast furnace slag (40.0wt%) containing CaO, MgO, Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} and SiO {sub 2} as major components was used as a raw material, and batch compositions were modified by mixing blast furnace slag with Al {sub 2} O {sub 3}, SiO {sub 2} and Li {sub 2} CO {sub 3}, and a nucleating agent TiO {sub 2}. The A specimen with TiO {sub 2} of 7.4wt% and B specimen with 4.6wt% were prepared, and the crystallization process of the glass was examined with X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and so forth. As a result, a major crystalline phase was {beta} -spodumene (Li {sub 2} O-Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} -4SiO {sub 2}), and the average thermal expansion coefficients of A and B were 40.1 and 47.2 {times} 10 {sup {minus} 7} / {degree} C in the temperature range from 25 to 700 {degree} C, respectively. A small amount of titanite was also observed in A as a sub-phase. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wang, M. (National Kaoshing Institute Technology, Kaoshiung (Rep. of China)); Hon, M. (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Rep. of China))

1990-07-01

240

Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

2009-08-15

242

Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

Safi, B.

2011-09-01

243

Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

Palacios, M.

2012-12-01

244

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ? The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO42- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO42- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO42- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m?2, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

2012-07-01

245

Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production. Summarizing, the modern practices in the use of the auxiliary fuels, implemented in the AHMSA blast furnaces, have derived benefits, succeeding in diminishing the productions costs in the pig iron production process, faced to the true need of standing out in the even more competitive world of iron and steel industry of the world. [Espanol] Altos Hornos de Mexico es una industria siderurgica integrada al Grupo Acereros del Norte, localizada en la ciudad de Monclova Coahuila, contando con una capacidad anual instalada de 3.1 MMT de acero liquido. Dentro de sus instalaciones, AHMSA cuenta con el alto horno de mayor capacidad instalado en Mexico, el alto horno No. 5, el cual tiene un volumen util de 2,163 metros cubicos disenado para producir 4,800 toneladas de arrabio por dia. La meta basica a lograr en las operaciones involucradas en la elaboracion de acero via elaboracion de arrabio en el alto horno, es la produccion de metal caliente al mas bajo costo posible y dentro de los requerimientos de calidad especificado por las acerias. El mas importante criterio para la medicion del exito alcanzado es el consumo de combustible por tonelada de arrabio producida, siendo el coque el principal combustible alimentado al alto horno y por ende el que mayor impacto tiene sobre el costo final del producto. AHMSA contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico, la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivadas del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones mayores de 2.6 MMT de acero liquido. En respuesta a esto, y ante la verdadera necesidad de disminuir los costos de produccion en el proceso de elaboracion de arrabio, se han implementado nuevas practicas en el uso de los combustibles auxiliares que sustituyan en parte el consumo de coque metalurgico como fuente de energia en el proceso del alto horno. El uso del gas natural, combustoleo y el incremento paulatino de la temperatura de soplo caliente, han repercutido fuertemente en el consumo de coque metalurgico disminuyendolo considerablemente bajando los

Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

1993-12-31

246

Use of pulse-type x-ray analyzers to determine the level and profile of the stock in a blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Leningrad Scientific-Industrial Association Burevestnik collaborated with the Chermetavtomatika Scientific-Industrial Association and the TsNIIchermet to develop a pulse-type x-ray analyzer to determine the level and profile of the stockline in a blast furnace for purposes of monitoring and optimizing the control of the smelting process. The analyzer is called ''TAIR'' and is based on the transit-time method of measurement. It includes a scanning x-ray generator, transducer, detector, data analysis and display block, and scanning control block. The generator consists of an x-ray tube, a modulator, and a high-voltage plate power source for the tube. The analyzer made it possible to adjust the instruments on the furnace during operation. Besides the stockline profile, the analyzer can be used to determine the thickness of the layer of the charge and the rate of descent of the charge. It can also produce the characteristics of the gas in the furnace above the stock

1988-05-01

247

Adequate operation of a wood coal fed blast furnace aiming less pollutant generation; Operacao adequada de um alto-forno a carvao vegetal visando uma menor geracao de carga poluidora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper approaches all the necessary actions for an adequate operation of the wood coal fed blast furnaces. The document considers as an ideal operation the one presenting a low carbon specific consumption (kg/T of cast iron) and a high productivity, associated to a low generation of particulates in the atmosphere and a solid waste (slag) suitable for re-utilization.

Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Ribeiro, Eduardo Delano Leite [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Batista, Arnaldo Abranches Mota [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lopes, Luiz Eduardo Furiati [Sindicato da Industria do Ferro no Estado de Minas Gerais (SINDIFER), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

2001-07-01

248

PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

2010-04-15

249

Reduced physical model for charge distribution simulation on blast furnace 2 of Steel Company of Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Modelo fisico reduzido para simulacao da distribuicao de carga no alto forno n. 2 da COSIPA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the theoretical development of a 1:16 scale slice model designed to simulate the charging system and upper stack region of blast furnace 2. The determination of model parameters and selection of model raw materials was based on similarity criteria developed from basic principles of dimensional analysis. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Quites, Eduardo E.C.; Dias Junior, Oswaldo S.; Santana, Jose Z.; Ribeiro, Dilmar A. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

1991-12-31

250

The Brazilian engineering evolution increase to developing blast furnaces implantation and revamping design; A evolucao da experiencia da engenharia nacional em projetos de implantacao e reforma de altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is showing that the brazilian experience in this field is represented by the Brazilian Company of Industrial Projects experience itself. The paper try to characterize the national total self-sufficiency, with exception to specific equipment protected by patent, to develop any kind of blast furnace implantation or revamping design, giving to the project competitive operational resources. (author). 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Reis Filho, Everardo T. dos [COBRAPI, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1991-12-31

251

The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

1980-01-01

252

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD, granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity was evaluated. Cold bonded artificial aggregates were characterized by determining physical and mechanical properties of two selected size fractions of the granules for each studied mixture. Eighteen types of granules were employed in C28/35 concrete manufacture where coarser natural aggregate were substituted with the artificial ones. Finally, lightweight concretes were obtained, proving the suitability of the cold bonding pelletization process in artificial aggregate sustainable production.

Raffaele Cioffi

2013-07-01

253

The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

Joeri Van Mierlo

2013-03-01

254

Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz / Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terr [...] as altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1) com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade. Abstract in english Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment [...] was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1) and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

Juliana Garcia, Carvalho-Pupatto; Leonardo Theodoro, Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol; Munir, Mauad; Rosemeire Helena da, Silva.

255

Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1 com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade.Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1 and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

Juliana Garcia Carvalho-Pupatto

2003-11-01

256

Perspectives of the first campaign of `ACOMINAS` blast furnace; Perspectivas da primeira campanha do alto-forno da ACOMINAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the evolution of the main operational parameters and the current situation of the cooling system, lining profile and the shell. It describes the operational procedures adopted for lengthening of the duration of the campaign. The paper focuses the evolution and projects perspectives of the first campaign of the furnace. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Oliveira Gomes, Antonio L. de; Oliveira Camelo, Geraldo de; Mello, Hideraldo B.S. de; Jesus, Rogerio F. de; Silva, Luiz Claudio L.; Franco, Paulo C.F.; Santos, Vicente C. dos; Alves, Marcio T.; Miyazaki, Mickio [ACOMINAS, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil)

1991-12-31

257

Use of Rist and Reichardt operational diagrams in the control of reduction process in the blast furnace number 2 of COSIPA; Aplicacao dos diagramas operacionais de Rist e Reichardt no controle do processo de reducao do alto-forno 2 da COSIPA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model based on the equating of the blast furnace reduction process according to the methodology suggested by Rist (and others) was developed and applied to the COSIPA number 2 blast furnace. The results show that this model is a useful tool to the operator. A clear vision of the thermal and chemical efficiency of this equipment is showed. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs.

Dias Junior, Osvaldo S. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil); D`Abreu, Jose C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

1989-12-31

258

Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo (na operação de tamponamento do forno, toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos.The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Additionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

A. S. Ribeiro

2013-03-01

259

Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos / Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo [...] (na operação de tamponamento do forno), toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico) para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos. Abstract in english The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Ad [...] ditionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

A. S., Ribeiro; G. F. B. Lenz e, Silva; H. C., Bassalo; P., Bonadia Neto; V. C., Pandolfelli.

260

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 

Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on ch...

Lizarazo Marriaga Juan; Claisse Peter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

1996-12-31

262

Hydrothermal synthesis and carbonation control of tobermorite from granulated blast furnace slag; Koro suisai slag kara tobermorite no suinetsu gosei to tansanka teiko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, conditions for forming tobermorite from granulated blast furnace slag by hydrothermal treatment after adding silica stone and calcium hydroxide into the slag to adjust its constituents, and carbonation control thereof are studied. Tobermorite is generated when silica stone is added into the slag for making the Al(Si+Al) atomic ratio be a constant 0.26 and subsequently calcium hydroxide is added to make the Ca/(si+Al) atomic ratio be 0.68 to 0.78. Further, the crystalline degree of tobermorite is improved by raising initial pH values of suspensions. However, due to a part of hydrogarnet mixed therein, an adjustment is performed by adding silica stone and calcium hydroxide to make the Al/(Si+Al) atomic ratio be a constant 0.26 and the Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio be 0.68 to 0.78 as a limit of Si{sup 4+} ions being substituted and solid-dissolved by Al{sup 3+} in tobermorite, thus a single phase of tobermorite is obtained. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yasue, T.; Ishikawa, H.; Arai, Y. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Engineering

1998-01-01

263

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

2013-12-15

264

Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

Dawei Zhao

2014-05-01

265

The Effect of P2O5 on the Crystallization Behaviors of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper investigates how the P2O5 addition influences the crystallization behaviors of Ti-bearing blast furnace (Ti-BF) slags with different basicity using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique. It was found that the basicity showed a significant effect on the crystallization behaviors of the Ti-BF slags, and the trend of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased while the trend of formation of dendrite crystal increased with increasing basicity. The addition of P2O5 was found to promote the formation of rod-shape crystal. The basicity and crystallization temperature that the rod-shape crystal could be formed increased, while the incubation time of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased with increasing P2O5 content. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe the morphology and determine the crystalline phase of the Ti-enriched crystals. The results indicated that the rod-shape crystal was rutile. The kinetics of the formation of rutile was studied, and the mechanism of crystallization and growth was further discussed. The results indicated that the crystallization of rutile was one-dimensional interface-controlled growth, and the nucleation rate varied with the holding time.

