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Sample records for blast furnace granular

  1. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  2. Byproduct aggregate. Blast furnace slag aggregate; Fukusan kotsuzai. Koro suragu kotsuzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shigezo

    1998-08-10

    The blast furnace slag is formed at the proportion as pig iron 1 ton 300 kg/t, when pig iron is produced from iron ores in blast furnace, and in Japan, it is produced at the about 23000000 t/year. There is in high-temperature melt condition of the about 1500 degrees, when it was taken out from the blast furnace. By the cooling processing method in the since, it is divided into 2 types of granular blast furnace water granulated slag in the glassy cooled rapidly in crystalline and massive blast furnace slow cooling slag cooled gradually in the atmosphere and large water. The particle size control of blast furnace slag coarse aggregate was done, after the blast furnace slow cooling slag was crushed. A blast furnace slag fine aggregate did the particle size control of blast furnace water granulated slag, after particle shape was arranged by the light crush. (NEDO)

  3. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  4. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  5. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  6. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Henrik

    1990-10-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation model, which provides a picture of the internal conditions of the BF, can be used to evaluate the current state of the process and to predict the effect of operating actions on the performance of the furnace.

  7. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

  8. Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mróz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most important regions of worldwide iron production. The prospects for future possible developments of blast furnace technology is presented, too.Findings: of this analysis show that directions of development of blast furnace technologies is characterized by: an increase the overall productivity of blast furnaces, the increase in volume blast furnaces and extending the period for campaign work of blast furnaces, systematic improving the quality of blast furnace charge, controlling its distribution, the introduction of coal dust injection and modernization of the equipments. Moreover, some specific researches were carried out e.g. a new process granulation for the control of melting materials, hybrid bonding iron ore of inferior quality, decreasing CO2 emissions in the process of sintering iron.The Chinese iron industry is oriented on modification of uneconomical structure of the iron production, excessive energy consumption and heavy impact on global environment. Research limitations/implications: Simulation calculations show that the future lines of the development of blast furnace technology should take into account: a use lower temperatures of hot blast and high blast enrichment in oxygen. b. injection of various fuels taking into account their prices in various world regions, c. the effective use of top gas, d. the possibility of eliminating blast furnace stoves. Originality/value: of the paper consist in transfer of knowledge helpful to further lowering energy for iron production and reducing harmful impact for the natural environment.

  9. Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

  10. Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radiaidentified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently determining the chemical significance of this information and its relation to the differing cementitious properties of the two compounds. This analytical technique is now being investigated on data generated at the HIFAR reactor

  11. A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Annika

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

  12. The use of radioactive tracers in the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the blast furnace operation does not depend only on the properties of the materials but also on the conditions of contact between phases. Radioactive tracers have brought new information about the motion of gas, solids and liquids inside the furnace. The flow of materials through the furnace may be well described using a two zones model: the shaft is a counter current heat and mass exchanger with a plug flow behaviour; the dripping zone and the hearth behave like a mixed reactor. An original technique has been developed at IRSID using xenon capsules to measure the location of isotherms in the blast furnace. This technique has been applied to establish relations between the heat pattern and the operation of french blast furnaces. It has brought about a better understanding of the internal conditions of the furnace through the description of the various local thermal and chemical paths that may exist in central operating blast furnaces. The heterogeneous distribution of gas and solids on the furnace radius has been related with the efficiency of gas solid reactions in the shaft, with the aerodynamics of the furnace and with the thermal conditions at the walls

  13. Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mro?z, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most...

  14. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  15. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  16. Triple-activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, W.J. [Geochemical Corporation, Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer have been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.

  17. A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

    2014-06-01

    Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

  18. Cementing material for shotcreting using blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, M. [Shandong Mining Institute (China)

    1996-02-01

    The result of research of using blast furnace slag as cementing material shotcreting is described. The aim is to study the possibility of replacing the cement material with industrial waste. The cementing material is made by the following process: raw material drying-pulverizing-metering-mixing-homogenization-performancetest-opt imization, in order that the properties can reach the pre-determined standard. The performance test was made in accordance with the national standards of cement and concrete, with the following adjustments: the gel time is tested by manual mixing of pure slurry; the quantity of water to be added in the strength test of mortar is dependent on the fluidity. The results show that when the alkalinity of the blast furnace slag exceeds 0.96, blast furnace slag can be used in shotcreting and the cement in the concrete can be completely replaced. 1 ref., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Granulated blast furnace slag used to reduce grounding resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-D. [Chinese Naval Academy (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Granulated blast furnace slag is the residue produced from steel-making plants. Waste utilisation is an attractive alternative to disposal in that disposal cost and potential pollution problems are reduced. Nowadays the use of slag in concrete, either as a constituent of cement or as a mineral admixture. is widespread. The granulated blast furnace slag has low resistivity, and so can be used as an agent for reducing resistance to grounding. The grounding resistance reduction agent was determined by considering various proportions of water, cement and salt. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the grounding resistance. (author)

  20. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    OpenAIRE

    Terpák, J.; L'. Dor?ák; I. Koštial; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

  1. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra?enovi?, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  2. A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

    2009-10-15

    Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  3. Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2011-02-15

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A 3D CFD simulation of liquid flow in an ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

    2013-07-01

    A three-dimensional CFX-based mathematical model is developed to describe the flow-heat transfer-chemical reactions behaviours of gas-solid-liquid phases in an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The typical in-furnace phenomena of an operating blast furnace, in particular, the liquid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace is simulated in aspects of velocity and volume fraction. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

  5. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

  6. Numerical simulation characteristics of unburned pulverised coal in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.W.; Bai, C.G.; Liang, D.; Wang, F. [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2009-05-15

    With increasing rates of pulverised coal injection into blast furnaces, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of unburned coal. Under some operating conditions, the coal powder can be stagnant in certain regions of the furnace and its permeability deteriorates. Thus a model studying the behaviour of unburned coal was produced. In the model, the coal burning in the raceway is affected by oxygen content and temperature of the gas. The simulation results demonstrate that the accumulation region of unburned coal is in the lower part of the inverse cohesive zone, above and under the tuyeres, and in the hearth centre.

  7. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  8. Three-dimensional modelling of coal combustion in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.S.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Pulverized coal injection technology is widely used in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout within the tuyere and raceway is required for high coal injection rate operation. In order to analyze the flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway more accurately and reliably, a three-dimensional model of coal combustion is developed. This model is validated against the measurements from two pilot scale test rigs in terms of gas species composition and coal burnout. The gas-solid flow and coal combustion are simulated and analysed. The results indicate that compared to our previous model, the present model is able to provide more detailed gas species distributions and better describe the evolutions of coal particles. It is more sensitive to various parameters and hence more robust in examining various blast furnace operations.

  9. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Pathak; Pandey, Dr V.

    2014-01-01

    Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ...

  10. Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan, Veena G.; Ghutke, Vishal S.; MR. GULFAM PATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues...

  11. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Terpák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can be done by adding different media into the wind with different results from the operational and economical viewpoints. Essentially, the following types of media are used in blast furnaces: steam, oxygen, substitution fuels, nitrogen, and waste gas.

  12. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Pathak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

  13. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  14. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  15. Injection of slag correction components into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchwalaer, J.; Harp, G.; Weinberg, M.; Buergler, T.; de Santis, M.; Giovanni, C.; Liberati, L. [EKO Stahl, Eisenhuettenstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Control of chemistry is major concern in blast furnace operations, in particular sulphur and alkali control in which slag plays a major role. Normally, the final slag composition is controlled with burden materials charged at the furnace top to neutralise the acid slag of the coke. This basic feeding leads to highly basic slag between the melting zone and the tuyere level where most of the coke is converted and the acid coke ash is released. This can cause problems of control of blast furnace regularity. Modelling of the fluid dynamics of the solid injectants has led to a recommendation for the geometry of the lance arrangement within the tuyere for achieving a maximum residence time of the injectant within the raceway zone to react with the molten material. The thermochemical slag metal model calculations have shown quite good results for the important desulphurisation of the hot metal (HM). The prediction of the silicon content of the hot metal by those model calculations does not fit as well. Injection trials have shown a somewhat better sulphur distribution between slag and hot metal when using MgO-C refractory fires. Although the injection of ground HM desulphurisation slag leads to a raised input, the desulphurisation of the HM is increased more. Injection of titanium oxide into the hearth results in increased Ti distribution between HM and slag.

  16. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  17. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervola, K.; Haerkki, J.

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquids temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  18. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  19. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    OpenAIRE

    L'. Dor?ák; Terpák, J.; I. Podlubný; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

  20. Continuous measurement of blast-furnace coke moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After presenting the advantages of applying neutron moisture gages to the continuous measurement of blast-furnace coke moisture and explaining the factors influencing the measurement accuracy, the necessity of calibrating these devices under flow conditions and the encountered difficulties are discussed. Using statistical methods it has been observed that the main source of calibration errors is the sampling phase. Based on results of mathematical processing, a new calibration method with higher performance - compared with the earlier ones - is proposed. This method allows to achieve high accuracy in a relatively short time. (author)

  1. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 950 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  3. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  4. Laser sensing in the iron-making blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Chris

    1991-03-01

    The measurement of parameters such as distance and temperature in the Ironmaking Blast Furnace is crucial to the performance of the furnace. A series of instruments has been designed, built and tested by BHP which perform these tasks optically requiring no physical intrusion into the harsh environment of the furnace. The problem of coupling high peak power Nd:YAG and ultra violet laser radiation into environments consisting of very high water vapour level, acidic, high aerosol loading, and high temperature environments is considered. The performance of two systems enabling distance measurement with sub-pulse length range resolution under the above conditions is discussed in detail. The use of optical fibres to deliver the pulsed energy to and from the environment together with specific window design parameters are also described. A major problem in making time of flight range measurements in very high density aerosol conditions is the signal processing required to extract the target return pulse position from the complex aerosol return signal. Incoherent detection techniques used to achieve this discrimination where target temperatures can exceed 2000°C are discussed. The selection of operating laser wavelength and repetition rate were based on an analysis of the optical characteristics of gases and aerosol forming the measurement environment together with the dynamic behaviour of the high temperature target. The extension of laser radar techniques to optical fibres is discussed and a distributed temperature sensing system is described which measures temperatures up to 250°C with a spatial resolution better than O.Sm.

  5. Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

    2010-04-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

  6. Injection of brown-coal tar in a statistical relationship with the significant parameters of a blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Pust?jovská, Pavlína; Jursová, Simona; Brožová, Silvie; Pivko, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The extremely large energy requirements of blast-furnace iron production and the high levels of pollution in terms of carbon dioxide have resulted in systematic efforts aimed at decreasing the specific consumption of fuels and deoxidizing agents during this process. This paper deals with the injection of alternative fuels into a blast furnace and their effect on the blast furnace’s operation. In this case oil injection was replaced by coal-tar injection. A comparison analysis of th...

  7. Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutter, G. de [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research

    1999-01-01

    In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree of hydration and the temperature. The accuracy of temperature simulations using this new hydration model is evaluated by tests on hardening massive concrete cylinders made with blast-furnace slag cement.

  8. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR; EBRAHIM NAJAFI KANI; ALI ALLAHVERDI

    2011-01-01

    A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry...

  9. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  10. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  11. Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Z.; Jin, F.; Hashida, T.; Yamasaki, N.; Ishida, H. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2007-10-15

    Abstract: Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 {sup o}C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the formed tobermorite in the solidified bodies. The additions of quartz or fly ash were proved to be favorable not only to the formation of tobermorite but also to the transformation of hibschite, the former improving the strength, and the latter deteriorating the strength. The excessive addition of quartz appeared to cause strength deterioration due to the fact that the residual quartz affected the formation of tobermorite in the solidified bodies.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from Blast Furnace Slag by Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuelin; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang; Qiu, Guibao; Chen, Pan

    2012-08-01

    Blast furnace (BF) slag, which is the main byproduct in the ironmaking process, contains large amounts of sensible heat. To recover the heat, a new waste heat-recovery system—granulating molten BF slag by rotary multinozzles cup atomizer and pyrolyzing printed circuited board with obtained hot BF slag particle—was proposed in this study. The feasibility of the waste heat-recovery system was verified by dry granulation and pyrolyzation experiments. The energy of hot BF slag could be converted to chemical energy through the pyrolysis reaction, and a large amount of combustible gas like CO, H2, C m H n , and CH4 can be generated during the process.

  13. Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS. VEENA G.PATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues up to a certain percentage of replacement, but higher ratios gives lower compressive strength. The main objective of this research work is to determine the optimum replacement percentage which can be suitably used under the Indian conditions. To fulfil the objective various properties of concrete using GGBFS have been evaluated.

  14. Blast furnace slag use reduces well completion cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, S.M.; Daulton, D.J. [Western Co. of North America, Dallas, TX (United States); Bosworth, S.J. [Union Pacific Resources Co., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to reduce South Texas Stratton-field remedial-squeeze operations, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC), in conjunction with The Western Co. of North America and Zarsky Oilfield Services, applied unique and emerging technology to its mud systems and cementing practices. Quick Quenched Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) was added to the drilling fluid (producing universal fluid) and to cement slurries to improve annular isolation, thus reducing and/or eliminating need for remedial squeeze work. By improving primary cement jobs, UPRC reduced remedial operations by 100% and overall well cost y an average $80,000 per well. This article discusses the following topics involved in BFS mud-system and cementing applications: Stratton field background including completion practices and main operational field problems; drilling fluid field characteristics; field cementing procedures and problems; universal fluid/BFS cement applications including compressive strength and annular isolation; field application case histories, and discussion of results.

  15. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

  16. Determination of zinc in blast furnace flue dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    Two methods for the determination of zinc in blast-furnace flue dusts are described. One involves a solvent extraction step using methyl isobutyl ketone to separate the zinc from the bulk of the interfering elements, followed by a complexometric titration of the zinc with EDTA, using Eriochrome Black T as indicator. The other employs differential pulse polarography with a hydrochloric acid + pyridine supporting electrolyte. In this method, the interference of iron is prevented by reducing it with hydroxylamine hydrochloride; aluminium is complexed with potassium fluoride. Other elements, with the exception of cobalt, do not interfere. Excellent agreement between the two methods is obtained in the range 0.01-0.6% zinc. PMID:18962345

  17. Present condition on aggregates. Blast furnace slag aggregate; Shurui betsu kotsuzai jijo. Koro suragu kotsuzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    A total yearly amount used in Japan of a blast furnace slag aggregate reached a peak of 3,520,000 tons in 1980 and has decreased year after year since then. This paper introduces the outline of the blast furnace slag aggregate, the recent tendency of demand for the aggregate and the past records of the quality of the same, and describes the problems to be solved in future of the aggregate. The blast furnace slag fine aggregates include four kinds of stipulated aggregates according to the grain size, taking into consideration that this aggregate is also used as mixed fine aggregates. The aggregate can be used for the purpose of improving the grain size of fine natural aggregates and reducing the content ratio of chloride by mixing the aggregates with the sea sand, and suitable for fine aggregate used by mixing them with other fine aggregates. When the blast furnace slag aggregate is used independently, it is necessary that attention be paid to the tendency of slight increase in the bleeding amount and the possibility of coagulation of aggregate in store in summer time in which the temperature is high. In order to increase the turnout of the blast furnace slag aggregate, it is necessary that a technique for manufacturing blast furnace water-crushed hard slag by use of furnace front water crushing equipment be established. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Simulation study on radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Q.; Zhao, L.M.; Wen, L.Y.; Bai, C.G. [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-04-15

    Radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in the blast furnace raceway plays an increasingly important role in working state diagnosis and monitoring in real time. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiation of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flames based on the Monte Carlo method and charge coupled device (CCD) imaging. The relationship between two-dimensional radiative image and 3D radiant energy in the blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of the combustion process in this study. The radiative images obtained from the blow pipe peephole of a blast furnace tuyere not only present the energy distribution on the CCD camera target plane but also examine 3D temperature distribution in the blast furnace. The numeral temperature field matching the actual combustion can be obtained by a proposed numeric image processing technique.

  20. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATERS USING MOBILE PILOT UNITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents an in-depth pilot-plant investigation of the applicability of advanced waste treatment methods for upgrading ironmaking blast furnace wastewaters to Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) levels. Mobile treatments facilities, designed to op...

  1. Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blast furnace tapping. This study also discusses different hearth erosion situations and explains the rationality of blast furnace large-scale trends from the perspective of molten iron liquid level stability.

  2. Limestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties

    OpenAIRE

    Courard, Luc; Michel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and Granulated blast furnace slag ceme...

  3. Blast furnace operating conditions manipulation for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Abdel Halim, Khaled S.; El-Kelesh, Heba Ali; Nasr, Mahmoud I. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    A comparative reduction behavior of wuestite samples prepared from iron ore sinter was investigated to find the optimum way for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in blast furnace technology. A series of wuestite reduction experiments was carried out using different gas mixtures. A correlation between the experimental results and real data of blast furnaces at Egyptian Iron and Steel Company (EISCO) was demonstrated in order to optimize the coke consumption inside blast furnaces. Different theoretical models were applied on real data of blast furnaces to calculate the effect of operation parameters on the coke consumption. It was found that the wuestite reducibility can be controlled and enhanced using certain ratio of H{sub 2} and CO gases. Such kind of enhancement decreases the remaining quantity of unreduced wuestite which descends to the high temperature region of blast furnace. The theoretical analysis of real data using certain values of H{sub 2} and CO shows that increasing the amount of natural gas injection in blast furnace of EISCO will decrease the degree of direct reduction of iron oxide and consequently will decrease the amount of coke consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. CFD modeling of multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft with layered burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-current chemical reactor which includes the ascending gas flow and the counter-current descending porous bed (burden). A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft. The gas flow dynamics, burden movement, chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer between the gas phase and burden phase are included in the CFD model. The blast furnace burden consists of alternative layers of iron ore and coke. A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the effects of alternative burden layer structure on gas flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and chemical reactions. Different reactions and heat transfer characteristics are applied for difference types of layer. In addition, the layered CFD model accurately predicts the Cohesive Zone (CZ) shape where the melting of solid burden taking place. The shape and location of the CZ are determined by an iterative method based on the ore temperature distribution. The theoretical formation and the methodology of the CFD model are presented and the model is applied to simulate industry blast furnaces. The proposed method can be applied to investigate the blast furnace shaft process and other moving bed system with periodic burden structure configuration. - Highlights: •A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the blast furnace shaft with layered burden. •The effects of layered burden on flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions are considered in the model. •The shape and location of the cohesive zone is determined by an iterative method

  5. Tuyere development as an effective measure for high PC rate operation of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, T.; Kasai, A.; Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa Works, Hyogo (Japan). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    Kobe Steel has developed technologies to reduce coke consumption in its blast furnaces by injecting coal at a high rate. This paper described a newly developed tuyere and its contribution to improving permeability under high pulverized coal (PC) rate conditions at the blast furnaces at Kakogawa Works. Reducing the coke rate while increasing the coal injection rate results in higher ore/coke at the center region of the furnace, resulting in excessive peripheral gas and inducing gas channeling. Central coke charging (CCC) helps attain a stable gas flow inside the furnace by forming a vertical gas passage in the coke column. It enables furnace operators to directly control or enhance the central gas flow and improves gas and liquid permeability in the furnace bottom. In a conventional tuyere, the PC is introduced in or before the converged blast flow inside the tuyere where coal fines begin to decompose and interact with hot blasts. This newly developed convergent and divergent (CD) type tuyere was instrumental in safely reducing the pressure drop and its variation to a tolerable level even under ultra-high PCR conditions over 250 kg/thm. This paper described the effects of tuyere structure on raceway shapes using 3 types of tuyeres in a coke packed test furnace. It was concluded that the CD tuyere reduces pressure drop at the tuyere. An increase in PC rate offers benefits in terms of furnace stability. The CD tuyere also reduces coke deterioration in the raceway. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'. Dor?ák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

  7. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    OpenAIRE

    Baricová, D.; A. Pribulová; P. Demeter

    2010-01-01

    In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain sma...

  8. A Study of the Heat Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth Lining

    OpenAIRE

    Swartling, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the heat flows in the blast furnace hearth lining by experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Thermocouple data from an operating furnace have been used throughout the work, to verify results and to develop methodologies to use the results in further studies. The hearth lining were divided into two zones based on the thermocouple readings: a region with regular temperature variations due to the tapping of the furnace, and another region with...

  9. The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improv...

  10. Char refiring under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Osório, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C. F.

    2007-01-01

    It is attempt in pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace tuyeres to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. The unburned char can cause problems in the blast furnace operation, such as reduced permeability, undesirable gas/temperature distribution, excessive coke erosion and significant char carryover. In the near tuyere region the coal is injected with air but the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere w...

  11. Effect of coke reactivity and nut coke on blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, A.; Senk, D.; Gudenau, H.W. [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Two measures for coke saving and increase in blast furnace efficiency related to coke characteristics - reactivity and size - are discussed in this paper. Modern blast furnace operation with low coke rate and high injection rate causes a change in coke quality requirements. A discussion has arisen recently about highly reactive coke. Here, a theoretical analysis of influence of coke reactivity on the thermal reserve zone, direct reduction and carbon consumption in the blast furnace has been undertaken. Experiments have been performed using non-standard test scenarios that simulate coke behaviour under real blast furnace operating conditions. Coke reactivity and microstructure have also been investigated under the impact of alkali and pulverised coal ash and char. Operation of many blast furnaces has proved the possibility of coke saving and increase in productivity when using small-sized coke (so-called nut coke) mixed with the burden, but the reasons for this phenomenon, and consequently the limit for nut coke consumption, are still not very clear. An analytical method and cold model simulations have been used to quantify the change in shaft permeability and furnace productivity when using nut coke.

  12. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activattrength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

  14. Sintering mechanism of blast furnace slag-kaolin ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general ceramics processing scheme by cold uniaxial pressing and conventional sintering process have been used to prepare ceramics from mixtures of blast furnace slag (BFS) and kaolin (10%, 30% and 50% kaolin). The properties of the ceramics were studied by measuring linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and mechanical properties of samples heated at temperatures from 800 oC to 1100 oC. The formed crystalline phases were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Slag melt formed at relatively low temperatures (800-900 oC) modified the sintering process to liquid phase sintering mechanism. Combination of BFS with 10% kaolin gave the highest mechanical properties, densification and shrinkage at relatively low firing temperatures. The crystalline phases were identified as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in both BFS and BFS with 10% kaolin samples. Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) phase increased with increasing kaolin contents. In the case of kaolin-rich mixtures (30% and 50% kaolin), increased expansion took place during firing at temperatures in the range 800-1000 oC. This effect could be attributed to the entrapment of released gases.

  15. Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

  16. Subjects for achievement of blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujisawa, Y.; Nakano, K.; Matsukura, Y.; Sunahara, K.; Komatsu, S.; Yamamoto, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Kashima (Japan). Corp R& amp; D Labs.

    2006-12-15

    The technology which reduces the reducing agent rate by the improvement in the reaction efficiency of blast furnace leads to reduction of hot metal manufacturing cost, but also solution of recent CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The subjects for achievement of the blast furnace operation with low reducing agent rate were described on reduction measures of the carbon consumption and problem of the measures referring to the example of reducing agent rate of the present state blast furnace concerning blast operation and reactive improvement. And, carried out concrete measures were introduced in order to aim at the low reducing agent rate operation. The following results were obtained. 1) Since it has reached the already high reaction efficiency in present state blast furnace, it is not easy to attempt further reduction of the reducing agent rate. 2) The blast furnace use of high reactivity coke or reduced iron is equal level or over it in comparison with the reduction effect by the assumed blast operation in this paper. 3) The promotion of coke reaction load with the gasification is worried, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation by the high reactivity coke use. 4) It is estimated that the threshold also exists for the reducibility of competing ore, when it aims at the low reducing agent rate operation using the high reactivity coke. 5) The use of the low SiO{sub 2} sinter is effective for the improvement on the permeability in the blast furnace, when it aims at the low fuel rate operation. However, the new technology of the permeability improvement is desired, since there is a limit for low SiO{sub 2} of the sintered ore, when future raw material supply and demand is considered.

  17. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  18. Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500 m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future.

  19. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  20. Tendency in development of radioisotope methods for control and automatization of blast furnaces and metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To raise labour productivity in the metallurgy industry and to improve performance of blast furnaces in the period between capital repairs, a row of nuclear methods has been developed or was at the stage of experimental testing. Review is given of the tendencies of development of radioisotope methods of control and automatization of the blast furnace and metallurgic processes. Descriptions are given of nuclear methods for control and automatization of processes of materials transportation; continuous determination of the level of materials loading into the throat of blast furnace; observation of the wear of refractory lining of blast furnaces; determination of specific activity of cast iron; determination if the pre-set maximum and minimum levels of materials in bunkers on blast furnace bridge. Description is given of radiation sources of different activity, placed into containers, specific for each case of application as well as description of probes, - radiation detectors with Geiger-Mueller gas discharge counters. Depending on the field of application, probes can have a water cooling system. Description is given of probes commutation diagram as well as of the central part of installation ensuring processing of information coming from prodes and having control elements for automation of observation of technological processes and their control. The results are reflected on a mnemonic diagram for each of the process observed

  1. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

  2. Gas-powder flow in blast furnace with different shapes of cohesive zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.F.; Pinson, D.; Zhang, S.J.; Yu, A.B.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    With high PCI rate operations, a large quantity of unburned coal/char fines will flow together with the gas into the blast furnace. Under some operating conditions, the holdup of fines results in deterioration of furnace permeability and lower production efficiency. Therefore, it is important to understand the behaviour of powder (unburnt coal/char) inside the blast furnace when operating with different cohesive zone (CZ) shapes. This work is mainly concerned with the effect of cohesive zone shape on the powder flow and accumulation in a blast furnace. A model is presented which is capable of simulating a clear and stable accumulation region in the lower central region of the furnace. The results indicate that powder is likely to accumulate at the lower part of W-shaped CZs and the upper part of V- and inverse V-shaped CZs. For the same CZ shape, a thick cohesive layer can result in a large pressure drop while the resistance of narrow cohesive layers to gas-powder flow is found to be relatively small. Implications of the findings to blast furnace operation are also discussed.

  3. Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ?The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ? The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. gular speed of rotary cup increases. ? The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ? Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ? A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

  4. Model for Fast Evaluation of Charging Programs in the Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model for fast evaluation of charging programs in bell-less top blast furnaces is presented. The model describes the burden formation and descent procedures in the blast furnace, and can be used for designing charging programs. Experimental results in small scale were used to validate the model. The model was applied to a real charging program from a reference blast furnace. Through comparison between the estimated burden distribution and gas temperatures from an above-burden probe it was concluded that the model has captured the main features of the distribution of coke and pellets. The potential of using the model for the design of new charging programs was finally illustrated by analyzing the effect of small changes in the positions of the rings on the arising burden distribution.

  5. On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

    2012-05-01

    The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

  6. Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-07-18

    Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

  7. Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.)

  8. Detection and Quantification of the Dead Man Floating State in the Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännbacka, Johnny; Saxén, Henrik; Pomeroy, Dave

    2007-06-01

    The lower part, the hearth, is a crucial region of the ironmaking blast furnace. The life length of it often determines the campaign length of the furnace and the thermal state and permeability of the hearth exert strong influence on liquids drainage and hot metal chemistry. In order to operate the furnace efficiently, the hearth state should be controlled, but the conditions in the hearth are extremely hostile with little possibility to carry out direct measurements. This article presents a set of methods and models through which the floating of the hearth coke bed, the dead man, can be assessed. Data from three industrial blast furnaces illustrate how a systematic analysis of available measurements, in combination with results of mathematical models of the phenomena in the hearth, can successfully detect and quantify the dead man floating state.

  9. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace:

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in blast furnace. The fraction of smaller than 8 mm is used in the sinter plant. Therefore, a large fraction of coke around 20 % from coking plant/process is not used for iron ore reduction. Recent ...

  10. Cold model of coal gas component concentration distribution in blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng-fu Zhang; Liang-ying Wen; Chen-guang Bai; Gui-bao Qiu; Mei-long Hu; Xue-wei Lu [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-11-15

    Primary distribution of coal gas in blast furnace raceway has an important effect on blast furnace ironmaking process. The coal gas component concentration distribution was studied experimentally using a three-dimensional cold model. The results showed that CH{sub 4} concentration diminishes along with the height increasing on vertical section of raceway, and the concentration is the highest in the bottom of raceway. CH{sub 4} concentration increases gradually along the raceway depth with the lowest concentration value in front of the tuyere. The distribution of CH{sub 4} concentration has different characteristics in different raceway zones.

