WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

2

An update on blast furnace granular coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

1997-12-31

3

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

4

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

5

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01

6

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

7

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

8

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

9

Blast furnace operation with full oxygen blast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three existing proposed oxygen blast furnace processes are reviewed and a new proposed process is discussed, with results of calculations of operating conditions. In the new process, oxygen, pulverised coal and recycled top gas are injected at the conventional tuyeres, and preheated top gas is injected through further tuyeres at the base of the shaft after removal of CO/sub 2/ by adsorption on carbon. The coke rate is only about 150 kg/t. Economic advantages are demonstrated.

Minsheng Qin (and others)

1988-01-01

10

The use of blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

2012-01-01

11

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol' shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

12

International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

1981-01-01

13

Blast furnace supervision and control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

1997-12-31

14

Raceway modelling in the ULCOS blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThyssenKrupp Steel AG has developed a numerical model to study the combustion of coal particles that are fed into the blast furnace through the tuyeres. The basic aim is to evaluate various coal lance / tuyere configurations and assess their advantages or drawbacks for successful operation. In the ULCOS project, this model was used to check the feasibility of some tuyere configurations for the Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace process, which is especially challenging regarding tuyere design, combustion kinetics and raceway size.

Hulstrung, J. [ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

2009-09-15

15

High productivity in Australian blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G. [BHP Slab and Plate Products Div., Port Kembla, New South Wales (Australia); Jelenich, L. [BHP Rod and Bar Products Div., Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Ward, R.F. [BHP Long Products Div., Whyalla, South Australia (Australia)

1995-12-01

16

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

17

Advanced pulverised coal injection technology and blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book reports on the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Iron and Steel Institute (ISIJ) committee of Pulverized Coal Combustion and In-Furnace Reaction in Blast Furnace activities. It discusses the findings from combustion experiments and the results of live furnace applications, and furnace performances. Chapters discuss: characteristics of pulverized coal (PC) combustion, combustion behaviour of PC Particle Group, PC combustion in blast furnace, modelling of PC combustion, advanced injection lances for high rate PCI, phenomena in blast furnace with high rate PCI, generation of fine in blast furnace at high rate PCI, burden properties suitable for high rate PCI, and upper limit of PC replacement.

Ishii, K.; Ariyama, T. [eds.] [Hokkaido University (Japan)

2000-07-01

18

PCI application in blast furnace operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines how pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology for blast furnaces has rapidly developed in China. PCI application started with anthracite, from single anthracite injection into a blend of high volatile matter coal. The article describes its present usage around China. Producers and production of anthracite and semi-anthracite for PCI usage are discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Pei, X. [Yangquan Coal (Group) Co. Ltd. (China)

2003-11-01

19

Pulverised coal injection and the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper outlines the economic and operational advantages of pulverised coal injection (PCI) for blast furnaces and discusses future patterns of PCI use. Graphs show PCI coal use for 1987 to 2000 in the European Union, other European, Latin America and Asia/Middle Eastern countries, and PCI sales by source for 1995. 12 figs.

Bennett, J.

1996-12-31

20

Coal quality for blast furnace injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consists of a literature review on coal quality for blast furnace injection. Aspects covered include: combustibility of coal of different types and particle sizes; effects on combustibility of maceral composition; and some actual specifications on coal quality for injection. 67 refs.

1993-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Thermomechanical modelling of a blast furnace hearth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able to estimate the stress state in service. To identify the behaviour of bricks, mortars and ramming mix, characterization tests have been developed for temperatures up to 1500°C. A modified Cam-clay model is i...

Brulin, Jérôme; Rekik, Amna; Blond, Eric; Josserand, Laurent; Gasser, Alain; Roulet, Frédéric

22

Use of Waste Oil in Blast Furnaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply p...

K. Goebel

1983-01-01

23

Blast furnace injection of low volatile coal at Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor Division  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnaces at Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor, Indiana plant operated with granular coal injection throughout 1995 and 1996. The coal used during 1996 was a low volatile Virginia coal. The grinding characteristics of this coal, with a Hardgrove Index of 100, helped to stabilize the operation of the coal processing system. The blast furnace process also achieved significant improvements in process stability, reaching replacement rates predicted by earlier computer simulations. Of particular note was a stabilization of wall heat flux on D furnace and the attainment of a higher coal injection rate than was projected in 1995 without unacceptable refractory wear. This paper discusses critical events and achievements in Bethlehem Steel`s switch from natural gas injection to coal injection on the C and D blast furnaces at Burns Harbor and the subsequent process results with the injection of low volatile granular coal.

Dwelly, M.J.; Hill, D.G.; Durko, D.P. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

1997-12-31

24

Dependence of coke consumption and blast furnace output on intensity of blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors are discussed which influence coke consumption by a blast furnace: furnace capacity, permeability of the charge to gases, and coke quality. Effects of grain size distribution of coke, in particular, content of coke fines with a diameter below 5 mm, coke mechanical properties (the M40 compression strength index, coke abrasion wear), coke reactivity and ash content on coke consumption rates and blast furnace output are analyzed. Ash content increase in coke increases coke consumption rates (on the average a 1% increase in ash causes a consumption rate increase of 2 to 2.5%). Evaluations carried out in Poland by Janik and Pawlik show that ash content increase in coke from 8 to 12% improves coke combustion intensity which partly compensates the negative effects of a high ash content. Factors which influence coke consumption rates are analyzed using a blast furnace with a capacity of 862 m/sup 3/. Intensity of blast furnace operation is determined as the coke consumption rate per 1 m/sup 3/ furnace volume in 24 h. Evaluations show that coke consumption is minimum when 0.7 t coke is used. Blast furnace output is maximum when 0.78 t coke is used. The results of evaluations are given in a table and diagram. 5 references.

Stec, R.; Malarski, T.; Binkowski, W.

1985-05-01

25

Unstable blast shocks in dilute granular flows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shocks and blasts can be readily obtained in granular flows be they dense or dilute. Here, by examining the propagation of a blast shock in a dilute granular flow, we show that such a front is unstable with respect to transverse variations of the density of grains. This instability has a well-defined wavelength which depends on the density of the medium and has an amplitude which grows as an exponential of the distance traveled. These features can be understood using a simple model for the shock front, including dissipation which is inherent to granular flows. While this instability bears much resemblance to that anticipated in gases, it is distinct and has special features we discuss here.

Boudet JF; Kellay H

2013-05-01

26

Utilization of coal in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the present status in Japan of coal utilization in iron-making. Two main processes of coal injection into a blast have been developed to save expensive metallurgical coke: 1) colloidal fuel mixture injection, 2) pulverized coal injection (PCI). The development of the former process, i.e., coal oil mixture (COM) and coal tar mixture (CTM) injection into a blast furnace, was completed by Sumitomo Metal Industries and other Japanese steel works in 1982. As for the latter process, the first PCI equipment in Japan has been operating at Oita No.1 BF of Nippon Steel Corporation since 1981. It was successfully completed by modifying the ARMCO system. The number of blast furnaces with PCI systems has come up to sixteen in Japan, which implies a remarkable development of the system. At present, coal utilization technology in the iron and steel industry is focused on the development of both coal-water mixture (CWM) injection into blast furnaces and coal addition into steelmaking vessels. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Shohji, Y.

1986-01-01

27

Expansion turbine of the Schwelgern blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The turbine on the Schwelgern blast furnace is the second top gas expansion turbine to be operated on back-pressure blast furnaces in the Thyssen Stahl AG Group. Because of the aspect of optimal utilization of energy, a decision was taken in favour of a double axial flow turbine coupled to a 13 MW asynchronous generator. In this case, the no-load wattless power of an asynchronous generator of this size is firstly covered by parallel switched condensers. The connection to the mains network then follows via synchronization equipment. Control, regulation, signal processing and automatic cut-out are carried out via a stored programmable system with individual programmes. After an operational period of 18 months the technical expectations have, up to now, been fulfilled and the economic coefficients achieved.

Peters, K.H.; Ringkloff, G.; Schmitz, D.