Sun, Yongqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

2014-04-01

266

Coke degradation mechanism and properties with less fine generation in lower part of blast furnace; Koro rokabu ni okeru kokusu no funka kiko oyobi nanfunka seijo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the coke degradation mechanism in the lower part of blast furnace, several kinds of model experiment were conducted based on the conditions that are possible to occur in the above region by considering the reaction form, reaction temperature, reaction degree and impact energy with 15 kinds of coke having different strength and reactivity. In the above region, the control reaction affected more on the coke degradation and fine generation is CO{sub 2} gasification than contact to molten FeO or contact to molten metal. As coke is received CO{sub 2} gasification, fine (-1 mm) is generated from the degraded part by abrasion. One property of coke with less fine generation is that having high cold strength (I{sub 1}{sup 600}{>=} 86%) and low reactivity (CRI {<=} 25%), and the other is that having high cold strength and high reactivity (CRI {>=} 45%). In the former coke, CO{sub 2} gasification is gathered only on the surface of particle, and in the latter coke, CO{sub 2} gasification is occurred in the whole area of particle. From now on, the coke breakage mechanism in the above region will be expected to be researched. (author)

Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi [Nippon steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Steel Research Laboratories; Uno, Takeo [Shin-nikka Environmental Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Kimitsu Branch

1999-09-20

267

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH)2-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH)2 and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH)2 occurs only with the use of Ca(OH)2, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO3), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH)2. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH)2, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH)2 causes some degree of carbonation

2013-12-01

268

Influencia de la temperatura de curado: hidratación y resistencia de pastas de cemento con escoria / Influence of curing temperature: hydration and strength of cement paste with granulated blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente son muy conocidos los beneficios tecnológicos, económicos y el menor impacto medioambiental que produce el empleo de adiciones minerales como reemplazo del cemento portland. Estas razones, han consolidado el uso de muchas adiciones como: escoria granulada de alto horno, ceniza volante, m [...] aterial calcáreo, humo de sílice, etc. En los últimos años, los cementos presentan un importante aumento en el contenido de las adiciones; el cual influye sobre la distribución de partículas, sobre la velocidad y naturaleza de las reacciones de hidratación y en consecuencia en su ganancia de resistencia. El presente trabajo evalúa la influencia de la temperatura en el curado (20, 40 y 60 ºC) de pastas con contenido variable de escoria granulada de alto horno (0 a 80 %) elaboradas con relación agua/material cementante de 0,40, sobre la resistencia mecánica. La evolución de la hidratación se estudió a través del análisis de los compuestos de hidratación por DRX y el contenido de agua no evaporable. La resistencia mecánica se evaluó empleando un diseño de experimentos central compuesto centrado. Los resultados obtenidos indican que a medida que la temperatura de curado aumenta con el incremento del contenido de escoria en el cemento mezcla, se aumentan la resistencia y el contenido de agua no evaporable, y disminuye la cantidad de hidróxido de calcio de la pasta. Abstract in english Nowadays it is well known that using blast furnace slag as partial replacements for Portland cement adds technological, economic and environmental benefits. Those are some of the reasons why cements containing several additions (blast furnace slag, fly ash, calcareous material, etc) are commonly use [...] d. In recent years, blended cements started to increase amounts of additions as replacement of Portland cement; in this regard these variations influence the rate and the mechanism of hydration and, consequently, strength development. The present work evaluated the effect of different curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 ºC) on the mechanical strength of cement paste with different proportions of granulated blast-furnace slag (0 to 80 %). Pastes were prepared with water/cementitious material ratio (w/cm) equal to 0,4. The hydration evolution was determinated following the hydration products using XRD analysis and evaluated the content of non evaporable water. Mechanical strength was evaluated trough central composite experimental design. When granulated blast-furnace slag content increases with curing temperature, the results show that mechanical strength and non evaporable water increases, while the calcium hydroxide content decreases.

C. C., Castellano; V. L., Bonavetti; E. F., Irassar.

269

The high-temperature tensile strength of coke. [Reduction in particle size and mechanical properties of coke in the bottom of a blast furnace compared to loss in strength and plastic deformation above 2000/sup 0/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental studies of the thermal degradation of coke were necessary for the elucidation of the causes of the drop in coke strength and particle size that occurs towards the bottom of a blast furnace, and specifically in the vicinity of 3-5 m above the tuyeres. Accordingly, a high-temperature indirect tensile tester (operating at a maximum of 2300 C) was constructed and the high-temperature strength of coke measured. It was discovered that there was a marked drop in the matrix strength of the coke when the 2000 C level was reached, and a pronounced plastic deformation was observed. (In Japanese)

Okuyama, Y.; Iso' o, N.; Miyazu, T.

1983-01-01

270

Effects of fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder in alkali-aggregate reaction inhibition; Flyash oyobi koro slag bifunmatsu no arukari kotsuzai hanno yokusei koka chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To restrain alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of concrete aggregate, ASR curbing capability of pozzolanic admixtures was experimentally investigated. For the experiment, augite-andesite, rhyolite welded tuff, chert, and sandstone were used as typical reactive aggregates. The pessimum proportions showing maximum expansion coefficient were determined by means of mortar bar test method. As a result, they were, by volume, 20% for augite-andesite, 60% for sandstone, and 100% for rhyolite welded tuff and for chert. In the case of these pessimum proportions, ASR curbing effect was examined when a part of cement was replaced by fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder. Experimental results demonstrated that both of them have an effect of curbing ASR of concrete. Even in the case of augite-andesite with high expansion coefficient, it was found that the expansion coefficient of concrete aged for six months can be repressed below 0.10% by replacing 30% of cement with fly ash and 40% of cement with blast-furnace slag powder. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Sakai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

1997-01-31

271

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo / Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. [...] Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos. Abstract in english This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel produ [...] ction by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano, Gargantini; A. Gentil, Gomes.

272

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

273

Profile of hearth erosion on COSIPA`s (Companhia Siderurgica Paulista, Sao Paulo State, Brazil) number 2 blast furnace after finishing its second campaign; Perfil de desgaste dos refratarios do cadinho do alto forno numero 2 da COSIPA, apos o termino de sua segunda campanha  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rise in temperature of COSIPA`s number 2 blast furnace hearth, soon after blow-in and during its second campaign, brought about low productivity and a reduction in campaign time. The results of the hearth bricks study, after blow-out, with the objective of detecting the causes of such high temperature, are presented. (author). 3 tabs., 5 figs.

Nascimento, Angelo C. do; Almeida, Atilio de; Quites, Eduardo E.C.; Goes, Jeferson J.P.; Franco, Paulo C.; Mandaj Filho, Pedro; Silva Bento, Wagner da

1989-12-31

274

Removal of the dust from the vegetal coal area and its use in the blast furnace 1 of Mannesmann S.A; Desempoeiramento da area de carvao vegetal e o emprego de carvao vegetal no alto forno 1 da Mannesmann S.A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the investment of the Mannesmann Company (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) in an installation of fines injection by the tuyere from the blast furnace and the establishment of a dust removal installation in areas of coal vegetal processing from Barreto Plant, reducing the loss, with the powder re-use, at the same time that reducing the environmental pollution.

Grandin, Friedrich Hans C. G.; Titze, Eberhard E.; Benjamin, Jose Octavio

1991-12-31

275

Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM); Caracteristicas solido-fluido en el crisol del horno alto segun el modelo de desgaste nodal (MDN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs.

Martin, R.; Barbes, M. A.; Barbes, M. F.; Marinas, E.; Ayala, N.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Garcia, F.

2009-07-01

276

Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto / The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido a que en estructuras de concreto hechas con cemento Portland la penetración del ion cloruro es la principal causa de deterioro por corrosión del refuerzo, el estudio y prevención de los mecanismos que generan corrosión en el concreto son fuentes de constante investigación. En el presente artí [...] culo se presentan los resultados de una investigación analítica y experimental sobre la influencia de la adición de la escoria de alto horno en las propiedades que gobiernan los fenómenos de transporte iónico del concreto, especialmente los del ion cloruro. Las relaciones entre los coeficientes de difusión con la resistividad eléctrica, la carga pasada y la resistencia a la compresión, fueron evaluadas para mezclas con diferentes porcentajes de remplazo de escoria. De la misma forma, mediante un modelo computacional y un ensayo de migración eléctrica se obtuvieron los coeficientes intrínsecos de difusión, la porosidad, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la concentración química de la solución de poros. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la escoria aporta importantes beneficios en la penetración del ion cloruro, obteniéndose un concreto menos vulnerable a la corrosión. Abstract in english Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigatin [...] g the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion.

Juan, Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter, Claisse.

277

Furnace Group: Historic Structure Report - Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Elverson, Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hopewell Furnace is a charcoal-fueled, cold-blast furnace that was originally constructed by Ironmaster Mark Bird in 1770-71. Cast iron produced at Hopewell was molded as cannon and shot for use during the American Revolution. The furnace was also known f...

B. A. Yocum

2008-01-01

278

Optimization of hot blast stove operation at Dillinger BF 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On-line control of hot blast stoves guarantees uniform reserves of heat for all blast stoves at the end of the blast periods. Reduction of the maximal fumes temperature in conjunction with the predetermination of the combustion air temperature leaving the preheaters has for consequence a reduction in the blast furnace gas consumption. Through this, the hot blast stove efficiency is increased. (author). 11 figs.

Peifer, J. (Forges et Acieries, Dilling (Germany))

1993-03-01

279

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

280

EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE UNIDADES SÍLICO-CALCÁREAS A PARTIR DE ESCORIA DE ALTO HORNO Y CAL HIDRÁULICA PARA MAMPOSTERÍA / EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SILICON - CALCAREOUS UNITS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND HYDRAULIC LIME FOR MASONRY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo estudia la posibilidad de fabricar elementos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería a partir de dos tipos de materias primas como son las escorias de Alto Horno y las cales hidráulicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron algunas propiedades físicas de las probetas fabricadas con los [...] anteriores materiales con respecto a la Norma Técnica Colombiana, para 5 tipos de mezclas que varían entre 10 y 50 % de cal. Los resultados mostraron que es factible la fabricación de ladrillos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería que cumplen con la NTC 922. Abstract in english The present paper studies the possibility of making silicon-calcareous elements for masonry from two types of raw material like the blast furnace slag and hydraulic limes. In the present study some physical properties of samples made according to the Norma Técnica Colombiana with the previously ment [...] ioned materials were evaluated for 5 types of mixtures that vary among 10% and 50% of lime. The results show that the silicon -calcareous brick manufacture is feasible for masonry that fulfills the NTC 922.

NILSON, ARIEL LEÓN; NÉSTOR RICARDO, ROJAS REYES; BERNARDO, UMBARILA SUÁREZ; M. OSWALDO, BUSTAMANTE R..