  11. Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Wei Guo; Bing-Ji Yan; Jian-Liang Zhang; He-Lan Liang; Yi-Li Liu

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blas...

  12. Investigation of slag/char/gas interactions during pulverised coal injection in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The use of pulverised coal (PC) as a tuyere injectant in ironmaking blast furnace is a practice that has gained widespread acceptance, especially due to increasing needs to replace partly the metallurgical coke and increase the life of the ageing coke ovens. This paper compares the interactions of a typical blast furnace slag with four different carbonaceous materials in order to understand the influence of the ash content of the carbonaceous material on the interactions. The fundamental understanding of the slag/char/gas interaction phenomena has been developed by measuring the dynamic contact angle at the slag/char interface. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Easy blast furnace slag cement in the earth; Chikyu ni yasashii koro semento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, Akihiko [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    An output is increasing from per of 1958 in the blast furnace slag cement. The reason is from use of the mass concrete with the maximizing of the structure and necessity of the flame-retardation of the city building. The after, (1) The society request of resource conservation and energy saving. (2) The prevention of control of the alkali-aggregate reaction and infiltration of the sea salt grain to the body concrete. (3) The acid rain policy. (4) The control of the generation rate of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it came to considerably recognizing the necessity of the blast furnace slag cement. (NEDO)

  14. Bio-fuels use in blast furnace ironmaking to mitigate GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ka Wing Ng; Hutny, W.; MacPhee, T.; Gransden, J.; Price, J. [CANMET Energy Technology Center, Nepean, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility of substituting fossil fuel by biomass in the blast furnace ironmaking process as investigated. The use of biomass in the blast furnace ironmaking both was an injectant and addition to metallurgical coke was studied in this work. Charcoal was found to be the most suitable biomass material for substituting coal directly injected into the blast furnace. Using charcoal the ironmaking ability of the furnace can be preserved and GHG emissions from the blast furnace-cokemaking system can be mitigated. Bio-coke was prepared by addition of charcoal to the cokemaking coal blend. It was observed that the cold strength of the resultant bio-coke was not significantly affected. However, the prepared bio-coke is weak at elevated temperature due to its high mineral matter content originating from charcoal. The mineral matter content of charcoal can be effectively reduced by acid leaching and the strength of bio-coke can be further improved. It was estimated that complete substitution of coal injection by charcoal and application of bio-coke containing 10% of carbon originating from charcoal could reduce the annual CO{sub 2} emission associated with the Canadian ironmaking processes from 13.9 Mt/yr to 9.6 Mt/yr without sacrificing productivity. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  16. Hydration of ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sujin

    1998-12-01

    The hydration of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) has been studied for 28 days of hydration at 25sp°C. The reaction between GGBFS and DI water is slow, however, activated hydration was observed for GGBFS pastes mixed with NaOH solutions. When NaOH was added into the mixing solution to control the pH, the rate of reaction was dependent on the pH of the starting solution and it was quantified using heat evolution characteristics. The main hydration product was identified as C-S-H, and hydrotalcite was observed when the paste reached high degree of hydration. The non-evaporable water content of fully hydrated GGBFS pastes was determined to be 0.162 g Hsb2O/g of slag, indicating that the stoichiometry of C-S-H formed in GGBFS paste is close to Csb{1.7}SHsb{1.5}. GGBFS paste showed microstructure consisted of poorly crystalline, homogeneous solid and highly disconnected pores. Highly disconnected capillary pore structure was responsible for low conductivity as well as low water transport through GGBFS pastes. C-S-H formed on the surface of GGBFS particles had honeycomb-like morphology close to Type II C-S-H. Pore solution chemistry of GGBFS paste provided important understanding with respect to the role of pH in alkali-activated hydration of GGBFS. pH was concluded to be a very important variable controlling the aqueous solubility, the equilibrium between C-S-H and aqueous phase, and the alkali-activation of GGBFS. At early stages of hydration, the pH was determined by the amount of NaOH added into initial mixing solution. High pH in the pore solution increases the solubilities of Si and Al, but decreases the solubilities of Ca and Mg. This pH-dependent solubility behavior is well explained using solubility equations from thermodynamics. The solubility of Si is the most important variable affecting alkali-activation of GGBFS since it is hard to solubilize Si from solid into aqueous phase due to the low Si solubility at pH < 11.5, which is the critical pH value to activate the hydration of GGBFS. The pH-dependency of solubilities also suggests the effect of pH on the nature of C-S-H, such as chemical composition, microstructure and properties, which are to be explored.

  17. Hydration of mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Badjena, S.; Mehrotra, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is known to possess latent hydraulic activity, i.e., it shows cementitious properties when in contact with water over a long period of time. Results are presented in this article to show that, in sharp contrast to published literature on the hydration of neat GGBFS, the complete hydration of slag is possible in a short time (days), even without a chemical activator. This is achieved if the slag used for hydration is mechanically activated, using an attrition mill. The nature of the hydration product of the mechanically activated slag depends not only on the initial specific surface area (SSA) of the slag but also on the surface activation, as manifested by the change in the zeta potential ( ?) of the slag during the milling process. Depending upon the SSA and the ?, the hydration product changed from nonreacted slag with high porosity (slag SSA -29 mV) to hydrated slag with a compact structure (SSA=0.3 to 0.4 m2/g, ?=-29 to -31 mV), and, finally, to fully hydrated slag with high porosity (SSA>0.4 m2/g, ? ˜ 26 mV). Unlike the poorly crystalline hydration product formed by the nonactivated slag, even after prolonged hydration for years, the hydration product of mechanically activated slag was crystalline in nature. The crystallinity of the product improved as the duration of the mechanical activation increased. The calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases present in the slag hydration product, characterized by a Ca/Si ratio of 0.7 to 1.5, were similar to those found for the hydraulic cement binder, except for the presence of Mg and Al as impurities. In addition, the presence of a di-calcium-silicate-hydrate phase ( ?-C2SH), which normally forms under hydrothermal conditions, and a Ca-deficient and Si-Al-rich phase (average Ca/Si mole ratio < 0.1 and Si/Al ˜ 3) is indicated, especially in the hydration product of slag that was activated for a longer time.

  18. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de escoria, mientras que a edades más avanzadas se trasladan a mayores contenidos de puzolana y escoria.

  19. 'Salem Box Test' to predict the suitability of metallurgical coke for blast furnace ironmaking

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.B., Nagashanmugam; M.S., Pillai; D., Ravichandar.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace performance depends strongly on the coke reactivity index (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) properties. An innovative and cost-effective method, known as the Salem Box Test, has been developed to prevent the mass production of inferior coke unsuitable for blast furnace use. [...] This method consists of coal carbonization on a micro-scale and involves charging approximately 18 kg of coal blend in a stainless steel box, carbonizing it together with coal cake in the plant coke ovens, and testing the coke produced for CRI and CSR to determine its suitability for blast furnace use. Only coal blends that yield coke with CRI 64% are permitted for mass production, and other coal blends are either rejected or the blending ratios adjusted in an attempt to upgrade them. The experimental results reveal that, for a given coal blend, the quality of coke produced by the Salem Box Test is comparable with that produced by bulk production, indicating that the test is acceptable as a screening tool for regular use. The present paper describes the methodology and application of Salem Box Test to predict the suitability of coke for blast furnace use at JSW Steel Limited, Salem Works (JSWSL), and illustrates its advantages in adjusting the coal blending ratio to produce superior coke, in detecting coal contamination, and in preventing bulk production of inferior coke.

  20. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  1. A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

    2012-12-01

    Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

  2. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

    2014-07-01

    As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

  3. AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

  4. Potential modification of hydration of alkali activated mixtures from granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, V.; Ov?a?ík, F.; Vl?ek, J.; Ov?a?íková, H.; Topinková, M.; Vavro, M.; Martinec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 2 (2012), s. 168-176. ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA106/09/0588 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : alkali-activated materials * blast furnace slag * mechanical activation * fly ash Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_02_168.pdf

  5. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  6. Determination of thermal histories of coke in blast furnace through X-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, B.J.; Nightingale, R.; Daly, V.; Fitzpatrick, E.

    2008-01-15

    A study has been undertaken to identify the source of coke fines sampled from the deadman area of the blast furnace. Using measurements of the coke crystallite dimension L{sub C}, it was established that some of the fines found in the deadman area of a blast furnace were not simply the degradation products of the lump coke in this area. The L{sub C} was measured using standard X-ray analysis techniques. The coke fines had a higher L{sub C} than the coke lump and therefore have experienced a higher maximum temperature than the associated coke lump. This finding has been interpreted as at least some of the coke fines found in the deadman area (lower temperature region) have been blown there from the raceway by the high velocity hot blast.

  7. Pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces at ArcelorMittal Tubarao (AMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, C.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Defendi, G.A.; Tauffer Barros, R.J. [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, Serra (Brazil). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    The main factors that influence the performance of coal injected into blast furnaces include coal properties, combustion conditions and the equipment used in the plants for grinding, transportation and injection of coal. This paper focused on coal properties and the main operational control changes in the no.1 blast furnace at ArcelorMittal Tubarao. The furnace was modified from an all coke operation to a pulverized coal injection (pci) operation in order to ensure high productivity, low fuel consumption and longer service life. ArcelorMittal Tubarao has developed a coal buying model based on energy balance and the chemical analysis of ash. In the energy balance, the ratio between the heat supplied by carbon combustion and the heat consumed by the cracking of water and volatiles results in the potential rate of coke replacement by coal. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  8. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from land to the removal of this resource from landfills

  9. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  10. Data-driven analysis of blast furnace tuyere-level and hearth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helle, M.

    2009-07-01

    This thesis is focused on the high temperature region of the ironmaking blast furnace, developing models and methods for throwing light on phenomena inside the tuyere and raceway region and the furnace hearth. The work studies and applies the existing process information consisting of measurements from the process and laboratory analyzes of different samples taken regularly from the furnace. A model for monitoring the blast distribution is created. The model considers the partial combustion of the injected auxiliary reductant, heavy oil, in the tuyeres, and it can also be used in what-if-analysis to examine the influence of different parameters on the blast distribution and other related variables. Data from tuyere core drillings is analyzed and a correlation with thermal cycles observed in the heart is found. The thermal cycles are further studied by an analysis of balance studying accumulation/depletion of sulfur in the furnaces. A method for analyzing data from complex processes, based on the differences observed in the data rather than the absolute values, is presented and used to study the complex interactions between reductant parameters and hot metal properties. (orig.)

  11. Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information is available for High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags, since much of the open literature deals with Low Alumina Slags, with alumina content less than 15 weight percentage. High Alumina slags (alumina content in the range of 15% to 30% are predominantly encountered in Indian Blast Furnaces. It appears that these slags have higher viscosity and lower sulphide capacity than the low alumina slags. The effect of chemical composition / ionic structure on viscosity has been interpreted in this work, using the chemical parameter of optical basicity. Data reported in the literature have been used, along with the values of liquidus temperature, for high alumina slags. Three slag systems, i.e., CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 have been considered in this work. The trends observed are discussed in the paper.

  12. Fundamental study on carbon composite iron ore hot briquette used as blast furnace burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Man-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gen; Wang, Zhao-cai [Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Yagi, Jun-ichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Carbon composite iron ore hot briquette (CCB) is the product of fine iron ore and fine coal by hot briquetting process, which attracts more and more attention as a new type of ironmaking raw materials aiming to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the coke consumption of blast furnace. This paper is devoted to experimental study on metallurgical properties of CCB and numerical simulation of the BF operation with CCB charging. At first, the metallurgical properties of CCB, including cold crushing strength, RDI, RSI, reducibility, high temperature strength, and softening and dripping are experimentally tested and compared with the common burdens, which revealed that the CCB possesses the required metallurgical properties and is suitable to use as the blast furnace burden. Then, the effects of charging CCB on the dripping properties of comprehensive burdens are elucidated based on the experiments under simulated blast furnace conditions. The results showed that the maximum charging ratio of CCB in the iron burdens is 40%-50% for achieving appropriate dripping properties of the mixed burdens. Finally, a multi-fluid blast furnace model is used to simulate BF operation with CCB charging. According to model simulations, charging CCB will cause the temperature level to decreases in the furnace and the location of the cohesive zone shifts downward. On the other hand, the productivity tends to increase while coke rate and total reducing agent rate decrease, the heat efficiency improves remarkably and the operation performance of BF is effectively enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

  14. Research on carbonaceous substance of blast furnace dust under different PCI rates at Shouqin's No.1 blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, R.; Wu, K.; Wu, W.; Fei, S.; Zhang, J.; Ni, B. [Shouqin Metal Company Ltd., Qinhuangdao (China). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-11-15

    The microstructure of blast furnace (BF) dust (gravitational dust and bag dust of hop pocket) under increased pulverized coal injection (PCI) rate at Shouqin's No. 1 BF was investigated by means of microscopic analysis. The percentage of surface area of unconsumed coal and coke particles was determined under different PCI rates. The effect of increased PCI rate on the carbon mass fraction in BF dust and consequently on the unburnt coal and coke particles as well as the utilisation factor of pulverised coal are given for different PCI rates at Shouqin's No. 1 BF. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Some aspects on the reduction of olivine pellets in laboratory scale and in an experimental blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Sterneland, Jerker

    2002-01-01

    The reduction behaviour of the olivine iron ore pellet MPBOwas studied in laboratory scale at KTH as well as in the LKABexperimental blast furnace. Initially, a newreduction-under-load, or so-called reduction/softening/melting,test equipment was developed. Experiments using differentreducing conditions, corresponding to different radialpositions of the blast furnace, were conducted. The experimentsincluded different temperature profiles, reducing atmospheresand mechanical loads applied on the...

  16. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar:

    OpenAIRE

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique significantly improved the quality of the interfacial transition zone in mortars subjected to carbonation shrinkage. Consequently the frost salt scaling durability of blast furnace slag mortars wa...

  17. Physical properties of heat insulators prepared from blast furnace slag mixed with hemihydrate and portlandite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-01

    Utilizing blast furnace slag, porous light weight materials have been prepared at room temperature in order to apply them as heat insulators of general purpose for buildings and residences. For 28-d age specimens prepared from flurries of blast furnace slag mixed with hemihydrate and portlandite, physical properties such as thermal conductivities, bulk densities, porosities and compressive strengths were measured, each showing 0.22-0.30W/m-K, 780-1100kg/m{sup 3}, 45.2-66.6% and 16-81 MPa depending on W/S (water/solid) ratio. These results indicate that present materials have a potential to contribute to saving air conditioning energies as well as reducing green house effect on earth, especially for high W/S materials. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Influence of blast furnace slag addition on the strength of cold bonded pellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Yong-Jin; Kim, Tai-Dong [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Kwangyang (Korea); Ban, Bong-Chan [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    Utilization of iron bearing dusts has been needed agglomeration prior to use as a burden in blast furnace. The cold bonded pellet process using iron bearing dusts has been developed as an alternative to the conventional heat indurated pelletizing process. Partial substitution of cements with cheaper materials would decrease the production cost of pellet. This paper discusses the strength of pellet containing blast furnace slag as a bonding material in pelletizing a cold bonded agglomerates. Depending upon the quality, half of the cement required may be replaced by slag in the pellets with a strength of around 150 kgf. Some of the physicochemical properties of the bonding materials are also investigated in the present work. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lizarazo Marriaga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion. 

  20. A Differential Scanning Calorimetry Method for Construction of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram of Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lei; Zhang, Chunxia; Shangguan, Fangqin; Li, Xiuping

    2012-06-01

    The continuous cooling crystallization of a blast furnace slag was studied by the application of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. A kinetic model describing the correlation between the evolution of the degree of crystallization with time was obtained. Bulk cooling experiments of the molten slag coupled with numerical simulation of heat transfer were conducted to validate the results of the DSC methods. The degrees of crystallization of the samples from the bulk cooling experiments were estimated by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the DSC method. It was found that the results from the DSC cooling and bulk cooling experiments are in good agreement. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the blast furnace slag was constructed according to crystallization kinetic model and experimental data. The obtained CCT diagram characterizes with two crystallization noses at different temperature ranges.

  1. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, M. A.; Pineiro, A.; Rodriguez, O.

    2011-07-01

    Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  3. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Maria de Lourdes Ilha; Osório Eduardo; Vilela Antônio Cezar Faria

    2006-01-01

    Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals h...

  4. On hearth phenomena and hot metal carbon content in blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Raipala, Kalevi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the hearth operation and the factors influencing the total quality of hot metal, especially its carbon and sulphur contents. Regarding the hot metal quality there are many sources of disturbances starting from raw materials, continuing through the blast furnace process and ending the hot metal casting. The carbon content of hot metal is an important part of the total quality of hot metal. Nearly 80 % of the total reaction energy in the BOF pr...

  5. Plastic wastes, lube oils and carbochemical products as secondary feedstocks for blast-furnace coke production

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi Espina, Sonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Álvarez García, Ramón; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Plastic wastes, lube oils and coal-tar are evaluated, individually and combined, as additives to coal blends for the production of blast-furnace coke. The effects of adding 2 wt% of potential additives or their mixtures (50:50 w/w) on the coking capacity of coal, the pressure generated during the coking process and the coke quality parameters were evaluated. Using a combination of polyolefin waste and lubricating oil with high-boiling hydrocarbons has the beneficial...

  6. Chloride-binding effect of blast furnace slag in cement pastes containing added chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    Potgieter, J.H. (Johan Hendrik), 1952-; D. J. Delport; Verryn, Sabine Marie Charlotte; Potgieter-Vermaak, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. It is standard industry practice to add various mineral admixtures such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), or fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF), to concrete mixtures to increase the corrosion resistance of the reinforcement in the matrix and its subsequent design life span. Various investigations have re...

  7. Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In prsation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl2-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

  8. Mineral Reactions and Slag Formation During Reduction of Olivine Blast Furnace Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Ryösä, Elin

    2008-01-01

    The present work focuses on mineral reactions and slag formation of LKAB olivine iron ore pellets (MPBO) subjected to reducing conditions in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF). The emphasis is on olivine reactions with surrounding iron oxides. Many factors influence the olivine behaviour. The study was performed by use of micro methods; optical microscopy, micro probe analysis, micro Raman and Mössbuer spectroscopy and thremodynamic modeling. During manufacturing, in oxidising atmosphe...

  9. Characterization of Blast Furnace Slag to be used as Road Base Material:

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarnejad, S.; Copuroglu, O.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    In congested areas around the world, traffic has significantly grown beyond expectation both in terms of volume and weight. Any hinder to the traffic causes severe delays resulting not only in economic loss but also in extra pollution of the environment. Therefore, maintenance works are desired to be reduced as much as possible. Application of self-cementing materials such as Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) for base courses is one of the methods to reduce the need for maintenance, since such base co...

  10. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag:

    OpenAIRE

    J Zhou; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Breugel, K. van; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy and causes less CO2 emission than Portland cement. Moreover, the use of limestone powder and BFS improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, such as workability and durability. Enginee...

  11. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation:

    OpenAIRE

    Zemskov, S.V.; B. Ahmad; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonati...

  12. Hydrolyzed Portland cement clinker and air-cooled blast furnace slag SO{sub 2} sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, M.D.; Kenney, M.E.

    1999-07-01

    The preparation, morphologies, densities, mean particle sizes, surface areas, compositions, SO{sub 2}-uptakes, calcium utilizations and 100% SO{sub 2} capture times of SO{sub 2} flue gas sorbents derived by the hydrolysis of cement clinker and of air-cooled blast furnace slag are described and discussed. The hydrolyzed clinker sorbent is highly effective. While it is less effective, the slag sorbent, because it is so much cheaper, is the more attractive of the two.

  13. General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature and the degree of hydration.

  14. Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagel, L. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Construction and Architecture

    1998-07-01

    Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively satisfactory level of compressive strength and contributed to the significantly denser pore structure.

  15. The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter Claisse

    2011-01-01

     Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strengt...

  16. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3) three groups of substances can be distinguis...

  17. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno alto. Los cálculos, utilizando un modelo matemático, muestran que la inyección de GRC en combinación con la ICP y enriquecimiento del viento con oxígeno pueden suministrar un aumento en la tasa de carbón pulverizado hasta 300-400 kg/t arrabio y una elevación en la productividad del horno de 40-50 %. La operación del horno alto con un máximo de oxígeno en el viento (100 % del oxígeno del proceso con la excepción para el viento caliente es posible cuando se inyecta GRC.

  18. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coa and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  19. Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

    2015-02-01

    Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

  20. Blast furnace slag utilisation in mine backfill: implications for sustainable development and greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, G.D.; Wibberley, L.J. [BHP Minerals Technology, Wallsend, NSW (Australia); Cao, H.T. [CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Substitution of all or part of the 270 kilotonne per annum (ktpa) of blast furnace slag from BHP's Whyalla blast furnace for Portland cement in the preparation of low strength concrete (cemented aggregate fill or CAF) usually used to fill stopes created by underground hard-rock mining of ore, is discussed. This substitution would give a significant cost reduction for CAF, and allow for a future increase in the use of mine tailings. It could also help reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission by 100ktpa of carbon dioxide equivalent, avoiding the quarrying of dolomite aggregate (constituent of CAF), and the ability to backload copper products shipped from Whyalla, giving a significant reduction over current road transport distances. While the chemistry of CAF production using waste water, tailings and cementitious materials is complex, it it expected that if the substitution of blast furnace slag for cement is successful, it will represent substantial inter-business integration of economics and social benefits and at the same time yield significant environmental benefits. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Interfaces Between Coke, Slag, and Metal in the Tuyere Level of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Barati, Mansoor; Zhong, Jianbo; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Jiao, Kexin; Yang, Tianjun

    2015-04-01

    An in-depth understanding about the reactions in the high-temperature zone of a blast furnace is significant to optimize both the current and future blast furnace process. The interfaces between coke, slag, and metal were observed using scanning electronic microscope with samples obtained from the tuyere level of a blast furnace. Two types of slag phases were identified, one originating from coke ash and the other from the bosh slag. Slag formed by coke ash was seen to cover the coke surface, which may hinder the reaction of coke with both gas and liquid iron. The reduction of FeO from the bosh slag (originated from the primary slag) occurs in the coke/slag interface with the reduced iron forming a metal layer surrounding the coke surface. The reduction of SiO2 occurs both in and outside the coke, and the reduced silicon reacts with iron to form iron silicide if the two species come into contact. Further study is proposed based on the results of this study.

  2. Use of wastes from soapstone to add into blast furnace powder injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, P.S.; Soares, W.S.; Martines, M.E. [Federal Univ. of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Minas Gerais area of Brazil has an abundance of soapstone, a rock essentially composed of talc. Although the soapstone is only used for handicrafts, large quantities of waste are generated, causing many environmental problems. This study examined the economic feasibility of using such wastes in a steel mill. A soapstone powder was mixed with charcoal powder injection (CPI). The purpose of the study was to stimulate independent producers of pig-iron that do not have the capacity to inject pulverized coal into their blast furnaces and to increase competition in the global market. The paper presented background information on total production of pig-iron in Brazil and the number of companies using blast charcoal furnaces and CPI. A model representing the structure of coke in the tuyeres of the blast furnaces was also illustrated. The paper then discussed the material and methods for the study, with particular reference to charcoal; soapstone; and simulation of combustion process. Results that were presented included a chemical and physical analysis of charcoal used; results from BET analysis; chemical analysis of soapstone sample; and results obtained in the ultra high thermal gradient simulator. It was concluded that the combustion rate increased when soapstone was added to the charcoal. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Computational Study of Blast Furnace Cooling Stave using Heat Transfer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Shrivastava,

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the metallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is hence a matter of trade-offs and differs for every metallurgical application. This paper gives a systemic study and review of blast furnace cooling stave lining materials used in the metallurgical industries based on heat transfer analysis. Additionally, the paper describes a model which will be modeled and implemented using Pro- E modeling software. The model will further be utilized for the analysis of the behavior of lining materials at different loads through heat transfer analysis by finite element method software called ANSYS. In this study two different types of bricks like silicon carbide brick and high alumina bricks will be taken for the lining material of the blast furnace cooling stave as well as two different types of skull is considered, in which the first is having negligible thickness and the other one is having certain thickness, (thickness in mm is considered, so, with these two skulls, the heat transfer analysis will be done at different temperatures (loads from 773k to 1573k in order to compare which lining will give better results than the other.

  4. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes; Eduardo Osorio; Antonio Cezar Faria Vilela [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Iron and Steelmaking Research Group/LASID

    2006-07-01

    Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important Coal-Measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these characteristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO{sub 2} was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050{sup o}C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  5. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  6. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha, Gomes; Eduardo, Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria, Vilela.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used [...] in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  7. Technical evaluation of use of charcoal and rice crust mixtures for their injection in the blast furnaces tuyeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, P.S.; Lage, A.O.; Morais, D.F.; Siveira, N.C. [Federal Univ. of Ouro Preto, Minais Gerais (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Many iron and steelmaking companies in Brazil use charcoal blast furnaces in the integrated steel plants and pig-iron production. As a result of increased production and higher operational stability of blast furnaces, the steelmaking industry has been developing the use of charcoal powder injection (CPI) in the tuyeres of the blast furnace. The trend of the steelmaking industry to replace the charcoal in the pig-iron production demonstrates the need for fuel alternatives for the blast furnaces process. This paper described an experiment in which CPI was used in combination with rice rind. The simulation equipment considered the peculiarities of the charcoal blast furnace. The effect of the mixture of charcoal and rice rind were correlated with combustion rate and injection rate. The paper presented the material and methods, with particular reference to sample preparation; milling process; charcoal samples; and simulation of combustion process. It was concluded that even with different injection rates, the combustion rate was equivalent, meaning that the pig-iron production became more economic with a higher injection rate. 8 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Bosh slag chemistry control for high PCR and low slag volume blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S.H. [Technical Research Labs., POSCO, Pohang (Korea); Yi, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    For the high pulverized-coal ratio (PCR) operation in the blast furnace, the slag volume should be minimized to secure good gas/liquid permeability in the low part of the blast furnace. As a measure of slag volume reduction, the MgO content in the sinter has been reduced to the level of 5%. As the slag volume is reduced, the chemistry of slags formed is expected to be changed. Using the tuyere probing technique in the field trials, the effects of slag volume reduction on the slag chemistry was studied. Based upon the analysis of the field trial data as well as laboratory experiment results, it is elucidated that the enhanced gas/liquid permeability is attributed not only to the slag volume reduction but also to the decrease of bosh slag viscosity. By lowering MgO content in the sinter, the bosh slag viscosity can be effectively decreased leading to a stable high PCR/low slag volume operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) [German] Bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten sollte die Schlackenmenge minimiert werden, um eine gute Durchgasung im unteren Teil des Hochofens zu gewaehrleisten. Bei Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wird eine Aenderung der Schlackenzusammensetzung erwartet. In Betriebsversuchen wurde der Einfluss der Schlackenmengenreduktion auf die Schlackenzusammensetzung durch Probenahmen durch die Blasformen untersucht. Gleichzeitig mit der Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wurde der Gehalt an MgO im Sinter auf rund 5% gesenkt. Auf Basis dieser Versuchsergebnisse und weiterer Labormessungen wird deutlich, dass die verbesserte Gas-/Schmelzdurchlaessigkeit nicht nur auf die Verminderung der Schlackenmenge, sondern auch auf eine geringere Viskositaet der Rastschlacke zurueckzufuehren ist. Durch Absenken des MgO-Gehaltes im Sinter kann die Viskositaet der Rastschlacke deutlich vermindert werden, was zu einer stabilen Betriebsweise bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten und geringen Schlackenmengen fuehrt. (orig.)

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  10. Operating experiences with Corex and blast furnace at JSW Steel Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Prachethan; Gupta, P.K.; Ranjan, M.K.

    2008-05-15

    JSW Steel Ltd is an integrated steel plant of 3.8 mtpa capacity, with two Corex and two blast furnace (BF) units for producing hot metal. It has started its integrated steel plant operation with Corex ironmaking technology and then synergised with the conventional BF ironmaking during plant expansion. Both these ironmaking furnaces are unique in nature, and have different operation philosophies. The performances of these units depend on the raw material charged, operational philosophies, maintenance, etc., and have their own advantages and disadvantages. This paper brings out the comparison between these ironmaking processes through the usage of raw material inputs, plant operation, maintenance, quality of hot metal and byproducts. This paper also highlights the benefits due to synergistic combination of Corex and BF in an integrated steel plant.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

  12. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  13. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  14. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at ...