1984-07-23

28

Oil injection into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1997-12-31

29

Experimental study on the combustion behaviour of coal under simulated blast furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents experimental results on combustibility of coal under simulated blast furnace blowpipe-tuyere conditions obtained from a pilot plant facility. The effect of the combustion conditions and coal properties are discussed. Also, burnout of pulverized coal is compared with that of granular coal. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Hutny, W.P.; MacPhee, J.A.; Giroux, L.; Price, J.T. [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories

1995-12-31

30

Assessment of coke quality and behavior in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses processes in a blast furnace and effects of coke quality. The following aspects are evaluated: coke comminution in a blast furnace and factors that influence comminution, grain size distribution of coke during various stages of blast furnace operation, effects of coke disintegration on its permeability to gases and reactivity, alkali effects on coke reactivity and mechanical properties, temperature effects on coke physical and chemical properties (crack development, porosity increase, etc.), effects of ash content in coke on its behavior in a blast furnace, graphitization effects, correlations of coke porosity, structural strength and compression strength with other physical properties. Equations are derived for forecasting effects of coke comminution, chemical and physical processes in a blast furnace and catalytic effects of chemical compounds in a blast furnace on coke behavior. 8 refs.

Braun, N.V.; Glushchenko, I.M.; Makhovskii, V.A.

1988-08-01

31

Transport and preparation of coke for the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop specifications for coke qualaity for large blast furnaces and measures matching the coke quality to the blast furnace volume, a series of investigations were conducted on the change in the physical and mechanical properties of coke in the process of its transport to the blast furnace, with a comparative evalution of the individual coke fractions. It was determined that the 60-40 and 80-60 mm coke classes were most suitable for blast furnace smelting. The 40-25 mm coke fraction is inferior in its physical and mechanical properties to these classes, but preferable to the over 80 mm coke. (JMT)

Kotov, A.P. (Cherepovets Iron and Steel Works, USSR); Ulakhovich, V.A.; Solodkov, V.I.; Mishin, E.N.; Chuparev, E.F.; Veshchezerov, M.M.; Shkodkin, K.K.

1982-01-01

32

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most important regions of worldwide iron production. The prospects for future possible developments of blast furnace technology is presented, too.Findings: of this analysis show that directions of development of blast furnace technologies is characterized by: an increase the overall productivity of blast furnaces, the increase in volume blast furnaces and extending the period for campaign work of blast furnaces, systematic improving the quality of blast furnace charge, controlling its distribution, the introduction of coal dust injection and modernization of the equipments. Moreover, some specific researches were carried out e.g. a new process granulation for the control of melting materials, hybrid bonding iron ore of inferior quality, decreasing CO2 emissions in the process of sintering iron.The Chinese iron industry is oriented on modification of uneconomical structure of the iron production, excessive energy consumption and heavy impact on global environment. Research limitations/implications: Simulation calculations show that the future lines of the development of blast furnace technology should take into account: a) use lower temperatures of hot blast and high blast enrichment in oxygen. b). injection of various fuels taking into account their prices in various world regions, c). the effective use of top gas, d). the possibility of eliminating blast furnace stoves. Originality/value: of the paper consist in transfer of knowledge helpful to further lowering energy for iron production and reducing harmful impact for the natural environment.

J. Mróz

2012-01-01

33

The startup of coal injection on Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the simplicity of operation and the excellent results from natural gas injection at Bethlehem Steel, there were concerns about future supply and price stability. Furthermore, the maximum projected gas rates still required coke consumption in excess of Burns Harbor`s coke production capacity. Thus in 1990 Bethlehem Steel entered into an agreement to participate in the DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration project by installing a granular coal injection facility at Burns Harbor. This agreement called for a facility to be constructed which was capable of processing and injecting a wide range of coal types in either granular or pulverized form. Tests were to be conducted to assess the effects of a range of coal properties, coal sizing, and injection rates on a number of key blast furnace parameters. During all the transitioning from natural gas injection to coal injection and subsequent tests it was essential that the blast furnaces maintain their historic operating performance in support of the Burns Harbor Division`s product market requirements. Unlike many coal injection facilities, the Burns Harbor installation is owned by Bethlehem Steel and the operation and maintenance from raw coal unloading through the tuyeres is the responsibility of the Blast Furnace Department. As the authors will discuss, the start-up of this major installation involved significant challenges, the most critical of which was maintaining historically high blast furnace operating standards while commissioning a new facility and adapting the furnace process to coal injection.

Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Durko, D.P.; Dwelly, M.J.

1996-12-31

34

Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

1992-01-01

35

Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

1997-12-31

36

Development of waste plastics injection process in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Keihin No.1 Blast Furnace, waste plastics recycling system was installed in Oct. 1996. Before the installation of that system, the behavior of waste plastics injected into the blast furnace has been studied with the raceway hot model and the commercial blast furnace so as to investigate the possibility of effective waste plastics utilization in the blast furnace. Prom the observation of plastics particle injected into the raceway of blast furnace, it was estimated that combustibility of coarse plastics was much different from that of pulverized coal. The combustion point of coarse plastics located to deep domain in raceway compared with that of pulverized coal. Although C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons due to the decomposition of plastics was detected in in-furnace, the decomposition products of plastics in the blast furnace top gas and dust were the same as that of pulverized coal injection. The preparation method of plastics had an influence on the combustion and gasification behavior in the raceway. The coarse plastics gave high combustion and gasification efficiency compared with fine plastics and pulverized coal, and CO{sub 2} gasification rate of unburnt char derived from waste plastics was much higher than that of pulverized coal. Thus, it was concluded that coarse waste plastics could be effectively utilized as a reducing agent in the blast furnace. On the basis of above results, the waste plastics recycling system was designed. (author)

Asanuma, M.

2000-03-01

37

Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently determining the chemical significance of this information and its relation to the differing cementitious properties of the two compounds. This analytical technique is now being investigated on data generated at the HIFAR reactor

2000-06-22

38

Natural radioactivity in blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper is part of a series of systematic investigations on natural radioactivity in iron and steel raw materials in finite products. The blast furnace slag is an iron and steel by-product most useful in industry. The analyses of slag samples from each batch over three months reveled the presence of the natural series 232 Th and 238 U. For detection we used a high resolution gamma spectrometry system with built-in computer in Marinelli geometry. The specific activities of the following descendants were given: 212 Pb, 208 Tl, 228 Ac, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi. Natural radioactivity was found to be lower in slag than in iron and steel raw materials. (Author)

1992-01-01

39

Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

1995-12-01

40

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Use of waste oil in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply pressure suffered considerable wear. The dosing valves and fittings used for the research project, however, did not show any signs of wear, and were equally well suited for both waste oil and heavy fuel oil. With waste oil, the comsumption of injection lances was found to be approximately three times higher, which was due to the faster cracking action taking place in the heat-exposed lance tips. The cracking pattern of the different oil grades in the lance tips could not be evaluated by means of the Conradson test. The report states various data determined on waste oil such as flash point, density, viscosity, pour-point and ash content, and discusses their relevance for equipment design and operating conditions. It was not possible to observe any differences specific to the oil grades, neither in the metallurgical characteristics nor in the furnace practice.

Goebel, K.

1983-06-01

42

Pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces: the Tata Steel experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces is widely practised all over the world for decreasing the coke rate and for conserving coking coal. Tata Steel commissioned a coal injection unit in March 1991 for its `F` Blast Furnace. The furnace worked satisfactorily for more than a year with an average injection rate of 50 kg/thm with a replacement ratio of 0.9. Later, with 1-2% enrichment of oxygen in the blast, it was possible to increase the injection rate to 70-80 kg/thm with a replacement ratio of about 1.0 as well as associated benefits in furnace productivity. Higher injection rates of more than 100 kg/thm were subsequently tried in 1993. The experience gained at Tata Steel with particular reference to coal characteristics, furnace operating parameters and behaviour of the furnace with coal injection are described. 11 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

Kumar, S.; Pandey, B.D.; Gupta, S.S.; Chatterjee, L.M.; Chatterjee, A.; Mukherjee, T. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1994-12-31

43

Gas phase reactions in the blast furnace. Masuunin kaasufaasin reaktiot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behaviour of gas phase of the blast furnace in high amounts of oil injection was studied. The thermodynamic balance has been calculated in different cases. Some part of pyrolysis gases doesn't burn at low air factor in the raceway of the blast furnace. Unburned pyrolysis gases rise up into blast-furnace shaft and their can form soot. Soot can form foam in dust cleaning systems. Because of this it is important that pyrolysis gases burning is operating well in the raceway. Mixing of air and pyrolysis gases must be good enough in the raceway because of the decreasing air factor causing by coke in the raceway

Ollila, S.; Mannila, P.; Harkki, J.