 
 
 
 
281

Completion of 150MW combined cycle power plant burning a blast furnace gas for Baoshan Iron and Steel Corp., China; Chugoku Baoshan kotetsu (shudan) koji dono muke koro gas sensho 150MW CCPP no kensetsu to unten jisseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In November 1997, the Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) which uses Blast Furnace Gas (BEG) as a single source of fuel started commercial operation at the largest steel mill in China, Baoshan Iron and Steel Corp.. This Plant was delivered by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.. In the past, BFG supplemented high calorific fuels such as Coke Oven Gas has been used as a fuel for gas turbines due to its low calorific value of 3,100 {approx} 3,500kJ/m{sup 3}{sub N}. This CCPP using solely BFG has the largest capacity in the world for CCPP burning BFG. At the commissioning, the plant thermal efficiency of 46% with less than 10ppm of NO{sub x} emissions was confirmed. In order to manage the huge amounts of the BFG, a fuel control system was uniquely adapted. Up to 180t/h of steam can be supplied in accordance with the steel mill process demand. This power plant is epoch-making in terms of economy, flexibility of operation and environmental protection. (author)

Nakasu, K.; Kimura, T.; Fujisaki, Y.; Yamada, H.; Shimizu, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

1999-04-01

282

Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2009-09-15

283

Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria / Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV) sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH). Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron [...] polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV) on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the [...] above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

Jorge L, Fernández; Jorge D, Sota; Ricardo O, Carbonari; Roberto, Romagnoli.

284

Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

Maristela N. da Conceição

2008-10-01

285

Influence of chemical composition of iron ore, with variable reduction degree, in the production of primary slags in blast furnaces; Influencia da composicao quimica do minerio de ferro, com grau de reducao variavel, na formacao da escoria primaria do alto forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to analyse the chemical composition of iron ores in the production of primary slag in blast furnace, it has been used eight types of ores, with different Si O{sub 2}/Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} ratios, divided into two groups of four ores each. The first ore groups were previously reduced up to 75% (reduction degree) and the second group up o 96%. Further this step, each sample was melted in an induction oven. The formed slags were analysed in optical and electronic microscopy as well as x-ray diffraction. The results of such an analysis are discussed in details. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Castro, Luiz F.A. de; Fonseca, Claldenci H. da; Santos, Dagoberto B.; Tavares, Roberto P.; Figueira, Renato M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

1990-12-31

286

Experiments using natural-gas/O{sub 2} burners for replacement of coke in a hot blast cupola furnace for melting of foundry iron; Versuche mit Erdgas/O{sub 2}-Brennern zur Substitution von Koks an einem Heisswind-Kupolofen zum Erschmelzen von Gusseisen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disposal of the dusts produced in operation of cupola furnaces is becoming ever more problematical. Substantial progress has been achieved in this context by means of the return of foundry particulates to the cupola furnace via injection using a recently developed natural-gas/O{sub 2} burner. A further series of studies was aimed at investigating the metallurgical and energy processes occurring with the use of natural gas/oxygen to decrease the amount of coke needed. Increases in melting rates of around 30% proved to be possible with additional heat input from natural gas/O{sub 2} equivalent to approx. 10% of the energy obtained from coke. In addition, it is anticipated that the overall efficiency {eta}{sub th} of a cupola furnace fired using natural gas/O{sub 2} with a supporting coke burden will be between that of a hot blast cupola furnace and of a coke-less cupola furnace. The target is the replacement with natural gas of 30 to 40% of the energy previously fed in coke, which is a desirable aim for a large number of cupola furnace operators. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Deponierung der aus dem Kupolofenbetrieb anfallende Staeube wird immer problematischer. Einen wesentlichen Verfahrensfortschritt brachte hier die Rueckfuehrung der Giessereistaeube in den Kupolofen durch Injektion mittels eines neu entwickelten Erdgas/O{sub 2}-Brenners. Ziel weiterfuehrender Untersuchungen war es die metallurgischen und energetischen Vorgaenge bei Einsatz von Erdgas/Sauerstoff zur Reduzierung des Kokseinsatzes zu untersuchen. Es zeigte sich, dass bei einer Erdgas/O{sub 2}-Zusatzfeuerung von etwa 10% der Koksenergie Schmelzleistungssteigerungen von etwa 30% moeglich sind. Weiterhin ist zu erwarten, dass der Gesamtwirkungsgrad {eta}{sub th} eines Erdgas/O{sub 2}-befeuerten Kupolofens mit Koksgeruest zwischen dem eines Heisswindkupolofens und dem eines kokslosen Kupolofens liegt. Die Zielrichtung ist 30 bis 40% der mit Koks eingebrachten Energie durch Erdgas zu ersetzen, was auf der Linie vieler Kupolofenbetreiber liegt. (orig.)

Kuenze, M.; Gador, R.; Frielingsdorf, O.; Niehoff, T. [Air Products GmbH, Hattingen (Germany); Neumann, F.; Mannek, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1998-07-01

287

Identification of the influence of blast-furnance working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnance gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of theoretical empirical mathematical model the of blast furnace and energy characteristics of a Cowper stove to identify the influence of working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnace-gas has been discussed. Results of exemplary calculations have also been presented.

Stanek Wojciech

2003-12-01

288

Mezcla ternaria de cemento Portland, escoria de alto horno y piedra caliza: Resistencia mecánica y durabilidad / Ternary mixture of Portland cement, blast furnace slag and limestone: Mechanical Strength and Durability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los cementantes compuestos, basados en la sustitución parcial del cemento por otros minerales y/o subproductos industriales, surgen como una alternativa sostenible técnica y ambientalmente. Se basan en la introducción de dos o más adiciones para obtener mejores propiedades finales a través de los ef [...] ectos sinérgicos de sus componentes. El presente trabajo estudia el efecto en las propiedades de desempeño de un cemento portland cuando se incorpora adición de caliza (hasta 20%) y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno (hasta 30%), para generar una mezcla ternaria. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron resistencia a la compresión, absorción y porosidad, succión capilar, permeabilidad a cloruros, y resistencia química de los morteros expuestos a sulfatos. Los resultados indican que la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los cementos ternarios es hasta un 35% superior con relación al mortero de referencia y a su vez presentan menores coeficientes de succión capilar, confirmando la acción tanto de carácter físico como químico de los materiales de adición. Respecto a la resistencia al ataque por sulfatos el mejor comportamiento lo presento la mezcla con menor porcentaje de caliza; en este caso se determinaron los productos de reacción formados utilizando difracción de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Abstract in english The blended cements based on partial replacement of cement by other minerals and / or industrial by-products arise as a technically and environmentally sustainable alternative. These cements are based on the introduction of two or more additions for better final properties through the synergistic ef [...] fects of its components. The present research examines the effect on the performance properties of Portland cement with addition of limestone (up to 20%) and blast furnace slag (up to 30%), to generate a ternary mixture. The compressive strength, absorption and porosity, capillary suction, chloride permeability, and chemical resistance of mortars exposed to sulfates were evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of the cements ternary is up to 35% higher with respect to the reference mortar and in turn have lower coefficients of capillary suction, confirming the action of both physical and chemical nature of the materials addition. The best performance of resistance to sulfates attack was found in mixture with minor proportion of limestone. The characterization of the reaction products was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Jherson, E. Díaz; Silvia, R. Izquierdo; Ruby, Mejía de Gutiérrez; Marisol, Gordillo S.

289

Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais / Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de t [...] extura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0) pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura. Abstract in english This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0) by the TRB System and as NS' by the [...] MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

Rodrigo Zorzal, Velten; Alexandre Pelissari, Sant' Ana; Dario Cardoso de, Lima; Cláudio Henrique de Carvalho, Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de, Carvalho; Lauro Gontijo, Couto; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

290

Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de textura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0 pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura.This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0 by the TRB System and as NS' by the MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

Rodrigo Zorzal Velten

2006-04-01

291

Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões / Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No [...] presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), escória de alto-forno (EAF) e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana). Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade), ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade), CTR (carga térmica radiante) e entalpia (H) em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto. Abstract in english The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricat [...] ed with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), blast furnace slag (EAF), active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana) were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H) were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

Maristela N. da, Conceição; Sulivan P., Alves; Aurélio, Telatin Júnior; Iran J. O. da, Silva; Sônia M. S., Piedade; Holmer, Savastano Júnior; Gustavo, Tonoli.

292

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293

Fireplace furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fireplace furnace is constructed with two flues which merge into a single chimney. An upper flue is directly above the fire as is in ordinary fireplace and includes a first damper which can be moved between open and closed positions. A lower flue is near the bottom of the fireplace and contains a secondary damper. Glass or metal doors enclose the front of the fireplace furnace and the fire is built with the upper damper fully open. The glass doors are closed, the upper damper is closed and the lower damper is open. The fireplace then operates as a furnace and can be connected to duct work existing throughout the house. The use of the lower flue increases the radiation of heat and conserves fuel by forcing the heated products of combustion to remain within the burning chamber of the fireplace furnace for a greater length of time. One outside air intake is connected to each side of the fireplace furnace firebox. Dampers are provided in the outside air intakes and are operated through connecting shafts to a pair of dampers disposed in house heating ducts connected on each side of the furnace. The house duct work includes fans disposed on each side of the furnace and as more heat is required within the house, the house thermostat activates the fans which cause movement of the respective dampers within the duct work. The duct dampers in turn control the air intake dampers thus increasing the intensity of the fire.

Mcdonald, C.B.

1981-10-06

294

Effect of blast parameters and coke properties on raceway geometry in a hot model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of blast conditions and coke properties on the size of the raceway has been evaluated in a hot model simulation of the blast furnace raceway zone. Coke fines surrounding the raceway after quenching have been sampled and analysed and their distribution has been found to be a function of the experimental conditions. The results from the model have been compared with data from operating blast furnaces, and similar raceway depth and coke behaviour correlations have been found. 30 references.

McCarthy, M.J.; Taggart, I.J.; Rogers, H.; Goldsworthy, P.C.; Burgess, J.M.

1983-01-01

295

Explosives and rock blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers the following: the history of explosives; explosive properties; dynamite; emulsion explosives; ammonium nitrate blasting agents; initiation systems; blasting theory; principles of priming; millisecond delay blasting; surface blast design; vibration and air blast; quarry and open pit mining; coal mining; construction; underground metal and nonmetal mining; seismic exploration; blasting economics; rock composition and structure; and blasting safety.