  15. Distribution of niobium or tantalum between fluorine-containing slag and iron in blast furnace smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiyong; Deng, Jian; Huang, Shiliang; Fang, Ying

    1990-10-01

    The distribution of Nb or Ta between iron and slag in blast furnace smelting is closely related to Si-Nb or Si-Ta equilibrium. Most of the Nb or Ta enters the iron when the equilibrium distribution of Nb or Ta is reached. The equilibrium distribution ratios of Nb and Ta are substantially independent of both the basicity and the CaF2 content of the slag but are markedly affected by the reaction temperature. The Ta contents in slag and iron were measured by the radioactive isotope182Ta.

  16. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Awang H.; Aljoumaily Z. S.; Noordin N; Al-Mulali M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS) on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a si...

  17. Effect of alkali bypass dust on the hydration of granulated blast furnace slag blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.B.; Bhattacharjee, K.N.; Shukla, A.K. [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    The hydration properties of blended cements made from portland cement and a waste material obtained from a Birla White Cement Factory known as an Alkali Bypass Dust were studied. The results showed that 5 to 10 percent addition of this waste material in the portland cement decreased the water requirements, accelerated the hydration, decreased the porosity and increased the compressive strengths at all the ages of hydration. Hydration properties of granulated blast furnace slag blended portland cement in presence of 5% alkali bypass dust have also been studied. The extent of hydration decreased as the amount of slag is increased but the compressive strength values were higher at 28 days.

  18. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

    Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de la retracción por secado resulta un tema relevante, pues este parámetro determina la posibilidad de fisuración, y consecuentemente el deterioro de las propiedades mecánicas y durables de las estructuras. En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia que tiene la inclusión de contenidos variables de filler calcáreo y/o escoria granulada de alto horno al cemento portland sobre la retracción por secado de los morteros elaborados con ellos. Adicional mente se ha analizado la resistencia a flexión y el contenido de agua no evaporable. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la inclusión en forma conjunta o separada de estas adiciones incrementa la retracción inicial del mortero. Aun así, los morteros con filler calcáreo presentan una menor tendencia a la fisuración que los cementos con escoria o filler y escoria.

  19. Study of the Hydration of Blast-Furnace Slag Cement and Portland Cement by Mossbauer Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Eissa, N. A. [???? ????

    2003-01-01

    Mossbauer spectra have been measured for the hydrated blast-furnace slag cement and Portland cement pastes at different times of hydration of 1. 3. 7. 28 and 90 days. The spectra showed the existence of iron atoms, Fe3 (T) and Fe3 (0) states of iron. It was found that, as the time of hydration was increased, the Fe3 (0) content decreased, while the Fe3 (T) content increased. The Fe' (T) /SFe34" percentage was calculated for the two types of cement as a function of the time of hydration. A c...

  20. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva, Machado; Eduardo, Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria, Vilela.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with impo [...] rted coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  1. Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jean-Philippe; Gheribi, Aïmen E.

    2013-12-01

    Several numerical approaches have been proposed in the literature to simulate the behavior of modern blast furnaces: finite volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations. Despite this, there is actually no efficient method for evaluating quickly optimal operating parameters of a blast furnace as a function of the iron ore composition, which takes into account all potential chemical reactions that could occur in the system. In the current study, we propose a global simulation strategy of a blast furnace, the 5-unit process simulation. It is based on classical thermodynamic calculations coupled to a direct search algorithm to optimize process parameters. These parameters include the minimum required metallurgical coke consumption as well as the optimal blast chemical composition and the total charge that simultaneously satisfy the overall heat and mass balances of the system. Moreover, a Gibbs free energy function for metallurgical coke is parameterized in the current study and used to fine-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties calculated by the proposed thermodynamic simulation strategy are compared with reference data found in the literature and have proven the validity and high precision of this simulation.

  2. Application of surface contour gamma radar in automatic system for control burden surface state at a blast furnace top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description and results of testing a quick-acting gamma radar, designed for rapid control of burden surface state on a blast furnace top, are presented. Tests showed that the radar enables to obtain rapidly important information about the character of burden material descent and peculiarities of technological process on the furnace top. Recommendations on effective application of the gamma radar in automatic control system are given

  3. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-07-15

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

  4. Mechanical and cementitious characteristics of ground granulated blast furnace slag and basic oxygen furnace slag blended mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is an innovative cementitious material. • The cementitious of this study which mixed some steel slag and iron slag. • The mechanical properties of the new cementitious is like traditional cement. - Abstract: Reusing waste materials and reducing carbon emissions are crucial environmental concerns. Ground granulated basic oxygen furnace slag (GGBOS) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) are the by-products of the steel industry and has positive effects on the environment because it reduces the problems associated waste disposal. This study reused these two products to completely replace cementitious materials, thus contributing to waste recycling, reducing the production demand for cement, and mitigating carbon emissions. Twelve mixture proportions were designed in this study, including an ordinary Portland mortar (OPM) as the control group and 11 steel/iron slag blended mortar (SISBM) experimental groups for the mechanical and cementitious characteristic experiments. The optimal mixing ratio for SISBM compressive strength ranged from GGBOS (steel slag): GGBS (iron slag) = 3:7 to 5:5 (by weight). At the age of 91 days, the compressive strength of SISBM reached 80–90% compared with that of the control group. Based on the pH values, free-CaO, and microanalysis results, the cementitious characteristics were mainly generated because the GGBOS increased the free-CaO or Ca(OH)2 concentrations in the SISBM curing water and provided alkaline environments for Ca(OH)2 to engage in the pozzolanic reaction with the SiO2 and Al2O3 in GGBS, forming crystals such as calcium aluminum silicate hydrate, (C–A–S–H), calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), and calcium–magnesium–alumina–silicate (C–M–A–S), which generated strength and strengthened microstructure

  5. A three-dimensional numerical study of the combustion of coal blends in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab. for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2009-02-15

    The practice of blending coals for pulverized coal combustion is widely used in ironmaking blast furnace. It is desirable to characterize the combustion behaviour of coal blends and their component coals. A three-dimensional numerical model is described to simulate the flow and combustion of binary coal blends under simplified blast furnace conditions. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions, which features an inclined co-axial lance. The overall performance of coal blend and the individual behaviours of their component coals are analysed, with special reference to the influences of particle size and coal type. The synergistic effect of coal blending on overall burnout is examined. The results show that the interactions between component coals, in terms of particle temperature and volatile content, are responsible for the synergistic effect. Such synergistic effect can be optimized by adjusting the blending fraction. The model provides an effective tool for the design of coal blends. 21 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

  7. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  8. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  9. Use of blast-furnace slag in making durable concrete for waste management repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste repositories for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste rely greatly on the durability of concrete for their required 500-year service life. A research program is in progress based on laboratory testing of concretes containing either Type 1 cement or cements containing 65 and 75 percent of blast-furnace slag, each at 4 water-cement ratios. It has been established that the degradation of the concrete will depend on the rate of ingress of corrosive agents - chlorides, sulphate ions and CO2. The ionic profiles and the kinetics of diffusion of these ions in the concretes have been measured by Secondary Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) techniques, and the results plotted according to a mathematical model. Predictions for service life of the concrete have been made from this model. These predictions have been correlated with properties of the concrete obtained from micro-structural, thermochemical and permeability measurements. The improvements in concrete durability due to blast-furnace slag additions are illustrated and discussed

  10. Blast furnace slag-cement grout blends for the immobilization of technetium-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically toxic process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts are shown to be very effective for retention of hydrolyzable heavy metals (including lead, cadmium, uranium, and nickel), but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive 99Tc (which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion). Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the effective diffusivity of technetium by several orders of magnitude; retention of technetium is improved by decreasing the waste loading in the grout or by increasing the proportion of blast furnace slag in the grout dry mix. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VIII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. The addition of other reductive grout admixtures (e.g., sodium sulfide, ferrous ion, and powdered iron metal) also appear to improve the retention of technetium in grout. 31 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs

  11. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (concrete admixture); Concrete konwazai to shite no korosuisai slug bifunmatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, R.; Toyama, S.; Kadoguchi, K. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Urakawa, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The Furukawa steel mill of Kobe Steel has had manufactured ground granulated blast furnace slag particulates (under a commercial name of K-ment)by using a ball mill. In 1993, the process was changed to using a vertical roller mill with better productivity, and the operation is continuing smoothly since then. This paper reports the summary of the K-ment facility, and manufacturing conditions of the K-ment to meet quality requirements thereon as a cement admixture. The steel mill has provided all of its blast furnaces with ground granulating facilities to obtain water granulated slag. The slag pulverized into finer particles is the K-ment. Raw materials (water granulated slag plus natural gypsum) fed into a vertical roller mill are crushed between the roller and a table, dried, and then adjusted in a classifying process. Discussions have been given on its strength properties, solidification time that results in fineness of the powder to meet quality requirements, properties of water granulated slag as the raw material, and effects of storage time periods. As a result of the discussions on these items, a manufacturing technology which can produce an admixture having better characteristics than conventional admixtures produced by ball mills was established. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Fixation of CO{sub 2} by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloneva, Sanni; Teir, Sebastian; Salminen, Justin; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan [Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4400, FIN-02015 TKK (Finland); Zevenhoven, Ron [Heat Engineering Laboratory, Aabo Akademi University, Piispankatu 8, FIN-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO{sub 2} pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied. A simple thermodynamic model was used to verify our results. The feasibility of the process was also discussed, addressing energy input requirements and the consumption of chemicals. According to our experiments, the addition of NaOH, i.e. an increase in solution pH, is required for the adequate precipitation of calcium carbonate at temperatures of 30-70 C and pressures of 1 or 30 bar. Preliminary process calculations showed that approximately 4.4 kg of blast furnace slag, 3.6 l of acetic acid, and 3.5 kg of NaOH would be required to bind 1 kg of CO{sub 2}, resulting in 2.5 kg of 90% calcium carbonate. While the heat needed for the evaporation of the acetic acid could probably be acquired as waste heat by process integration with other processes, the electricity required for NaOH regeneration would make the process unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (author)

  14. Influence of sulfate on cement mixtures containing fly ash or blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanumathidas, N.; Kalidas, N. [Inst. for Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2001-07-01

    The development of FaL-G, a cementitious mixture of fly ash, lime and gypsum was initiated by the desire to improve the early strength of blended portland cement. Fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag both contain reactive alumina. The strength of some fly ash-lime mixtures, in the presence of gypsum, can be enhanced 3 to 6 times at all ages. This study showed that high-volume fly ash blended portland cements also increase in strength with the addition of gypsum or anhydrite. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag behaves in a similar manner to blended portland cement. The enhanced strength is due to the formation of calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates. This study shows that it is possible to use large volumes of fly ash and slag to conserve on cost-intensive and energy-intensive clinker. Bricks and blocks made according to FaL-G technology are replacing fired clay bricks used in masonry construction. This research is of particular interest for the conservation of agricultural soils, minerals and energy. The study also shows that it is possible to convert major industrial waste into useful construction products. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Consumption of residual char in blast furnace during coal injection -- Slag/carbon/gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Co-operative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation; Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the factors limiting the maximum rate of coal injection in the blast furnace is the accumulation of unburnt char. The interaction of unburnt char with slag, hot metal and the gaseous phases could have a significant influence on char assimilation. This work examines the interaction of a low iron oxide bearing slag with different carbonaceous substrates with varying levels of ash content (0.05%--12.25%). Experiments were conducted in a high temperature tube furnace at 1,500 C (2,732 F) in an argon atmosphere, and the slag/carbon/gas interactions were studied in-situ. The results showed that ash content and composition of the carbonaceous substrates influenced their wettability by the slag. With good wetting, there is a significant decrease in the contact angle from the initiation of melting. The carbonaceous materials that showed good wetting were reacting with the slag phase and resulting in a change in the slag composition. The consumption of carbon could occur when it is in contact with a slag bearing appreciable levels of iron oxide, for example. The kinetics of iron oxide reduction reaction could dictate the consumption rate of carbon in a char present in the blast furnace during coal injection. The dissolution of ash components in a char into the slag phase could also result in the consumption of char during coal injection. These research topics are currently under investigation at the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation in the School of Materials Science and Engineering UNSW, Sydney; the investigation presented here forms a part of the overall study.

  16. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

    2015-02-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

  18. CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-? SST and k-? Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

  19. Analysis of the Rheological Behaviour of Selected Semi-Solid Slag Systems in Blast Furnace Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migas P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

  20. The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Nazari; Shadi, Riahi.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granula [...] ted blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

  1. The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%. ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (% of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

  2. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and steelmaking industrial air particles were collected from Australia. • Size resolved air particles were analysed by using PIXE technique. • The modality types of air particles were found to be variable. • Iron was measured as the main metal at industrial sites in each particle size range. • The industrial iron fraction in the submicron size particles was found up to 95%

  3. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and steelmaking industrial air particles were collected from Australia. • Size resolved air particles were analysed by using PIXE technique. • The modality types of air particles were found to be variable. • Iron was measured as the main metal at industrial sites in each particle size range. • The industrial iron fraction in the submicron size particles was found up to 95%.

  4. Analysing blast furnace data using evolutionary neural network and multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.; Tewary, U.; Pettersson, F.; Das, S.; Saxen, H.; Chakraborti, N.

    2010-07-15

    Approximately one year's operational data of a TATA Steel blast furnace were subjected to a multiobjective optimisation using genetic algorithms. Data driven models were constructed for productivity, CO{sub 2} content of the top gas and Si content of the hot metal, using an evolutionary neural network that itself evolved through a multiobjective genetic algorithm as a tradeoff between the accuracy of training and the network complexity. The final networks were selected using the corrected Akaike information criterion. Bi-objective optimisation studies were subsequently carried out between the productivity and CO{sub 2} content with various constraints at the Si level in the hot metal. The results indicate that a productivity increase would entail either a compromise of the CO{sub 2} fraction in the top gas or the Si content in the hot metal. The Pareto frontiers presented in this study provide the best possible parameter settings in such a scenario.

  5. Observation and analysis of fluidisation and flooding phenomena in lower blast furnace by model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, L.C.; Bi, X.G.; Xiong, W.; Zhou, G.F. [Wuhan University of Science & Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-08-15

    A study has been carried out on abnormal flow phenomenon in the lower blast furnace (BF) for the purpose of the determination of appropriate measures to realise higher productivity and higher pulverised coal injection rate. An experimental apparatus was erected and tests were conducted under simulated BF conditions. Observations of the flow behaviour of gas, liquid and solid particles at varied gas and liquid flowrates revealed that typically, flooding occurred only in the systems with large, heavy particles, whereas typically fluidisation took place only in the systems with very light particles. A diagram of gas flowrate at flooding point against that at fluidisation point was created based on the test results. A conclusion that it is flooding which could possibly occur in the lower BF could be reached by using this diagram.

  6. Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment. PMID:25189836

  7. Experimental Studies on Concrete Replacing Fine Aggregate with Blast Furnace Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Selwyn Babu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous. It is hard to imagine modern life without it. Approximately five billion tonnes of concrete are used around the world each year. The increasing popularity of concrete as a construction material is placing a huge burden on the natural sand reserves of all countries. In view of the environmental problems faced today considering the fast reduction of natural resources like sand and crushed granite aggregate, engineers have become aware to extend the practice of partially replacing fine aggregate with waste materials. In this present study blast furnace slag from two sources were replaced with fine aggregate and the properties of concrete were studied. The optimum percentages of replacement of these materials were found out. The result obtained encourages the use of these materials as a replacement material for fine aggregate.

  8. Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion [prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)] through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

    2014-02-15

    Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

  10. Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

    2013-06-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

  11. Fabrication of porous materials from blast furnace slag and glass materials by the hydrothermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    Since a large amount of blast furnace (BF) slag is generated, its new recycling processes for the production of valuable materials have been required. Development of reusing method for waste glasses is also strongly demanded. The authors have tried to fabricate porous materials from those two materials by using the hydrothermal treatment. In the present work, hydrothermal hot pressing technique was conducted at 250-350°C. From BF slag, a heat-insulating material was obtained, possessing the low thermal conductivity of 0.25 W / m K. SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glass was converted into glass containing water which exhibits the foaming as low as 200°C and becomes porous glass material.

  12. Strengthening effects of finely ground fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, and their combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. [Southwest Inst. of Tech., Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Pu, X. [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ. (China)

    1998-12-01

    The effect of finely ground fly ash (FGFA), finely ground granulated blast furnace slag (FGGBS), and their combination on the compressive strength of concrete was studied. Test results showed that incorporating 20% FGFA or FGGBS can significantly increase the compressive strength of concrete after 3 days. The compressive strength of concrete incorporating the combination of FGFA and FGGBS is higher than both FGFA concrete and FGGBS concrete, and is quantitatively similar to that of silica fume concrete. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that, after the incorporation of the combination of FGFA and FGGBS, a great quantity of a stick-like substance exist in the surface of hardened paste being investigated. The electron probe x-ray microanalyzer analysis showed that the stick-like substance was most probably the sheet C-S-H rolled up during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopic analysis, which may be the mechanism of the strengthening effect of the combination of FGFA and FGGBS.

  13. The use of blast furnace slag in North Sea cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saasen, A.; Salmelid, B.; Blomberg, N.; Hansen, K.; Young, S.P.; Justnes, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses further the application of Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) in the cementing of oil and gas wells, with particular emphasis being placed on the suitability of BFS for offshore operations in the North Sea. The paper outlines the chemical reactions which occur during curing of BFS and discusses effects of different BFS sources and testing requirements. The application of BFS as a drilling fluid additive to improve cement bonding by solidification of the filter cake is discussed with respect to the effects of BFS on drilling fluid rheology and fluid loss. BFS is found suitable for low volume operations such as plug cementing, however wider use BFS is seen to be limited by logistics and occupational safety aspects for offshore North Sea applications. The environmental benefits to be gained by use of BFS is limited.

  14. Stabilisation of erodible soil by fly ash and blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraratna, B.; Salim, W. [Civil Engineering Division, University of Wollongong, N.S.W., Wollongong (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Residual soils are found on large terrains which are often subjected to considerable erosion. This paper presents a detailed laboratory evaluation of the effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on two different soils: (a) culluvium (sandy loam) from New South Wales, Australia and (b) erodible dispersive clay from northeast Thailand. Geotechnical tests were conducted to determine the compaction characteristics and the compressive and shear strength properties of the blended and natural soil specimens. The effect of the above mentioned industrial wastes on the rate of erosion and on the associated pH levels is also investigated. Fine grained fly ash is found to be useful as a void filler if used in substantial quantities, whereas selfhardening milled slag is more effective in terms of improving the internal friction angle of the treated soil. 18 refs.

  15. Pore solution chemistry of alkali-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.; Jennings, H.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The chemical composition and pH of the pore solution extracted from six different ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) pastes were determined. The concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg are functions of the pH of the aqueous phase, with high pH associated with the higher concentrations of Si and Al and the lower concentrations of Ca and Mg. When GGBFS is mixed with an aqueous phase with pH higher than 11.5, the reaction is activated or accelerated. The main hydration product was identified as C-S-H, and hydrotalcite, at later stages of hydration, was observed in the pastes with an aqueous phase of a high pH. The effect of pore solution on the alkali activation of GGBFS is discussed with reference to the hydration products.

  16. Properties of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Siddique

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal strength (NSC and high-performance concretes (HPC are being used extensively in the construction of structures that might be subjected to elevated temperatures. The behaviour of concrete structures at elevated temperatures is of significant importance in predicting the safety of structures in response to certain accidents or particular service conditions. This paper deals with the mechanical properties of concrete made with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS subjected to temperatures up to 350 °C. For this purpose, normal concrete having compressive strength of 34 MPa was designed using GGBFS as partial replacement of cement. Cylindrical specimens (150 × 300 mm were made and subjected to temperatures of 100, 200 and 350 °C. Measurements were taken for mass loss, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity. This investigation developed some important data on the properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperatures up to 350 °C.

  17. A study on the stabilization/solidification process using blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S.K.; Pang, W.K.; Kim, C.E. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, S.H. [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    It is a fundamental experiment to use blast-furnace slag in solidification/stabilization process. The compressive strength and leaching test of Pb and Cr doped slag samples were evaluated and the effects of heavy-metal ions on the hydration of slag was investigated. Sodium silicate(5 wt%) was added as alkali-activator and the effects of replacing a part of slag with flyash or gypsum was also discussed. Pb ion was solidified by encapsulation of matrix. In case of slag + gypsum binder, microstructure was densified by accelerating to form AFt/AFm phase and compressive strength was improved, resulting in reducing leaching amount of Pb ion. Cr ion was solidified by substituting with Al ion in aluminate product. Slag + fly ash binder improved compressive strength and decreased leaching amount of Cr ion. 20 refs., 9 figs.,1 tab.

  18. SOME DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF GROUND BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND GROUND BASALTIC PUMICE CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi B?R?NC?

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the durability properties of the concrete incorporating ground blast furnace slag (GBS and ground basaltic pumice (GBP each separately or both together were investigated. The fine aggregate of concrete were replaced by GBS and GBP. The abrasion of concrete, compressive strength and microstructure of concrete, which were immersed in sea, was determined. The mechanical abrasion of concretes, which were immersed in tap water, was also determined. The test results showed that the presence of GBS and GBP had a beneficial effect on the compressive strength and chemical abrasion value. The results indicate that the durability of concrete depending on the types and amount of additives. Furthermore, specimen which was made equal percentage of GBS and GBP was found to have higher seawater attack resistance than that of the control concrete. Results showed that concrete used in marinastrucrute, the use of GBS and GBP as fine aggregate could be enhanced concrete durability.

  19. Influence of additions of coal fly ash and quartz on hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Z.; Jin, F.; Hashida, T.; Yamasaki, N.; Ishida, E.H. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School for Environmental Studies

    2008-07-15

    Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified hydrothermally with tobermorite formation. The experimental results showed that the addition of fly ash and quartz was favorable to the formation of tobermorite, and the strength development of solidified body depended on both of the tobermorite formation and filling degree of formed tobermorite in the spaces between BFWS particles. The fly ash added appeared to have a higher reactivity than the quartz used during the initial hydrothermal processing due to the higher solubility of glassy phase in fly ash. The tobermorite formation seemed to be very sensitive to the fly ash content, e.g., the addition of fly ash 10-20 mass% was favorable to tobermorite formation, while the excessive addition of fly ash (> 20 mass%) appeared to impede the tobermorite formation. The excessive addition of quartz was also shown to exert a negative effect on the tobermorite formation, which causes strength deduction.

  20. Alkali-silicate admixture for cement composites incorporating pozzolan or blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivica, V. (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of construction and Architecture)

    1993-09-01

    This research was devoted to the study of the influence of the developed alkali-silicate admixture (AS admixture) on mortar properties. The obtained results shown that the admixture significantly increased the strength of the mortars made from portland cement (PC) and silica fume (SF) or blast furnace slag (SL). For example after 24 h hardening of mortar (30% SF + 70% PC), with the admixture, reached value of compression strength 18,7 MPa opposite to the value of 5.6 MPa of control mortar (100% PC). The same accelerating effect of AS admixture was observed also with mortar incorporating slag and with slag mortar (100% SL). Further results show that the mortars with AS admixture had an increased content of hydration products and substantially more dense pore structure than mortars of the same composition, but without the admixture.

  1. Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengying Li; Xiaohua Zhao [Shantou University, Shantou (China). Department of Civil Engineering

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study on the influence of combination of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) on the properties of high-strength concrete. A contrast study was carried out for the concrete (GGFAC) incorporating FA and GGBS, control Portland cement concrete and high-volume FA high-strength concrete (HFAC). Assessments of the concrete mixes were based on short- and long-term performance of concrete. These included compressive strength and resistance to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} attack. The microstructure of the concretes at the age of 7 days and 360 days was also studied by using scanning electron microscope. The results show that the combination of FA and GGBS can improve both short- and long-term properties of concrete, while HFAC requires a relatively longer time to get its beneficial effect.

  2. Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

    Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

  3. Circulating fluidized bed combustion ashes as an activator of ground vitrified blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salain, I.M.A.K. [Bandung Inst. of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Clastres, P. [INSA, Toulouse (France); Bursi, J.M. [Electricite de France (France); Pellissier, C. [Electricite de France (France)

    2001-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) is used to burn high sulfur combustibles cleanly and efficiently while complying with strict regulations regarding the reduction of atmospheric pollution. Electricite de France (EDF) has examined CFBC ash, particularly for civil and environmental applications. This paper described a study in which CFBC ash derived from coal combustion is used as an activator of ground vitrified blast furnace slag. Three samples of CFBC ashes were collected from power plants, of which 2 were fly ash, and one was a mixture of 50 per cent fly ash and 50 per cent bottom ash. The third sample was ground vitrified blast furnace slag used as a hydraulic road binder in France. This paper described the tests for expansion, mechanical strength, mineralogy, and differential thermal analysis. The expansion and mechanical performances presented by the blends were found to be greatly influenced by the type and the quantity of the CFBC ashes used. The optimum use of each type of CFBC ash in the blend was found to be between 15 and 25 per cent for optimum accelerated hydration of the slag. The study suggests that it is economically and environmentally feasible to use CFBC ash for civil engineering purposes for the synthesis of an inexpensive hydraulic binder given that CFBC ash is a waste product. At the optimum level, the flexural and compressive strength at 28 days can reach about 2.6 to 5.4 MPa and 30.7 to 54.0 MPa depending on the type of CFBC ash used. After 180 days these values increase significantly. This can be attributed to the massive formation of C-S-H gel combined with certain quantity of ettringite, with produces a small amount of expansion. It was noted, however, that in order to confirm these results, more research is needed on mortar or concrete samples as well as on other types of ash or slag. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value in concrete. Applications and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjuán, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience.

    Recientemente se ha incorporado un valor del coeficiente de eficacia K para la escoria de horno alto en la norma europea EN 206-1:2000. Los valores propuestos en los grupos de trabajo eran muy diversos ya que en algunos casos sólo consideraban la resistencia mecánica para su determinación mientras que en otros se remarcaba la importancia de tener en cuenta, además, aspectos relativos a la durabilidad del hormigón con dicha adición. En el presente artículo se discuten las ventajas y desventajas de proponer unos valores del coeficiente de eficacia K más o menos conservadores. La conclusión final se resume con la propuesta de una recomendación lógica que consiste en trasladar a cada país la elección del coeficiente K para que pueda aplicarse a los hormigones empleados en su territorio; tales valores de K deberán ser seleccionados de acuerdo con la experiencia de cada uno de los países.

  5. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  6. Influence of nut coke on iron ore sinter reducibility under simulated blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, E.A.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W.

    2010-04-15

    One of the most important factors to increase the economic efficiency of the blast furnace process is to reduced coke losses (undersieve product known as nut coke). In recent years there has been increased interest in mixing nut coke in the sinter layers. In order to clarify the influence of nut coke on sinter reducibility, sinter and sinter-nut coke mixtures were isothermally reduced with 30%CO-70%N{sub 2} at 1173-1523 K using a muffle furnace supported by an on-line gas analyser. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray technique were used to characterise the microstructure and the different phases developed in the original and reduced sinter. Sinter reduced without nut coke participation exhibited reduction retardation at elevated temperatures (>1373 K) while the presence of nut coke prevented such phenomena. The rate controlling mechanism of sinter and sinter-nut coke mixture was predicted from the correlation between apparent activation energy calculations, mathematical modelling derived from gas-solid reaction model and microstructure examination.