1994-01-01

44

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

45

Transporting and preparing coke for blast furnace smelting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes changes in the physico-mechanical properties of coke obtained under various conditions during coke delivery into blast furnaces. Coke tends to crumble during transportation while its quality improves insignificantly. To improve coke quality as it is being fed into blast furnace, it is recommended that the crushing effect be reduced and the abrasion effect be increased. Diagrams show the effects of crushing and abrasion. Grain size classes 60-40 and 80-60 mm are considered to be more suitable for blast furnace smelting than the 40-25 mm class, which shows weaker physico-mechanical qualities. It is suggested that size class over 80 mm be separated and either subjected to additional preparation or sent to other users. A schematic diagram shows the coke handling process starting at the coke sorting machine to its delivery into the blast furnace. (4 refs.)

Kotov, A.P.; Ulakhovich, V.A.; Solodkov, V.I.; Mishin, E.N.; Chuparev, E.F.; Veshchezerov, M.M.; Shkodkin, K.K.

1982-04-01

46

Coke gasification temperature and its effect on blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of determining the gasification temperature is recommended and measurements on cokes from 14 steelworks are reported. The effects on blast furnace operation are analysed and the influence of potassium carbonate addition to the coke is discussed.

Long Shigang

1990-01-01

47

Silicon behaviour at the blast furnace process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Views on the reduction of SiO2 at the blast furnace process began to change in the mid 70s. Nowadays it is claimed that the silicon appears in the metal not only from the slag SiO2 reduction at the liquid phase, but also from a gaseous SiO. Presented in this paper, laboratory tests were aimed on finding the effect of temperature and MgO containing in the slag on the dynamics of the Si transition to the pig iron at the liquid phase at time when slag lies on metal.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory tests carried out in laboratory on devices AGH described in detail in other studies such as [8-11]. Metal used in the study obtained by carbonizing the carbon-iron saturation assuming the values given by J. Chipman [7].Findings: Observations of industrial units in combination with laboratory tests allowed us to approximately determine the contribution of silicon from the gaseous SiO in hot metal.Research limitations/implications: Si content in the metal after the test at a constant temperature is less than taping pig iron of about 0.15 to 0.35%. This means that in addition to the reduction reaction of the silica source of silicon in the slag is reduced gaseous SiO , which is in line with those of the authors [2-5, 8-10]. This will also be the subject of the next stage of research.Practical implications: As a result, developed guidelines and proposals for the conduct of blast-furnace technology to minimize Si in pig iron.Originality/value: The AGH research team has approached to issue of SiO2 reduction complexly. The work is divided into stages. Laboratory studies combined with industry specific observations. As a result of this approach to work is possible to develop a practical technology to minimize silicon in the pig iron. Articles published in reputable journals on similar or related topics do not include all issues.

A. Klimczyk; R. Stachura; M. Bernasowski; A. ??dzki

2012-01-01

48

Blast furnace operating experience with pulverized coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early nineties Stelco s Hilton Works faced a shortfall in coke production due to the shutdown of three batteries. It was decided to invest in pulverised coal injection technology (PCI) to overcome this. The new facilities became operational in December 1995. The paper describes the blast furnace and PCI facilities, the effect of PCI on blast furnace operations, and operating experience with PCI. It also discusses PCI versus natural gas injection in North America. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Hutchinson, S. [Stelco Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

2001-07-01

49

No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

1996-12-31

50

Modelling of turbulent combustion blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metallurgical coke is a traditional fuel in blast furnaces. However, coking is an expensive and air polluting process. There are significant environmental and economical reasons to minimise coke consumption in iron making. It is possible to inject some auxiliary fuel through a blowpipe into a raceway and reduce the mount of coke needed in the process. Various kinds of fuels have been used as an auxiliary fuel: oil, coal, natural gas, tar and different kinds of emulsions. The aim of this research was to model flow and combustion phenomena in the raceway area, when auxiliary fuel is heavy residual oil. The research started June 1994 in the SULA 2 -programme. After that Rautaruukki has been responsible for funding the research, which is also included in the Osiris project of the European Union since December 1996. The project was to develop a laser measurement system for the raceway combustion phenomena, and also a numerical model for the raceway simulations. The other members of the project were some manufacturing companies, and also Cham Ltd. from U.K. Cham Ltd. has developed the CFD code Phoenics, which has also been used by the authors in the research.

Maekiranta, R.; Karvinen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering

1998-07-01

51

Triple-activated blast furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer have been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.

Clarke, W.J. [Geochemical Corporation, Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Desirable blast velocity from the view point of fine coke deposit around blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast velocity at a tuyere was investigated through the cold experiment utilizing a two-dimensional model of the lower part of the blast furnace, and the coke combustion experiment in a raceway furnace. When the raceway penetration (Dr), a converted value for the practical blast furnace, is increased above 1.3 m by enhancing the blast velocity at the tuyere or the pig-iron delivery ratio, the powdering amount of the coke in the raceway and the amount of the fine coke deposit on the core surface are increased. As the result, the extension of the furnace core causes a reduction in the fine-coke descending region, and also an increase in the descending rate of the charges near the furnace wall, resulting in a reduction in the temperature of the furnace core and the furnace wall. From the derived equation of Dr, it is estimated that the Dr in most of the large scale blast furnaces is about 1.4 m. However, it is needed that Dr is reduced by 10 cm and over for the above-mentioned reasons. From the calculation formula of the blast velocity at the tuyere (Ut), the 10 cm reduction in the Dr requires about 30 m/sec. in the Ut. Reduction in the Ut. can inhibit the powdering of the coke. (8 figs, 2 tabs, 2 refs)

Tamura, Kenji; Ichida, Morimasa; Wakimoto, Hirofumi; Ono, Katsuya; Hayashi, Yoichi

1987-11-01

53

Model of the state of blast furnace hearth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for estimation of erosion and skull profiles of the blast furnace hearth is presented. The model, which is based on thermocouple measurements in the hearth bottom and wall lining, estimates the most severe erosion of the lining experienced during the campaign and also the present thickness of the skull material. The model is illustrated on process data from two Finnish blast furnaces. Complementary measurements and calculations are used to verify the results. Based on the findings, conclusions are drawn about the internal state of the blast furnace hearth, for instance, whether the dead man floats or sits at the bottom. Finally, some suggestions on how to control the state of the furnace hearth are given. (author)

Torrulla, J.

2000-05-01

54

Granulated blast furnace slag used to reduce grounding resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Granulated blast furnace slag is the residue produced from steel-making plants. Waste utilisation is an attractive alternative to disposal in that disposal cost and potential pollution problems are reduced. Nowadays the use of slag in concrete, either as a constituent of cement or as a mineral admixture. is widespread. The granulated blast furnace slag has low resistivity, and so can be used as an agent for reducing resistance to grounding. The grounding resistance reduction agent was determined by considering various proportions of water, cement and salt. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the grounding resistance. (author)

Chen, S.-D. [Chinese Naval Academy (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2004-05-01

55

Comparison of substitute fuel efficiency in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An economic assessment is presented for costs for partial substitution of black coal coke by pulverized brown coal or brown coal coke in burner injection in the GDR. At blast furnaces a maximum brown coal dust quantity of 130 to 160 kg/t of iron produced, or 110 to 130 kg brown coal coke dust (with a coke substitution coefficient of 0.45 to 0.65 kg/kg) can be injected without negative effects on blast furnace operation. An equation is given for determining costs for blast furnace fuel supply and use. Proposed cost calculations consider specific fuel costs, investment costs, interest factor, service life, furnace operation costs, required fuel quantity and other values. As a result, expenditures are shown arising from the supply of black coal coke, brown coal dust, brown coal coke dust, heating oil and natural gas to GDR steelworks and blast furnaces in 1982, 1985 and in 1990. It is concluded that brown coal dust is the most favorable coke substitution fuel. 6 references.

Hach, H.F.