1987-01-01

296

Furnace system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paptent describes a furnace system connected to a burner. It includes a furnace for burning a fuel and air ejected from the burner into the furnace to produce a flame therein, and a device for determining the conditions of combustion of the fuel in a zone of the flame extending along different strata thereof by collecting light in the flame at one point in the flame by moving such point. Signals outputted by the combustion condition determining device are utilized for monitoring or controlling the flame and controlling exhaust emission control devices for controlling exhaust emissions produced by the combustion of the fuel. Control of the conditions of combustion of the flame can be effected quickly with a high degree of precision by monitoring the flame.

Sohma, K.; Arashi, N.; Azuhata, S.; Narato, K.; Inada, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Ohtsuka, K.; Hishinuma, Y.

1987-10-13

297

Tube furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

298

Granular Thermodynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present experimental evidence for a strong analogy between quasi-2D uniform non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) of excited granular materials and equilibrium thermodynamics. Under isochoric conditions we find that the structure of granular NESS, as measured by the radial distribution function, the bond order parameter, and the distribution of Voronoi cells, is the same as that found in equilibrium simulations of hard disks. Three distinct states are found corresponding to a gas, a dense g...

Shattuck, M. D.; Ingale, R. A.; Reis, Pedro Miguel

2009-01-01

299

Influence of chemical composition of iron ores with a constant reduction degree in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace; Influencia da composicao quimica do minerio de ferro, com grau de reducao constante, na formacao da zona de amolecimento e fusao do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of iron ores with different Si O{sub 2}/Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} relation in the gangue were partially reduced and melted in an induction furnace.The initial slag formed containing Fe O,Si O{sub 2} and Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, was analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.The presence of different compounds as pointed out by the phase diagrams was determined by microscopy and x-ray diffraction.It was concluded that due to the low Si O{sub 2} and Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} contents of the ores and the degree of reduction that was used (75%), the Fe O content of the slags was too high that led to the same behavior of the different ores in terms of softening and melting temperatures. In these conditions, the Si O{sub 2}/Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} in the gangue does not affect the formation of the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace. (author). 1 ref., 6 fig., 1 tabs.

Castro, Luiz F.A. de; Fonseca, Claldenci H. da; Santos, Dagoberto B.; Tavares, Roberto P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

1989-12-31

300

Reactivity to CO{sub 2} of chars prepared in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures for pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace in relation to char petrographic characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres in order to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack. When coal is injected with air in the region of tuyeres, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study, an experimental approach comprising refiring has been followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. A drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration was used to simulate devolatilization and then the char was refired into DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals ranging in rank from high to low volatile bituminous, currently used for PCI injection. Specific surface areas, reactivity to CO{sub 2} and char petrography have been used to chars characterization. The morphology and appearance of the chars generated under oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) and conventional combustion (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) conditions with similar amount of oxygen were similar for each parent coal. Vitrinite-rich particles generated cenospheres with anisotropic optical texture increasing in size with increasing coal rank, whereas inertinite yielded a variety of morphologies and optical textures. The apparent reactivity to CO{sub 2} measured at high temperature (1000 C) tended to increase with burnout reflecting the operation under a regime controlled by internal diffusion in which surface area also increased. This may have a significant effect in the reactivity to CO{sub 2} of the chars inside the stack of the blast furnace, even under oxygen lean atmosphere. (author)

Pohlmann, Juliana G.; Osorio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Laboratory, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Borrego, Angeles G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality. [Espanol] La crisis de energia ha acaparado la atencion mundial sobre la necesidad de conservar la energia y desarrollar en un mayor grado el uso de combustibles en base a carbon y otras fuentes de energia (energia nuclear). Siendo el alto horno no solo un consumidor de energia sino tambien un generador de la misma (gas alto horno), la mayor contribucion al costo de arrabio es la energia necesaria para fundir y reducir al estado metalico los minerales de fierro, dicha energia en su mayoria proviene del coque. La dependencia del carbon via planta de coque para producir hierro de primera funcion se incrementa cada dia como resultado de los altos niveles de produccion. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivada del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones superiores a 2.6 MMt de arrabio. La inyeccion de combustibles al alto horno a traves de sus toberas es una tecnologia para disminuir el consumo de coque, su uso implica un cambio en la filosofia de operacion del alto horno y es actualmente utilizada por la mayoria de los altos hornos del mundo. AHMSA aprovechando la generacion de alquitran (aprox. 130 ton/dia) de sus plantas coquizadoras decide disenar y poner en operacion un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran y gas natural, las actividades encaminadas a realizar lo anterior dieron inicio el mes de abril de 1993 efectuandose todas ellas con recursos propios de la empresa, finalizando el dia 18 de julio de 1993 dia en el cual se inicio la co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el Alto Horno no. 4 en forma estable. A la fecha (octubre 1993), la inyeccion de alquitran se ha incrementado hasta 36 kg/t. de arrabio, durante los periodos de inyeccion, la presencia de problemas operativos, mecanicos y de instrumentacion no han sido obstaculo para la evolucion de la inyeccion cumpliendo su funcion de sustituir al coque en una relacion de reemplazo de 1:1, es decir, 1 kg de alquitran por cada kg de coque sin

Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

1993-12-31

302

Manufacturing and Marketing of Iron Stoves at Hopewell Furnace, 1835-1844.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report investigates the manufacturing and marketing of iron stoves of Hopewell Furnace during its zenith--1835 through 1844. It was during this period that Hopewell witnessed its greatest profits, its longest continuous period of 'blast,' its decline ...

D. A. Crownover

1970-01-01

303

Melting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibrous molding products (glass cartridge) and high level liquid wastes are supplied to raw material transferring pipes, and the fibrous molding products in a state impregnated with the liquid wastes are supplied to a melting furnace main body. The fibrous molding products and the liquid wastes transferred along the inside of the raw material transferring pipes are heated by a heating means and volatile matters are evaporated. In this case, volatile metals such as ruthenium are also gasified. A purge air supply system is operated to cause air stream flowing from upstream to downstream in the raw material transferring pipes, so that air and steams in the vicinity of the fibrous molding products are sent to a gas phase portion of the furnace main body. Then, the mixed gases are withdrawn into an off-gas processing system. With such procedures, useful metals such as ruthenium which tends to be gasified can efficiently be recovered without being sent to molten glass. (I.N.)

1992-12-21

304

???: PSI-BLAST  

Full Text Available 03000 05000 05200 06000 09000 09100 ?????? | ??????? ??????????????? WW NCBI|http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/ ?????? ????????? ??? ???? BLAST???????????????? ?????BLAST?? ?????????????????

305

Shock (Blast) Mitigation by "Soft" Condensed Matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is a common point that "soft" condensed matter (like granular materials or foams) can reduce damage caused by impact or explosion. It is attributed to their ability to absorb significant energy. This is certainly the case for a quasistatic type of deformation at low velocity of impact where such materials are widely used for packing of fragile devices. At the same time a mitigation of blast phenomena must take into account shock wave properties of "soft" matter which very...

Nesterenko, Vitali F.

2003-01-01

306

Granular Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A granular material can be defined as any loosely interacting collection of (usually) solid particles.1 Depending on the conditions, a granular material can be best described as a solid, or as a fluid, or as a gas, or in some case not adequately as any of these, which makes this both an interesting and difficult field of study. The behavior of granular materials is something that is encountered frequently in all aspects of everyday life. Some of the situations include grain silos, trash piles, sand & salt that is used for building and on winter roads, snow (as in avalanches), and mixing of various food and medical supplies, such as pharmaceuticals. A granular material would be generally defined as consisting of discrete units of a solid material that neither chemically interact, nor otherwise strongly cohere together. Thus, the arrangement and motion of these materials is neither that of a solid (in which the various parts are tightly bound together) nor that of a fluid (in which the parts may easily flow over & around other parts). The size of the particles, per se, is not important -- the phenomenology is similar with very fine grains (such as powders) and with rather large âgrainsâ (such as cannonballs). The possibility of using various sizes of grains allows for some interesting research proposals covering several length scales. For many experiments the size of the container needs to be âlargeâ compared to the grain size (typically a factor of 100 could be considered as âlargeâ), so that end effects are indeed restricted only to the ends. This of course means also a large number of particles â easy with things like sand, less so with things like marbles (1003 marbles can be quite massive!)

Dolan, Paul

2012-03-08

307

???: RPS-BLAST  

Full Text Available 03000 05000 05200 06000 09000 09100 ?????? | ??????? ??????????????? WW NCBI|http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/ ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? BLAST?????????? ??????????????????????????

308

???: PHI-BLAST  

Full Text Available 03000 05000 05200 06000 09000 09100 ?????? | ??????? ??????????????? WW NCBI|http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/ ?????? ????????? ??? ???? BLAST???????????????? ??????????????????????????

309

Granular Thermodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present experimental evidence for a strong analogy between quasi-2D uniform non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) of excited granular materials and equilibrium thermodynamics. Under isochoric conditions we find that the structure of granular NESS, as measured by the radial distribution function, the bond order parameter, and the distribution of Voronoi cells, is the same as that found in equilibrium simulations of hard disks. Three distinct states are found corresponding to a gas, a dense gas, and a crystal. The dynamics of the dense gas is characterized by sub-diffusive behavior on intermediate time scales (caging). Under isobaric conditions we find a sharp first-order phase transition characterized by a discontinuous change in density and granular temperature as a function of excitation strength. The transition shows rate dependent hysteresis but is completely reversible if the excitation strength changes quasi-statically. All of these behaviors are analogous to equilibrium thermodynamics. The one difference is the velocity distributions, which are well described by P(c) = fMB[1+a2S2(c2)], in the range -2S2 is a second order Sonine polynomial. The single adjustable parameter, a2, is a function of the filling fraction, but not T. For |c|>=2, P(c)~exp(-A×c-3/2) as observed in many other experiments.

Shattuck, M. D.; Ingale, R. A.; Reis, P. M.