  7. Using a Mathematical Model of Counter-Current Flow in a Blast Furnace to Evaluate Reducibility of Iron-Ore-Bearing Raw Materials.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pust?jovská, P.; T?ma, J.; Stan?k, Vladimír; K?iš?ál, Ji?í; Jursová, s.; Bilík, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 86, ?. 4 (2015), s. 320-328. ISSN 1611-3683 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : blast furnace * ore burden reducibility * kinetic model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2013

  8. Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo / Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ulysses Forastieri de, Matos; José Adilson de, Castro.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de t [...] opo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque). Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente. Abstract in english Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnac [...] e where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

  9. Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Forastieri de Matos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque. Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

  10. Effects of social factors on supply and demand of portland blast-furnace slag cement. 2; Koro cement no riyo ni oyobosu shakaiteki shoyoin no kento. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uomoto, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Regarding portland blast-furnace slag cement, such social factors such as the backdrop, local features of production and consumption, prediction of production, etc., are discussed, as viewed by the construction industry, purchasers, and the State. The demerits of using blast-furnace cement in construction include retarded setting, initial strength degradation, and accelerated neutralization. On the other hand, however, there are merits of suppressed alkali-aggregate reaction and reduced heat of hydration. Purchasers find in blast-furnace cement such merits as improved concrete performance and reduced cost. In West Japan, more blast-furnace cement is consumed than in East Japan, because curing period prolongation that this cement wants is shorter thanks to moderate climate and a number of ironworks are sited in West Japan reducing the cost of cement transportation this eventually lowering the price of blast-furnace cement. The merit the State finds in the use of this cement involves energy saving and CO2 reduction. Blast-furnace slag does not necessitate baking in cement mills, and this saves energy and reduces CO2 emission. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Numerical investigation of gas flow through blast furnace shaft with designed layered structure of ore and coke burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing, G.L.; Ma, L.; Zhang, X.S.; Zhou, J.L.; Kuwabara, M.

    2010-10-15

    Detailed comments on governing equations and boundary conditions on which numerical results of gas flow in porous media should rely are presented. Numerical results are shown for the gas flow through a large blast furnace with designed layered structure of burdens. Not only the effects of radial and vertical distributions of resistance to flow but also the effects of different top profiles of burden, such as V-, M-shapes and V-shape with a side terrace, on the resultant gas flow are discussed in relation to the properties of burden, such as repose angle, particle size, voidage and different charging sequence. For the gas flow in a coaxial annulus bed, which is expected to appear in the lower part of blast furnace during a start-up or a blow-out operation, numerical predictions are compared with analytical ones based on a simple yet convenient gas flow model.

  12. Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as ? Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (?) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher ?r value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

  13. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkmen, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ozdemir, Yueksel [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Kurudirek, Murat; Demir, Faruk [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Simsek, Onder [Faculty of Education, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Demirboga, Ramazan [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1 keV to 2 MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume and blast furnace slag, lead to significant variations in total mass attenuation coefficients. The elemental compositions of samples were analyzed using a wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer. The calculated values of total mass attenuation coefficients were discussed on the basis of different percentages of constituents of cement and cement mixed with different additives.

  14. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía, J. M.; Puertas, F., Barba, A.

    2014-01-01

    [EN]This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised ...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF BINDERS FROM ALKALI-ACTIVATED MIXTURES OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH

    OpenAIRE

    JOZEF VL?EK; LUCIE DRONGOVÁ; MICHAELA TOPINKOVÁ; VLASTIMIL MAT?JKA; JANA KUKUTSCHOVÁ; MARTIN VAVRO; VÁCLAVA TOMKOVÁ

    2014-01-01

    The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB) and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as t...

  16. Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent; Zementierung von fluessigen radioaktiven Abfaellen - Huettensand als Bindemittelmatrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, L.

    2003-06-01

    During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl{sub 2}-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

  17. Influence of temperature on the wettability at the slag/carbon interface during pulverised coal injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [The Univ. of New South Wales, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    One of the factors that could limit the maximum rate of pulverised coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace is the accumulation of unburnt char, due to incomplete combustion. Consumption of this unburnt char in the blast furnace could result in achieving increased PCI rates. The Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Black Coal Utilisation in Australia, is engaged in several projects to develop an understanding of the possible modes of consumption of the unburnt char within a blast furnace, through investigation of the interaction of different carbonaceous materials with slag, metal and gas phases. This paper presents some of the results of the investigation of slag/carbon interactions, studied in terms of the wettability at the slag/carbon interface. Influence of temperature on the wettability at slag/carbon interface has been investigated by measuring the variation of dynamic contact angle with time, at 3 different temperatures, 1500 deg. C, 1600 deg. C and 1700 deg. C for a blast furnace slag composition interacting with various carbonaceous materials, including graphite and chars. An increase in temperature generally results in improved wettability at the slag/carbon interface. The wetting behaviour of the slag on different carbonaceous materials can be explained on the basis of the changes in the interfacial energy during the interaction. An increase in temperature is associated with a greater decrease in interfacial energy due to an increased extent and rate of the reduction reactions and a decrease in surface tension of the slag. This paper discusses the wettability of various carbonaceous materials by the slag at different temperatures and the associated phenomena. (au)

  18. Wettability of chars by blast furnace slags during pulverised coal injection - influence of char type and slag composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metha, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V.; Wall, T.F. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering, CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-12-31

    Describes a project to investigate the wettability of various carbonaceous substrates including a range of unburnt chars by blast furnace slags of different composition. It is concluded that the behaviour of slags can be classified broadly on the basis of their basicity. Slags with high basicity do not display a significant variation in wettability as a function of char type. The interaction of low basicity slag is strongly influenced by the ash content and composition of the carbonaceous material. 3 refs., 4 refs.

  19. The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Johansson Westholm

    2010-01-01

    Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns...

  20. A New Approach for Studying Softening and Melting Behavior of Particles in a Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjing; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2015-04-01

    The cohesive zone where ferrous burden materials soften and melt plays a critical role in determining the performance and stability of a blast furnace. The softening and melting behavior of ore particles significantly affects the layer permeability and structure, and subsequently changes the gas/liquid distribution and heat transfer in the cohesive zone. Wax balls are often used in physical experiments to study the ore softening and melting behavior because of their low melting temperature. In this work, a new approach on the basis of discrete element method is established. The relationship between Young's modulus ( E) and temperature ( T) of wax balls is first proposed based on the experimental data, and then implemented into a DEM model. The particle deformation, temperature, coordination number, and gas pressure drop under conditions relevant to blast furnace operations are then examined. The results show that the proposed approach can capture the main features of softening and melting behavior of particles. On this basis, the effects of a few variables are investigated. The approach and results should be useful to the establishment of a comprehensive picture about softening and melting behavior, and its effect on blast furnace operations.

  1. Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

  2. Production of carbon included sinter and evaluation of its reactivity in a blast furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijo, C.; Matsumura, M.; Kawaguchi, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, the reduction in the amount of the CO{sub 2} emission has become an important issue. It is important to increase the reactivity of iron sources used in a blast furnace to decrease of CO{sub 2} emission. Therefore, the carbon composite iron ore agglomerates are significant. The production experiments of a new agglomerate named CIS (Carbon Included Sinter), where green balls were granulated by a model pan pelletizer were carried out using pot tests. The reduction of produced CIS with CO-CO{sub 2} gas mixture were examined, and were compared with that of ordinary sinter ore. Also, the softening and melting property tests of 50% CIS-50% sinter mixed layer were carried out and compared with the results using 100% sinter layer. The results are summarized as follows: (1) A new agglomerate, which an anthracite particle was surrounded by a shell with the same components as ordinary sinter ore, was produced by sintering pot test. (2) When CIS was reduced by CO-CO{sub 2} gas mixture at 1, 273 K, the degree of reduction achieved 80% in 120 min, even though ordinary sinter ore achieved less degree of reduction. (3) 250 g CIS-250 g ordinary sinter ore packed bed achieved 1/3 maximum pressure drop of 500 g ordinary sinter ore packed bed in the softening-melting property test.

  3. Phase development and pore solution chemistry in ageing blast furnace slag-Portland cement blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) cement blends have certain advantages for their encapsulation of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. However, their hydration reactions are more complex than for Portland cement because Portland cements fully react within several years whereas slag hydration takes considerably longer. Empirical testing of blends matured for short periods, up to several years, are not therefore adequate to characterise the chemical immobilisation potential of such systems. A modelling approach is required to predict long-term properties. This paper is concerned with defining the internal environment within slag-cement matrices. The important parameters for definition are pH, Eh, solubilities and speciation in the aqueous phase, and solid phase equilibria. Compatibility studies in the CaO-CaSo4-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-H2O system are described and compared with the results of X-ray diffraction on pastes aged up to 2 years. In addition, pore water compositions for slag-rich cements are given, and the potential for predicting their redox level (Eh) by extending the present model is discussed

  4. Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? BFG or BFG+COG was burned in steel mill boilers. ? BFG was gradually added to replace COG in on-site experiments. ? As COG was decreased, the flame remained stable. ? Decreasing COG while keeping heat input constant reduced CO2 and NOx emissions. -- Abstract: In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO2 and NOx emissions.

  5. Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe3O4, magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe3+/Fe2+ mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe3O4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption (?23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  7. Dynamic shear strength of improved soil with B-type blast-furnace cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is attempted to apply the improved soil using cement materials as the hardening agent to the foundation ground of the important buildings for electric power plants. The current design procedure of the improved ground is based on the static strength such as the unconfined compressive strength of the improved soil. However, it is not clear whether the static strength is relevant to seismic designs where the effects of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake shall be considered. Hence, the authors studied the dynamic strength of the improved soil in comparison with the static strength, by executing a series of the cyclic triaxial tests with different loading frequencies and the consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests (CUB tests) with different axial strain rates. The tested soil specimens which have the unconfined compressive strength of about 5 MPa were made in laboratory using the mixture of a dredged marine clayey soil, a B-type blast-furnace cement (300 kg/m3) and water. Both of the CUB tests and the cyclic triaxial tests showed similar results with respect to the relationships between the strength and the strain rate. The larger the compressive strain rate was, the higher the strength became. It is concluded that the static strength could be used as a sufficiently safe value in seismic designs since the strain rate of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake is much larger than that of the static test. (author)atic test. (author)

  8. Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view

  9. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y-1 for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y-1. (authors)

  10. Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M.; Sainz, E.; Lopez, F.A. [National Center of Metallurgical Research, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Materials Recycling

    1996-10-01

    Glass precursor materials to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolyzing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

  11. Cement with silica fume and granulated blast-furnace slag: strength behavior and hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavetti, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of portland cement replacement by silica fume (up to 10% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 70% on the hydration cement (XRD, heat of hydration, non evaporable water content and calcium hydroxide content curing under sealed conditions and their effect on the mechanical strength. The obtained results indicate that binary cements containing silica fume and ternary cements there was a significant increase of hydration rate at early age. At later ages, most of studied cements have an equivalent or greater strength that those obtained in the plain portland cement.En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento portland de humo de sílice (hasta 10% y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 70% sobre la hidratación (DRX, calor de hidratación, contenido de agua no evaporable y de hidróxido de calcio, bajo condiciones de curado sellado y su incidencia sobre la resistencia mecánica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que en los cementos binarios con humo de sílice y en los cementos ternarios se produce un importante aumento de la velocidad de hidratación en las primeras edades, mientras que a edades más avanzadas la mayor parte del dominio estudiado alcanza o supera la resistencia obtenida por el cemento portland sin adición.

  12. Effect of Chemical Composition on the Latent Hydraulic Activity of Blast Furnace Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, P.K. [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Lim, Y.M. [Kwangju Health College, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    Glasses showing the composition of blast furnace slag were made in the laboratory, and the effect of the chemical composition on the latent hydraulic activity of the slags was examined. The latent hydraulicity was greatly influenced by the composition change, the optimal characteristic of the hydraulicity was achieved at the slag composition of 47CaO:20Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:33SiO{sub 2}. The content of CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were not equivalent to the hydraulic activity of the slags as the b-formula (KS S 5210) indicates. Good latent hydraulicity was shown when Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was richly contained at the high (CaO+Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}):SiO{sub 2} ratio, while the more the MgO content was, the more negative the result turned out. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Blast furnace slag-modified grouts for in situ stabilization of chromium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Blast furnace slag-modified grouts were used to stabilize soils contaminated with trivalent and hexavalent chromium. Slag content, grout/soil ratio and water/cementitious material ratio were varied to determine the effects on leachability of chromium, permeability and compressive strength. Slag-modified grouts successfully stabilized Cr(VI)-contaminated soil to give low leachability, thereby allowing omission of the pretreatment stage to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) necessary with lime and ordinary Portland cement stabilization procedures. Leachability of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) decreased with increasing slag content. The permanence of leach resistance is enhanced by higher slag levels in grout. Compressive strength of grout-treated soil ranges from 6 to 36 MPa and permeability is of the order of 10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s, depending on mix proportions. Slag-modified grouts have potential for in situ stabilization of Cr(III)- or Cr(VI)-contaminated landfills.

  14. Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2011-08-01

    The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

  15. Evaluation of the durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast-furnace slag based plasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerulli, T.; Pistolesi, C.; Maltese, C.; Salvioni, D.

    2001-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the differences in chemistry, morphology, mechanical properties and durability of different types of commonly used plasters and a mortar composed of a blast-furnace slag and hydrated lime. The following tests were performed to study the durability of the rendering mortars: (1) acid attack, efflorescence simulation by salt diffusion, freeze/thaw cycles, Taber abrasion, sulphate aggression and weathering. These tests were selected because they represent the main causes of chemical or physical degradation of building materials. The plasters were examined for the following physical properties: compressive strength, adhesion on brick, water absorption, specific gravity, total porosity, and water vapour permeability. X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravitational DSC, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the chemical effects related with the acid and sulphate attack and the hydration kinetics of different renders at 1 and 28 days. Slag normally improves the durability of concrete and mortars. For this reason, slag could potentially be used as rendering mortar in masonry construction and old buildings. It is more desirable than normal plaster because of its low cost, energy savings, durability and good mechanical properties. It was noted that the product should be properly formulated to have low water absorption, high permeability, low content of calcium hydroxide and no calcium carbonate. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 20 figs.

  16. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-01

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90° C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q2(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q0, Q1, Q2(1Al) and Q2 (where Qn(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO4] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO4]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO4] species (27Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species (27Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  17. Solid-particle erosion of a geopolymer containing fly ash and blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Goretta; Nan Chen; F. Gutierrez-Mora; J.L. Routbort; G.C. Lukey; J.S.J. van Deventer [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    2004-04-01

    Solid-particle erosion studies were conducted on a geopolymer derived from fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag. The erodent particles, 390 {mu}m angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, impacted at 30, 60, or 90{sup o}at a velocity of 50, 70, or 100 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates (ER) were obtained and the material-loss mechanisms were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The geopolymer responded to normal impact as a classically brittle material. Elastic-plastic indentation events led to formation of brittle lateral cracks that resulted in loss of material; erosion rate was proportional to erodent velocity to the 2.3 power. Impact at 60{sup o} produced similar results, with the erosion rates being in general slightly lower. Impact at 30{sup o} led to anomalously high erosion rates that were approximately independent of velocity. This response was attributed to presence of microcracks in the matrix and chipping of aggregates through propagation of radial cracks.

  18. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haoliang, E-mail: haoliang.huang@tudelft.nl [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Ye, Guang [Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Damidot, Denis [Université Lille Nord de France (France); EM Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, Douai (France)

    2014-06-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)? solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO??² ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  19. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiung-Fang Liu; Shin-Min Shih [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO{sub 2} under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO{sub 2}, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO{sub 2} capture, 0.45 g SO{sub 2}/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and molar content of Ca (M{sup -1}); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing S{sub g0}/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M.; Sáinz, E.; Lopez, F. A.

    1996-10-01

    Glass precursor materials, to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO3 or H2SO4) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolizing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

  1. Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

  2. Heat recovery from molten blast furnace slag in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, M.; Pickles, C.A. [Queen' s Univ., Dept of Mining Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Sridhar, R.; Lakshmanan, V.I. [ORTECH Process Research, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A method for heat recovery from molten blast furnace slag was investigated using a fluidized bed and a molten LiCl-KCl salt mixture. The effect of air flow rate, molten salt feed rate, and bed mass on the heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized bed were highlighted. Convective gas to particle heat transfer coefficients were measured in the fluidized bed; heat recovery efficiency ranged from 65 to 82 per cent. It was found that the molten salt feed rate and the mass of the fluidized bed did not directly affect heat transfer, however, these variables altered the regime of fluidization, which in turn had an effect on the operation of the bed and the heat transfer processes within it. The experiment proved that the small scale fluidized bed heat recovery system used in this study was not capable of industrial throughputs. It could not be immediately determined if this result was characteristic of the system or the scale on which the study was performed. It was suggested that a larger fluidized bed would allow for multiple feeding tubes and a greater surface area, both of which would be useful in determining viability on an industrial scale. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  4. on the Structure and Viscous Behavior of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Liao, Junlin; Zheng, Kai; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2014-10-01

    This study provided a fundamental analysis of the viscous behavior and structure of Ti-bearing blast furnace slags modified by different B2O3 additions with a basicity (CaO/SiO2) range of 0.5-0.9. The viscosity of slag melts was measured by rotating cylinder method, and the results showed that both slag viscosity and apparent activation energy for viscous flow remarkably decreased with B2O3 addition. To connect the viscosity variation of slags to the melt structure, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was performed. The results indicated that B2O3 acted as a typical network forming oxide, which was introduced into the network and existed dominantly as a two-dimensional structure, BO3 triangular. With the increase of B2O3 content, the stretching vibration of BO3 triangular gradually became more pronounced, which resulted in a simpler and less complex structure and caused the decrease of slag viscosity.

  5. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

  6. Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Chemistry Dept.

    1997-05-01

    The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic studies were undertaken to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects of the process. The uptake of lead is found to be greater than that of chromium. Adsorption on activated slag follows both Freundlich and Langmuir models. In addition, a series of fixed-bed experiments were performed in an attempt to simulate industrial conditions. The bed-depth-service-time (BDST) model proposed by Hutchins was successfully applied to the sorptive removal of lead. Some experiments were also performed with a view to recover Pb{sup 2+} and chemically regenerate the spent slag columns in situ.

  7. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemskov, Serguey V.; Ahmad, Bilal; Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Vermolen, Fred J.

    2013-02-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

  8. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.s [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 {+-} 0.011 and 0.038 {+-} 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  9. Strength properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, O.; Yuksel, I.; Muratoglu, O. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash (FA) are by-products of thermal power plants. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) is developed during iron production in iron and steel plants. This research was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength property and some durability characteristics of concrete incorporating FA, CBA, and GBFS. FA is used as an effective partial cement replacement; CBA and GBFS are used as partial replacement for fine aggregate without grinding. Water absorption capacity, unit weight and compressive strengths in 7, 28, and 90-day ages were assessed experimentally. For these experiments, concrete specimens were produced in the laboratory in appropriate shapes. The samples are divided into two main categories: M1, which incorporated CBA and GBFS; and M2, which incorporated FA, CBA, and GBFS. Remarkable decreases are observed in compressive strength and water absorption capacity of the concrete; bulk density of the concrete is also decreased. It can be concluded that if the content of CBA and GBFS is limited to a reasonable amount, the small decreases in strength can be accepted for low strength concrete works.

  10. on the Crystallization Behaviors of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2014-08-01

    The present paper investigates how the P2O5 addition influences the crystallization behaviors of Ti-bearing blast furnace (Ti-BF) slags with different basicity using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique. It was found that the basicity showed a significant effect on the crystallization behaviors of the Ti-BF slags, and the trend of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased while the trend of formation of dendrite crystal increased with increasing basicity. The addition of P2O5 was found to promote the formation of rod-shape crystal. The basicity and crystallization temperature that the rod-shape crystal could be formed increased, while the incubation time of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased with increasing P2O5 content. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe the morphology and determine the crystalline phase of the Ti-enriched crystals. The results indicated that the rod-shape crystal was rutile. The kinetics of the formation of rutile was studied, and the mechanism of crystallization and growth was further discussed. The results indicated that the crystallization of rutile was one-dimensional interface-controlled growth, and the nucleation rate varied with the holding time.

  11. Durability of reinforced concrete structures using blast-furnace slag cement. 2. Koro cement wo mochiita tekkin concrete kozobutsu no taikyusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, A. (Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion was given on the results of laboratory studies and actual structure investigation of durability and strength in blast-furnace slag cement concrete. The neutralization depth in an actual structure using blast-furnace slag cement concrete was found equivalent to that in the result of the laboratory studies, and its difference from that in the ordinary Portland cement was little if compared under a condition of the compression strength being regarded identical. What has been said on the blast-furnace slag cement concrete that its compression strength grows largely over an extended period of time was verified on the actual structures. Shrinkage in the blast-furnace slag cement concrete due to drying is equivalent to or less than that in the ordinary Portland cement if careful concrete placement, compaction and aging are carried out. Amount of cracks generated in the actual structures was also small. Structures built in the investigated ordinary areas, cold districts, and near coast areas were all found healthy. These facts lead to a belief that reinforced concrete structures using blast-furnace slag cement can maintain sufficient durability. 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  13. [Emission characteristics of PM2.5 from blast furnace iron making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-zhen; Zhao, Ya-li; Zhao, Hao-ning; Liang, Xing-yin; Sun, Jing-wen; Wang, Bao-gui; Wang, Ya-jun

    2014-09-01

    Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to online analyze the PM2.5 particle size and mass concentration distribution in the trapping field and ore tank of blast furnace iron-making plant. Results showed that the grain number concentration of PM2.5 in trapping field after dust removal was in the range of 10(5)-10(6)cm-3 , and the particle size was mainly below 0. 1 ?m. While the grain number concentration of the PM2.5 in ore tank after dust removal was in the range of 10(4)-10(5) cm-3, the particle size was mainly below 1.0 ?m, and the mass concentration distribution showed a single peak. The micro-morphology of PM2.5 monomer was mainly divided into two categories, spherical particles and irregular aggregates. Chemical composition analysis indicated that the concentrations of water soluble SO(2-)(4) , K+ , Ca2+ were higher than other ions in PM2.5, with the percentage of 10. 32% -28.55% , 10. 36% -12. 15% , 3.97% -15. 4% , respectively. The major elements was Fe, Si, Al, with 16. 8% -31. 62% , 2. 24% -8.76% , 1.24% -5. 89% of total mass, respectively; organic carbon and elementary carbon were 2. 7% -4. 6% and 0. 8% -1. 3% , respectively. The emission factors of PM2.5 in trapping field and in ore tank after dust removal were ranged from 0.045 to 0.085 kg t(-1) and 0.042 to 0.071 kg t-1, respectively. PMID:25518643

  14. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relación escoria/metacaolín son los parámetros más relevantes.

  15. Structure, Growth Process, and Growth Mechanism of Perovskite in High-Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Hu, Meilong; Xu, Yuzhou; Bai, Chenguang; Gan, Yunhua

    2015-05-01

    The isothermal crystallization of perovskite in TiO2-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO high-titanium-bearing blast furnace slag was observed in situ at 1698 K (1425 °C) using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The dendrite structure of perovskite (CaTiO3) thus obtained showed vividly the primary dendrite trunks and secondary dendrite arms. Furthermore, the dendritic growth of perovskite in liquid slag was clearly observed on line. The results showed that the dendrite arrays in which the primary dendrite trunks observed on slag surface were parallel with each other grew toward the same direction. The secondary dendrite arms grew in the perpendicular direction with the primary trucks and stopped growing when they encounter. The perovskite dendrites showed a linear growth at two stages. The dendrites grew faster at early stage at about 5 to 7 ?m/s and grew with a lower growth rate at about 1 to 2 ?m/s in later stage. Finally, the growth mechanism of perovskite in melt was analyzed with the solidification theory. Based on the theoretical calculation of equilibrium phases in slag, the initial slag could be considered as a binary component system. One component was perovskite and the other component was the sum of all the other species that did not attend the crystallization of perovskite (included SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO, as well as CaO and TiO2 that were not involved in the solid formation). The formation of perovskite required the diffusion of CaO and TiO2 to the solid/liquid interface and the rejection of the other species from the interface. The solid/liquid equilibrium schematic diagram was made based on the calculation.

  16. Chloride induced corrosion of steel bars embedded in ecocement-blast-furnace slag mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampadu, K.O.; Torii, K.; Kubota, T. [Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan has developed a new type of hydraulic cement using incinerator ashes as part of the raw material. The process for making ecocement is similar to that of normal portland cement, but the raw material includes up to 50 per cent incinerator ash. The added benefit of this product is that it addresses the problem of ash disposal in Japan. The two types of ecocement are rapid hardening ECO-I with high chloride content, and portland cement type ECO-II with low chloride content. This study examined the effect of the blast furnace on the corrosive behavior of steel bars embedded in mortars made from the two types of ecocement. Mortar specimens were prepared with mild steel and stainless steel bars and were then exposed to severe saline conditions. The corrosion was electro-chemically measured and chloride concentration profiles were determined after specific exposure periods. The study demonstrated the beneficial effect of slag on the initiation of corrosion and the degree of corrosion of the steel bars. The chloride binding and microstructure was shown to have improved in both ecocements. The chlorides in ECO-I formed calcium chloro-aluminate, while the chlorides in ECO-II vaporized in the sintering process and combined with alkalis. This paper also described the half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance, the physical measurements and the linear polarization resistance and corrosion current. Calcium hydroxide content and hydration products were also described along with weight loss and corroded areas. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5?10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5?10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  18. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  19. Environmental effects of pulverised fuel ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrot, L.J. [British Cement Association (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of pulverised-fuel ash (fly ash) and ground granulated blast-furnace slags (ggbs) on the environmental performance of typical UK concretes were illustrated and the influence on the rate of compressive strength was examined. Approximately half of the environmental impacts of concrete at construction sites are derived from cement. Therefore, any reduction of cement-related environmental impacts through the use of fly ash and ggbs would have a net environmental benefit. Process inputs (such as the use of minerals and primary energy), waste generation and waste product utilization, and carbon dioxide emissions into the air were the main environmental issues that were addressed in this paper. This paper referred to the provision of one cubic metre of concrete to a construction site using a C30 portland cement concrete as a reference material for 30 per cent fly ash and 50 per cent ggbs concretes, and assumed 3 alternative ages of compressive strength equivalence of 2, 28 and 56 days. The benefits of using fly ash and ggbs were then assessed by comparing the impacts of producing 40 million cubic metres of concrete, a minimum UK annual production, with and without their inclusion. The same three alternative ages of compressive strength equivalencies were used along with the assumption of using 4 per cent and 8 per cent fly ash and ggbs by mass. Fly ash and ggbs was found to yield significant improvements in the environmental performance of concrete cured at 20 degrees C. It was shown that carbon dioxide emission did not prove to be a reliable proxy for other environmental impacts. It was recommended that more studies are needed to optimise the balance between total costs, cost of materials, use of water-reducing admixtures, construction speed, curing temperature, mechanical performance, durability and environmental performance. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  1. Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluorgypsum contents and lower Portland cement contents. These cements generated heats of hydration of 40–57 KJ/Kg after 28 hours, which are lower than portland cement.Se realizó la caracterización de la hidratación, desarrollo de resistencia y la composición de los productos de hidratación de los cementos supersulfatados durante las primeras 48 horas y hasta 360 días. Se estudiaron dos composiciones de 80% de Escoria de alto horno, 10–15% de Fluoryeso y 10–5% de Cemento portland, se curaron en condiciones secas y húmedas. Los principales productos de hidratación fueron etringita y C-S-H desde las primeras horas y hasta 360 días, como se evidenció por difracción de rayos X, análisis térmico y microscopía electrónica de barrido. La resistencia se favoreció con mayor contenido de fluoryeso y bajos contenidos de cemento portland. Estos cementos generaron calores de hidratación de 40–57 KJ/Kg después de 28 horas, los cuales resultan más bajos que los generados por el cemento portland.

  2. Performance studies of mud converted to cement (blast furnace slag cement), DEA-87. Final report, December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlich, J.P.; Benton, W.; Bodenhamer, W.; Choi, H.J.; Edwards, T.

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a Joint Industry Project investigating the performance of mud converted to cement using Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). This paper compares BFS/muds to conventional Portland cements in various simulated cementing applications. The poject covers the test results from converting dispersed and PHPA drilling fluids to cement, in comparison to conventional low fluid loss Portland cements. The tests simulated a geopressured gas well by use of a large scale physical model. In addition, the dimensional stability of the BFS/mud is presented.

  3. A Novel Conversion of Ti-Bearing Blast-Furnace Slag into Water Splitting Photocatalyst with Visible-Light-Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huihong; Li, Ning; Wu, Xingrong; Li, Liaosha; Gao, Zhifang; Shen, Xingmei

    2013-12-01

    A novel visible-light-response photocatalyst was prepared through the heat treatment of Ti-bearing blast-furnace slag with sodium nitrate and subsequently leaching processes in which most of the SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO in Ti-slag (TS) have been separated. The photocatalytic activity of the TTS was studied by observing the evolution of H2 under the UV-Vis and visible light. Compared with the TS and commercial perovskite CaTiO3, the sample prepared exhibited an exclusive visible-light-response activity and enhanced H2 evolution.