1985-01-01

56

Development of pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic benefits of pulverized coal-injected (PCI) blast furnaces have meant that the number of such furnaces in Japan has steadily increased since their introduction in 1981. Aspects of PCI discussed in the article include: PCI system configuration; evaluation of coals for PCI (e.g. dryability; pulverisability and combustibility) and the possibility of a technical ceiling for pulverized coal rate. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Tateoka, M. (Nippon Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan))

1992-09-01

57

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and cast-iron stations. Furthermore, there are 54 operations for each blast furnace workshop. The results and the structure of the integrated simulation model were verified and validated by comparative analysis and t-test. Moreover, the monthly production rate of cast-iron station is chosen as the performance measure for the actual system and simulation model in a twelve months trial. The results of t-test shows the average monthly production of cast-iron for the two system is statistically equal (at ?=0.05). Also, the industrial engineering unit and the production managers accredited the integrated model. After this stage, the simulation was run for a period of six months to evaluate major bottlenecks in the system. Finally, two optimizing alternatives, which can save the company millions of Dollars, are introduced and their economic advantages are discussed. The integrated simulation model has several unique features. First, it is integrated and considers all operations, maintenance, repairs, quality control activities, systems' limitations and interaction with other systems. Second, it is coded in parametric fashion so any alternative may be easily retrieved. Third, it is a practical tool due to its verification, validation and accreditation. Finally, a standard procedure for development of integrated simulation model for similar blast furnace or workshops is introduced.

Ali Azadeh; S. F. Ghaderi

2006-01-01

58

Investigation on blast furnace wear phenomena especially in the hearth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For evaluation of hearth wear in a blast furnace by liquid flow phenomena taking into consideration the shape and the position of the 'dead man', 1:10 hearth model was used. Hot metal was simulated by water and refractory materials by carbohydrate specimens. This technique is applicable for simulating nearly all processes in which a soluble solid comes into contact with unsaturated fluid. The results confirmed that a possible strategy for reducing the risk of a breakout is to choose an undissoluble (ceramic) lining for the side wall and a less-durable lining for the bottom. Low-refractory wear can be expected when the sump depth is low enough that the dead man covers the whole hearth bottom, because the absence of a coke-free region leads to a low-flow velocity level and a low-mass transfer from the side wall to the hot metal. The effects of levels and flow of hearth liquid upon blast furnace operation and hearth wear were determined through a combination of laboratory and plant-based studies and measurements. Liquid level determination on operational blast furnaces was carried out using EMF measurement. In a newly constructed physical model, the influence of the liquid in the blast furnace upon blast furnace operation and hearth wear, that means liquid height, casting procedure, liquid viscosity and coke bed properties on the raceway shape and stability, was evaluated. EMF measurements were very erratic and varied considerably around the furnace. After the introduction of an SPC scheme the EMFs became quite steady. EMF data can be of use in estimating hearth liquid level. The physical model work provided useful information on the way the liquid surface deforms during casting and the accompanying pressure distributions.

Lungen, H.; Ruther, H.; Clixby, G. [BFI VDEH Betriebsforschungsinstitut, Duesseldorf (Federal Republic of Germany)] [and others

2000-07-01

59

Blast furnace process characteristics with high pulverised coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complete combustion of injected coal in the raceway is the single most important parameter affecting the extent of injection at higher rates. Incomplete combustion of injected coal in the raceway results in deposition of unburnt carbon particles on the walls of the deadman and cohesive zones, thereby affecting the furnace permeability. Deterioration in permeability can affect furnace productivity. The paper describes the associated technical problems and suggests ways and means for maximising the pulverised coal injection rate relevant to the `G` Blast Furnace at Tata Steel. 18 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

Pandey, B.D.; Yadav, U.S. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1998-06-01

60

Laser radar systems in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three systems using laser radar techniques are described: optical stockrod Opstock, burden profiler and raceway sensor. An outline of these systems is given in addition to results from their operation on a BHP Steel Group furnace. In particular, recent results using the raceway sensor on a pulverized coal injection (PCI) furnace are described together with a discussion on the potential use of the sensor to investigate combustion in the raceway region.

Paton, A.T.; Wall, P.C. (BHP Research, Shortland (Australia)); Hughes, M. (BHP Steel, Newcastle (Australia). Rod and Bar Products Division)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method). Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

Ra?enovi?, A.; Malina, J.; Matijaši?, G.

2009-01-01

62

Metrological investigations on coal injection into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temperature measurements and gas analyses were performed on a tuyere at Schwelgern no. 1 blast furnace to evaluate the performance of different coal injection lances. A probe capable of continuous, reproducible and absolute measurements of temperature and gas sampling was developed. Coaxial lances with oxygen admitted through the outer tube gave better combustion efficiency.

Gudenau, H.W. (and others) (Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany))

1994-01-01

63

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and th...

Verdeja, L. F.; González, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbés, Mª F.

64

Demonstration of high rates of coal injection on a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents an overview of the ECSC demonstration project to investigate the use of high rates of coal injection on a blast furnace. Comprised four trails on a pilot blast furnace at Teesside Laboratories, followed by three trails on British Steel's foundry iron furnace at Cleveland, and one on the basic iron Queen Victoria furnace Scunthorpe in the UK.

Leonard, D.C.; Campbell, D.A.; Smith, R.B.; Matthew, T.W. [British Steel plc (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

65

Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

1995-12-01

66

A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

2009-10-15

67

Optimisation of blast furnace raceway at high injection rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this project was to clarify the raceway behaviour during high coal injection operations and to establish its influence on the whole blast furnace operation. A two-dimensional physical model (coke combustion with cold air) was built to simulate the raceway dynamics. Results show an unsteady raceway, expanding cyclically from a minimal to a maximal size, followed by the massive collapsing of the coke vault. Without coal injection, most relevant parameters on the raceway size are coke grain size and gas flow rate, with opposite effects. Coal injection produces a quick change of the raceway behaviour, which becomes larger. Optical methods were developed to investigate raceway depth (peephole method) and three-dimensional raceway space (lance method) during blast furnace operation. Results show raceway dimensions of 40-110 cm in depth and 40-60 cm in width, with possible change of 30 cm in depth during short periods. These measurements could not be clearly correlated with the blast parameters and with the results of coke core borings performed in parallel at the tuyere level. The influence of many parameters (raceway, bird nest and dead man characteristics, burden distribution) on blast furnace operation has been studied with an upgraded mathematical model. Results contribute to get a better picture of the situation inside the blast furnace, mainly in terms of cohesive zone position and shape. They provide a better understanding of the involved phenomena, of their interactions and of the furnace behaviour in response to an increase of the coal injection rate. 108 figs., 22 tabs.

Lectard, E.; Danloy, G.; Blacknik, W.; Muelheims, K. [Arcelor, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

2005-07-01

68

New measurement technique for the investigation of the raceway in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work focuses the new technologies for measurements effectively applicable to blast furnaces. The work shows that reliable data on the operating blast furnaces combustion zones provide for the improvement of the present low-shaft blast furnaces simulation models which are applied to blast furnaces automation and special systems. This fact could offer an improved and more flexible operation control, resulting not only in economical but also ecological advantages considering that the blast furnace is the greatest energy consumer in a metal industry. The maintenance of the research activities for introduction of new technologies such as the injection of plastic wastes is another important characteristic, when considering the environmental aspects.

Gudenau, H.W.; Robert, F.

1995-07-01

69

Effect of blast conditions on the raceway of the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of temperature of feed air, quantity of feed fuel, oxygen-enriched air feed, on the shape of raceway in the blast furnace were studied. Experiment was conducted by using the blast furnace for experiment equipped with air nozzle made of alumina. As the result of the experiment, graph correlation of the each dimension of raceway with influential factors was given together with the temperature distribution graph in the furnace. As the consideration, it was understood that the volume of raceway was increased considerablly by feeding rich air and decreased by injection of fuel. It was concluded that the depth of receway was related with FROUD number and the volume with Bosch gas volume corrected by furnace temperature. (12 figs, 2 tabs, 6 refs)

Nakamura, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Takashi; Uno, Takeo; Hara, Yukiaki

1988-08-01

70

Analysis of furnace conditions with waste plastics injection into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since most of the waste plastics are incinerated and land filled for the plastic treatment, the environmental friendly processes must be introduced. The plastic utilization of plastic to the blast furnace as a substitutional fuel was developed as a useful recycling method of waste plastics, and commercialized in several iron making company in Europe and Japan. Present study was carried out to understand the effect of plastic injection on blast furnace process continuously by using the foundry blast furnace in POSCO. The coke replacement ratio turned out to be 0.98 with the waste plastic injection up to 13.8 kg/thm of injection rate, and there were no significant effect of the kinds of injection plastics on the replacement ratio in this test operation. The permeability in the furnace became worse and the heat load in the lower part of blast furnace was increased with increasing the injection rate of waste plastics. As the rate of plastic injection were increased, the top gas utilization and shaft efficiency were also decreased from the Rist diagram analysis. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Heo, Nam-Hwan; Baek, Chan-Yeong; Yim, Chang-Hee [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang(Korea)