2009-06-01

310

Intensification of oxygen blasting during corrosion resistant steel melting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To decrease expenditures when melting 08-12Kh18N10T steel in electric furnaces it has been proposed to increase the intensity of liquid metal blasting with oxygen by increasing its consumption up to 1500 m3/h. It is shown that the proposed measures permit to decrease the blasting duration by 25%, to move the melting losses of the charge 1% less, to decrease chromium losses by 0.2%, to improve the ductility of metal by removing impurities

1979-01-01

311

High temperature solar furnace: current applications and future potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high temperature solar furnace can offer great opportunities for the production of many types of products worldwide, but recent advances in this technology have been limited to metal reduction. The production of semiconductors, which are utilized to a great extent in the electronic industry, is a viable option for this technology that has been overlooked. Especially where sand and sunlight are plentiful (countries that surround the equator), silicon chips produced with a solar furnace can have great economical value. This paper describes current and potential solar furnace technologies. The components of the solar furnace are described, as well as metal reduction processes including zinc and aluminum production. The viability of silicon chip production is also examined. The possibilities for other product development using an extremely (up to 10,000 deg C) high temperature solar furnace are also discussed. Economically, the benefits of solar furnaces are great, with only high initial start-up costs and little operation costs. Metal reduction processes can also be enhanced with high temperature solar furnaces in that plugging problems are eliminated. By replacing conventional furnaces, such as blast and electric arc furnaces, with a high temperature solar furnace, CO2 emissions and energy consumption can be greatly reduced, which will bring in added dividends to the society. (Author)

2003-02-01

312

Distribution of Trace Metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park ...

A. G. Reif R. A. Sloto

2011-01-01

313

SAF line furnace operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line incorporates three different furnace operations, all of which are automated and remotely controlled. The debinding furnace operation removes organic material from the pressed pellets prior to sintering, the sintering furnace operation densifies the pellets and the off-line property adjustment furnace removes excess gases after sintering

1983-11-04

314

Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

315

A second-law analysis of the ``hot blast stove/gas turbine`` arrangement by applying the parameter ``usable exergy``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is first of all to examine a coupled arrangement, in which turbine waste gas is used as oxygen carrier for the combustion of the fuel gas in the hot blast stoves and preheaters of a blast furnace; in their turn, the blast furnace gas and the turbine waste gas are preheated by the combustion of blast furnace gas, in order to achieve the necessary combustion temperatures. The arrangement makes provision also for the utilization of external thermal energy. The coupled process is compared with a hot blast stove system and a gas turbine plant without waste thermal energy recovery, which operate separately. The paper uses the concept of usable exergy, a previously defined parameter, to compare the two configurations and reverses some of the results obtained by the first law analysis.

Bisio, G. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Energy Engineering Dept.

1996-05-01

316

A second-law analysis of the ``hot blast stove/gas turbine`` combination by applying the parameter ``usable exergy``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is, first of all, to examine a coupled arrangement in which turbine waste gas is used as the oxygen carrier for combustion of the fuel gas in hot blast stoves and preheaters of a blast furnace, in their turn, the blast furnace gas and the turbine waste gas are preheated by the combustion of blast furnace gas, in order to achieve the necessary combustion temperatures. The arrangement makes provision also for utilization of external thermal energy. The coupled process is compared with a hot blast stove system and a gas turbine plant without waste thermal energy recovery, which operates separately. The paper uses the concept of usable exergy, a previously defined parameter, to compare the two configurations and reverses some of the results obtained by a first-law analysis. (Author)

Bisio, G. [Genoa Univ., Energy and Conditioning Dept., Genoa (Italy)

1998-12-31

317

???: WU-BLAST  

Full Text Available 03000 05000 05200 06000 09000 09100 ? ????? | ??????? ??????????????? ncher.bcm.tmc.edu/ ?????? ????????? ? ? ???? ???????????????????? AST(NCBI BLAST)????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????

318

Demolition blasting of steel structure. Ko kozobutsu no kaitai happa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In demolition and removal of structure, there are cases where blasting method is employed. Advantage of demolition method by means of blasting includes shortening work period, lowering cost and reducing amount of work at elevated location. Particularly, demolition blasting of steel structure is efficient when shaped with benefit of Neumann Effect is in use. In this presentation, recent typical jobs where steel structures have been demolished with shaped charges are introduced and issues in connection with job execution and their countermeasures are discussed. Items described are as follows: Foreword. Examples of demolition and removal of steel structure (Radiotower. Water pipe bridge foundation pile. Furnace accessories). Items of execution to be examined (Blasting method. Pretreatment. Fitting of molding explosive. Initiation method. Protection method. Vibration noise). Future problems (Pretreatment with consideration of safety and economics. Technology of selecting an overhauling pattern according to the environment). 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Maeda, M. (Chugoku Kako Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-10-31

319

Granular Electronic Systems  

CERN Document Server

A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for nanotechnological applications. This Review discusses recent important theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing on the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations and effects of confinement in formation of electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of granular materials.

Beloborodov, I S; Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

2006-01-01

320

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

Zeng, Yi

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

gular speed of rotary cup increases. ? The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ? Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ? A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

2012-07-01

322

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and...

K. Tervola J. Haerkki

1996-01-01

323

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 degree centigrade). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} slag system under a reducing atmosphere (P{sub C}O/P{sub C}O2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe2O{sub 3} system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO{sub 2} mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO{sub 2} mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO{sub 2}) and diminishing the Fe/SiO{sub 2} ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. (Author) 13 refs.

Perez, M.; Romero, A.; Hernandez, A.; Almaguer, I.; Benavides, R.

2012-11-01

324

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in...

Pe?rez, M.; Romero, A.; Herna?ndez, A.; Almaguer, I.; Benavides, R.

2012-01-01

325

Granularity of corporate debt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study to what extent firms spread out their debt maturity dates across time, which we call "granularity of corporate debt." We consider the role of debt granularity using a simple model in which a firm's inability to roll over expiring debt causes inefficiencies, such as costly asset sales or underinvestment. Since multiple small asset sales are less costly than a single large one, firms may diversify debt rollovers across maturity dates. We construct granularity measures using dat...

Choi, Jaewon; Hackbarth, Dirk; Zechner, Josef

2013-01-01

326

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledg...

Zeng, Yi; Zhong, Ning

2008-01-01

327

Lightweight blast shield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

328

Blast control plugs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the performance of blast control plugs in the stemming of blast holes to optimize the explosive power and fracturing. The paper describes the designs of these plugs and describes the installation, positioning, and construction of these plugs. It also describes the effects these have on reducing airblast and control of flyrock.

Long, L.

1996-12-31

329

Wet Granular Materials  

CERN Document Server

Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, constructions, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g., the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

Mitarai, N; Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

2006-01-01

330

Granular Volcano Group  

Science.gov (United States)

S'bastien Dartevelle, a Ph.D. student at Michigan Tech, created this Web site devoted to the understanding of "granular flows, granular processes, fluid dynamic, supercomputer modeling, and grain-size analysis of Volcanology, Geophysics, and Physics." Providing challenging materials in an accurate and simple manner, students can easily learn about topics including granular theory and granular medium. Users will find essential facts about viscous phenomenon in the newly added link, All I Wanna Know 'bout Viscous Stress. Educators and students can view the Plinian Cloud simulations. The author also provides mathematical equations, atmospheric profiles, and much more.

331

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

332

Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

D. Baricová

2012-01-01

333

Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

2010-01-01

334

Fast granular superconducting bolometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A granular superconducting thin film bolometer made by anodizing a thin film of such materials as niobium nitride to form a thin granular film separated by and covered with the anodized oxide. The bolometer is cooled to its superconducting state and electrically connected to a biasing and detecting network. Its temporal response is better than 1 ns.

Wolf, S.A.; Strom, U.; Weiser, K.

1984-08-07

335

Fast granular superconducting bolometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A granular superconducting thin film bolometer made by anodizing a thin film of such materials as niobium nitride to form a thin granular film separated by and covered with the anodized oxide. The bolometer is cooled to its superconducting state and electrically connected to a biasing and detecting network. Its temporal response is better than 1 ns

1984-01-01

336

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

337

Rice Blast Epiphytology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on rice blast disease from the field and laboratory experiments of many workers are reviewed and related to epiphytotics of the disease. Principal topics discussed are (1) sources of inoculum, (2) spore dispersal, (3) meteorological and other conditi...

T. H. Barksdale M. W. Jones

1965-01-01

338

Granular flow : dry and wet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

2012-01-01

339

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

340

Investigation of tungsten reduction in tube-type furnaces using computerized simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of mathematical simulation the process of tungsten reduction from WO3 in five-zone multitube furnaces with hydrogen counterflow has been studied. Kinetic curves of tungsten reduction for a comparatively wide range of temperature, mass of tungsten anhydride loaded in containers, consumption and humidity of hydrogen are obtained. Conditions of the obtaining tungsten of different granularity are determined

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Congenital granular cell epulis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses. PMID:24377822

Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

2014-01-01

342

PIV for granular flows  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been adapted for use in measuring particle displacement and velocity fields in granular flows. ''Seeding'' is achieved by using light and dark particles. The granular flow adjacent to a clear bounding wall is illuminated with a strobe, and the recorded images are analyzed using standard PIV techniques. The application is demonstrated by measuring convection rolls in a granular bed undergoing vertical oscillations. The PIV measured displacement is consistent with displacement of a marked layer of particles. (orig.)

Lueptow, R.M.; Akonur, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Shinbrot, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60208, (United States)

2000-02-01

343

Failure of granular assemblies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work investigates granular assemblies subjected to increasing external forces in the quasi-static limit. In this limit, the system?s evolution depends on static properties of the system, but is independent of the particles? inertia. At the failure, which occurs at a certain value of the external forces, the particles? motions increase quickly. In this thesis, the properties of granular systems during the weakening process and at the failure are investigated with the Discre...

2011-01-01

344

Metastasizing granular cell ameloblastoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ameloblastoma is a slow growing odontogenic epithelial tumor of jaw. It accounts for 1% of all tumors and cysts arising in maxilla and mandible. Although it is locally invasive and has a marked tendency to recur, metastasis is rare. Of the various histological patterns of ameloblastoma, the granular cell type is extremely rare accounting for 4% of ameloblastomas. We report a case of granular cell ameloblastoma with metastasis to the cervical lymph node presenting in a 40-year-old Indian female.

Bansal, Anju; Bhatnagar, Amar; Saxena, Sunita

2012-01-01

345

MICROSTRUCTURE OF GRANULAR BAINITE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 2.25Cr - 1Mo - 0.1C welded steel having a microstructure described as "granular bainite" has been investigated using optical microscopy, electron microscopy and atom probe field ion microscopy. Granular bainite was found to consist of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite, but no cementite. Grains of ferrite are built up by parallel platelike subgrains - bainitic ferrite. The carbon concentration changes abruptly at the ferrite - retained austenite interface but no diffusion of substituti...

Josefsson, B.; Andre?n, H. -o

1988-01-01

346

Shaken Granular Lasers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Granular materials have been studied for decades, driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed of agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) to the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matt...