  4. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements; Difratometria de raios X de pastas de cimento Portland comum e de alto-forno submetidas a cura termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarini, G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Djanikian, J.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1994-12-31

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95{sup 0} C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha / Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. M. F., Vieira; C. A. C. M., Dias; A. V., Mothé; R., Sánchez; S. N., Monteiro.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica [...] . Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada. Abstract in english This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to [...] mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

  6. Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

  7. Development of an Operation Support System for the Blast Furnace in the Ironmaking Process: Large-scale Database-based Online Modeling and Integrated Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Harutoshi; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Uchida, Kenko; Matsuzaki, Shinroku; Ito, Masahiro

    In the pig-ironmaking process, factors that cause operation malfunctions have increased with both the enlargement of the blast furnace and the increasing use of low quality ore. Therefore, an operation support system that predicts blast furnace performance is demanded. This paper reports the development of a blast furnace operation support system with an integrated simulator and “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM).” To develop the integrated simulator, a sophisticated burden distribution model is integrated with a two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state by using Java technology. Moreover, an integrated simulator for the partial non-stationary state is developed by modifying the two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state. To incorporate the LOM system into the operation support system, a cross-platform LOM system with general versatility is rebuilt by an existing LOM system. The operation support system is realized by the simulator of the physical modeling method and the LOM of the local modeling method. As a result, the operation support system predicts a dynamic molten pig-iron temperature in the blast furnace. The operation support system is expected to provide staff with useful information.

  8. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  9. Integration of the blast furnace route and the FINEX {sup registered} -Process for low CO{sub 2} hot metal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Christoph; Schenk, Johannes L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Chair of Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria); Tappeiner, Tamara; Kepplinger, Werner L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria); Plaul, Jan Friedemann [Siemens VAI Metals Technologies GmbH, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Stefan [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    The blast furnace is the most important process for the production of hot metal. An integral part of this process route is the coking of coal and sintering of fine ore. The FINEX {sup registered} -process is a new technology for hot metal production which uses untreated fine ores and coal instead of sinter and coke. This paper deals with the investigation of integration concepts of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered}. Low reduced iron (LRI) and/or reducing gas are/is produced in FINEX {sup registered} and are/is considered as substitute/s of burden and fuel in the blast furnace, respectively. In the article the overall fuel demand and CO{sub 2} emissions for the integration of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered} are shown. For that reason two case studies for the integration are carried out and compared with the base case, that is, the two-independent processes. The CO{sub 2} emissions are calculated considering the fuel and electric power consumption of the different cases. (Copyright copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Effects of social factors on supply and demand of Portland blast-furnace slag cement. 1; Koro cement no riyo ni oyobosu shakaiteki shoyoin no kento. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Uomoto, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1997-08-01

    This paper summarizes historical and organizational backgrounds related to production and consumption of blast-furnace slag cement in Japan. Production ratio of blast-furnace slag cement to the whole cement was 20% or more during World War II, but it has declined to less than 10% from 1946 to the high economic growth period of 1973. During this period, the separation-crushing manufacturing method which is easy in quality control has been established, and standardization into Japan Industrial Standard, classification and improvements in standards have been progressed. From 1974 to 1988, such technological and social demands have become stronger as suppression of hydration heat and alkaline aggregate reaction, disposal of by-products, and energy conservation. Production during 1976 through 1991 has increased by six times, and the production in 1991 has reached 15.48 million tons. Advantages in using blast-furnace slag cement include energy conservation, reduction in CO2 emission, suppression in alkaline aggregate reaction, suppression in hydration heat, production cost reduction, and disposal of by-products. Difficulties may be represented by reduction in share of Portland cement, servicing of silos, and extension of curing time. Production amount of water granulated slag in the blast-furnace slag used as the raw material may be determined by steel mills, which is continuing increase year after year. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Nanoparticles in concrete. ? Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. ? Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(use of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  12. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace tuyeres three of the Usiminas, Ipatinga Plant; Injecao de gas natural nas ventaneiras do alto-forno 3 da Usiminas, Usina de Ipatinga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de; Hostt, Helton [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Reducao

    2011-12-21

    The reduction in production costs is a major strategic objectives of Usiminas and the use of natural gas in the Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) contribute to achieve this goal. The use of natural gas as fuel in the BF 3 to reduce the use of metallurgical coke (main fuel) and reduces production losses during periods of maintenance in the pulverized coal injection system and improving operational control of the Blast Furnace. The work presents the deployment of the natural gas injection and the performance obtained by the BF 3 from the start of injection, with a focus on reducing consumption of metallurgical coke and stable operation of blast furnace (author)

  13. Study of the devitrification and hydration of vitreous, high-magnesia blast-furnace slag by means of differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) curves are presented for vitreous blast-furnace slag with a high magnesia content and an explanation for the various peaks on the curves is given. It is shown how DTA data can be used to estimate the slag content of mixtures of unhydrated Portland cement and granulated blast-furnace slag. DTA thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data are presented for blast-furnace slag hydrated in ambient conditions, in boiling water and in steam at 215 degrees Celsius. The products of hydration are mentioned. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the magnesium in the slag during hydration

  14. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la presencia de char, muestra que con el aumento de la concentración del char, la resistencia del coque después de la reducción se hace más pequeña. La reactividad del char con el CO2 es más elevada que con la del coque. Por tanto, el char se consume con preferencia. En presencia del char inyectado aumentan el volumen total de poros del coque y la resistencia al desgaste. Se ha estudiado la reactividad y microestructura del coque con la presencia de distintos tipos de cenizas. Se observaron muchas esferas de ceniza sobre la superficie matriz del coque y el tamaño de las esferas depende de la naturaleza de las cenizas.

  15. Computational Study of Blast Furnace Cooling Stave using Heat Transfer Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Akash Shrivastava,; Dr. R.L. Himte,

    2012-01-01

    Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the metallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is hence a matter of trade-offs and differs for every metallurgical application. This paper g...

  16. The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Johansson Westholm

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on Phosphorus (P removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%, P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  17. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  18. Utilization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag as an alternative silica source in reactive powder concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halit Yazici; Huseyin Yigiter; Anil S. Karabulut; Bulent Baradan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty

    2008-09-15

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is an ultra high strength cement-based material. Cement and silica fume (SF) content of RPC are generally rather high compared to the conventional concrete. The aim of this study is to decrease the cement and SF content of RPC using with fly ash (FA) and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The effect of these mineral admixtures on compressive strength of RPC has been investigated under autoclave curing. In the first stage, the effect of autoclave time and SF content on compressive strength was determined. In the second stage, SF was gradually decreased and cement was replaced with FA and/or GGBFS at different proportions. The microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test results indicate that, the utilization of FA and/or GGBFS in RPC is possible without significant mechanical performance loss. SEM micrographs revealed the tobermorite having different morphology. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF BINDERS FROM ALKALI-ACTIVATED MIXTURES OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOZEF VL?EK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as their final properties. The amorphous character of the hydration products makes evaluation of the phase composition of hardened AAB difficult and significantly limits the number of experimental techniques suitable to characterise their phase composition. It was observed that measuring the pH of water extracts obtained from the alkali-activated mixtures can give supplementary information about the process of hardening of alkali-activated mixtures of GBFS and fly ash.

  20. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Maia Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5, using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC and pH (9 and 12. Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC; Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC. An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

  1. The radiation stability of ground granulated blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement grouts containing organic admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.D.; Fairhall, G.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    At the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom, cement grouts based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are used extensively for immobilizing radioactive wastes. These grouts have excluded organic admixtures in order to reduce process complexity and uncertainties, regarding the performance of organic admixtures with BFS/OPC grouts, particularly under irradiation. This study has investigated the effects of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde and naphthalene condensates on grout properties. The results show grout settlement and strengths increase on addition of additives, with the additives remaining largely in the pore solution. Under irradiation the additives breakdown liberating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Strength and product dimensions are unaffected by irradiation.

  2. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno / Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monaliza Maia, Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira, Cunha; José Augusto Martins, Corrêa.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperatu [...] re two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

  3. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Monaliza Maia Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira Cunha; José Augusto Martins Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of al...

  4. Coal-char/slag interactions during pulverised coal injection in a blast furnace: reaction kinetics and wetting investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Material Science & Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The kinetics of reactions taking place in the slag/carbon interfacial region was investigated at 1,500{sup o}C for a range of carbonaceous materials, namely synthetic graphite, natural graphite and two coal-chars. Two blast furnace slags, one rich in iron oxide and other rich in silica were used in this study. Slag/carbon reactions were studied in a horizontal tube resistance furnace in argon atmosphere, using the sessile drop approach. The volumes of CO and CO{sub 2} evolved were obtained from an analysis of off-gases with the help of a mass spectrometer. These reactivity studies were supplemented with wettability measurements on these systems. With iron oxide rich slag 1, all carbonaceous materials showed non-wetting behaviour without much improvement with time. With silica rich slag 2, natural graphite and coal-chars showed dynamic wetting after some time. Synthetic graphite however continues to remain non-wetting. Reduction of iron oxide was a predominant reaction with slag 1 and reached completion for all carbon substrates. Reduction of silica, main reaction with slag 2, was however partial with considerable amounts of unreduced silica remaining behind even after 1,800 s of contact. Overall reaction rates in the initial stages of contact were quite similar for both graphites whereas both coal-chars showed relatively high reaction rates. These results point towards the important roles played by the chemical composition of slags and carbonaceous materials in reduction reactions.

  5. SOLIDIFICATION ACCELE RATION AND SOLIDIFIED SHEAR STRENGTH EVALUATION OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Kenji; Kimura, Junji; Mizutani, Taka-Aki

    From the results of site observations, granulated bl ast furnace slug (GBFS) is solidifying w ith time. It takes a long time to solidify the whole of GBFS, b ecause GBFS observed was no t fully solidified in 18 months. It means if GBFS is used with relied on its solidification, a treatment for acceleratin g the solidification of GBFS is needed. For discus sing this point, the condition for solidifying GB FS is checked in series of laboratory experiments. It was clarified that adding micro powder of furnace slag to GBFS is effective for accelerating the solidification of GBFS unde r sea water. Failure crite ria of solidified GBFS are explained with internal friction a ngle and cohesion intercept. Failure criteria for residual condition of GBFS are explained by internal friction angle only. These parameters can be estimated from a single triaxial experiment.

  6. The Balance of Titanium and Vanadium in the Blast Furnace with the Use of Sinter Containing a Titanium-Vanadium-Magnetite Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik, R.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation concerned the use of sinter containing a titanium-vanadium-magnetite concentrate for the production of pig iron. Sinter containing 0,46 to 0,51 % TiO2 and 0,056 to 0,060 % vanadium was used for pig iron production in the blast furnace. Introducing 200 kg of this concentrate to the1 Mg sinter mix did not cause any deterioration of sinter quality.

  7. Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Zhao; Zuotai Zhang; Xulong Tang; Lili Liu; Xidong Wang

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF) slag modified by coal ash (CA). The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The ...

  8. Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Cioffi; Francesco Colangelo

    2013-01-01

    In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on ...

  9. Construction of the Satsunai River Dam with RCD concrete containing blast furnace slag; Koro suragu bifunmatsu no RCD koho to Nihon ichi utsukushii kasen (Satsunai gawa Damu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, T. [Hokkaido Inst. of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-02-15

    At the foot of the Hidaka Mountain Range in Hokkaido a construction of the Satsunai River Dam is being advanced. The largest distinctive feature of the Satsunai River Dam is that the blast furnace fine particles were used for the RCD work method firstly in Japan. Conventionally as for the cement used for the RCD work method, the low exothermic type medium heat portland cement mixed with the fly ash in the degree of 20-30% is frequently used. Because it is anticipated that a stable supply of fly ash with a good quality will become difficult domestically for the future, a development of the cement possessing the equivalent capability will become to be necessary. Although an elevating effect for the long age strength of the concrete by mixing the blast furnace slag fine particles is well known, there was no actual record used for the RCD work method. In a series of tests covering over a long period, when a fineness of blast furnace slag was 400 m{sup 2}/kg as Blaine specific surface, and its replacement rate with the medium heat portland cement as the base cement was 65%, it sufficiently satisfied a quality as the RCD concrete, and moreover an elongation of the compression strength for a long term could be expected. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Properties of concrete using ground granulated blast-furnace slag as additive for concrete; Koro slag bifunmatsu wo konwazai toshite mochiita concrete no seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, A. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1994-08-15

    Properties of concrete using ground granulated blast-furnace slag as additive were studied. Portland cement, 4 types of ground granulated blast-furnace slag, aggregate, water, and a chemical additive were used as raw materials. Results of the study are summarized. In this study, any concrete showed good workability. With ground granulated slag, compressive strength of younger materials increased. Poisson`s ratio of 28-day-old material was 0.16 to 0.19. The shrinkage coefficient due to drying was about the same as that of concrete containing no ground granulated slag. Some specimens left alone for 3 years showed larger neutralization depth than concrete containing no slag mixed. There was no rusting of reinforcing bars. All concrete specimens achieved quality targets of high-durability concrete. Chemicals resistance was high where the water/binding material ratio was small, the blast-furnace slag replacement rate was large, and fineness was high. While the thermal resistance was lower than the chemicals resistance, they showed a similar trend. High-quality concrete is obtained by combining a water/binding material ratio, a replacement rate, and fineness. 8 refs., 7 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Study on the strength development of high blast-furnace slag content concrete; Koro slag kogan`yu concrete no kyodo hatsugen tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, J.; Togawa, K. [Wakayama National College of Technology, Wakayama (Japan); Fujii, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    The strength development characteristics of the high-blast furnace slag content concrete replaced with blast-furnace slag fine powder were investigated. General Portland cement was used in an experiment. River sand was used for fine aggregate, and crushed sand stone for coarse aggregate. Three types with different specific surface areas were selected as blast-furnace slag fine powder. A heat of initial hydration test, proctor needle penetration resistance test, and compressive strength test were made in the experiment. As a result of the experiment, the conclusion below was given. In the range of 4040 to 8160 cm{sup 2}/g, the initial and final setting times of slag cement paste and concrete are advanced as the fineness becomes high. The initial and final setting times are delayed as the replacement rate increases. However, they are rather advanced than for non-replacement when a replacement rate of 85% is exceeded. If the slag used and ageing temperature are the same, the inclination and section of a regression straight line obtained from the logarithmic value of compressive strength and accumulated temperature are plotted on a straight line irrespective of the slag replacement rate. 16 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The role of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Nanoparticles in concrete. {yields} Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. {yields} Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  13. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal

  14. Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalaily, N. A.; Khalil, Magda M. I.; Ahmed, L. S.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 °C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 °C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 °C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass.

  15. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, N. C.; Schwarz, R. R.; Bingham, P. A.; Stennett, M. C.; Corkhill, C. L.; Heath, P. G.; Hand, R. J.; James, M.; Pearson, A.; Morgan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80-95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  16. Effect of cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of perovskite in high titanium-bearing blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Hu, Mei-long; Bai, Chen-guang; Lü, Xue-wei; Xu, Yu-zhou; Deng, Qing-yu

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cooling rate on the crystallization of perovskite in high Ti-bearing blast furnace (BF) slag was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Results showed that perovskite was the primary phase formed during the cooling of slag. On the slag surface, the growth of perovskite proceeded via the successive production of quasi-particles along straight lines, which further extended in certain directions. The morphology and structure of perovskite was found to vary as a function of cooling rate. At cooling rates of 10 and 30 K/min, the dendritic arms of perovskite crossed obliquely, while they were orthogonal at a cooling rate of 20 K/min and hexagonal at cooling rates of 40 and 50 K/min. These three crystal morphologies thus obtained at different cooling rates respectively corresponded to the orthorhombic, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures of perovskite. The observed change in the structure of perovskite could probably be attributed to the deficiency of O2-, when Ti2O3 was involved in the formation of perovskite.

  17. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elalaily, N.A. [Department of Radiation Chemistry, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Khalil, Magda M.I. [Department of Radiation Physics, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: magdakhalil2002@yahoo.com; Ahmed, L.S. [Department of Radiation Chemistry, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-03-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass.

  18. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  19. Effects of cementitious slag content and aggregate type on properties and durability of portland blast furnace slag cement concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, G. J. [Building Research Establishment (United Kingdom); Connell, M.

    2000-07-01

    A series of durability studies were carried out on a variety of reinforced concrete block specimens after 7-8 months, 30 months, 7.5 years, and 10.5 years to test quality and performance. The concrete blocks contained a nominal total of 390 kg/cu m of cementitious content, and had different levels of granulate blast furnace slag in the range of 0, 30, 50 and 70 per cent by weight as replacement material for portland cement. The aggregate used was gravel in some cases, crushed limestone in others. Assessment involved early heat release data, measurement of the depth of carbonation, oxygen permeability and compressive strength. In each test due consideration was given to the cementitious slag content and the type of aggregate. Results showed minimal change in carbonation, even at high slag concentration. Gas permeability was slightly decreased as slag replacement levels were reduced from 70 per cent to 50 per cent. There were impressive gains in compressive strength for the slag cement concretes --in the range of 82.5 to 105 MPa at 7.5 years-- compared to plain portland cement concrete at 67.5 MPa; a clear demonstration of the long term beneficial effect of slag on strength development. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Field experience with application of blast furnace slag to the drilling and cementing program in the Stratton Field, South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daulton, D.J.; Bosworth, S.J.; Pumphrey, B.; McCathy, S.; Cantu, R.; Clendennen, J.

    1995-12-31

    In an attempt to provide better annular zonal isolation between productive (gas producing) and nonproductive (water bearing) intervals an unorthodox program was proposed and implemented based upon the incorporation of Quick Quenched Blast Furnace Slag (QQBFS) to both the drilling mud (universal fluid) and cement slurries. To date this is the deepest 7500 to 7900 ft (2345 to 2407 m) and hottest (225 F/107 C bottom hole static temperature) dual application of QQBFS in the industry. A four phase program of progressive steps were taken with respect to field application during this project to implement cost saving measures without sacrificing quality services. During this project, fourteen dual 2 7/8 in. (7.30 cm) 6.5 lb/ft (9.67 kg/m) N-80, EUE production strings were successfully completed within 9.875/8.75 inch (25.08/22.225 cm) hole. A dramatic reduction in remedial squeeze operations has been reported with no squeeze jobs being performed on the last seven (7) wells completed. This type of success will benefit not only operators but state and federal regulatory bodies who are seeking to determine the field worthiness of QQBFS as a hydraulic material alternative for the oil and gas industry.

  1. Aerated Blast-Furnace-Slag Filters for the Simultaneous Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Primary Facultative Pond Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Hamdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Abstract: Rock filters (RF are a promising alternative natural wastewater treatment technology for upgrading waste stabilization pond (WSP effluents.  However, the use of RF to remove nutrients, such as nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, is very limited. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the performance of aerated RF (ARF systems for removing both nitrogen and phosphorus from domestic wastewater using blast furnace slag (BFS as the filter medium. The performance of two aerated BFS filter systems, a horizontal-flow ARF and a vertical upflow ARF, was compared: for N and P removals. A further aim of the study was to determine if either or both of these BFS-ARF systems could produce effluents which complied with the nutrient removal requirements of the EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD (91/271/EEC for small communities. From the results of the present study it can be concluded that the both BFS-ARF are suitable unit processes for removing N and P from primary facultative pond effluents. The vertical-upflow BFS-ARF has the advantage of removing more ammonium-N (to below 1 mg N/L, but the disadvantage of removing less total-N. Further research on optimizing the design and performance of both BFS-ARF is warranted, and their performance in warm-climate countries requires to be investigated.

  2. Simulation of primary-slag melting behavior in the cohesive zone of a blast furnace, considering the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub t}O, and basicity in the sinter ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Mitsutaka; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Katsumata, Akitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy; Higuchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Kon-No, Norimitsu [Nippon Steel Corp., Futts (Japan). Process Technology Research Labs.

    1999-08-01

    The alumina content in the iron ore imported to Japan is increasing year by year, and some problems in blast furnace operation, due to the use of the high-alumina-containing sinter, have already been reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the harmful effect of alumina on the blast furnace operation, the behavior of the primary melt, which is formed in the sinter at the cohesive zone of the blast furnace, has been simulated by dripping slag through an iron or oxide funnel. The effects of basicity, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub t}O contents in the five slag systems on the dripping temperature and weight of slag remaining on the funnel have been discussed. It was found that the eutectic melt formed in the sinter would play an important role in the dripping behavior of the slag in the blast furnace through the fine porosity of the reduced iron and ore particles. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increased the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel, and its effect became very significant in the acidic and low-Fe{sub t}O-containing slag. It was estimated that the increase of the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the ore could result in a harmful effect on the permeability resistance and an indirect reduction rate of the sinter in the blast furnace.

  3. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  4. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  5. Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, N.; Galvosas, P.; Kärger, J.

    2001-07-01

    Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements.

  6. Self reaction behavior of wood flour added coal composite iron ore hot briquettes under a blast furnace simulated heat and load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanabe, K. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The coal composite iron ore hot briquette made by utilizing thermal plasticity of coal is recently developed as agglomerates without binder, which has several advantages to retain high density and strength during reaction at high temperatures. The charge of this briquette to a blast furnace is expected to enable more effectively higher reaction rates at lower temperatures than usual operation. Moreover, utilization of biomass as carbon neutral is essential to construct a sustainable society permitting to conserve global environment and save resources and energies. In this work, influence of substituting biomass (Cedar wood flour) for one tenth amounts of coal in hot briquettes was examined by carrying out self reaction tests of the briquettes in a N2 gas steam under heat and load in a laboratory scale blast furnace simulator. It was proved that both briquettes with or without biomass could retain an industrial allowable strength beyond 50 kgf/cm2 after reaction, while the addition of biomass enhanced a little more the shrinkage of briquettes in the higher temperatures above 1000{sup o}C. Both gasification of biomass added coal and reduction of iron ore during their reaction were evaluated and it was found that the former rates were a little smaller than the latter as a whole, irrespective of the addition of biomass. Carburization to metallic iron began at nearly 1200 {sup o}C and both briquettes have been melted down at 1400{sup o}C due to nearly carbon saturation in metallic iron with a graphite crucible.

  7. Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, X.F. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 313, Shenyang 110004 (China)], E-mail: leixuefei69@163.com; Xue, X.X. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 313, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2008-12-20

    Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

  8. The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, I.G.; Brough, A.R.; Groves, G.W.; Dobson, C.M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is the principal binding phase in hardened OPC pastes and concretes, and also when the OPC has been partially replaced by pozzolanic by-products such as ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and pulverized fuel ash. The C-S-H gels present in commercial blast-furnace slag and synthetic-slag glass pastes produced by hydrating with 5M KOH solution have been studied by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and [sup 29]Si and [sup 27]Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. They are related by both composition and morphology to the C-S-H gels present in slag-OPC paste but are more crystalline. The inner product C-S-H is intermixed on a fine scale with a Mg,Al-rich phase with a Mg/Al ratio of [approximately]2.5. The C-S-H in both inner and outer product contains substituted Al in tetrahedral co-ordination sites. The data are analyzed in terms of a model for the structure of C-S-H gel.

  9. Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42-/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO42- favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

  10. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production. Summarizing, the modern practices in the use of the auxiliary fuels, implemented in the AHMSA blast furnaces, have derived benefits, succeeding in diminishing the productions costs in the pig iron production process, faced to the true need of standing out in the even more competitive world of iron and steel industry of the world. [Espanol] Altos Hornos de Mexico es una industria siderurgica integrada al Grupo Acereros del Norte, localizada en la ciudad de Monclova Coahuila, contando con una capacidad anual instalada de 3.1 MMT de acero liquido. Dentro de sus instalaciones, AHMSA cuenta con el alto horno de mayor capacidad instalado en Mexico, el alto horno No. 5, el cual tiene un volumen util de 2,163 metros cubicos disenado para producir 4,800 toneladas de arrabio por dia. La meta basica a lograr en las operaciones involucradas en la elaboracion de acero via elaboracion de arrabio en el alto horno, es la produccion de metal caliente al mas bajo costo posible y dentro de los requerimientos de calidad especificado por las acerias. El mas importante criterio para la medicion del exito alcanzado es el consumo de combustible por tonelada de arrabio producida, siendo el coque el principal combustible alimentado al alto horno y por ende el que mayor impacto tiene sobre el costo final del producto. AHMSA contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico, la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivadas del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones mayores de 2.6 MMT de acero liquido. En respuesta a esto, y ante la verdadera necesidad de disminuir los costos de produccion en el proceso de elaboracion de arrabio, se han implementado nuevas practicas en el uso de los combustibles auxiliares que sustituyan en parte el consumo de coque metalurgico como fuente de energia en el proceso del alto horno. El uso del gas natural, combustoleo y el incremento paulatino de la temperatura de soplo caliente, han repercutido fuertemente en el consumo de coque metalurgico disminuyendolo considerablemente bajando los

  11. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

  12. Variations in phosphorus speciation in Pilot scale subsurface flow wetlands constructed with blast furnace slag and gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Baoqing; Hu, Chunming; Tang, Wenzhong; Cheng, Yajing [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Variations in phosphorus (P) speciation were compared for two types of pilot scale wetlands: a blast furnace slag-based constructed wetland (SCW), and a gravel-based constructed wetland (GCW). Synthetic secondary effluent was used as the influent of the wetlands, which contained 1.1 mg/L P with more than 95% present as soluble reactive P (SRP). However, dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) emerged in the water along both wetlands. The levels of these three P species varied between the two wetlands. The GCW was more efficient than SCW at removing SRP, but showed a different trend. SRP decreased continually in the SCW, while it increased at the end of the GCW due to biological release. DOP was constant in SCW and GCW, and the mean value was 0.023 and 0.020 mg/L, respectively. The mean values of PP in the GCW ranged between 0.093 and 0.216 mg/L; much higher than the 0.05 {+-} 0.01 mg/L measured in the SCW. Sequential extractions showed that iron bound PP (Fe-PP), aluminum bound PP (Al-PP), organic PP (Org-PP) and occluded PP (Oc-PP) were the major components of PP at most locations of the GCW. Fe-PP decreased from 0.53 to 0.14 mg/L in the upper layer, with DO steady at about 0.15 mg/L at the bottom. Oc-PP increased at each layer. Al-PP and Org-PP were steady in the first 140 cm of the GCW, but decreased sharply at the end. Considering the variation of SRP, DOP and PP fractionations, it can be seen that PP exchanged intensively with SRP in the GCW, and might act as an intermediate in the P removal process. Part of the SRP was first transformed into PP, and then absorbed by substrates or deposited in the wetlands. P removal was mainly via Ca precipitation in the SCW, but involved multiple mechanisms in the GCW, such as precipitation, adsorption and biological interactions. The multiple P removal mechanisms might be the reason for the low proportion of SRP, and the better P removal efficiency observed in the GCW. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Experimental studies on the properties of concrete for large segment using ground granulated blast furnace slag. Koro slug bifunmatsu wo shiyoshita ogata segment yo concrete no seishitsu ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, K.; Wasa, Y.; Abe, H.; Inoue, H.

    1994-05-20

    Properties of the concrete mixed with ground granulated blast furnace slag for large segments were studied experimentally to improve the durability of RC segment concrete for the shield tunnel of the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. As a result, the concrete with fine blast furnace slag powder showed the same strength occurrence as ordinary concrete even as cured with steam, while the initial strength deteriorated at lower temperatures. Eighteen-hour strength increased with the maximum temperature and duration of steam curing, and the temperature of mixing water was desirable to be 40[degree]C or less. Temperature rise in concrete members could be reduced by mixing fine blast furnace slag powder even as cured with steam, and thermal cracking was hardly generated below in 45[degree]C maximum temperature of steam curing. The concrete superior in water-tightness, diffusion resistance of NaCl and durability was thus obtained by mixing fine blast furnace slag powder. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3?nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (? was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-?1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3?nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (? se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidratación para valores de ? > 0,5 es la difusión. Este proceso viene descrito por la ecuación de Jander[D3=(1-(1-?1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. La energía de activación obtenida para dicho proceso es del orden de 50-58 kj/mol.