2000-12-31

71

Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

1996-12-31

72

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

73

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

2003-01-01

74

Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

2011-02-15

75

A 3D CFD simulation of liquid flow in an ironmaking blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-dimensional CFX-based mathematical model is developed to describe the flow-heat transfer-chemical reactions behaviours of gas-solid-liquid phases in an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The typical in-furnace phenomena of an operating blast furnace, in particular, the liquid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace is simulated in aspects of velocity and volume fraction. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2013-07-01

76

Development of quality requirements of blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

characterizes coke fracture strength index M 40 and coke abrasion index M 10 are characterized. The relations between coke strength, its abrasion resistance and its lump size and the productivity of blast furnaces are evaluated. Examples of tests carried out in USSR, Federal Republic of Germany and some other countries are cited. Requirements concerning coke quality particularly, optimum lump size and abrasion resistance are changing. The significance of the M 40 index is lessening. In this light the proposed changes in coke quality standards, which will be introduced on January 1, 1981 in all COMECON countries, are evaluated. Changing requirements concerning coke in Czechoslovakia are also discussed. The changes tend toward increasing the significance of coke abrasion resistance and proper lump size. The results of investigations on the interdependence between quality of blast furnace coke and productivity of blast furnace, carried out in Czechoslovakia, are given. COMECON countries intend to replace the Micum tests of changes in grain size distribution of a coke sample after 100 rotations of the drum. (15 refs.) (In Czech)

Kessler, M.

1980-01-01

77

Comparison between the use of pellets in charcoal and coke blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows a comparison between the use of pellets in charcoal and coke blast furnaces. A literature review was done, where some data using pellets in small charcoal blast furnaces and coke blast furnaces were presented and analysed. It has been concluded that: better productivity under high percentages of pellets; less specific carbon consumption in coke blast furnace in comparison with charcoal blast furnace; the influence of charge distribution could be better profitted to improve the results of the pellets in the charcoal blast furnaces; the operational conditions must be modified by the modification of charge composition; under the ecological aspects, the use of high quantities of pellets contributes to decrease the pollution of the steel industry. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Assis, P.S.; Melo, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A. de; Abreu, A.L.T. de; Paula Sarchis, D. de; Santiago, T.C.; Quintao, M.A. [Universidade de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto (Brazil). Escola de Minas

1995-12-31

78

The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

A. Konstanciak

2013-01-01

79

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquids temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) (14 refs.)

Tervola, K.; Haerkki, J.

1996-12-31

80

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

82

Production of blast furnace coke via novel briquetting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of making high strength coke briquettes suitable for use as blast furnace coke comprising, (A) providing coal, (B) heating the coal at a temperature at or above the softening point of the coal to form partially carbonized char, (C) cooling the partially carbonized char below the softening point of the coal, (D) mixing the cooled partially carbonized char and tar to form a mixture of tar and partially carbonized char, (E) briquetting the mixture of tar and partially carbonized char to form briquettes of tar and partially carbonized char, (F) calcinating the briquettes to form high strength briquettes.

Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

1982-12-07

83

Inferring the movement of blast furnace hearth coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed a radioisotope tracer technique for measuring the consumption of hearth coke, a factor which has a considerable bearing on blast furnace hearth management and the control of the flow of hot metal and slag. Using the new technique, measurements have been made of the radial distribution of coke consumption times in the hearth. The results of these measurements are used to infer the nature of the movement of hearth coke. It seems that the corners of the hearth are regions where coke consumption occurs. This has been confirmed by model experiments. 1 reference.

Kushima, Y.; Arino, S.; Ohno, J.; Nakamura, M.; Tachimori, M.

1985-01-01

84

The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

Parratt, J.E.

1996-12-31

85

Heat exchange in the hearth of a blast furnace operating with combined blast parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat exchange occurs most intensively in the hearth of the blast furnace (BF) and determines metal quality, furnace productivity and operating parameters. The heat and chemical energy needed for the HF process is generated in the raceways. This paper is dedicated to the advancement of the heat exchange theory in the hearth of a BF operating with combined blast. The heating processes of products of melting in the raceway and in the liquid bath of the hearth and the effect of pulverized coal injection (PCI) on heat exchange in the oxidizing zone and its extension are studied. An increase in furnace productivity requires additional heat power for the heating of pig iron and slag and therefore a rise in fame temperature. PCI increases radiation in the raceways, thus permitting BF operation with a lower flame temperature. These theoretical conclusions are confirmed by calculations for two BFs in the Ukraine and Spain and by statistical analysis of the operation of the majority of BFs in EU countries. Alone BF in Germany the effect of PCL and other combined blast parameters on the raceway extension was investigated using the laser technique. (author)

Formoso, A.

1999-11-01

86

Pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces - theory and practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal injection is one way of reducing coke rate in blast furnaces thereby conserving scarce metallurgical coking coal. Efforts are being made to maximise the rate of injection with a high coke to coal replacement ratio without any compromise on productivity and hot metal quality. The complete combustion of coal in the raceway is the single most important parameter which limits the rate of injection. An index called Coal Combustion Potential (CCP) of the raceway can be used to predict the maximum amount of injected coal which can be completely combusted. CCP is the ratio of the oxygen available in the raceway to the oxygen required for complete combustion of the injected coal. For achieving and ensuring high coke to coal replacement ratio (RR = 1.0), the theoretical requirement of CCP is greater than 1.0. This paper discusses the associated technical issues and suggests ways and means of maximising the injection rate relevant to the `G` blast furnace at Tata Steel. 12 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

Pandey, B.D.; Yadav, U.S. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1999-04-01

87

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01

88

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN) para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo) de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

Verdeja, L. F.; González, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbés, Mª F.

2003-01-01

89

Coke reactivity and mechanical strength after solution loss with view to blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combined reactivity and post-reaction-strength test of blast furnace coke - introduced approx. 15 years ago by Nippon Steel Corporation - is nowadays one of the most important coke quality tests world wide. It considers the solution loss reaction by CO. as well as the subsequent mechanical load in the blast furnace. The investigation of coke samples from the nitrogen quenched Mannesmann blast furnace proved significant changes in the reaction behaviour of the coke caused by thermal or chemical effects in the blast furnace. Figure 1 indicates on the one hand the normal range of the reactivity and strength indices (according to the NSC test procedure) of the feed coke and on the other hand the significantly changed values of the coke samples selected from different positions in the quenched blast furnace. The high reactivity of the samples from the blast furnace shaft can be explained by the catalytic effect of the picked up potassium. Due to the high temperature load the coke samples from the tuyere level have suffered, the K{sub 2}O-content has decreased decisively but the reactivity shows the same level as detected at the samples from the blast furnace shaft. Thus the objective of these investigations has been to perform laboratory tests on thermal and chemical load of coke samples in order to study its influence on the reaction behaviour against CO{sub 2} and the coke strength after reaction with the target to explain the values for the blast furnace samples.

Arendt, P.; Bellenberg, H.; Rohde, W. [Institut fuer Kokserzeugung und Brennstofftechnik, Essen (Germany)

1995-12-31

90

Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saint-Gobain has a long experience in the design and supply of blast furnace hearth linings. The Blast Furnace Hearth is arguably the most critical part within the whole integrated steel plant when considering overall potential profit/loss. Typical wear lines found in the BF hearth match closely wit...

Brulin, J.; Roulet, F.; Rekik, A.; Blond, Eric; Gasser, Alain; Mc Nally, Rory; Micollier, M.

91

Simulation of gas-liquid flow in dripping zone of blast furnace involving impermeable fused layers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly developed gas-liquid two-phase model has been employed to simulate the flow of gas and liquid in a blast furnace. This model accounts for the existence of impermeable fused layers in the blast furnace cohesive zone and treats the liquid as a discrete phase as revealed by experimental observation. The model has been run with a variety of assumed cohesive zones under a given blast furnace condition, giving the flow pattern and the distributions of liquid flow rates and liquid holdup. The results demonstrate the localized horizontal or upward flow characteristics of discrete liquid in and below the blast furnace cohesive zone. These characteristics are affected by the cohesive zone structure that can he described in terms of shape, position and the numbers of fused layers. The study reinforces the need to implement liquid flow in blast furnace modelling. (author)

Wang, G.X.