Folli, Viola; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

2012-01-01

347

pp-Blast: a "pseudo-parallel" Blast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We have developed a software called pp-Blast that uses the publicly available Blast package and PVM (parallel virtual machine) to partition a multi-sequence query across a set of nodes with replicated or shared databases. Benchmark tests show that pp-Blast running in a cluster of 14 PCs outperformed [...] conventional Blast running in large servers. In addition, using pp-Blast and the cluster we were able to map all human cDNAs onto the draft of the human genome in less than 6 days. We propose here that the cost/benefit ratio of pp-Blast makes it appropriate for large-scale sequence analysis. The source code and configuration files for pp-Blast are available at http://www.ludwig.org.br/biocomp/tools/pp-blast.

Osório, E.C.; Souza, J.E. de; Zaiats, A.C.; Oliveira, P.S.L. de; Souza, S.J. de.

348

A combination furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of a combination gas-oil furnace with an annular gas collector and a central duct, supplied with an oil burner, a whirler, and an inner regulating casing connected with an air source is presented. The shells, which are coaxially arranged between the body and the central duct, form annular ducts attached to an air source through independent regulating ducts. The regulating casing of the central duct joins tightly with the shell duct adjacent to it, and is connected to the air supply through the hollow space of the shell duct. The construction of the furnace guarantees its increased economic efficiency.

Shnitser, I.N.; Ivanov, V.S.; Litovkin, V.V.; Solovev, L.K.; Tkachuk, A.A.; Yurev, L.V.

1981-01-28

349

Combustion furnace for wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an improvement of the method for burning wastes described in the patent 2604407 there is proposed for the design of the combustion furnace to provide, below the transition between central shaft and combustion furnace, for a baffle in the form of a partition wall. By this means in the range of the narrow point there may be achieved temperatures of about 1500"0C, resulting in melting of the slag. The variations in pipe connections caused by that measure are described. (UWI)

1979-01-01

350

Economic quality and specifications dictate furnace design. Heat treatment furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, both economic considerations and government encouragement has resulted in the replacement of old out-moded heat treatment furnaces in the foundry industry. The design of the replacement furnaces pays particular attention to economics, quality assurance and specifications. Examples are given featuring in particular high emissivity coatings, burners, control systems and fast quench vacuum furnaces.

1987-03-26

351

Blasting: Another environmental woe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The much increased use of explosives to move and extract rock masses in construction and mining over the past two decades has resulted in a plethora of complaints from the general public in areas of close proximity to public facilities, communication, and transportation systems. Air blasts and ground vibrations caused by explosive detonation can have desultory and damaging effects to public and private property, impose adverse effects on underground mining operations, and change the course of flow or effect the availability of surface and groundwater. Attempts to prevent damage and alleviate problems from blasting have been initiated by the federal and state governments by the promulgation of rules and regulations to prevent against vagrant and negligent blasting procedures. The Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) provides regulations in the Federal Register on March 8, 1983, with particular reference to surface mining practices. Most of the states have adopted to OSMRE guidelines to enforce these rules and regulations

1989-01-01

352

Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

1996-12-31

353

Mysteries of Granular Planet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The behavior of self-organizing granular medium in its own gravitational field is considered. The study is led within an approach proposing the existence of only three types of mesoscopic states in the material: so named hydrostatic, columnar and arched mesoscopic states. The results of this study are not obvious. Indeed, in the center of granular gravitating ball, as it turns out, pressure may be absent, though it is well-known that the pressure in either non-compressible liquid or solid linear-elastic medium is maximal. Such an uncommon stress state takes place at the arched mesoscopic state. Using the Mohr-Coulomb condition has given that the arched state can embody when sinus of internal friction’s angle increases up to the threshold value 1/3. At the hydrostatic mesoscopic state granular medium is like a liquid. The study also has shown the transition between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress states being sharp in granular gravitating ball that opposes the known results of the linear theory of elasticity. At the columnar mesoscopic state any gravitating granular ball cannot be.

Mikhail N. Skachkov

2013-01-01

354

Problematical points of practical blasting and blasting experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are problems in the calculation method of blasting coefficient of the practical blasting, but on the other hand, there are those who deny the above from their experience of practical blasting. Therefore, it is necessary to consider whether or not the practical experience of blasting does become the absolute yardstick. This article provides an explanation on the problematical points of practical blasting. The Hauser formula has long been adapted very well as the practical formula and as result, has well been used, but (the calculation method of blasting coefficient C and the blasting phenomenon which becomes the basis for it), which is a part of the Hauser theory, is questionable. It has been believed that irrespective of blasting coefficients (excess charge and weak charge) of big blasings, the breaking angle is almost constant and in an actual big blasting plan, C=0.5 is presumed for and hill. No theory is behind the above practice. In other cases too, rules of thumb have well been adapted. In so far as practical blastings are concerned, generally it is the field technique that the standardized design is judged to bring the standardized result irrespective of a few changes of conditions. Many of the blasting theories show no practical numerical values for designing, consequently is powerless in this respect.

Honma, Hisao; Higuchi, Kiyoshi

1988-04-01

355

???: BLAST Search against PDB  

Full Text Available 09000 09800 ????????????????? | ??????????? BLAST Search against PDB WWW NIG|http://spock.genes.nig.ac.jp/%7Egenome/cgi-b sic local alignment search tool. Altschul SF, Gish W , Miller W , Myers EW , Lipman DJ. J Mol Biol. 1990 O

356

Shaken Granular Lasers  

CERN Document Server

Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

2012-01-01

357

Arc furnace with variable capacity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arc furnace is provided with a variable-capacity ring that is placed at the top of a furnace body. This ring is split into a plurality of circumferential sections which in turn define in combination a top furnace wall portion and a driving mechanism for causing the ring to move horizontally. As the ring is moved radially outwardly or inwardly of the furnace body, the height of the furnace body is varied and consequently the capacity or the volume of the body can be varied. As a result, the overcharging of the charge (scrap) is much facilitated, ie. the number of back charges can be reduced. Furthermore, when the pile of the charge in the furnace body is lowered, the capacity or volume of the arc furnace is decreased so that unwanted thermal losses and oxidation and resulting wear of electrodes can be reduced to a minimum.

Nakao, K.

1988-12-20

358

BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ?8.7 deg2 centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5? in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

2009-12-20

359

Tritium extraction furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31

360

Tube splitting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application concerns a methane splitting plant, in which the heat produced in a nuclear reactor is directly used (i.e. without an intermediate circuit) in a process requiring heat, in order to split a CH_4/H_2O mixture by supplying heat and using a catalyst, into H_2, CO and CO_2. Coal can be gasified into methane with the hydrogen of the split gas obtained, or the split gas is used as a heat carrier in transporting the heat energy obtained in the high temperature reactor to a remove energy consumption location, where the split gas is again converted to methane by catalysis and the heat released is used. The methane splitting furnace is accommodated in the prestressed concrete pressure vessel with the high temperature reactor and the steam raising unit. The splitting furnace consists of three cylindrical spaces above one another, the primary circuit helium coming from the blower and flowing back to the high temperature reactor flows through the lowest space, which gives up its heat to the methane splitting tube projecting into it from above. Above this space there is the methane space, which has methane supplied to it from outside by a pipeline and which distributes it to the splitting tubes leading downwards. Each splitting tube contains a coaxial inner tube, in which the split gas produced is taken upwards to the top cylindrical space, from which the split gas is taken away by a pipeline. The design of the splitting furnace according to the invention, is simple and compact, requires little space and makes quick catalyst change and easy fitting and removal of the tube splitting furnace possible. (RB)

1976-04-06

 
 
 
 
361

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1996-12-31

362

Granular cell tumour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 5½-years-old boy presented with multiple skin coloured subcutaneous nodules on scrotum and penoscrotal regions. Oldest lesion started 8 months back and new lesion was one month old. Biopsy report revealed the tumour to be granular cell tumour.

Ray Alok

1996-01-01

363

Performance of a tuyere with a combination blast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blast furnace shop No. 1 at the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Combine studied tuyere parameters on an oxygen-enriched blast in changing the consumption of natural gas. Recording devices and resistance thermometers were installed to record continuously the temperature drop of the water. It was determined that there is an inverse proportional relationship between the consumption of natural gas and the temperature drop that makes it possible to develop a system to monitor the thermal state of the hearth by measuring the temperature drop of the coolant water on all tuyeres, and, after isolating external factors affecting the temperature drop, to determine the pattern of change in the thermal state about the periphery of the hearth.

Myasoedov, V.A.; Kaporulin, V.V.; Al' ter, M.A.; Emel' yanov, V.L.; Urbanovich, V.I.

1987-11-01

364

Modeling Granular Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Granular materials are often cited as examples of systems with complex and unusual properties. Much of this complexity is captured by computational models in which the actual material properties of individual grains are idealized and simplified. Because material properties can be important under extreme conditions, we consider assemblies of grains with more realistic properties. Our model grains may deform, their resulting stresses are computed from elastic / plastic constitutive models, and their interactions with each other include Coulomb friction and bonding. Our model equations are solved using a particle-in-cell (PIC) method, which combines a Lagrangian representation of the materials with an adaptive grid [1]. Our contact model between grains is linear in the number of grains, and we model assemblies with statistically significant numbers of grains. With our model, we have studied the response of dense granular material to shear, with especial attention to the probability density function governing the volume distribution of stress for mono- and poly-disperse samples, circular and polygonal grains, and various values of microscopic friction coefficients, yield stresses, and packing fractions [2]. Remarkably, PDF's are similar in form for all cases simulated, and similar to those observed in experiments with granular materials under both compression and shear. Namely, the simulations yield an exponential probability of large stresses above the mean, and there is a finite chance that a few grains in a large assembly are subjected to extreme stresses at any given time, even at low strain rates. For energetic materials, such as explosives, this is a signficant finding. We have also studied the relationship between distributions of boundary tractions and volume distributions of stress. The ratio of normal and tangential components of traction on the boundary defines a bulk frictional response, which we find increases with the inter-granular friction coefficient. However, the bulk friction is always larger than the inter-granular friction for densely packed samples. Bulk friction is also strongly dependent on grain size distribution and shape. We also present new observations of force-chain banding during recrystallization, of slip systems in monodisperse samples, and of the effects of plastic yield. Acknowledgement: This work was performed in collaboration with S. G. Bardenhagen, University of Utah, D. Sulsky, University of New Mexico, and Sharen Cummins, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and is supported by the Department of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36. [1] Bardenhagen, S. G., J. U. Brackbill, and D. Sulsky, The material-point method for granular materials, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. and Engn., 187, 529-541, 2000. [2] Bardenhagen, S. G., J. U. Brackbill, and D. L. Sulsky, Numerical study of stress distribution in sheared granular material in two dimensions, Phys. Rev E, 62, 2000 (to appear).

Brackbill, J. U.