  15. The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

  16. Effect of NaOH addition on the reactivities of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for low-temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-07

    NaOH was added to iron blast furnace slag (BFS)/hydrated lime (HL) slurries to prepare the sorbents for semidry and dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. For sorbents prepared without NaOH, both the Ca utilization and the SO{sub 2} capture increased with increasing slurrying temperature and varied with the BFS/HL weight ratio. With NaOH addition, the sorbents contained much less high surface area products of pozzolanic reaction. Their reactivities were insensitive to the slurrying temperature and greatly enhanced when the NaOH/(BFS + HL) ratio was about 10/100. NaOH is deliquescent, and its presence increases the amount of water collected by a sorbent, which is required for the sulfation of a sorbent at low temperatures. The use of NaOH addition at or below the optimal ratio can raise the sorbent reactivity and reduce the cost of sorbent for a semidry or dry FGD process.

  17. Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, N.; Galvosas, P.; Karger, J.

    2001-07-01

    Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD, granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity was evaluated. Cold bonded artificial aggregates were characterized by determining physical and mechanical properties of two selected size fractions of the granules for each studied mixture. Eighteen types of granules were employed in C28/35 concrete manufacture where coarser natural aggregate were substituted with the artificial ones. Finally, lightweight concretes were obtained, proving the suitability of the cold bonding pelletization process in artificial aggregate sustainable production.

  19. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  20. Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garcia Carvalho-Pupatto

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1 com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade.Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1 and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

  1. Efeito de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade de arroz / Effect of blast furnace slag on root growth and yield of rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Garcia, Carvalho-Pupatto; Leonardo Theodoro, Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol; Munir, Mauad; Rosemeire Helena da, Silva.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A utilização agrícola de resíduos industriais como fertilizantes decorre da necessidade de diminuir o efeito nocivo do acúmulo de nutrientes nos centros de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de escória de alto forno no crescimento radicular e na produtividade do arroz de terr [...] as altas irrigado por aspersão. O experimento foi realizado no campo, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco doses de escória de alto forno (0, 2.550, 5.100, 10.200 e 15.300 kg ha-1) com quatro repetições. A utilização de escória melhorou a condição química do solo, aumentou o crescimento e a superfície radicular, diminuiu o diâmetro das raízes e elevou os teores de silício no solo e na planta, resultando em aumento da produtividade. Abstract in english Agricultural use of industrial residues as fertilizers is due to the need of reducing nutrient accumulation in centers of production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blast furnace slag on root growth and productivity of highland rice irrigated by sprinkler. The experiment [...] was carried out on field conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block, with five rates of blast furnace (0, 2,550, 5,100, 10,200, and 15,300 kg ha-1) and four replications. Use of the slag improved chemical attributes of the soil, increased root growth and surface and reduced root diameter. It increased the silicon content in the soil and in the plant, resulting in higher yield.

  2. A study of the effect of unburnt coal on primary slag and metal from the cohesive zone of the blast furnace: phase 2; Etude de l`effet des imbrules de charbon sur le laitier primaire et le metal des etalages du haut-fourneau: phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danloy, G. [ASBL, Liege (Belgium). Centre de Recherches Metallurgiques

    1997-12-31

    The blast furnace research described here focuses on higher and higher coal injection rates. At these injection levels, the efficiency of coal combustion in the raceway could decrease appreciably, resulting in a flow of coal particles penetrating into the bosh coke bed. Studying the consumption of these particles by the blast furnace is of great interest. The research aims at quantifying the ability of coal unburnt particles (also called chars) to react with primary slag and metal issued from the cohesive zone.

  3. Impaction of particle streams on a granular bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing; Tsalapatis, John; Pinson, David

    2013-06-01

    Impaction of particle streams on granular beds can be observed in various processes. One typical example is the burden distribution in an ironmaking blast furnace. The stream of heavy iron-bearing pellets impacts the pre-formed coke surface at the blast furnace throat region. The coke layer then can move and collapse. The formed burden profile is important in controlling the radial distribution of gas flow, and hence productivity and stability. In this paper, the impaction of pellets on the coke surface is investigated using discrete element method. A 90 degree sector is modelled with a pre-formed coke surface impacted by pellets flowing from a rotating chute. Microscopic analysis on the flow and force structures is carried out to examine the impaction with different chute angles and discharge rates.

  4. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  5. Treatment of waste water containing refractory organic compounds by a biological process using a biomass carrier of blast furnace slag; Koro suisai suragu kei tantai wo mochiita nanbunkaisei haisui no seibutsugakuteki shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, O.; Kamori, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujii, M. [Kyushu Environmental Control Association, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1994-07-10

    At present, there are many cases that hardly decompositive organic substances such as the waste water from leather industry, etc. hard to be removed by the standard sludge method are contained in the waste water flowing into a sewage treatment plant. Such waste water in comparison with the municipal sewage, contains highly concentrated ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and the nitration reaction generating nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) is apt to occur. In this article, the waste water from leather industry has been selected as the waste water flowing into the sewage treatment plant, the efficient biological process using a carrier has been studied. The information obtained as a result is as follows; when the activated sludge method using blast furnace slag as a carrier of activated sludge has been used, it has been able to almost suppress the accumulation of NO2-N, but it has been difficult to reduce COD down to less than 60mg {center_dot}l{sup -1} due to undercomposed organic residue. The two stage biological process which combines the blast furnace slag added activated sludge method and a fixed bed reactor filled with saddle-type ceramics using blast furnace slag has been able to suppress the accumulation of NO2-N. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo (na operação de tamponamento do forno, toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos.The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Additionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

  7. Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos / Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. S., Ribeiro; G. F. B. Lenz e, Silva; H. C., Bassalo; P., Bonadia Neto; V. C., Pandolfelli.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo [...] (na operação de tamponamento do forno), toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico) para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos. Abstract in english The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Ad [...] ditionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

  8. Proceedings of the 36. McMaster University symposium on iron and steel making : the challenges of coal injection in today's blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irons, G.A. (ed.) [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering, Steel Research Centre; Donaldson, B. (comp.) [ArcelorMittal Dofasco, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Ricketts, J. (comp.) [ArcelorMittal Steel USA, Chicago, IL (United States); Hutchinson, S.; Entwistle, J. (comps.) [US Steel Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Steel Research Centre (SRC) at McMaster University develops exploitable technologies that benefit the steel industry. There are 3 components to the SRC's mission, notably to conduct research leading to commercially relevant new approaches to ironmaking, steelmaking process control, waste processing, steel product design and metal forming technologies; provide training of highly qualified personnel as a the means of transferring new technology to the steel industry; and provide continuing education for steel industry engineers. This conference was attended by the world's major steel producers, as well as suppliers and engineering consultants to the industry. The conference was a discussion-oriented forum in which manufacturers and technical personnel discussed major aspects of blast furnace ironmaking, such as energy balance; current operations and optimization; opportunities to use excess energy; utilities management; purchased energy; and derivative gases. The symposium featured 14 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The discussions following each presentation were also included in the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH)2-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH)2 and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH)2 occurs only with the use of Ca(OH)2, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO3), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH)2. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH)2, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH)2 causes some degree of carbonation

  10. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5mgL(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3mgL(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  11. Comportamento de tipos de escórias de siderurgia como corretivo da acidez do solo / Conduct of blast furnace slags on the correction of soil acidity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Gentil, Gomes; Hermano, Gargantini; H. Garcia, Blanco.

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o comportamento de tipos de escórias da siderurgia nacional, na correção da acidez de solo argilo-arenoso do Terciário, foi instalado um ensaio comparando-as com o de um calcário dolomítico. Empregaram-se 6.000 quilogramas por hectare de todos os materiais estudados, em [...] canteiros mantidos com vegetação espontânea roçada, periòdicamente. Os resultados mostraram que o calcário dolomítico foi o mais eficiente, seguido pelas duas escórias. Estas mostraram-se, também, eficientes no contrôle à acidez, mas sem diferenças significativas entre si. Abstract in english With the purpose to examine the behavior of two types of blast furnace slags in the combat against soil acidity, a test was installed comparing them with a dolomitic limestone. This test was established in soil of the Pinda series, at the Experiment Station of the Departamento da Produção Animal, in [...] the Pindamonhangaba county, Paraiba River valley, during a 23-mouths period. Six thousand kilograms per hectare of all the materials studied were utilized and the ploots were kept without cultivation, being cleaned periodically of the natural vegetation. The results obtained showed that the limestone was the most efficient, followed by the two types of scoria with no difference between them revealing themselves also efficient in the control of acidity.

  12. Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

  13. Resistencia a los cloruros en el concreto adicionado con escoria de alto horno / Resistance to chloride in the additioned concrete with blast furnace slag

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naliett Karina, Santamaría Díaz; Luis Eduardo, Yamín Lacouture; Carlos Alberto, Arcila López.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la resistencia a los cloruros en diferentes mezclas de concreto se realizó el ensayo de permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, estipulado en la norma ASTM 1202 [1]. Para ello se utilizó un equipo hecho en el país que sigue los requerimientos dados por esta norma. Se ensayaro [...] n concretos con 6 diferentes relaciones agua/cementante (a/c) y tres porcentajes de adición de escoria en reemplazo de parte del cemento. Aunque la edad a la que se evaluaron las muestras de concreto fue la misma, también se varió el tiempo de saturación de las muestras en agua. Abstract in english For determining the chloride resistance of different concrete samples, the rapid chloride permeability test was used. This procedure has been established in the standard test method ASTM 1202 [1] For this purpose, national equipment was used. It follows the specifications of the me [...] thod. The tested concretes had 6 different water/binder ratios (w/b) and three percentages of blast-furnace slag as a replacement of part of cement. Although the age of the concrete was the same in all the cases, the time of saturation in water was different.

  14. Influence of composition of slag and carbonaceous materials on the wettability at the slag/carbon interface during pulverised coal injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science, CRC for Black Coal utilisation

    2000-07-01

    Study of slag/char interactions is essential to understand the behaviour of unburnt char within a blast furnace during pulverised coal injection. While slag/carbon reaction kinetics have been reported in the literature, limited work is reported on study of the wetting behaviour in these systems. In the present study, wettability of slag/carbon systems has been investigated by measuring the variation in dynamic contact angle at the slag/carbon interface with time for different slag compositions and carbonaceous materials, at 1500{sup o}C. The influence of liquid and solid composition on wetting has been discussed. The concept of a modified slag composition present at the slag/carbon interface during the interaction is introduced due to the presence of ash in the carbonaceous material. The wetting behaviour is found to be a function of the composition of this modified slag. Increased silica content at the interface, that is lower basicity slags and higher silica bearing carbonaceous materials, result in an improved wetting in the slag/carbon systems, when the iron oxide content is low. This is attributed to the increased reduction of silica at the slag/carbon interface, and when the reaction slows down, to a decreased interfacial tension at the slag/carbon interface; these contribute to lowering the interfacial energy. For the high iron oxide bearing slag the wetting behaviour at the interface is dependent on the slag/iron interaction due to the deposition of the reduced iron at the interface.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and carbonation control of tobermorite from granulated blast furnace slag; Koro suisai slag kara tobermorite no suinetsu gosei to tansanka teiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasue, T.; Ishikawa, H.; Arai, Y. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1998-01-01

    In this research, conditions for forming tobermorite from granulated blast furnace slag by hydrothermal treatment after adding silica stone and calcium hydroxide into the slag to adjust its constituents, and carbonation control thereof are studied. Tobermorite is generated when silica stone is added into the slag for making the Al(Si+Al) atomic ratio be a constant 0.26 and subsequently calcium hydroxide is added to make the Ca/(si+Al) atomic ratio be 0.68 to 0.78. Further, the crystalline degree of tobermorite is improved by raising initial pH values of suspensions. However, due to a part of hydrogarnet mixed therein, an adjustment is performed by adding silica stone and calcium hydroxide to make the Al/(Si+Al) atomic ratio be a constant 0.26 and the Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio be 0.68 to 0.78 as a limit of Si{sup 4+} ions being substituted and solid-dissolved by Al{sup 3+} in tobermorite, thus a single phase of tobermorite is obtained. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  17. Speciation of Zn in blast furnace sludge from former sedimentation ponds using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Ruben; Mansfeldt, Tim; Mandaliev, Petar N; Barmettler, Kurt; Marcus, Matthew A; Voegelin, Andreas

    2012-11-20

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS), an industrial waste generated in pig iron production, typically contains high contents of iron and various trace metals of environmental concern, including Zn, Pb, and Cd. The chemical speciation of these metals in BFS is largely unknown. Here, we used a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge for solid-phase Zn speciation in 12 BFS samples collected on a former BFS sedimentation pond site. Additionally, one fresh BFS was analyzed for comparison. We identified five major types of Zn species in the BFS, which occurred in variable amounts: (1) Zn in the octahedral sheets of phyllosilicates, (2) Zn sulfide minerals (ZnS, sphalerite, or wurtzite), (3) Zn in a KZn-ferrocyanide phase (K(2)Zn(3)[Fe(CN)(6)](2)·9H(2)O), (4) hydrozincite (Zn(5)(OH)(6)(CO(3))(2)), and (5) tetrahedrally coordinated adsorbed Zn. The minerals franklinite (ZnFe(2)O(4)) and smithsonite (ZnCO(3)) were not detected, and zincite (ZnO) was detected only in traces. The contents of ZnS were positively correlated with the total S contents of the BFS. Similarly, the abundance of the KZn-ferrocyanide phase was closely correlated with the total CN contents, with the stoichiometry suggesting this as the main cyanide phase. This study provides the first quantitative Zn speciation in BFS deposits, which is of great relevance for environmental risk assessment, the development of new methods for recovering Zn and Fe from BFS, and potential applications of BFS as sorbent materials in wastewater treatment. PMID:23035937

  18. The effect of nano-sized CaCO3 addition on the hydration of OPC containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Beaudoin, J.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

    2006-07-01

    The cement industry has made significant efforts to conserve energy resources while also enhancing the quality of its products. Nonetheless, the amount of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted in the course of cement manufacture accounts for 7 per cent of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. The use of higher volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) is one of the most common supplementary cementing materials (SCM) used to replace Portland cement (OPC) in concrete mixes to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. However, higher volumes of SCM can result in delayed initial setting and slower early strength development. Ground limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) has been used to replace portions of OPC in concrete mixes to save energy and natural resources. Recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize a nano-sized CaCO{sub 3} at a low enough cost to be used for construction purposes. This study investigated and compared the accelerating effects of nano-sized CaCO{sub 3} additions with reagent grade micro-sized CaCO{sub 3} additions on the delayed hydration of OPC containing high volumes of GGBFS. Conduction calorimetry was used to determine microhardness and modulus of elasticity. Results indicated that the hydration of OPC containing high volumes of GGBFS was significantly accelerated by the nano-sized CaCO{sub 3} addition. The main calorimetry peaks were remarkably decreased and the rates of heat development increases were dependent on the amounts of the nano-sized CaCO{sub 3} additions. It was concluded that the nano-sized CaCO{sub 3} addition to cement systems containing high volumes of GGBFS fully compensates for delayed hydration processes. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH AND GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG(GGBS ON CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Majiduddin(Asst Prof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment study aimed to investigate the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fly ash and blast furnace slag cement concrete. Specific gravity is determined by specific gravity bottle method for cement, fly ash and GGBS. Universal Testing Machine is used for compressive and flexural strength. Characteristics compared to the standard requirements. To determine the compressive strength of fly ash and GGBS, 18 number of cubes for each are tested at the age of 28 days of size (150mm x 150mm x 150mm, grade of concrete is M20, mix proportion is 1:1.5:3 and water-cement ratio is 0.5 and 0.4 for fly ash and GGBS respectively. Different percentages like 0%. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% for fly ash and 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% for GGBS is tested. Compressive strength of fly ash obtained for 5% replacement of cement has shown significant improvement in various properties at the age of 28 days indicated by 13% increase in compressive strength and In GGBS, 40% replacements has shown significant improvement in various properties at the age of 28 days indicated by 85% increase in compressive strength. To determine the flexural strength a rectangular specimen is considered of size (150mm x 150mm x 500mm, and watercement ratio is 0.4 and 0.5 for fly ash and GGBS respectively. Percentage replacements of cement by fly ash are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and for GGBS is 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%. Highest Flexural strength in fly ash is obtained for 20% replacement and strength is 5.43 N/mm2 and in GGBS 30% replacements have got highest flexural strength and the strength is 3.54 N/mm2 .

  20. Influencia de la temperatura de curado: hidratación y resistencia de pastas de cemento con escoria / Influence of curing temperature: hydration and strength of cement paste with granulated blast furnace

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. C., Castellano; V. L., Bonavetti; E. F., Irassar.

    Full Text Available Actualmente son muy conocidos los beneficios tecnológicos, económicos y el menor impacto medioambiental que produce el empleo de adiciones minerales como reemplazo del cemento portland. Estas razones, han consolidado el uso de muchas adiciones como: escoria granulada de alto horno, ceniza volante, m [...] aterial calcáreo, humo de sílice, etc. En los últimos años, los cementos presentan un importante aumento en el contenido de las adiciones; el cual influye sobre la distribución de partículas, sobre la velocidad y naturaleza de las reacciones de hidratación y en consecuencia en su ganancia de resistencia. El presente trabajo evalúa la influencia de la temperatura en el curado (20, 40 y 60 ºC) de pastas con contenido variable de escoria granulada de alto horno (0 a 80 %) elaboradas con relación agua/material cementante de 0,40, sobre la resistencia mecánica. La evolución de la hidratación se estudió a través del análisis de los compuestos de hidratación por DRX y el contenido de agua no evaporable. La resistencia mecánica se evaluó empleando un diseño de experimentos central compuesto centrado. Los resultados obtenidos indican que a medida que la temperatura de curado aumenta con el incremento del contenido de escoria en el cemento mezcla, se aumentan la resistencia y el contenido de agua no evaporable, y disminuye la cantidad de hidróxido de calcio de la pasta. Abstract in english Nowadays it is well known that using blast furnace slag as partial replacements for Portland cement adds technological, economic and environmental benefits. Those are some of the reasons why cements containing several additions (blast furnace slag, fly ash, calcareous material, etc) are commonly use [...] d. In recent years, blended cements started to increase amounts of additions as replacement of Portland cement; in this regard these variations influence the rate and the mechanism of hydration and, consequently, strength development. The present work evaluated the effect of different curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 ºC) on the mechanical strength of cement paste with different proportions of granulated blast-furnace slag (0 to 80 %). Pastes were prepared with water/cementitious material ratio (w/cm) equal to 0,4. The hydration evolution was determinated following the hydration products using XRD analysis and evaluated the content of non evaporable water. Mechanical strength was evaluated trough central composite experimental design. When granulated blast-furnace slag content increases with curing temperature, the results show that mechanical strength and non evaporable water increases, while the calcium hydroxide content decreases.

  1. Effects of fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder in alkali-aggregate reaction inhibition; Flyash oyobi koro slag bifunmatsu no arukari kotsuzai hanno yokusei koka chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-01-31

    To restrain alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of concrete aggregate, ASR curbing capability of pozzolanic admixtures was experimentally investigated. For the experiment, augite-andesite, rhyolite welded tuff, chert, and sandstone were used as typical reactive aggregates. The pessimum proportions showing maximum expansion coefficient were determined by means of mortar bar test method. As a result, they were, by volume, 20% for augite-andesite, 60% for sandstone, and 100% for rhyolite welded tuff and for chert. In the case of these pessimum proportions, ASR curbing effect was examined when a part of cement was replaced by fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder. Experimental results demonstrated that both of them have an effect of curbing ASR of concrete. Even in the case of augite-andesite with high expansion coefficient, it was found that the expansion coefficient of concrete aged for six months can be repressed below 0.10% by replacing 30% of cement with fly ash and 40% of cement with blast-furnace slag powder. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo / Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano, Gargantini; A. Gentil, Gomes.

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. [...] Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos. Abstract in english This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel produ [...] ction by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

  3. Tests with blast furnace slag as bed material in a 12 MW waste fired BFB boiler; Fullskalefoersoek med Hyttsand som baeddmaterial i 12 MW avfallseldad BFB-panna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders; Oehman, Marcus

    2004-11-01

    A full-scale trial has been performed at Saeverstaverket twin 12 MWth BFB boilers in Bollnaes using Hyttsand (a proprietary blast furnace slag) as bed material. The purpose has been to investigate if Hyttsand can be used as bed material in FB boilers for difficult types of fuels. Used fuel has been municipal waste, recovered wood fuel and different types of bio fuels. The test period was 19 days and nearly 100 tons of Hyttsand was used. The most important conclusions are: Good fluidisation can be achieved with Hyttsand as bed material. Hyttsand can fluidise without any changes in boiler settings. Hyttsand can also be mixed with Baskarpsand (a natural sand with over 90% SiO{sub 2}) and used as bed material without any negative changes to the boiler performance. Bed material make-up rate is reduced with up to 30 % when using Hyttsand compared to using Baskarpsand. Other conclusions are: Bed temperature increased slightly and bed temperature deviation decreased. Emissions was in general not affected, however emissions of SO{sub 2} increased slightly. More deposit containing more sulphur was formed on superheater surfaces when using Hyttsand. The increased amount of sulphur when using Hyttsand could be an effect of higher content of sulphur in the fuel or, which is more likely, that sulphur is released from Hyttsand and forms gaseous sulphurous gases. No significant change in produced amounts of fly-, cyclone- or bottom ash. Hyttsand and Baskarpsand had both similar coatings on their particles and similar agglomeration tendencies. There have been some start-up problems during the trials, including two more severe boiler disturbances, but most of these disturbances can be explained and avoided in the future. Previous investigations in laboratory scale using Hyttsand as bed material when firing different bio fuels have shown the advantage of Hyttsand with its higher resistance against a chemical reaction with alkali in the fuel ash compared to conventional bed materials, e.g. quartz. However, in these trials a waste fuel was used and all the analysed sintered samples clearly showed that melted glass was the main reason for de-fluidisation and bed sintering and not the reaction between alkali and the bed material. Therefore, the risk for bed sintering was not reduced when using Hyttsand in this boiler for this kind of waste fuel and the effect of glass in the bed was not studied in the laboratory tests. Hyttsand is today sold commercially with a high quantity available. The advantage of Hyttsand is a lower cost per kWh, despite a higher purchase price, due to the reduced bed consumption and that the cost for taking care less amount of used sand and ash also decreases. Also, Hyttsand opens the possibility of firing more difficult and less expensive fuels.

  4. Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L. Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos.This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L. Merril was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3. The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

  5. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  6. Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto / The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter, Claisse.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que en estructuras de concreto hechas con cemento Portland la penetración del ion cloruro es la principal causa de deterioro por corrosión del refuerzo, el estudio y prevención de los mecanismos que generan corrosión en el concreto son fuentes de constante investigación. En el presente artí [...] culo se presentan los resultados de una investigación analítica y experimental sobre la influencia de la adición de la escoria de alto horno en las propiedades que gobiernan los fenómenos de transporte iónico del concreto, especialmente los del ion cloruro. Las relaciones entre los coeficientes de difusión con la resistividad eléctrica, la carga pasada y la resistencia a la compresión, fueron evaluadas para mezclas con diferentes porcentajes de remplazo de escoria. De la misma forma, mediante un modelo computacional y un ensayo de migración eléctrica se obtuvieron los coeficientes intrínsecos de difusión, la porosidad, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la concentración química de la solución de poros. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la escoria aporta importantes beneficios en la penetración del ion cloruro, obteniéndose un concreto menos vulnerable a la corrosión. Abstract in english Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigatin [...] g the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion.

  7. Evaluation of the quality of low SiO{sub 2} sintered ore considering blast furnace operating conditions with high rate pulverized coal injection; Koro bifuntan taryo fukikomi sogyo joken wo koryoshita tei SiO{sub 2} shoketsuko no hinshitsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, H.; Ichikawa, K.; Machida, S.; Sakamoto, N. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Materials and Processing Research Center

    2000-11-01

    In order to evaluate qualities of low SiO{sub 2} sinter such as reduction degradation behavior, reducibility and softening-melting properties, laboratory tests simulating in-furnace conditions at high PCI operation were carried out using three types of commercial sinters with varying SiO{sub 2} content. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Under high PCI operating conditions, reduction degradation of sinter is decreased. This suppression is due to the shortening of retention time in a temperature range between 500 and 600 degree C by decreasing the heat flow ratio. This tendency of reduction in sinter degradation has been confirmed by operation trials at Fukuyama blast furnaces No. 3 and No. 4. (2) Hematite phase and micro pores increase with a decrease in SiO{sub 2} content of sinter, and consequently reducibility increases due to an improvement in reduction gas diffusion through the reduced layer. (3) The temperature at which softening commences and that at which the pressure drop rises are higher for low SiO{sub 2} sinter than the corresponding temperatures for high SiO{sub 2} sinter. This result suggests an improvement in the permeability of the cohesive layer in the blast furnace under high PCI operating conditions. (4) This evaluation has confirmed that low SiO{sub 2} sinter is superior to high SiO{sub 2} sinter as the blast furnace burden under high PCI operation even though the value of RDI is relatively high. (author)

  8. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  9. EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE UNIDADES SÍLICO-CALCÁREAS A PARTIR DE ESCORIA DE ALTO HORNO Y CAL HIDRÁULICA PARA MAMPOSTERÍA / EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SILICON - CALCAREOUS UNITS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND HYDRAULIC LIME FOR MASONRY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NILSON, ARIEL LEÓN; NÉSTOR RICARDO, ROJAS REYES; BERNARDO, UMBARILA SUÁREZ; M. OSWALDO, BUSTAMANTE R..

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la posibilidad de fabricar elementos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería a partir de dos tipos de materias primas como son las escorias de Alto Horno y las cales hidráulicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron algunas propiedades físicas de las probetas fabricadas con los [...] anteriores materiales con respecto a la Norma Técnica Colombiana, para 5 tipos de mezclas que varían entre 10 y 50 % de cal. Los resultados mostraron que es factible la fabricación de ladrillos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería que cumplen con la NTC 922. Abstract in english The present paper studies the possibility of making silicon-calcareous elements for masonry from two types of raw material like the blast furnace slag and hydraulic limes. In the present study some physical properties of samples made according to the Norma Técnica Colombiana with the previously ment [...] ioned materials were evaluated for 5 types of mixtures that vary among 10% and 50% of lime. The results show that the silicon -calcareous brick manufacture is feasible for masonry that fulfills the NTC 922.