2000-07-01

92

Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

1997-12-31

93

Effect of blast furnace coal injection upon bosh coke properties, coke combustion and furnace permeability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A single tuyere rig was modified for coal injection studies using a wide range of coal types, size grading and levels of injection. The effect of varying blast operating conditions during coal injection on coal combustion, raceway size and action was investigated. In general coal injection increased blast pressure, raceway size and instability while reducing raceway temperature and blast kinetic energy. Although coal injection brought about increases in the level of fines production, the overall size changes in the vessel were small. The petrographic examination of the fines showed that coal injection contributed directly in terms of uncombusted injected coal residue, and indirectly in terms of increasing levels of mechanical action in the active regions of the coke bed, and weakening of the coke by coal ash/slag interaction with the coke surface. In general, the extent of these effects decreased with increasing injectant coal rank and to a lesser extent with increasing grain size. Increasing blast temperature during coal injection produced a further increase in raceway size and instability with both granular and PF grade coal when compared with the coke-only case. Oxygen enrichment simply acted as a correction for the fall in raceway temperature.

Williams, R.R.; Fellows, P.M.

1988-01-01

94

Immobilization of technetium in blast furnace slag grouts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Blast furnace slags have been successfully used to reduce the leachability of technetium from cement-based waste forms, ostensible because the slag produces a less permeable product or reduces the pertechnetate to a less mobile form. Waste contaminated with technetium is of particular concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission, Department of Energy, and Environmental Protection Agency because of its mobility as the pertechnetate ion. The technetium leachabilities of cement-based waste forms with and without a slag component and for different slags are presented. The mass transfer parameter (e.g., diffusivity) for leaching technetium from these waste forms decreased by five orders of magnitude when slag was used (i.e., using slag can increase the ANS 16.1 leachability index by five). Results of bulk and surface examinations of the slags are presented

1989-01-01

95

Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues up to a certain percentage of replacement, but higher ratios gives lower compressive strength. The main objective of this research work is to determine the optimum replacement percentage which can be suitably used under the Indian conditions. To fulfil the objective various properties of concrete using GGBFS have been evaluated.

MRS. VEENA G.PATHAN; MR. VISHAL S.GHUTKE; MR. GULFAM PATHAN

2013-01-01

96

Reactions of sinter in a lead blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of the composition of the condensed phases derived from the sinter feed to a commercial furnace are presented. No significant reaction was detected at a level above about 3 m from the tuyeres at which the temperature was about 800/sup 0/C. The reaction zone was predominantly in a region 1 m to 2 m above the tuyeres accompanied by fusion and phase separation. Results do not agree with the predictions of a mathematical model. Some additional measurements of gas composition, temperature, and pressure are also given. Oxygen enrichment of blast air has resulted in more uniform temperature and pressure profiles. The principal phases in the sinter feed are silicates and ferrites. As the sinter descends, the lead silicates and ferrites react to form lead metal, hardystonite, and wustite.

Morris, D.R.; Amero, B.R.; Evans, P.G.; Owens, D.R.; Petruk, W.

1983-12-01

97

Improving slag granulation at units near blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report that experience in using the slag granulation units at blast furnaces at the Novolipetsk combine shows that the units have several advantages and that the use has also made it possible to refine the requirements for individual components and has revealed basic principles of the granulation process. At the same time, the observed shortcomings -- a high moisture content in the granulated slag, high energy costs for granulation, short period between repairs to the granulation units -- have made it necessary to improve the technology used to granulate the slag and dehydrate the product. In this work two directions are taken: reconstruction of components and systems of units for maximum utilization of the potential of the present technology, while reducing the moisture content of the granulated slag and labor costs; and introduction of new technologies ensuring a reduction in energy costs for granulation and protection of the environment.

Butov, A.I.; Antipov, N.S.; Chernobrivets, B.F.; Ovcharenko, N.G.

1985-09-01

98

High-temperature capillary reinforcement of blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates effects of coke impregnation on its structural strength. Pore impregnation with water, organic coal-derived compounds, slags or other mineral compounds increases coke compression strength. Compression strength increase depends on type of impregnation medium and its content in a coke porous body. Each type of impregnation medium has its optimum level (e.g. for moisture it is about 6%). Slag in a blast furnace also affects coke body strength. Slag surface tension is 6 to 7 times higher than that of water; effects of capillary reinforcement of the coke body are also higher. Analyses show that coke mechanical properties could be improved by adding about 5% crushed ore concentrate to coal mixtures used for coking. Ore concentrate plays the role of leaning component. 7 refs.

Gordeev, G.P. (Leningradskii Tekhnologicheskii Institut im. Lensoveta (USSR))

1989-04-01

99

Characterization of the permeability of the blast furnace lower part  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of high coal injection and high productivity operation, the coke behaviour inside the blast furnace hearth is the main parameter to control. Different and complementary investigations as radioactive and helium tracer injections, liquids and coke samplings, have been carried out at Sollac Fos BF I using the tuyere probe to determine the hearth permeability and its evolutions as a function of the main control parameters, and to understand the hearth activity. The results of all these experiments give a very consistent picture of a heterogeneous hearth with three concentric areas of various permeabilities to gas and liquids. A two concentric zones model has been built, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. It enables the evaluation of the impact of the central zone on the liquids flow at the periphery.

Negro, P.; Petit, C.; Sert, D.

2001-06-01

100

Characterization of the permeability of the blast furnace lower part  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the context of high coal injection and high productivity operation, the coke behaviour inside the blast furnace hearth is the main parameter to control. Different and complementary investigations as radioactive and helium tracer injections, liquids and coke samplings, have been carried out at Sollac Fos BF1 using the tuyere probe to determine the hearth permeability and its evolutions as a function of the main control parameters, and to understand the hearth activity. The results of all these experiments give a very consistent picture of a heterogenous hearth with three concentric areas of various permeabilities to gas and liquids. A two concentric zones model has been built, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. It enables to evaluate the impact of the central zone on the liquids flow at the periphery. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Probing the inner structure of blast furnace by cosmic-ray muon radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The visualization of the inner state of a blast furnace was investigated by exploiting the feature of cosmic-ray muon that attenuates according to the density and the thickness of the object through which it penetrates. The distribution of the cosmic-ray muon accumulated in an object in a blast furnace during a certain period has been determined by a probing system provided with two sets of a pair of panels with plastic scintillation counters segmented in parallel along each direction of both sides. First, measurement was performed in the furnace hearth structure that had been taken out after the shutdown of Oita No.2 Blast Furnace repaired in 2004. Next, another measurement was performed in the same manner in the renewed furnace hearth of Oita No.2 Blast Furnace which had just started working after its repairs. The density of the material at the iron-rich portion inside the hearth was estimated from the accumulation ratio obtained from the relation between the intensity of the muon channel passing through the iron-rich part in the hearth and that passing through its opposite channel symmetric to the coordinate origin. Then, the level of the furnace bottom brick, meaning its eroded thickness, was estimated from those accumulation ratios in relation to each crossing both the iron-rich part and the furnace bottom brick. The possibility of the density distribution of the material inside a blast furnace and the remaining thickness of bricks being estimated by this measurement method was identified. (author)

2009-01-01

102

Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree of hydration and the temperature. The accuracy of temperature simulations using this new hydration model is evaluated by tests on hardening massive concrete cylinders made with blast-furnace slag cement.

Schutter, G. de [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research

1999-01-01

103

Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

2010-02-15

104

Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

D. Baricová; A. Pribulová; P. Demeter

2010-01-01

105

Void fractions and gas permeability in a blast furnace; Masuunin huokoisuus ja kaasun permeabiliteetti masuunissa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the permeability of the blast furnace in different zones. The permeability of the blast furnace is influenced by the method of charging, quality of charging material and the way of operation. Because of that it is very difficult to define exact and universal numeric values for the void fractions in the blast furnace. In this report it is however tried to find mean values of the void fractions in different zones in the blast furnace and the factors which act on that. With center coke charging there is an inverted V shape cohesion zone in the blast furnace. The inverted V shape cohesion zone causes good permeability of the blast furnace. With center coke charging the renewing of the dead man get faster. Strength and the size distribution of the charged coke has a considerable effect on the permeability of lower part of the blast furnace. Weak coke degradates in a raceway area and forms fine fraction of coke which collects to the end of the raceway and to the deadman. That reduces permeability of the dead man and permeability of the boundary of the blast furnace. When using small size coke in charging there occurs the same phenomena that has explained before. If the speed of blast air is high the degradation of coke will increase and the permeability of the deadman and the raceway boundary will decrease. When using high oil injection rate in the tuyere the concentration of oxygen decreased considerably. Then circulating coke in the raceway area hasn`t possibility to burn quickly. Unburnt coke circulates then longer in the raceway area and degradates when colliding to each other and to the boundaries of the raceway. This causes again decrease of the permeability of the raceway boundary and the deadman. (author)

Laukkanen, J.; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1995-12-31

106

Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

1995-12-01

107

High-speed television system for blast furnace raceway coke measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a system using a television camera fitted with a high-speed shutter for measuring coke behaviour and particle size in raceways associated with blast furnace tuyeres. (2 refs.) (In Japanese)

Watanabe, K.