2000-11-01

365

New Bulgarian blasting machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes developments in manufacturing electric detonators and blasting machines in Bulgaria. Electric detonators of normal and (since 1982) of high electrical resistance are made, but the latter type account for only 5-10% of annual electric detonator consumption, which should increase to 50-60%. The situation is unlikely to change in the near future. A new machine which will improve safety when blasting with normal and high resistance detonators, and will increase the number of detonators that can be simultaneously ignited has been developed by Bulgarian specialists. The UVE 200 KI was designed and tested using the Pravets personal computer. The Bulgarian mining industry requires that the machine be explosion-proof and capable of simultaneously igniting up to 100 detonators with increased resistance (present machines can only ignite 20-40 such detonators). Laboratory and field tests show that the UVE 200 KI complies with these requirements. Details of the machine are included. 4 refs.

Klyashev, P.; Lazarov, S.

1987-10-01

366

Carbon-free induction furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

1985-01-01

367

Performance of blasting caps  

Science.gov (United States)

Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

Bement, Laurence J. (inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (inventor)

1993-01-01

368

Prediction method of blasting vibrations (part 2). Blasting vibration spectra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prediction of blasting vibrations is normally done based upon the empirical formula which has so far been known, but the constant values contained in the above formula were provided empirically from the blasting conditions and the ground conditions and the quantitative correlationship between these values and the blasting as well as the ground property values have not well been revealed. These reports No.1 and No.2 deal with the vibration of the centercut blasting during the tunnel digging, propose a simple numerical model representing the mechanism of generation and propagation of the blasting vibration and at the same time examine a method to predict the blasting vibration based upon various ground property values by using the above model. In particular, this report No.1 presents a method to calculate the blasting vibration spectra (hypocenter spectrum, propagation characteristics spectrum and ground amplification characteristics spectrum) which become the essential elements in case when the structural response due to the blasting vibration is examined. Furthermore, as the result of adapting this method to the actual progressing blasting, it was confirmed that the estimated spectrum expressed fairly well the trend of the actually measured spectrum. (3 figs, 4 refs)

Kaneko, Katsuhiro; Hirata, Atsuo; Tasaka, Tomohiro; Sato, Yasuhiko

1988-04-01

369

BLAST: the Redshift Survey  

CERN Document Server

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

2009-01-01

370

Unusual cytochemical reactivity for toluidine blue in granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of two rare cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Azurophilic granulation of blasts is a feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL may mimic AML due to the presence of cytoplasmic granules in lymphoblasts, but cytochemistry and immunophenotyping are helpful in making the correct diagnosis. Toluidine blue (TB is a metachromatic dye, which stains basophils and myeloid blasts that exhibit basophilic differentiation. Reactivity for TB has not been described in lymphoblasts. We herein report two cases of granular ALL with blasts exhibiting reactivity for TB that caused diagnostic dilemma. Immunophenotyping and cytogenetic studies were helpful in making a correct diagnosis. This report of two rare case highlight the reactivity of lymphoblasts with TB not hitherto described and the importance of a detailed diagnostic work-up in acute leukemia.

Rishu Agarwal

2010-03-01

371

Programmable Grit-Blasting System  

Science.gov (United States)

In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

Burley, Richard K.

1988-01-01

372

30 CFR Blasting - Surface and Underground  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Surface and Underground Blasting Nonelectric Blasting Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6407...

2010-07-01

373

Combustion furnace for waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention refers to a combustion furnace for waste with a central shaft to take the waste, into which fresh air intakes open, and with a combustion chamber under the shaft, with fresh air intakes in the part of the shaft immediately adjacent to the combustion chamber, where a device for collecting the waste in the central shaft is provided and is designed so that the column of waste pours out and the stack gas produced in the combustion chamber is taken to a chimney via outlet openings in the outlet of the combustion chamber. The purpose of the invention is to create such a combustion furnace, with which it is possible to burn waste of the usual composition with a calorific value of about 3000 kcal/kg simply without using additional fuel, and to obtain a molten residue. The process should be easy and safe to control when burning waste of heterogeneous composition. The characteristics of this invention include the combination of the shaft with the device for collecting waste, the combustion chamber, the fresh air inlets and the outlet space. (orig./RB)

1977-08-04

374

Strongly inelastic granular gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The expansion of the velocity distribution function for the homogeneous cooling state (HCS) in a Sonine polynomial series around a Maxwellian is shown to be divergent, though Borel resummable. A convergent expansion for the HCS has been devised and employed to obtain the HCS velocity distribution function and (using it) the linear transport coefficients for a three dimensional monodisperse granular gas of smooth inelastic spheres, for all physical values of the coefficient o...

Noskowicz, S. H.; Bar-lev, O.; Serero, D.; Goldhirsch, I.

2006-01-01

375

Vibration characteristics of Nadong tunnel blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, tunnel blasting vibration was recorded, analyzed and compared to surface blasting. The results show the tendency that peak vibration of tunnel blasting is not well coincided with the maximum charge or crater charge. The correlation coefficient to estimate the vibration velocity is lower than surface blasting. Tunnel blasting vibration is more attenuated than surface blasting. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs.

Burm, Jin Sam; Joo, Jae Sung; Yang, Hyung Sik [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1995-08-01

376

The fragmentation distribution testing of rock blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to theory of fractal geometry, the relations, of fragmentation distribution of blasting lumps and the fractals of fragmentation was established. The relation of coal blasting lumps fragmentation of fractal value and parameters of blasting according to field, was also set up, as well as guides the optimization of blasting parameters, and controls fragmentation of coal blasting, in order to estimate and forecast fragmentation before blasting. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

Yu Yong-jiang; Wang Lai-gui; He Feng [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science

2005-06-15

377

Superoxide anion (O2-) production by neutrophils in refractory anemia with excess of blasts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The O2- production by neutrophils was examined in 4 cases of refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) in order to evaluate the possible causes of enhanced susceptibility to infection and to gain some informations on the differentiation of neutrophils in this hematological disorder. In three of the four RAEB cases there was little O2- production by neutrophils, in addition to there being morphological anomalies of the neutrophils such as a Pelger-Huet-like anomaly, granular deficiency...

1983-01-01

378

Glazings with granular aerogel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Double glazing units filled with granular aerogel open up new applications in the fields of daylighting systems and passive solar architecture. Silica aerogel has ideal characteristics for solar thermal applications. High transparency for solar radiation is combined with extremely low thermal conductivity. The chemical company BASF (D) is developing a granular form of aerogel, which will be introduced to the market in the near future. The application potential of this material in window systems was tested as part of a CEC-JOULE project in co-operation with four other industrial companies and two research institutes under the leadership of the Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (FhG-ISE) in Freiburg. A typical u-value for a double glazed window with a 16 mm thick layer of granular aerogel is 1.0 W m{sup {minus}2} K{sup {minus}1}, the solar transmission for diffuse light is about 45%. Both parameters are variable over a wide range depending on the particle size distribution, thickness of the layer and choice of the filling gas. First window elements were tested in different applications. Realized installations are presented.

Dengler, J.J.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

1994-12-31

379

Granular Crater Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

This project characterizes crater formation in a granular material by a jet of gas impinging on a granular material, such as a retro-rocket landing on the moon. We have constructed a 2D model of a planetary surface, which consists of a thin, clear box partially filled with granular materials (sand, lunar and Mars simulants...). A metal pipe connected to a tank of nitrogen gas via a solenoid valve is inserted into the top of the box to model the rocket. The results are recorded using high-speed video. We process these images and videos in order to test existing models and develop new ones for describing crater formation. A similar set-up has been used by Metzger et al.footnotetextP. T. Metzger et al. Journal of Aerospace Engineering (2009) We find that the long-time shape of the crater is consistent with a predicted catenary shape (Brandenburg). The depth and width of the crater both evolve logarithmically in time, suggesting an analogy to a description in terms of an activated process: dD/dt = A (-aD) (D is the crater depth, a and A constants). This model provides a useful context to understand the role of the jet speed, as characterized by the pressure used to drive the flow. The box width also plays an important role in setting the width of the crater.

Clark, Abe; Behringer, Robert; Brandenburg, John

2009-11-01

380

Removing sediments from coking furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for removing graphite from the interior surfaces (Pv) of coking furnaces after discharge of the coke. Air is injected to the surface through a nozzle for this purpose. The same nozzle is connected through a valve to high and low pressure ammonia solution lines for cooling the forming coke gas and for dust suppression during loading of the coking furnaces.

Marisita, Y.; Kato, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yumura, S.

1983-04-25

 
 
 
 
381

Granular cell ameloblastoma mimicking oncocytoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Granular cell ameloblastoma is a variant of ameloblastoma where cells located in the central portion of the follicles have granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and the peripheral cells resemble ameloblasts. A case of granular cell ameloblastoma of the mandible having very similar histopathological features of oncocytoma (oxyphilic adenoma) is reported where tumor cells were arranged in cords, sheets and follicles and their cytoplasm was full of eosinophilic granules.

Oza, Nirima; Agrawal, Karoon

2012-01-01

382

Mathematical models of granular matter  

CERN Document Server

Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

2008-01-01

383

Multiple raise round blasting technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Multiple Raise Round Blasting Technique (MRRBT) is a safe, efficient, cost effective method of blasting that will use existing mine personnel. The MRRBT, developed from the conventional drop raise method style of blasting, can be used for most raise mining applications. Current results using MRRBT indicate no upper limit for the maximum length that a raise can be blasted. To date, only small diameter holes have been used with MRRBT; undoubtedly larger diameter holes will be used with this procedure in the future. The drill pattern and hole size are typically determined by local conditions. The cost per foot/meter should be substantially lower using MRRBT, as opposed to raise bore machines and/or conventional raise miners. Drilling, loading and blasting multiple rounds in one operation is possible with MRRBT, which makes it a cost effective method of mining. MRRBT blasts, in sequence, each round before the next round starts, until the entire length of the drilled raise is blasted. Rounds are loaded individually, including the non-explosive decking and a delay system in between rounds. The process of sequentially blasting the complete raise at one time provides a significant safety benefit, as the miner does not have to re-enter the raise. Where conventional raise mining techniques are employed there is a safety risk to the worker; MRRBT is a considerably safer and more efficient process than current conventional raise mining methods.