  10. Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria / Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge L, Fernández; Jorge D, Sota; Ricardo O, Carbonari; Roberto, Romagnoli.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV) sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH). Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron [...] polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV) on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the [...] above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

  11. Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH. Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora.The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

  12. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

  13. Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela N. da Conceição

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

  14. Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões / Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maristela N. da, Conceição; Sulivan P., Alves; Aurélio, Telatin Júnior; Iran J. O. da, Silva; Sônia M. S., Piedade; Holmer, Savastano Júnior; Gustavo, Tonoli.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No [...] presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), escória de alto-forno (EAF) e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana). Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade), ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade), CTR (carga térmica radiante) e entalpia (H) em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto. Abstract in english The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricat [...] ed with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), blast furnace slag (EAF), active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana) were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H) were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

  15. Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratio on the strength of alkaline activated ground blast furnace slag-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash based concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of H2O/Na2O on GBFS-POFA alkaline activated concrete are investigated. • High H2O/Na2O contents enhance dissolutions/workability at the expense of strength. • Lower H2O/Na2O molar ratios aid compressive strength of the products. • Increase in H2O/Na2O favours the reactivity of Ca and the products molecular bonds. • Low H2O/Na2O positively affects the microstructural density of the products. - Abstract: Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratios (MRs) on the developed alkaline activated pozzolanic solid wastes (PMs)-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash (UPOFA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS)-were studied by using the constant mass of combined activators (10 M NaOHaq + Na2SiO3aq of silica-modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 3.3).The free water content (FWC) expressed as FWC/(PMs) varied from 0.02 to 0.1 by mass while the total H2O/Na2O MRs ranged from 18.9 to 23.1 The findings revealed that increase in H2O/Na2O MRs negatively affects the strength but positively impact the mixture workability (consistency). The microstructural morphology examination using Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) reveals the contribution of H2O/Na2O MRs to the product nature, compactness, and the reactivity of Ca2+ and Al3+ while Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicates that H2O/Na2O ratios contributed to the product amorphousity and carbonation process but sparingly affected its formed polymerized structural units (SiQn(mAl), n = 2 and 3)

  16. Reduction of oxygen consumption in the V and M do Brazil's blast furnace 2 through the improvement of the heat exchangers; Reducao do consumo de oxigenio em um alto-forno a partir do aumento da eficiencia energetica dos trocadores de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Charles Sostenes [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    This work concerns the performance improvement study of the V and M do Brazil's Glendon heat exchangers. The objective is to reduce the consumption of the oxygen used to enrich the blown air in the Blast Furnace 2 through the improvement of the heat exchanger's energetic efficiency. A CFD (Computer Fluids Dynamics) model was developed in order to simulate the thermodynamic behavior of the fluids inside the heat exchangers. Some geometric alterations were simulated in the model, which objective was to change the parallel flow of the combustion gases to a cross flow. The simulation showed a potential of energetic efficiency improvement of 15,25%, which would mean an increase of 115 deg C in the outlet air temperature. The simulated alterations were implemented in one of three heat exchangers and the actual temperature increase was 135 deg C. After the implementation of the alterations in the others heat exchangers, the expected reduction of the oxygen consumption in the Blast Furnace 2 is about 4.400.000 Nm{sup 3} per year. (author)

  17. Furnace assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions

  18. Mezcla ternaria de cemento Portland, escoria de alto horno y piedra caliza: Resistencia mecánica y durabilidad / Ternary mixture of Portland cement, blast furnace slag and limestone: Mechanical Strength and Durability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jherson, E. Díaz; Silvia, R. Izquierdo; Ruby, Mejía de Gutiérrez; Marisol, Gordillo S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cementantes compuestos, basados en la sustitución parcial del cemento por otros minerales y/o subproductos industriales, surgen como una alternativa sostenible técnica y ambientalmente. Se basan en la introducción de dos o más adiciones para obtener mejores propiedades finales a través de los ef [...] ectos sinérgicos de sus componentes. El presente trabajo estudia el efecto en las propiedades de desempeño de un cemento portland cuando se incorpora adición de caliza (hasta 20%) y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno (hasta 30%), para generar una mezcla ternaria. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron resistencia a la compresión, absorción y porosidad, succión capilar, permeabilidad a cloruros, y resistencia química de los morteros expuestos a sulfatos. Los resultados indican que la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los cementos ternarios es hasta un 35% superior con relación al mortero de referencia y a su vez presentan menores coeficientes de succión capilar, confirmando la acción tanto de carácter físico como químico de los materiales de adición. Respecto a la resistencia al ataque por sulfatos el mejor comportamiento lo presento la mezcla con menor porcentaje de caliza; en este caso se determinaron los productos de reacción formados utilizando difracción de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Abstract in english The blended cements based on partial replacement of cement by other minerals and / or industrial by-products arise as a technically and environmentally sustainable alternative. These cements are based on the introduction of two or more additions for better final properties through the synergistic ef [...] fects of its components. The present research examines the effect on the performance properties of Portland cement with addition of limestone (up to 20%) and blast furnace slag (up to 30%), to generate a ternary mixture. The compressive strength, absorption and porosity, capillary suction, chloride permeability, and chemical resistance of mortars exposed to sulfates were evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of the cements ternary is up to 35% higher with respect to the reference mortar and in turn have lower coefficients of capillary suction, confirming the action of both physical and chemical nature of the materials addition. The best performance of resistance to sulfates attack was found in mixture with minor proportion of limestone. The characterization of the reaction products was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zorzal Velten

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de textura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0 pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura.This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0 by the TRB System and as NS' by the MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

  20. Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais / Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Zorzal, Velten; Alexandre Pelissari, Sant' Ana; Dario Cardoso de, Lima; Cláudio Henrique de Carvalho, Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de, Carvalho; Lauro Gontijo, Couto; Carlos Cardoso, Machado.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de t [...] extura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0) pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura. Abstract in english This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0) by the TRB System and as NS' by the [...] MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

  1. Viscosity of blast furnace type slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noritaka; Hori, Naoto; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Mori, Katsumi

    2003-10-01

    The effect of MgO, TiO2, or Fe2O3 on the viscosity of 40CaO-40SiO2-20Al2O3 (mass pct) slags has been measured by the rotating crucible viscometer. Viscosity of these quaternary slags decreased with an increase in the content of additive oxide. At the same content of additive oxide, the viscosity decreases from MgO, TiO2 to Fe2O3. In addition, the effect of SiO2 or Al2O3 on the viscosity of 26.1CaO-73.9Fe2O3 (mass pct) (CF) and 14.9CaO-85.1Fe2O3 (mass pct) (CF2) slags has been measured. Viscosity of calcium ferrite slags increased with increasing SiO2 or Al2O3 content. Al2O3 was found to be more effective for increasing the viscosity at the same content of the additive oxide.

  2. The influence of forced draft system on the efficiency of scavenging in the production of stainless steels in arc furnaces. Communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using cold simulation techniques, the influence of the design of blasting devices on the blasting efficiency when making stainless steels in arc furnaces has been studied. A tuyere directing oxygen to the centre of the steel bath of an electric steel-making furnace is shown to be most effective

  3. Complementary evaluation study of concrete blocks made with a high volume of fly ash or blast furnace slag. Etude d'evaluation complementaire de blocs de beton faits avec un fort volume de cendres volantes ou au laitier de haut fourneau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Hydro-Quebec and St. Lawrence Cement initiated a research project to evaluate cement blocks made with high contents of fly ash and blast furnace slags. Blocks of various compositions were prepared with 55% fly ash/45% cement or 59% slag/41% cement, with air entrainment and superplasticizers. Control blocks made with standard portland cement were also prepared. Mechanical tests included compression and tension tests on samples cut from the blocks and determination of the Young modulus. The blocks were also examined visually and ultrasonically, and observed fissures were mapped. Results of the tests are presented as a supplement to a series of previous tests. All of the blocks were of good quality. 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Reactivity to CO{sub 2} of chars prepared in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures for pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace in relation to char petrographic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann, Juliana G.; Osorio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Laboratory, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Borrego, Angeles G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres in order to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack. When coal is injected with air in the region of tuyeres, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study, an experimental approach comprising refiring has been followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. A drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration was used to simulate devolatilization and then the char was refired into DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals ranging in rank from high to low volatile bituminous, currently used for PCI injection. Specific surface areas, reactivity to CO{sub 2} and char petrography have been used to chars characterization. The morphology and appearance of the chars generated under oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) and conventional combustion (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) conditions with similar amount of oxygen were similar for each parent coal. Vitrinite-rich particles generated cenospheres with anisotropic optical texture increasing in size with increasing coal rank, whereas inertinite yielded a variety of morphologies and optical textures. The apparent reactivity to CO{sub 2} measured at high temperature (1000 C) tended to increase with burnout reflecting the operation under a regime controlled by internal diffusion in which surface area also increased. This may have a significant effect in the reactivity to CO{sub 2} of the chars inside the stack of the blast furnace, even under oxygen lean atmosphere. (author)

  5. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality. [Espanol] La crisis de energia ha acaparado la atencion mundial sobre la necesidad de conservar la energia y desarrollar en un mayor grado el uso de combustibles en base a carbon y otras fuentes de energia (energia nuclear). Siendo el alto horno no solo un consumidor de energia sino tambien un generador de la misma (gas alto horno), la mayor contribucion al costo de arrabio es la energia necesaria para fundir y reducir al estado metalico los minerales de fierro, dicha energia en su mayoria proviene del coque. La dependencia del carbon via planta de coque para producir hierro de primera funcion se incrementa cada dia como resultado de los altos niveles de produccion. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivada del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones superiores a 2.6 MMt de arrabio. La inyeccion de combustibles al alto horno a traves de sus toberas es una tecnologia para disminuir el consumo de coque, su uso implica un cambio en la filosofia de operacion del alto horno y es actualmente utilizada por la mayoria de los altos hornos del mundo. AHMSA aprovechando la generacion de alquitran (aprox. 130 ton/dia) de sus plantas coquizadoras decide disenar y poner en operacion un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran y gas natural, las actividades encaminadas a realizar lo anterior dieron inicio el mes de abril de 1993 efectuandose todas ellas con recursos propios de la empresa, finalizando el dia 18 de julio de 1993 dia en el cual se inicio la co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el Alto Horno no. 4 en forma estable. A la fecha (octubre 1993), la inyeccion de alquitran se ha incrementado hasta 36 kg/t. de arrabio, durante los periodos de inyeccion, la presencia de problemas operativos, mecanicos y de instrumentacion no han sido obstaculo para la evolucion de la inyeccion cumpliendo su funcion de sustituir al coque en una relacion de reemplazo de 1:1, es decir, 1 kg de alquitran por cada kg de coque sin

  6. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  7. Commercial vacuum melting furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of operation and main design peculiarities are described for domestic and foreign commercial vacuum electron beam and arc furnaces used for melting refractory metals and alloys. A schematic representation is made for various furnaces and their specifications are given

  8. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  9. Blast management

    OpenAIRE

    Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financ...

  10. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  11. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  12. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  13. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  14. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  15. Shock (Blast) Mitigation by "Soft" Condensed Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2003-01-01

    It is a common point that "soft" condensed matter (like granular materials or foams) can reduce damage caused by impact or explosion. It is attributed to their ability to absorb significant energy. This is certainly the case for a quasistatic type of deformation at low velocity of impact where such materials are widely used for packing of fragile devices. At the same time a mitigation of blast phenomena must take into account shock wave properties of "soft" matter which very...

  16. Nuclear Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by normal senses. Radiation can only be detected by radiation monitoring devices. ... to offer some protection against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat and ... withstand a direct hit from a nuclear explosion. Fallout shelters do ...

  17. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace slag an aggregates with 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC and subsequently with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% cementitious replacement with granulated cupola furnace slag that had been grounded and milled to less than 75 µm diameter. The outcomes of compressive strength test conducted on the slag aggregate concrete (SAC with and without granulated slag cementitious replacement were satisfactory compared to normal aggregate concretes (NAC.

  18. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  19. Automated Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  20. Blast furnace refractory lining wear status using radioactive sources. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive sources provides a means of determining the performance of new lining designs and new refractories less than campaign time periods, thereby allowing material and/or design changes for improved service. In this two-part article, which is from a paper presented at the AIME 1974 Ironmaking Conference, Part I deals with the techniques of the method. A description is given of the use of radioactive 60Co in sizes ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 millicuries in the refractory lining. The 60Co sources are encapsulated with stainless steel cylinders, with their caps heliarc welded. The cylinders are small

  1. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

    Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

  2. PbO solubility in lead-blast furnace slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, M. E.; Lynch, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    A series of slags in the PbO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 system has been equilibrated in contact with molten Pb and Pb-Ag alloys in a closed system at 1473 K. The influences of lead activity and the CaO/SiO2 and ferric/ferrous ion ratios on PbO solubility in slag have been examined. The PbO content is proportional to the lead activity and the ferric/ferrous ratio, but decreases with increasing values of the CaO/SiO2 ratio. The solubility of lead in the slag can also be characterized by the following empirical equation,log X_{PbO} = 1/2log p_{O_2 } - 0.76F^G + 0.10log F + 0.76 + logK_2 , where X PbO is the lead oxide mole fraction, K 2 the equilibrium constant for the formation of liquid PbO at 1473 K, and F and G are the calcia/silica and iron/silica weight ratios, respectively. This equation, developed from data in the literature, has been used with the experimental results of this investigation for comparison with values of p O 2predicted by Hollitt’s structural model. Further comparison with Hollitt’s model has been made with other experimental data in the literature. The values of p O 2predicted with the structural model are an order of magnitude lower than those predicted by the empirical equation and the values of p O 2 used by other investigators. The reason for this discrepancy may lie in part in the use of questionable assumptions about the behavior of FeO in slag systems; reevaluation of the structural model to include more “basic” FeO improves agreement between the values of p O 2obtained with the structural model and those obtained with the empirical equation and the partial pressures of O2 used by other investigators. In addition, the structural model has also been tested with regard to the influence of CaO and FeO additions on the solubility of PbO. The possible effect of interaction between the equilibrating slag melt and the calcia-stabilized zirconia crucible on the system equilibria has also been examined; such an effect may not be as negligible as previous researchers have claimed.

  3. Microstructural changes on the reduction of imperial smelting furnace sinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. T.; Hayes, P. C.

    1993-02-01

    The reduction reactions of Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) sinter microstructure were investigated in simulated zinc blast furnace conditions. Initial and partially reduced samples were examined using optical, electron-probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the struc-tural and compositional changes occurring during the reduction reaction. The reaction mecha-nisms and reduction sequences for the various oxide phases within the sinter structure during reduction of ISF sinters under the system studied are discussed. The reduction of sinters resulted in the structural modification of zincite, franklinite, slag phases, and the formation of new oxide and metallic phases. The rate and sequence of these complex phase transformations were found to be dependent upon reduction time, temperature, and the reacting gas composition.

  4. Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno / Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V. M., Pereira; E., Carvalho; P. S., Bardella; G., Camarini.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos fenômenos fluido-dinâmicos de escoamento em meios porosos tem sido de grande interesse por diversas áreas das ciências, de forma a se avaliar não só a permeabilidade do material, mas também analisar o comportamento do fluido permeante quando no interior destes materiais. Tratando-se de [...] compósitos à base de cimento, a mensuração da permeabilidade torna-se fundamental para que sua durabilidade possa ser estimada, pois é a permeabilidade que controla a taxa de ingresso e movimentação de agentes deletérios no interior destes materiais. Dessa forma, diversas metodologias e equacionamentos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para prever a permeabilidade de materiais à base de cimento. No entanto, várias discrepâncias e disparidades nos resultados têm sido encontradas. Dentre as metodologias empregadas para mensurar a permeabilidade de meios porosos, encontra-se a desenvolvida por Thenoz, a qual tem demonstrado bons resultados em materiais à base de cimento. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa, por meio de ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar, realizado de acordo com a metodologia de Thenoz, avaliar o comportamento fluido-dinâmico do ar durante o ensaio de permeabilidade em argamassas. Para isto, foram utilizadas argamassas preparadas com dois tipos de cimento Portland (CP II E - 32 e CP III - 32), duas relações água/cimento (0,5 e 0,6) e ensaiadas em idades de 14 e 28 dias. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível observar que durante o escoamento a compressibilidade do ar pode ser ignorada e o regime de escoamento pode ser considerado como laminar, demonstrando que a metodologia proposta por Thenoz e o equacionamento matemático empregado pode resultar em coeficientes de permeabilidade ao ar confiáveis, pois fenômenos e considerações que poderiam influenciar neste tipo de escoamento podem ser negligenciados. Abstract in english Fluid-dynamic phenomena study in porous media flow has been of great interest for diverse areas of sciences. These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring [...] of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32), two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6) and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

  5. Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos fenômenos fluido-dinâmicos de escoamento em meios porosos tem sido de grande interesse por diversas áreas das ciências, de forma a se avaliar não só a permeabilidade do material, mas também analisar o comportamento do fluido permeante quando no interior destes materiais. Tratando-se de compósitos à base de cimento, a mensuração da permeabilidade torna-se fundamental para que sua durabilidade possa ser estimada, pois é a permeabilidade que controla a taxa de ingresso e movimentação de agentes deletérios no interior destes materiais. Dessa forma, diversas metodologias e equacionamentos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para prever a permeabilidade de materiais à base de cimento. No entanto, várias discrepâncias e disparidades nos resultados têm sido encontradas. Dentre as metodologias empregadas para mensurar a permeabilidade de meios porosos, encontra-se a desenvolvida por Thenoz, a qual tem demonstrado bons resultados em materiais à base de cimento. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa, por meio de ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar, realizado de acordo com a metodologia de Thenoz, avaliar o comportamento fluido-dinâmico do ar durante o ensaio de permeabilidade em argamassas. Para isto, foram utilizadas argamassas preparadas com dois tipos de cimento Portland (CP II E - 32 e CP III - 32, duas relações água/cimento (0,5 e 0,6 e ensaiadas em idades de 14 e 28 dias. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível observar que durante o escoamento a compressibilidade do ar pode ser ignorada e o regime de escoamento pode ser considerado como laminar, demonstrando que a metodologia proposta por Thenoz e o equacionamento matemático empregado pode resultar em coeficientes de permeabilidade ao ar confiáveis, pois fenômenos e considerações que poderiam influenciar neste tipo de escoamento podem ser negligenciados.Fluid-dynamic phenomena study in porous media flow has been of great interest for diverse areas of sciences. These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32, two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6 and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

  6. Sintering furnace with hydrogen carbon dioxide atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heated furnace for sintering structures of uranium oxide containing composition being introduced to the furnace is described. The furnace receives an atmosphere comprising a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide as initially introduced to the furnace, and this mixture reacts in the furnace to give the presence of water vapor and carbon monoxide

  7. Colliding Pressure, Peening Effect and Removing Rate Exerted on Substrate by Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubohori, Toshifum; Ito, Toru; Inui, Yasuyuki

    Blasting is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials made of metal or ceramics are jetted against the surface of substrate using compressed air. Blasting causes a variety of effects to appear on the substrate because the blasting material collides at high speed on the surface of substrate. As causes of influences exerted on the substrate, colliding pressure or particle shapes of the blasting material are conceivable. Results of this investigation are summarized as follows. In the range of blasting distance h at 10 - 150 mm, the maximum colliding pressure Pmax became highest at h = 10 mm. Moreover, the blasting surface area increased with an increase of h. Pmax went up as the blasting pressure ? increased, and suddenly dropped with an increase of h. The colliding pressure P was hardly affected by the type and particle size of blasting material, but was greatly influenced by ? and h. The arc height H was larger with steel shot than with steel grit. Shot had greater influences than grit on work hardening. Under the peening effect by blasting, work hardening was induced and the fatigue strength ?f increased. The removal ratio of specimen are different in each particle size.

  8. Directed Relativistic Blast Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar direc...

  9. Combustion furnace for waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a combustion furnace for waste with a central shaft to take the waste, into which fresh air intakes open, and with a combustion chamber under the shaft, with fresh air intakes in the part of the shaft immediately adjacent to the combustion chamber, where a device for collecting the waste in the central shaft is provided and is designed so that the column of waste pours out and the stack gas produced in the combustion chamber is taken to a chimney via outlet openings in the outlet of the combustion chamber. The purpose of the invention is to create such a combustion furnace, with which it is possible to burn waste of the usual composition with a calorific value of about 3000 kcal/kg simply without using additional fuel, and to obtain a molten residue. The process should be easy and safe to control when burning waste of heterogeneous composition. The characteristics of this invention include the combination of the shaft with the device for collecting waste, the combustion chamber, the fresh air inlets and the outlet space. (orig./RB)

  10. Anaerobic granular sludge.

    OpenAIRE

    Alphenaar, A.

    1994-01-01

    Many UASB reactors are designed in such a fashion that the presence of granular sludge is necessary for a proper purification process. For achieving an optimum wastewater purification with such reactors, knowledge of the factors that determine the growth, retention and disintegration of anaerobic granular sludge is essential. The present research focused on gaining more insight in the factors determining the growth and quality of anaerobic granular sludge.For determining the total available p...

  11. Granular Electronic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beloborodov, I. S.; Efetov, K. B.; Lopatin, A. V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for na...

  12. Wet Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mitarai, N; Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, constructions, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g., the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

  13. High pressure furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. High pressure oxygen furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  15. High pressure furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  16. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  17. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  18. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

  19. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  20. Granular flow : dry and wet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

  1. Passive blast pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  2. On granular elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  3. On granular elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature T(c) as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature T(k) that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  4. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  5. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  6. Percolating granular superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Hans-karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2002-01-01

    We investigate diamagnetic fluctuations in percolating granular superconductors. Granular superconductors are known to have a rich phase diagram including normal, superconducting and spin glass phases. Focusing on the normal-superconducting and the normal-spin glass transition at low temperatures, we study he diamagnetic susceptibility $\\chi^{(1)}$ and the mean square fluctuations of the total magnetic moment $\\chi^{(2)}$ of large clusters. Our work is based on a random Jose...

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE OF GRANULAR BAINITE

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, B.; Andre?n, H. -o

    1988-01-01

    A 2.25Cr - 1Mo - 0.1C welded steel having a microstructure described as "granular bainite" has been investigated using optical microscopy, electron microscopy and atom probe field ion microscopy. Granular bainite was found to consist of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite, but no cementite. Grains of ferrite are built up by parallel platelike subgrains - bainitic ferrite. The carbon concentration changes abruptly at the ferrite - retained austenite interface but no diffusion of substituti...

  8. Unusual cytochemical reactivity for toluidine blue in granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of two rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishu Agarwal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Azurophilic granulation of blasts is a feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL may mimic AML due to the presence of cytoplasmic granules in lymphoblasts, but cytochemistry and immunophenotyping are helpful in making the correct diagnosis. Toluidine blue (TB is a metachromatic dye, which stains basophils and myeloid blasts that exhibit basophilic differentiation. Reactivity for TB has not been described in lymphoblasts. We herein report two cases of granular ALL with blasts exhibiting reactivity for TB that caused diagnostic dilemma. Immunophenotyping and cytogenetic studies were helpful in making a correct diagnosis. This report of two rare case highlight the reactivity of lymphoblasts with TB not hitherto described and the importance of a detailed diagnostic work-up in acute leukemia.

  9. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  10. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10-5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it wilis in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  11. Tumor de células granulares Granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO PRIEGO J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 54 años que consulta por una gran tumoración infraclavicular de dos años de evolución. Los resultados de la punción-aspiración de la lesión son compatibles con un tumor de células granulares. La lesión es extirpada y el estudio histológico confirma el diagnóstico. Realizamos una revisión sobre el origen del tumor, su biología, histología, diagnóstico y tratamientoThe case reported is a 54 years-old woman with a great mass below the clavicle for two years. The results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy were compatible with granular cell tumour. The mass was removed and the histopathological study confirmed the diagnosis. The present report reviews some aspects about the origin, biology, histology, diagnosis and treatment of this tumour

  12. Granular transport in driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme, M; Opsomer, E; Vandewalle, N; Ludewig, F

    2015-02-01

    We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We prove that the dynamical clustering which is expected for such a system is affected by the asymmetry. As a consequence, the cluster position can be fully controlled. This property could lead to various applications in the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environment. Moreover, the dynamical cluster is characterized by natural oscillations which are also captured by a model. These oscillations are mainly related to the cluster size, thus providing an original way to probe the clustering behavior. PMID:25704899

  13. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  14. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  15. Method of burning solid fuel and a vortex furnace with solid slag removal for applying said method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finker, F.Z.; Akhmedov, D.B.; Kubyshkin, I.B.; Sobczuk, C.; Zukowski, R.; Swirski, J.; Szczap, W.; Karbowiak, E.; Urbanek, R.

    1997-07-03

    The invention pertains to heating technology, specifically, to methods and furnaces with solid slag removal used for burning solid fuel, and can be used to particular advantage for burning low-grade coarsely divided fuel. The proposed system comprises a combustion chamber with at least one downward pointing burner, a cold hopper formed by the inclined section of the walls and the lower sections of the walls, and with a bottom blast device with a nozzle located below the mouth of the cold hopper. The proposed method involves feeding a fuel-air mixture through the burner and feeding air against the fuel-air stream through the bottom blast device. To grade the fuel particles by size in the region of the mouth of the cold hopper, the speed of the air stream is set at 10-24 m/sec. To that end, the bottom blast device is designed as a prismatic diffuser which widens along the direction of air flow. The outlet aperture of the diffuser is collocated with the mouth of the cold hopper, while the inlet aperture is located in the region of the nozzle of the bottom blast device. The ratio of the areas of the inlet and outlet apertures of the diffuser can be calculated. The furnace can also contain two burners situated in different parts of the furnace and two associated bottom blast devices. The diffuser should be such that in its upper section one of its walls is an extension of the inclined section of the combustion chamber wall on which the burner is mounted, the opposite wall should be aligned identically, these walls in the lower diffuser section should be vertical, and the distance between the other two walls should increase along the direction of the air flow. The wall in the upper section of the diffuser should in plan intersect with the outlet aperture of the diffuser`s lower section. (author) figs.

  16. PREFACE: Granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemi, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Granular materials are of great importance to many industrial and natural processes, and thus attract considerable attention over a broad range of disciplines, from engineering to chemical and physical sciences. As their physical properties are different from known thermal systems, they also raise deep basic scientific issues. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter collects together a group of papers from leading researchers in the physics community which discuss recent new findings and ideas introduced in this rapidly evolving field. Although many topics are still not fully developed, the last decade has witnessed an increasing understanding of a variety of theoretical and experimental issues, ranging from the properties of granular packing, stress distribution and force networks to the dynamics and rheology of granular flow, instabilities and jamming; from the statistical mechanics of granular packs, fluids and gases to applications to problems of geophysical and industrial relevance. The papers in this issue provide an introduction to these topics, summarizing the state-of-the-art and addressing some of the many, still open, questions by featuring an up-to-date presentation of new developments. A deeper test of the theories discussed here and an understanding of the new experimental results reported are certainly among the relevant open research directions ahead in this field. I wish to thank all the contributing authors to this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter devoted to granular media.

  17. Mysteries of Granular Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Skachkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of self-organizing granular medium in its own gravitational field is considered. The study is led within an approach proposing the existence of only three types of mesoscopic states in the material: so named hydrostatic, columnar and arched mesoscopic states. The results of this study are not obvious. Indeed, in the center of granular gravitating ball, as it turns out, pressure may be absent, though it is well-known that the pressure in either non-compressible liquid or solid linear-elastic medium is maximal. Such an uncommon stress state takes place at the arched mesoscopic state. Using the Mohr-Coulomb condition has given that the arched state can embody when sinus of internal friction’s angle increases up to the threshold value 1/3. At the hydrostatic mesoscopic state granular medium is like a liquid. The study also has shown the transition between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress states being sharp in granular gravitating ball that opposes the known results of the linear theory of elasticity. At the columnar mesoscopic state any gravitating granular ball cannot be.

  18. Shaken Granular Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

  19. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  20. Teknologi Pembuatan Material Shot Blast untuk Mendukung Industri Pengecoran Logam Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Nurjaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot blast material is a supporting material in foundry which is used at surface finishing process of metal casting. Recently, there is no one of national industry that produce shot blast material, in consequence, the purpose of this research is to lessen the dependence of using shot blast material import by making a shot blast material which improve its hardness exceed the shot blast material import. This research use the raw material from scrap iron with the following composition: C (3.2%, Si (1.18%, Mn (6.1%, Cu (0.35%, Fe (88.7%. The scrap is melted in induction furnace untill melt (hot metal, then the hot metal (1200 oC is tilted into a runner which is connected with pan crucible, which is consisted of 107 holes with diameter of each holes is 10 mm. Hot metal that is leave from the holes, is injected by pressurized water 1.1 atm with the velocity 0.8 m/s, untill obtained grains of shot blast material, then these grains goes into the water tank which it has temperature 40oC. From thermodynamic study, to avoid the happening of the explosion that is arising out because the effect of high temperature difference at injection process beetween water and hot metal, hence the comparison value beetween the mass of water and hot metal equal to 1:4.6. From this research is obtained shot blast material Ø0.8-3.2 mm with the metallography structure with martensite domination and dispersion of cementite and a little austenit. The hardness value of this material is 54.8 HRC, where this value is larger than shot blast material import (45-50 HRC. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Material shot blast merupakan material pendukung pengecoran logam yang digunakan pada proses surface finishing benda cor logam. Saat ini belum ada satupun industri nasional yang memproduksi material shot blast, karena itu tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengurangi ketergantungan penggunaan material shot blast impor dengan membuat material shot blast yang nilai kekerasannya melebihi material shot blast impor. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan baku scrap besi dengan komposisi: C (3,2%, Si (1,18%, Mn (6,1%, Cu (0,35% Fe (88,7%. Scrap dilebur dalam tungku induksi hingga mencair (hot metal, lalu hot metal (1200oC di tuang ke dalam runner yang terhubung dengan pan crucible yang terdiri dari 107 buah lubang berukuran Ø10 mm. Hot metal yang keluar dari lubang tersebut diinjeksi oleh air bertekanan 1,1 atm dengan kecepatan 0,8 m/s, hingga diperoleh butiran material shot blast, lalu butiran itu masuk ke dalam bak air bertemperatur 40oC. Dari kajian termodinamika, untuk menghindari terjadinya resiko ledakan yang timbul akibat diferensiasi temperatur yang tinggi saat proses injeksi, maka besarnya nilai perbandingan massa air dan hot metal sebesar 1:4,6. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh material shot blast berukuran Ø0,8-3.2 mm dengan struktur metalografi yang didominasi oleh struktur martensit dengan sebaran sementit dan sedikit austenit. Nilai kekerasan material ini adalah 54,8 HRC, dimana nilai ini melebihi nilai kekerasan material shot blast impor (45-50 HRC. Kata kunci: Shot blast, induction furnace, nozzle, hot metal, pengecoran logam.