1981-01-01

108

The challenges of coal injection in today's blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fourteen papers (including the keynote address) addressed various aspects of pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces, including coal quality criteria, ramping up PCI production and tuyere development. The discussion of the papers is also included.

Irons, G.A. (ed.) [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Steel Research Centre

2009-07-01

109

A replacement of oil by coal injection at the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of Australian coals as low cost alternatives to oil and natural gas as supplementary fuel injectants in iron making blast furnaces is examined. For this purpose theoretical and experimental studies of pulverised coal combustion have been carried out to establish the critical coal properties and combustion conditions relative to typical operating conditions of Australian blast furnaces. Coal properties studied included volatile matter content, ash content, ash fusibility and particle size. The combustion conditions examined included air preheat and coal flow rate. A high temperature pilot scale test facility is described which simulates the highly turbulent and reactive 'raceway zone' of a blast furnace. To date the characteristics of the raceway zone have been determined for the complete range of Australian blast furnace cokes. A preliminary trial in which pulverised coal was injected into an experimental raceway in the simulation equipment has provided basic operating data for the development of suitable coal injection test conditions.

Scaife, P.H.; Mathieson, J.G.; McCarthy, M.J.; Rogers, H.; Nomura, S.

1983-03-01

110

Cold bonded briquettes with high temperature properties for blast furnace burdens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combination briquetting process and proprietary binder system, that combines numerous revert materials into a productive blast furnace feed material, has been developed by Ferrous Environmental Recycling Corporation (FERCO). It has been proven that, when used at 5% of the blast furnace burden, these briquettes yield a coke savings of 40 lbs./NTHM and a production rate increase of approximately 4%. Residual elements in the briquettes are controlled through chemical analysis and careful blending, so that there are no adverse effects in steelmaking. The process combines several revert materials, including coke breeze and blast furnace flue dust, with a proprietary binder to produce a briquette with excellent high temperature properties. The briquette is designed to consume waste stream reverts with the significant added benefits of lower blast furnace fuel rates and increased hot metal production. Since 1988, nearly 750,000 tons of these briquettes have been produced and consumed.

Vogel, R.; Auslander, E. [Ferrous Environmental Recycling Corp., Dearborn, MI (United States); Rankin, R. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

111

Simulation study on radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in the blast furnace raceway plays an increasingly important role in working state diagnosis and monitoring in real time. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiation of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flames based on the Monte Carlo method and charge coupled device (CCD) imaging. The relationship between two-dimensional radiative image and 3D radiant energy in the blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of the combustion process in this study. The radiative images obtained from the blow pipe peephole of a blast furnace tuyere not only present the energy distribution on the CCD camera target plane but also examine 3D temperature distribution in the blast furnace. The numeral temperature field matching the actual combustion can be obtained by a proposed numeric image processing technique.

Ouyang, Q.; Zhao, L.M.; Wen, L.Y.; Bai, C.G. [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

2011-04-15

112

Influence of Hot Metal Flow State to the Hearth Flow Field during Blast Furnace Tapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace tapping is one of the most important aspects of BF iron-making, a process during which the ideal state is for the molten iron to remain the invariant and the level of liquid to remain stable. However, due to the viscosity of molten iron, the liquid level will tilt to one side near the tap-hole, causing the iron flow field during blast furnace tapping to change with time. This research simulated two cases of horizontal and inclined molten iron liquid levels in the process of blast furnace tapping. This study also discusses different hearth erosion situations and explains the rationality of blast furnace large-scale trends from the perspective of molten iron liquid level stability.

Hong-Wei Guo; Bing-Ji Yan; Jian-Liang Zhang; He-Lan Liang; Yi-Li Liu

2013-01-01

113

Control of burden distribution in No. 1 blast furnace in WISCO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relined WISCO No. 1 blast furnace (inner volume 2200 m{sup 3}), which is equipped with a Paul Wurth bell-less top, coke and sinter screening, closed loop soft water system, advanced computer system etc. was blown in on 19 May 2001. Prior to the start-up, various investigations on burden distribution were performed during the charging. No. 1 blast furnace is being operated successfully. 8 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Chen, L.; Zhou, M.; Zheng, W. (and others) [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wu Han (China)

2002-07-01

114

Blast furnace process with oxygen enrichment and massive PCI (pulverised coal injection)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the stability of blast furnace operation using the oxygen-enriched and PCI processes. The theoretical relationship between PCI rate and oxygen enrichment is analyzed. The change in blast furnace indices with oxygen enrichment and PCI was obtained by mathematical simulation, which indicates that the replacement ratio will decrease with increase of PCI rate. A process of injecting top gas into hearth tuyere or the effect of oxygen-coal equilibrium is introduced to solve this problem.

Zhang, J.; Qin, M.; Lu, H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

1995-12-31

115

Implications of the use of blast-furnace coke in the cupola  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By analyzing the effects of the use of blast furnace coke in the cupola, the paper highlights the decrease in foundry iron temperature and the cupola productivity, the increase of the sulphur content in foundry iron and that fact quality becomes worse. The authors consider that the foundry coke may be replaced by blast furnace coke up to 30%, under certain conditions presented in the paper. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Riposan, I.; Metesoi, L.; Solrudan, D.; Demidov, M.; Bria, A.

1986-09-01

116

Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

1997-12-31

117

Numerical investigation of waste plastic: Injection in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, waste plastic injection in blast furnace processes is investigated numerically. A mathematical model developed in this study describes turbulent flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions in gas, particle and coke-bed phases, and particle trajectories. In the simulation, pulverized particles of coal or plastics are injected into a blowpipe with a nitrogen gas stream, and are then supplied to the raceway region in the coke particle bed. The difference in the gasification behaviors between coal and plastic particles are discussed. The effects of the diameter of plastic particles on the gasification behavior are also investigated. Coal particles are rapidly gasified in the blowpipe because of their small size. In contrast, the gasification of plastic particles rarely occurs in the blowpipe, even if small plastic particles are injected. In addition, the flows of plastic particles are biased in the blowpipe, and consequently the reaction zone of gasification is narrow. In the raceway of the coke bed, the pulverized coal particles exit the raceway due to their small diameter, and are then discharged from the coke bed without sufficient gasification. On the other hand, the plastic particles circulate in the raceway until the diameters thereof decrease below a critical diameter. As a result, since the gasification reaction progresses during the circulation, the combustion efficiency of plastic particles remains high even though the initial diameter of the plastic particles is large.

Goto, A.; Morozumi, Y.; Hagiya, H.; Aoki, H.; Miura, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-03-15

118

Production and utilization of blast furnace coke in the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the goals of coke manufacturing techniques in the coming generation, following ones are given; low temperature coking, large amount yields of gas and tar in carbonization, carbonization corresponding to coal supply and demand, and continuous closed carbonization. Based on the examination of the fundamental chemistry for carbonizing reaction and coking process, the multistage carbonization process is presented, which is composed of the moving bed preheat treatment of coal / solvent slurry, energy saving supercritical solvent extraction, hot forming, and carbonization by a moving bed formed coke oven. Following the advanced uses of carbonizing products are shown: the use of coal tar as energy, gas power generation using coke oven surplus gas and blast furnace gas, and the use for environmental protection as active coke. It is emphasized that presently, the knowledge-intensive industry is attached importance to, however, because there is still large room for further technological innovations in the manufacturing industry, many new ideas are required for coke manufacturing from a broad visual field. 2 figs.