McGregor, D.J. [Universal Blasting, Black Creek, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

384

Control blasting of reinforced concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

385

Aqueous gel blasting agent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of manufacturing a water-resistant extrudable aqueous gel blasting agent is claimed. A stabilizing amount of finely divided water-soluble hydroxy-substituted thickening agent is mixed with a substantial proportion (between one-tenth and three-fourths of the total amount) of particulate solid ammonium nitrate to yield a substantially uniform mixture of particulate solids. To this mixture is added at least 6% by weight hexamethylenetetramine, sufficient nitric acid (2 to 5% by weight) to yield a pH between 3.5 and 6.0, and sufficient water to produce 10 to 13% by weight of the total composition. The remainder of the solid particulate ammonium nitrate, sufficient to yield a total ammonium nitrate content of 75 to 85% by weight, is added. After a period of time sufficient to permit the thickening effect to become substantially complete a cross-linking effect agent is added to produce a gelling effect, yielding an extrudable aqueous gel blasting agent.

Gehrig, N.E.; Marhofer, E.G.

1980-12-18

386

Centrifugal shot blast system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

1998-01-01

387

Teknologi Pembuatan Material Shot Blast untuk Mendukung Industri Pengecoran Logam Nasional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shot blast material is a supporting material in foundry which is used at surface finishing process of metal casting. Recently, there is no one of national industry that produce shot blast material, in consequence, the purpose of this research is to lessen the dependence of using shot blast material import by making a shot blast material which improve its hardness exceed the shot blast material import. This research use the raw material from scrap iron with the following composition: C (3.2%, Si (1.18%, Mn (6.1%, Cu (0.35%, Fe (88.7%. The scrap is melted in induction furnace untill melt (hot metal, then the hot metal (1200 oC is tilted into a runner which is connected with pan crucible, which is consisted of 107 holes with diameter of each holes is 10 mm. Hot metal that is leave from the holes, is injected by pressurized water 1.1 atm with the velocity 0.8 m/s, untill obtained grains of shot blast material, then these grains goes into the water tank which it has temperature 40oC. From thermodynamic study, to avoid the happening of the explosion that is arising out because the effect of high temperature difference at injection process beetween water and hot metal, hence the comparison value beetween the mass of water and hot metal equal to 1:4.6. From this research is obtained shot blast material Ø0.8-3.2 mm with the metallography structure with martensite domination and dispersion of cementite and a little austenit. The hardness value of this material is 54.8 HRC, where this value is larger than shot blast material import (45-50 HRC. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Material shot blast merupakan material pendukung pengecoran logam yang digunakan pada proses surface finishing benda cor logam. Saat ini belum ada satupun industri nasional yang memproduksi material shot blast, karena itu tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengurangi ketergantungan penggunaan material shot blast impor dengan membuat material shot blast yang nilai kekerasannya melebihi material shot blast impor. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan baku scrap besi dengan komposisi: C (3,2%, Si (1,18%, Mn (6,1%, Cu (0,35% Fe (88,7%. Scrap dilebur dalam tungku induksi hingga mencair (hot metal, lalu hot metal (1200oC di tuang ke dalam runner yang terhubung dengan pan crucible yang terdiri dari 107 buah lubang berukuran Ø10 mm. Hot metal yang keluar dari lubang tersebut diinjeksi oleh air bertekanan 1,1 atm dengan kecepatan 0,8 m/s, hingga diperoleh butiran material shot blast, lalu butiran itu masuk ke dalam bak air bertemperatur 40oC. Dari kajian termodinamika, untuk menghindari terjadinya resiko ledakan yang timbul akibat diferensiasi temperatur yang tinggi saat proses injeksi, maka besarnya nilai perbandingan massa air dan hot metal sebesar 1:4,6. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh material shot blast berukuran Ø0,8-3.2 mm dengan struktur metalografi yang didominasi oleh struktur martensit dengan sebaran sementit dan sedikit austenit. Nilai kekerasan material ini adalah 54,8 HRC, dimana nilai ini melebihi nilai kekerasan material shot blast impor (45-50 HRC. Kata kunci: Shot blast, induction furnace, nozzle, hot metal, pengecoran logam.

Fajar Nurjaman

2009-01-01

388

The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

1989-01-01

389

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

390

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

1999-01-01

391

Challenges in granular physics  

CERN Document Server

This book contains accounts of state-of-the art approaches to the physics of granular matter, from a widely interdisciplinary and international set of experts in the field. The authors include theorists such as S F Edwards, J Krug and J Kurchan; the book is also unique in reporting current experimental approaches with, importantly, a detailed account of new techniques. It will serve as an invaluable handbook for all researchers, both novice and experienced, who wish to get quickly directed to open questions in key aspects of this challenging and topical domain. Contents: Models of Free Cooling

Halsey, Thomas

2003-01-01

392

Granular Avalanches in Fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three regimes of granular avalanches in fluids are put in light depending on the Stokes number St which prescribes the relative importance of grain inertia and fluid viscous effects, and on the grain/fluid density ratio r. In gas (r >> 1 and St > 1, e.g., the dry case), the amplitude and time duration of avalanches do not depend on any fluid effect. In liquids (r ~ 1), for decreasing St, the amplitude decreases and the time duration increases, exploring an inertial regime an...

Pont, S. Courrech Du; Gondret, P.; Perrin, B.; Rabaud, M.

2002-01-01

393

Congenital granular-cell myoblastoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Congenital granular-cell myoblastoma is a rare jaw tumor presenting in the neonatal period. The differentiation between congenital epulis and granular cell myoblastoma is a controversial issue amongst pathologists. It is a benign swelling in which simple excision is the treatment of choice. Here we report two cases with a brief review of literature.

1992-01-01

394

The effect of oxygen enrichment of air on the expenditure of fuel in a heating furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of oxygen enrighment of air on fuel consumption is studied on the basis of an analysis of the balance of heat and equations of heat transmission in a heating furnace equipped with a waste heat utilizer. For the sake of simplification, it is assumed that the thermal capacity and thermal losses of the furnace are constant, that there is no incomplete burning of the fuel, that the heat transfer coefficients (KTP) in the furnace and in the recuperator are identical and that the heat capacities of the products of combustion and the fuel are averaged. The relative fuel savings are determined with supply of oxygen along with its effect on the recuperation heat. The values of the energy and economic effectiveness, which are a function of the degree of oxygen enrichment of the air and the cost of the fuel, are shown. The results of a rating for a high temperature (open hearth) furnace fired by liquid fuel and a heating conveyor furnace which operates on a mixture of coke and blast furnace gases are cited.

Szargut, J

1983-01-01

395

Spreading of a granular droplet  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of controlled vibrations on the granular rheology is investigated in a specifically designed experiment in which a granular film spreads under the action of horizontal vibrations. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived theoretically that describes the evolution of the deposit shape. A self-similar parabolic shape (the``granular droplet'') and a spreading dynamics are predicted that both agree quantitatively with the experimental results. The theoretical analysis is used to extract effective friction coefficients between the base and the granular layer under sustained and controlled vibrations. A shear thickening regime characteristic of dense granular flows is evidenced at low vibration energy, both for glass beads and natural sand. Conversely, shear thinning is observed at high agitation.

Clement, Eric; Sanchez, Ivan; Raynaud, Franck; Lanuza, Jose; Andreotti, Bruno; Aranson, Igor

2008-03-01

396

Surface mining and the natural environment: Blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blasting is the process commonly used to fracture the rock strata overlying a mineral seam. It is an important component of many surface mining operations. The technical guide will discuss several aspects of blasting, including a description of the methods used, the side effects associated with blasting, current laws and regulations controlling blasting operations, and the available technology for controlling the effects of blasting. The chapter is divided into two parts. Part I will provide a general overview of the topic, a discussion of potential hazardous effects and a description of blasting materials. Part II will address the development of a blasting plan and review some important inspection/monitoring considerations.

Clar, M.L.; Ward, J.M.

1980-03-01

397

Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry formed coke technology is an effective method to solve environmental pollution problem and enlarge coking coal resources in the coking industry. The macroscopically quality and reactivity in furnace of the foundry formed coke are dependent on the micro-pore structure of the coke. The foundry formed coke was produced in a specific process, using different sizes of semi-coke and prime coking coal as main materials. The Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke was studied by micro-pore structure analyzer and SEM. The results showed that with the increasing of semi-coke granularity, pore size of the maximum mercury rate has a little increase, while the peak value of the maximum mercury rate decreased and the number large pores increased obviously. The peak in the pore size distribution map changed under the semi-coke granularity variation. The variations under different semi-coke granularity of porosity, pore cubage and the average pore size of the coke were almost the same. With the increase of semi-coke granularity, density of foundry formed coke and thickness of pore wall of coke decreased, while the number of large pore and crack increased. The effect tendency of prime coking coal granularity is consistent with the semi-coke's. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Zhiyuan Gao; Jianjun Wu; Guoli Zhou; Jingru Zu; Jun Qiao

2009-07-01

398

Vulvar granular cell tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granular cell tumors are rare, usually benign, soft tissue neoplasms of neural origin. They occur more often in females than males, the peak age incidence is in the fourth through fifth decades. They can occur anywhere in the body with up to 15% situated in the vulva. The commonest presentation is as an asymptomatic mass. Microscopic findings are usually sufficient, but immunohistochemistry can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The vulvar tumors are benign in 98% of cases with 2% reported as malignant. In this case report we describe a woman with a granular cell tumor confirmed by biopsy who underwent excision of the mass but with focal extension to the resection margin on microscopy. Our recommendation of re-excision was declined. Since it is not uncommon with these tumors to find groups of tumor cells extending beyond the macroscopic limits of growth, we conclude that it is advisable to have margins assessed intraoperatively by frozen section such that further excision can be performed for positive margins. Our patient has been followed for 18 mo without recurrence, should the tumor recur, re-excision, with frozen section control, is indicated. Recurrence rates are reported as 2%-8% with clear margins and 20% with positive margins. PMID:24303488

Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

2013-07-16

399

Bulldozing of granular material  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N

2014-01-01

400

Mine blasting outfit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors propose an outfit for conducting mine blasting operations based upon a self-propelled caterpillar-tracked vehicle with a drilling unit and manipulator mechanism for planting the charges in the mine face. The vehicle's tracks are endless elastic bands that interact with the gripper-drum drive. Operational reliability is further enhanced by air bellows that are mounted on the support frame and situated lengthwise along the frame's axis. The endless elastic band grips the chamber and support frame. The support frame has support pins along its lower perimeter. The hopper for the explosives is hinge-mounted to ensure its vertical attitude. A pneumatic cylinder and rollers are located in the top section of the support frame to aid in reliable operation of the mobile carrier which itself is constructed in the form of a support.

Shaposhnikov, V.D.; Gulyakov, I.I.; Kopytov, A.I.; Kozydub, B.I.; Rusinov, V.I.; Strikh, Yu.G.; Sukhomesov, M.N.

1980-07-25