  1. Granular Convection in Microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, N; Nordstrom, K; Green, S F; Michel, P; de Lophem, T -L; Losert, W

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of gravity on convection in a dense granular shear flow. Using a microgravity modified Taylor-Couette shear cell under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity, we demonstrate experimentally that secondary, convective-like flows in a sheared granular material are close to zero in microgravity and enhanced under high-gravity conditions, though the primary flow fields are unaffected by gravity. We suggest that gravity tunes the frictional particle-particle and particle-wall interactions, which have been proposed to drive the secondary flow. In addition, the degree of plastic deformation increases with increasing gravitational forces, supporting the notion that friction is the ultimate cause.

  2. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  3. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  4. Granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Alok

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5½-years-old boy presented with multiple skin coloured subcutaneous nodules on scrotum and penoscrotal regions. Oldest lesion started 8 months back and new lesion was one month old. Biopsy report revealed the tumour to be granular cell tumour.

  5. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ?8.7 deg2 centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5? in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  6. DIRECT COURSE blast shelter entranceway and blast door experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIRECT COURSE Event is a planned high-explosive simulation of a 1-kt height-of-burst nuclear weapon. Three entranceway experiments will be fielded, one full size complete with two blast doors to document structural response and loading in the simulated 1-kit blast environment. Also, two 1/10-scale models, one double and one single entrance configuration, will be used to obtain blast pressure data that can be scaled to a 1-Mt blast environment. Results from these experiments will be used to evaluate and improve structural response calculations for the 1-kt environment, and to obtain loading data for a 1-Mt environment. These data will be used to design entranceways and blast doors for the key worker blast shelter

  7. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass of TNT that is equivalen...

  8. Blast vibration monitoring test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast vibration monitoring will be performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) to measure the vibration produced by constructed blasting during shaft excavation. The monitoring will record the particle velocity generated by the construction blasts and will provide data to determine if the vibration design specifications for the shaft instrumentation and lining have been exceeded. Blast vibration monitoring will be limited to the measurement of the three orthogonal components of motion using seismometers located in each shaft. Monitoring shall be done in conjunction with the shaft uphole seismic testing. 3 figs

  9. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  10. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  11. Tracer tests on furnaces at Metalloys Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1980, thirteen double tests were carried out with five radioactive isotopes on three furnaces at Metalloys Limited, near Meyerton. Each double test involved the introduction of a sample of coke impregnated with lanthanum and a sample of irradiated manganese ore (54Mn or 59Fe), irradiated quartzite (46Sc), or irradiated coal (46Sc, 59Fe, and 60Co). The tests were conducted on the three large furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese, viz M10, M11, and M12. The radioactivity of samples of the metal and the slag leaving the furnace was measured by the Isotopes and Activation Division of the Atomic Energy Board (AEB). Response curves and computer analyses are presented on the elution of the tracers from the furnaces. The response curves for the tracers, which were inserted close to the electrodes, are discussed so that the salient differences between their passage through the three furnaces can be established. The results obtained give support to the findings of a dig-out carried out on furnace M10 during 1977. The metal and slag products of furnace M12 were subjected to mineralogical investigation so that the major phases in the furnace products could be determined. Details of the calculation of the mean residence time for material in furnace M12 are given in an appendix

  12. Granular cell astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Morgenstern, Nora

    2008-12-01

    Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare type of malignant brain tumor with distinct morphologic features and aggressive clinical behavior. Almost all GCAs occur in the cerebral hemispheres. It is characterized by a prominent component of bland-looking granular cells. The tumor cells are usually positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, CD68, and epithelial membrane antigen. The most important differential diagnoses include a number of reactive lesions such as cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Electron microscopic study reveals that the granules of GCA correspond to an increased number of intracytoplasmic lysosomes. The histogenesis of GCA is still unclear, but most people believe it originates from astrocytes. Loss of 9p and 10q were identified in almost all cases of GCA, but they are not specific for this tumor. Surgical excision plus postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is the choice for most patients with GCA. PMID:19061297

  13. Mathematical models of granular matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  14. Spatiotemporally resolved granular acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic techniques provide a non-invasive method of characterizing granular material properties; however, there are many challenges in formulating accurate models of sound propagation due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of granular materials. In order to quantify acoustic responses in space and time, we perform experiments in a photoelastic granular material in which the internal stress pattern (in the form of force chains) is visible. We utilize two complementary methods, high-speed imaging and piezoelectric transduction, to provide particle-scale measurements of the amplitude of the acoustic wave. We observe that the average wave amplitude is largest within particles experiencing the largest forces. The force-dependence of this amplitude is in qualitative agreement with a simple Hertzian-like model for contact area. In addition, we investigate the power spectrum of the propagating signal using the piezoelectric sensors. For a Gaussian wave packet input, we observe a broad spectrum of transmitted frequencies below the driving frequency, and we quantify the characteristic frequencies and corresponding length scales of our material as the system pressure is varied.

  15. Analysis of SBTF quadelliptical furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model was developed which predicts the axial temperature profile and heat flux at the outer surface of the test section of the Sodium Boiling Test Facility constructed by the Engineering Technology Division at ORNL. The model was in agreement with observed temperature profiles at furnace power levels representative of single phase, dual phase, and dry-out operations. A parametric study demonstrated the effect of sodium flow rate and surface emissivities on the predicted temperature profile. It was concluded that axial conduction in the Hastelloy tube and sodium must be incorporated into the model to improve accuracy

  16. Blast optimization at Kriel Colliery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Neale.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kriel Colliery has experienced some sub-standard blast results on the overburden. Blast results are considered poor when the fragmentation is too big, back break into the new highwall, capping is experienced and/or excess overburden material is thrown into the void. Poor blasting leads to lower prod [...] uctivity, equipment breakdowns, and poor drilling and blasting results on the adjacent blast, contamination of coal or loss of coal. A simulation was developed in Microsoft Excel to model blasting results while changing various parameters. From the simulation results, it could be seen that a change of blast design could be beneficial. As an example, smaller drilling patterns were simulated (10 m x 10 m to 8 m x 8 m, and 8 m x 8 m to 7 m x 7 m in Pit 5 and Pit 6 respectively) in combination with changes in explosives (P700 emulsion vs. ANFO) and drill bit diameter (311mm vs. 251mm). The results show that each of the options has a specific scenario that will be most beneficial to the mine. These results are quite specific and subject to variable inputs. The purpose of the example is to demonstrate how the simulation can be used as a tool to asses blast design variations

  17. High productivity vacuum blasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process

  18. Granular cast iron with boron and its application to the mixing of concrete for protection against nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention aims to propose a concrete additive which, alone, brings together a high density property able to stop the gamma radiations, combined with a large cross section, able to capture the thermal neutrons. With this in view, the first object of the invention is the application of granular cast iron containing around 0.1 to 5% boron by weight. Its further object is the fabrication of this granular material, characterized by a preparation in the cupola furnace into which is injected a boron compound, preferably ore containing boron

  19. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  20. Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

    2003-02-28

    The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

  1. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  2. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  3. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  4. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it byn the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

  6. Granular mechanics and rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Jacqueline E.; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Lavier, Luc L.

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have proved useful in the interpretation of seismic-scale images of rifted margins. In an effort to both test and further illuminate predictions of numerical models, workers have made some strides using map-scale field relations, microstructures, and strain analyses. Yet, fundamental predictions of modeling and tectonic restorations are not able to capture critical observations. For example, many models and interpretations call on continuous faults with restorable kinematic histories. In contrast, s-reflectors and other interpreted shear fabrics in the middle crust tend to be discontinuous and non-planar across a margin. Additionally, most rift-evolution models and interpretations call on end-member ductile flow laws over a range of mechanical and thermal conditions. In contrast, field observations have found that a range of "brittle" fault rocks (e.g., cataclasites and breccias) form in the deeper crust. Similarly, upper crustal materials in deep basins and fault zones can deform through both distributed and localized deformation. Altogether, there appears to be reason to bring a new perspective to aspects of the structural evolution of rifted margins. A granular mechanics approach to crustal deformation studies has several important strengths. Granular materials efficiently localize shear and exhibit a range of stick-slip behaviors, including quasi-viscous rheological responses. These behaviors emerge in discrete element models, analog-materials experiments, and natural and engineered systems regardless of the specific micromechanical flow law. Yet, strictly speaking, granular deformation occurs via failure of frictional contacts between elastic grains. Here, we explore how to relate granular-mechanics models to mesoscale (outcrop) structural evolution, in turn providing insight into basin- and margin- scale evolution. At this stage we are focusing on analog-materials experiments and micro-to-mesoscale observations linking theoretical predictions to structural geological observations. With this combined approach we seek to establish characteristic length scales such as grain sizes and shear zone thicknesses, and time-scales such as stick-slip event dynamics. This would allow us to define a flow law at the mesoscale from comparing the experimental results and the field observations. This rheology could eventually be used to model the strain localization history of rifted margins

  7. Ratcheting of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquín, F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the quasistatic mechanical response of soils under cyclic loading using a discrete model of randomly generated convex polygons. This response exhibits a sequence of regimes, each one characterized by a linear accumulation of plastic deformation with the number of cycles. At the grain level, a quasiperiodic ratchetlike behavior is observed at the contacts, which excludes the existence of an elastic regime. The study of this slow dynamics allows exploration of the role of friction in the permanent deformation of unbound granular materials subjected to cyclic loading.

  8. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  9. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials

  10. Centrifugal shot blast system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  11. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from...

  12. Bulldozing of granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

  13. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial tests with CO2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  14. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  15. Elkem Iceland: Furnace unbalance and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Petre Manolescu

    2011-01-01

    The production of ferrosilicon is done in submerged electric arc furnaces. The current in the furnace can be adjusted by raising/lowering the electrodes which in turn adjust the impedance. Ideally the current in each electrode should be equal. When the electrodes are in the top or bottom position there is no room for adjusting the impedance and the furnace goes off balance. The purpose of this project is to discuss the feasibility of adjusting the voltage provided by three single-phase tap tr...

  16. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  17. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...with blasting machines, the connections...manufacturer of the electric blasting caps...The number of electric blasting caps...to a blasting machine shall not be...After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the...

  18. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GeoffreyLing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  19. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  20. Furnace energy efficiency at Polokwane Smelter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.K., Van Manen.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anglo Platinum's Polokwane Smelter is situated outside Polokwane, in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. A single 168 MVA six-inline rectangular furnace smelts dry concentrates containing platinum group metals (PGMs). Furnace energy consumption since commissioning is presented, showing that energy [...] efficiency improves as capacity utilization increases. An energy balance for the furnace is outlined, indicating the measured or calculated energy losses from the hearth and sidewall cooling, the copper coolers, the upper furnace walls and roof, and the energy losses in off-gas, matte, and slag. From the energy balance, the potential to improve energy efficiency by controlling the slag temperature, the slag level, and the off-gas volume is derived. Furthermore, the impact on the energy balance of different concentrate types is discussed, as well as the potential impact of replacing all upper waffle coolers by plate cooler panels.

  1. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  2. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  3. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  4. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation.

  5. Voltage stabilizers for high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of furnace temperatures in the range 1500-2500 C has been achieved by controlling the effective (rms) value of the supply voltage of the heating element. Temperature variations are less than, or equal to, one degree C in the whole working range of the furnace. Two types of set-ups have been developed: one is static, the other takes use of a servo-motor. (author)

  6. Modeling of the Holstebro-Struer furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleheie, N.I.; Laksaa, B.; Bugge, M.; Magnussen, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    This study reports modeling results of the primary combustion zone of the Holstebro-Struer waste furnace. The goal is to produce boundary conditions to the reburning zone calculations from the primary zone simulations of the furnace. The final goal of the reburning zone calculations is to predict the reburning effects of introducing reburning fuel in the reburning zone. The simulations are performed by the computer code KAMELEON-REBURNING developed at NTH/SINTEF Division Thermodynamics. (au).

  7. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    A. Drotlew; B. Piekarski

    2010-01-01

    The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for th...

  8. Locally Resonant Granular Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanomi, Luca; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    We report the design and testing of a tunable and nonlinear mechanical metamaterial, called locally resonant granular chain. It consists of a one-dimensional array of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing local resonators. The resonant particles are made of an aluminium outer spherical shell and a steel inner mass connected by a polymeric plastic structure acting as a spring. We characterize the linear spectra of the individual particles and of one-dimensional arrays of particles using theory, numerical analysis, and experiments. A wide band gap is observed as well as tunability of the dispersive spectrum by changing the applied static load. Finally, we experimentally explore the nonlinear dynamics of the resonant particles. By using nonlinear acoustical techniques, we reveal a complex, nonclassical nonlinear dynamics.

  9. Magnetoresistance of mesoscopic granular ferromagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Vilchik, A. Y. Dokow H.; Frydman, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance (MR) measurements of granular ferromagnets having lateral dimensions smaller than 0.5 $\\mu$m and containing a small number of grains (down to about 100). Compared to macroscopic samples, these granular samples exhibit unusually large saturation fields and MR amplitudes. In addition, the evolution of the magnetoresistance curve as the intergrain distance decreases is qualitatively different than that of large samples. We discuss these resul...

  10. Shear strength of vibrated granular/granular-fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Brian; Herman, Ralph; Foltz, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of dense granular materials can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on shear strength of granular and granular-water mixtures under the influence of external vibrations, one parameter that leads to unjamming. We use low vibration (< 1g) and slow shear and measure avalanching statistics in a rotating drum and the torque required to move a stirrer through a sand/water mixture. We find that external vibration (i) increases granular strength at small vibrations in the dry system, (ii) removes history dependence (memory), and (iii) decreases shear strength at all accessible saturation levels in the sand-fluid system. Additionally, shear strength is found to be smallest for both dry and completely saturated mixtures. Additional ongoing experiments probe beyond a dimensionless acceleration of 1 and explore jamming and surface chemistry effects in the avalanching flow of granular/fluid mixtures.

  11. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  12. Tyre-blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, O P

    2009-05-01

    A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

  13. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /?{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  14. Traffic and Granular Flow '99 : Social, Traffic, and Granular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  15. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  16. Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M. [Bender Corp., Beverly Hills, CA (United States); Zemp, R. [Von Moos Stahl AG, Emmenbrucke (Switzerland); Ineichen, R. [Marti-Technologie AG, Emmenbrucke (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Exactly how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulations 40 CFR Part 60 AA and AAa require that the furnace pressure be recorded at least once a shift. This means that furnaces must have a means of determining this pressure. Steelmakers often complain that it is difficult to maintain the pressure taps mounted in the furnace roof. Two case histories are investigated. A normal electric arc furnace operating with a pressure of {minus}0.02 in. wc and with slight continuous electrode emissions can save over 50 kwhr/ton and reduce the tap to tap time accordingly if the furnace pressure is made more positive. This is accomplished by providing emission control and operating concepts thereby allowing the furnace to operate at a pressure of +0.02 in. wc. The numerical relationship between furnace pressure set-point and electric energy consumption (kwhr/ton) is given. It is concluded that maintaining a good pressure control system on a furnace is well worth the maintenance effort of keeping the pressure tap open.

  17. Two-pion interferometry for granular sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on the two-pion Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in the granular source model of quark-gluon plasma droplets is presented. The characteristic quantities of the granular source extracted by imaging analysis are presented and compared with the HBT radii obtained by the usual Gaussian formula fit. The signals of granular sources are presented

  18. Two-pion interferometry for granular sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2010-01-01

    A review on the two-pion Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in the granular source model of quark-gluon plasma droplets is presented. The characteristic quantities of the granular source extracted by imaging analysis are presented and compared with the HBT radii obtained by the usual Gaussian formula fit. The signals of granular sources are presented.

  19. Some myths about DC arc furnaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.T, Jones; Q.G, Reynolds; T.R, Curr; D, Sager.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available DC arc furnaces are widely used for steel scrap melting as well as for reductive smelting of ore fines. Industrial smelting applications include the smelting of chromite to produce ferrochromium, the smelting of ilmenite to produce titania slag and pig iron, and the recovery of cobalt from nonferrou [...] s smelter slags. A number of myths and misconceptions are widely held, especially regarding: the age of the technology, the use of a hollow electrode, arc stability and shape, arc and bath radiation, interaction between the arc and molten slag, electrical behaviour of arcs and slags, a comparison between AC and DC furnaces, DC reactors, the lifespan of bottom electrodes, and the applicability of DC arc furnaces to various metallurgical systems.

  20. New approach for energy efficient blast calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Ortuta, J. [Technical Univ. of Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Although there are several different empirical relations for problems associated with blast vibrations, these correlations are based on parameters which have changed over time because of the many new developments in blasting, drilling and ignition techniques. This paper presented a statistically proven blast vibration forecast, which could be used for rock mass blasting. Fundamental parameters were found, which were causally related to vibration, based on the verified momentum theory. This theory was the physical evaluation model of the processes during and after the detonative reaction. The paper provided an illustration of a new physical model of the effects of explosives detonative implementation and described the detonation tests and in-situ conditions of the individual objects. The input parameters included rock and mountain properties in the area of the blast; measuring the blast and the geometrical properties; and definition of explosive and ignition technique. Several measurements were also taken during blasting, notably speed of the outbreak; video recording of the entire sequence; and strain and vibration velocity measurements to detect vibration. The measurements recorded after the explosion were blast rock, blast height, blast width, and blast relaxation. The possible side effects such as noise, toxic fumes or stone fly were also measured. It was concluded that increasing the drill hole diameter is more energy efficient than reducing the drill hole grid. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Tools to qualify experiments with bloomery furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, M.; Gfeller, U.; Gue?nette-beck, Barabara; Lienemann, P.; Ulrich, A.

    2009-01-01

    Five experimental bloomery iron ore smelts were carried out in a reconstruction of an early medieval furnace of the Boécourt type (Switzerland). A part of the bloom from the most successful experiment was forged to a billet. Starting materials and products were weighed, described and chemically characterized (ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and WD-XRF). The calculation of the yield and mass balance based on the chemical analyses from the ore (optimum) and from the ore, furnace lining, slag and ash (applie...

  2. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  3. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  4. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of micron-sized particles; extension of the theory to account for these effects is also considered. A set of continuum models are proposed for use in the future dust transport modeling.

  5. Microscopic origin of granular ratcheting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, S.; García-Rojo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2008-03-01

    Numerical simulations of assemblies of grains under cyclic loading exhibit “granular ratcheting:” a small net deformation occurs with each cycle, leading to a linear accumulation of deformation with cycle number. We show that this is due to a curious property of the most frequently used models of the particle-particle interaction: namely, that the potential energy stored in contacts is path dependent. There exist closed paths that change the stored energy, even if the particles remain in contact and do not slide. An alternative method for calculating the tangential force removes granular ratcheting.

  6. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by ? SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ?300 K?50000 ? ? cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  7. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  8. Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M. [Bender Corp., Beverly Hills, CA (United States); Zemp, R. [Von Moos Stahl AG, Emmenbrucke (Switzerland); Ineichen, R. [Marti-Technologie AG, Emmenbrucke (Switzerland)

    1996-04-01

    Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware of the fact that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Quantitatively, how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulation 40 CFR Part 60 AA and AAa require that furnace pressure be recorded at least once a shift. This means that furnaces must have a means of determining this pressure. Steelmakers, however often find it difficult to maintain the pressure taps mounted in the furnace roof. Three cases of furnaces using pressure control are investigated: normal furnace operating with a pressure set point of {minus}0.02 in. wc resulting in slight continuous electrode emissions; a furnace operating with the same set point but inadequate direct evacuation during much of the power-on time; and a furnace without electrode emissions at any time except during scrap cave-in. A normal electric arc furnace operating with a pressure of {minus}0.02 in. wc and with slight continuous electrode emissions can save over 50 kwhr/ton and reduce the tap to tap time accordingly if the furnace pressure is made more positive. This is accomplished by providing the emission control and operating concepts discussed, thereby allowing the furnace to operate at a pressure of +0.0375 in. wc. The numerical relationship between the furnace pressure set point and electric energy consumption (kwhr/ton) is presented.

  9. Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement-based grouts are the most widely used method for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous waste because of their low processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Grouts, which meet all applicable regulatory requirements for the disposal of heavy metals, selected organics, and radionuclides, have been developed. In general, the performance of these grouts in sequestering the waste constituents of concern is most successful when the constituent of interest is relatively insoluble in the high pH of the grout pore water. Grouts, particularly neat cement-paste grouts, have proven less successful ins equestering species such as technetium and nitrates, which are readily soluble in pore water. Technetium is one of four radionuclides (99Tc, 3H, 14C, and 131I) of particular concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of their mobility and biological activity. This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant waste

  10. Potential modification of hydration of alkali activated mixtures from granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    VÁCLAVA TOMKOVÁ; FILIP OV?A?ÍK; JOZEF VL?EK; HANA OV?A?ÍKOVÁ; MICHAELA TOPINKOVÁ; MARTIN VAVRO; PETR MARTINEC

    2012-01-01

    Alkali activated binders (AAB) and composites from suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. The paper deals with possibilities to influence functional parameters of AAB by setting the mixtures of GBFS and fly ash to the selected chemical composition or by fly ash reactivity change effected by milling. In this way course of hydration process is modified, the alkali activation products phase composition is changed as well as their ...

  11. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Pastor Navarro, José Luis; Albaladejo Ruiz, Arturo; Sánchez Martín, Isidro; Climent Llorca, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepar...

  12. POTENTIAL MODIFICATION OF HYDRATION OF ALKALI ACTIVATED MIXTURES FROM GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÁCLAVA TOMKOVÁ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkali activated binders (AAB and composites from suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. The paper deals with possibilities to influence functional parameters of AAB by setting the mixtures of GBFS and fly ash to the selected chemical composition or by fly ash reactivity change effected by milling. In this way course of hydration process is modified, the alkali activation products phase composition is changed as well as their final characteristic. The amorphous character of the hydration products limits the evaluation of the composition during the massing phase. Part of the study is the search for possibilities of identifying the differences in composition and properties of specially drafted mixtures of original raw materials after their alkali activation.

  13. Self-sensing properties of alkali activated blast furnace slag (BFS) composites reinforced with carbon fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcés; Emilio Zornoza; Oscar Galao; Josep Lluís Vilaplana; Francisco Javier Baeza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.). In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible applic...

  14. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcés

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.. In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible application of carbon fiber reinforced alkali activated slag pastes has been evaluated. Cement pastes with 0, 0.29 and 0.58 vol % carbon fiber addition were prepared. Both carbon fiber dosages showed sensing properties. For strain sensing, function gage factors of up to 661 were calculated for compressive cycles. Furthermore, all composites with carbon fibers suffered a sudden increase in their resistivity when internal damages began, prior to any external signal of damage. Hence, this material may be suitable as strain or damage sensor.

  15. Mitigation of Leachates in Blast Furnace Slag Aggregates by Application of Nanoporous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J. F.; Sanfilippo, J. M.; Tejedor, M. I.; Anderson, M. A.; Cramer, S. M.

    The reutilization of slag materials as aggregates is seriously limited by the production of contaminant leachates rich in heavy metals and sulfur when these materials are contacted by water. A unique type of thin-film nanotechnology was used to ameliorate this problem. The surface of the slag was altered by depositing a thin-film comprised of nanoporous oxides. The deposition was performed by coating the aggregates with a suspension containing nanoparticles. Once the water evaporated, a nanoporous thin-film (<0.5 ?m) remained firmly attached to the surface of the slag. Different leachate experiments under semi-anoxic conditions were performed using three different nanoparticles oxides films including silica, and titanium. These films were compared against a control. The preliminary results demonstrated that samples coated with one layer of these oxides can decrease the amount of sulfur and calcium in the leachate by 70 and 80%, respectively.

  16. Properties of Foamed Mortar Prepared with Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m3 was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight. Four different curing conditions were adopted for both types of foamed mortar to assess their compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and thermal insulation performance. The test results indicated that utilizing 50% of slag as cement replacement in the production of foamed mortar improved the compressive strength, UPV and thermal insulation properties. Additionally, the initial water curing of seven days gained higher compressive strength and increased UPV values as compared to the air cured and natural weather curing samples. However, this positive effect was more pronounced in the case of compressive strength than in the UPV and thermal conductivity of foamed mortar.

  17. Data Mining using Unguided Symbolic Regression on a Blast Furnace Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Kommenda, Michael; Kronberger, Gabriel; Feilmayr, Christoph; Affenzeller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a data mining approach for variable selection and knowledge extraction from datasets is presented. The approach is based on unguided symbolic regression (every variable present in the dataset is treated as the target variable in multiple regression runs) and a novel variable relevance metric for genetic programming. The relevance of each input variable is calculated and a model approximating the target variable is created. The genetic programming configurations...

  18. Segregación inherente en medios granulares / Inherent Segregation in Granular Media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Sánchez-Guzmán; G, Auvinet-Guichard.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de la segregación inherente existente en medios granulares por el efecto de la dimensión relativa de los distintos granos. Se utiliza un modelo numérico para la simulación geométrica de estructuras granulares. Tanto para la simulación como para el estudio de las estructuras gr [...] anulares se hace un amplio uso de la teoría de probabilidad. Las partículas se idealizan con círculos (modelo 2D) y esferas (modelo 3D). Se simulan materiales de granulometría estrictamente uniforme, bimodal (dos tamaños) y continua. Se proponen dos variables para medir la segregación que permiten apreciar los efectos de las variables granulométricas. En estructuras uniformes se observa la presencia de una estructuración espontánea. En las bimodales y continuas, la segregación depende principalmente de la relación entre los diámetros máximo y mínimo de las partículas. Se señalan algunas implicaciones prácticas que la segregación puede tener en los problemas de la geotecnia y otras disciplinas. Abstract in english A study of the inherent segregation within granular media due to the relative size of the different particles is presented. A numerical model is used to simulate granular structures. For both simulation and granular structures evaluations, probability theory is widely used. Particles are idealized b [...] y disks (2D model) and spheres (3D model). Strictly uniform grain size materials, bimodal (two particle sizes) and continuous are simulated. Two variables representing segregation and allowing appreciating the grain-size parameters effects are considered. In uniform materials, the presence of spontaneous structuring is observed. In bimodal and continuous materials, inherent segregation mainly depends on the ratio between maximum and minimum diameters of particle. Some practical implications of inherent segregation in geotechnical problems and other disciplines are remarked.

  19. Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingguo; Lu, Wenbo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng; Yang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of damage induced by smooth blasting and presplit blasting based on the excavation of high rock slope. The whole damage process of the smooth blasting and presplit blasting excavation method is studied by using a cumulative blasting damage numerical simulation technology based on the secondary development of the dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that, in the case of contour blasting with the method of smooth blasting, the total damage of rock slope is a result of cumulated damage induced by the production hole, buffering hole, and smooth hole. Among the total damage, the blasting of the production hole is the main resource, followed by the smooth and buffering holes. For the presplit blasting, the final damage of rock slope is mainly induced by presplit blasting itself. The spatial distribution characteristics of the final damage zone of two methods are compared. Two classes of damage zone could be found in smooth blasting excavation; one of them is the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface and the other is the low-degree damage zone located in the middle of the slope. But in the case of presplit blasting, there is only the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface. Finally, a damage control suggestion for two blasting excavation methods is proposed and verified based on the excavation of the temporary shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges Project in China.

  20. Waste stabilization/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Fernandez Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). School of Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and class F fly ash have been processed for studying the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. Compressive strength tests and leaching tests for determining the efficiency of heavy metal immobilisation have been carried out. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classic Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. Compressive strength values far better than those achieved by hydraulic S/S methods were easily obtained by geopolymer solids at 28 days. Regarding leachability, the geopolymer S/S solids also manifested in general a better behaviour, showing very promising results. 40 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.