Mochida, Isao (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

1988-10-06

119

Preparation of calcium silicate absorbent from iron blast furnace slag.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) solids were prepared from hydrated lime and iron blast furnace slag in an aqueous agitated slurry at 92 degrees C. While it was hoped a minimal lime/slag ratio could be used to create near-amorphous CSH, the surface area of the product improved by increasing the lime/slag weight ratio to 2. The addition of gypsum to the lime/slag system dramatically improved the formation of surface area, creating solids with 139 m2/g after 30 hr of reaction when only a minimal amount of lime was present. The SO2 reactivity of solids prepared with gypsum greatly exceeded that of hydrated lime, achieving greater than 70-80% conversion of the alkalinity after 1 hr of reaction with SO2. The use of CaCl2 as an additive to the lime/slag system, in lieu of gypsum, also produced high-surface-area solids, 115 m2/g after 21 hr of reaction. However, the SO2 reactivity of these sorbents was relatively low given the high surface area. This emphasized that the correlation between surface area and SO2 reactivity was highly dependent on the solid phase, which was subsequently dependent on slurry composition.

Brodnax LF; Rochelle GT

2000-09-01

120

Thermal decomposition and combustion behavior of plastics into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many intensive efforts to develop the recycling technologies of waste plastics in steel works to tackle the saving of resources and the protection of the natural environment. In this study, the thermogravimetric analyses for three kinds of plastics, the combustion experiments and the theoretical approach for calculating the flame temperature in the blast furnace had been performed to understand the behavior of plastics in the raceway. The thermal decompositions of plastics were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer under the atmospheric condition. The starting temperature of thermal decomposition and the maximum weight loss point were increased in proportion to the logarithmic values of heating rate. The combustion characteristics of plastics were simulated in a coke-bed combustor. The combustion efficiency of plastics was lower than that of pulverized coal. The oxygen enrichment was found out to be one of the useful methods to increase the combustibility of plastics in raceway. The maximum injection rate of plastics was calculated based on the flame temperature. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

Heo, Nam-Hwan; Baek, Chan-Yeong; Yim, Chang-Hee [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang(Korea)

2000-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Combustion technology of pulverised coal with oxygen in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief theoretical treatment of coal combustion in the raceway is followed by a report of experimental work to determine the effect of burner structure on combustion and raceway cavity formation, using a test combustion furnace. The development of a commercial oxy-coal burner and the results of its testing at Ohgishima no. 2 blast furnace are described.

Furukawa, T. (and others)

1990-06-01

122

Results of measurement of blast furnace raceway coke by means of high-speed television  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As was previously reported a specially developed raceway coke measuring system has been used to make continuous measurements of the particle size of coke in front of the tuyeres of an operating blast furnace. Analysis of these measurements now confirms that raceway coke particle size and furnace gas permeability are related, and that changes in coke particle size in the furnace are dependent upon pre-charging properties and operating conditions. 1 reference.

Saitoh, H.; Sumigama, T.; Kamoshida, T.; Izumi, M.

1983-01-01

123

Data processing system for monitoring the burden temperature at the blast furnace top  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geomet-Dps system is such an equipment given the temperature pattern at the stock line directly over the total surface area of the furnace top. It consists of an infrared camera installed on the blast furnace top and linked to a PC based data processing system in the blast furnace control room. A description of the Geomet-Dps system is presented in details as well as the functions of the DPS system. Practical experiences and benefits of the system are described. 18 figs.

Vinciotti, J.; Boever, G.

1989-12-31

124

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emission would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal injection PCI rate and oxygen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxygen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50% Blast furnace operation with full oxygen blast (100 % of process oxygen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected. (Author) 54 refs.

2002-01-01

125

Coke properties in the bosh and raceway regions of the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in coke properties in the bosh and raceway regions of the blast furnace are controlled by the thermochemical and mechanical action of the blast. British Steel has carried out laboratory work using high temperature furnace and a half-scale single tuyere rig which can simulate the race way. These investigations have been supported on-plant by bosh coke sampling exercises and more recently the use of a through tuyere coring drill. It has provided a section of the coke bed structure at tuyere level from operating furnaces. The combined findings of both the laboratory and plant investigations in terms of coke properties and tuyere level coke bed structures, and their relationship to blast furnace processes are shown.

Willmers, R.R.

1992-03-01

126

Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

2012-01-01

127

Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ?The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ? The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. ? The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ? Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ? A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

2012-01-01

128

Tendency in development of radioisotope methods for control and automatization of blast furnaces and metallurgical processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To raise labour productivity in the metallurgy industry and to improve performance of blast furnaces in the period between capital repairs, a row of nuclear methods has been developed or was at the stage of experimental testing. Review is given of the tendencies of development of radioisotope methods of control and automatization of the blast furnace and metallurgic processes. Descriptions are given of nuclear methods for control and automatization of processes of materials transportation; continuous determination of the level of materials loading into the throat of blast furnace; observation of the wear of refractory lining of blast furnaces; determination of specific activity of cast iron; determination if the pre-set maximum and minimum levels of materials in bunkers on blast furnace bridge. Description is given of radiation sources of different activity, placed into containers, specific for each case of application as well as description of probes, - radiation detectors with Geiger-Mueller gas discharge counters. Depending on the field of application, probes can have a water cooling system. Description is given of probes commutation diagram as well as of the central part of installation ensuring processing of information coming from prodes and having control elements for automation of observation of technological processes and their control. The results are reflected on a mnemonic diagram for each of the process observed

1978-09-29

129

Blast furnace hearth life: Models for assessing the wear and understanding the transient thermal states  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, the hearth is the most critical part of the blast furnace when aiming at a long campaign life. Consequently, a better understanding of refractories wear as well as flow mechanisms has become primordial for determining and, if possible, preventing the erosion process. Efforts of measurements have therefore been made during the blast furnace repairs, with the implementation of numerous thermocouples in the carbon bricks. Hence, it becomes possible to monitor and model continuously the internal state of the hearth in accordance with the measured temperature field. Since 1990, different numerical models have been developed and used with two principal aims: - to assess regularly the internal erosion line of the blast furnace hearth all along the campaign life, and - to simulate and if possible, to explain the important transient thermal states observed on some large blast furnaces. This paper describes the content of the two models used nowadays on most of the French blast furnaces and presents the main results obtained in accordance with the industrial variations of temperatures.

Leprince, G.; Steiler, J.M.; Sert, D. (IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)); Libralesso, J.M. (SOLLAC, Dunkerque (France))

1993-01-01

130

Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20%) and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35%) on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days), the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20%) activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35%) sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 días)se alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de escoria, mientras que a edades más avanzadas se trasladan a mayores contenidos de puzolana y escoria.

Bonavetti, V. L.; Menéndez, G.; Donza, H. A.; Rahhal, V. F.; Irassar, E. F.

2006-01-01

131

Industrial experiment on using coke with a size of more than 20 mm in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnaces of the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Association have been functioning with coke belonging to the >40 mm class until recently. The possibility of using coke belonging to the 40-25 mm class in a blast furnace process was investigated in view of the considerable shortage of over 40 mm cake. Implementing this measure makes is possible to increase metallurgical coke resources by 7-9%. In order to evaluate the possibility of using coke lumps measuring 40-25 mm in a blast-furnace smelting process, indices of the physicomechanical properties of individual metallurgical coke classes were investigated. Data on the mechanical tests of coke belonging to the following classes: >80, 80-60, 60-40, and 40-25 mm are presented. The coke came from batteries 1-4; the tests were run in a lab drum.

Filonenko, Yu.Ya.; Sobolev, S.Ya.; Razgonov, V.A.; Blokhin, V.S.; Urbanovich, G.E.

1984-01-01

132

Application of AI technique to blast furnace operation. Koro sogyo ni taisuru AI gijutsu no tekiyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five following examples were reported as typical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to blast furnace operation. (1) the diagnostic blast furnace operation control expert system which can instruct operators on appropriate operations diagnosing operation conditions based on various process information, and can control automatically furnace heat by setting automatically blast temperature, (2) the hot stove heat control expert system which can enhance the thermal efficiency of hot stoves and protect silica bricks from thermal degradation by both fuzzy theory and physical model, (3) the fuzzy feed speed control expert system of materials for eliminating the deviation of material grains, (4) the planning type material hopper arrangement expert system on process computer, (5) the realtime distribution control expert system of granulated slag for automating completely water granulating operations. 12 refs. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Iida, S.; Taniyoshi, S.; Uetani, T.; Sawada, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Onoda, D. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kobe (Japan))

1991-11-01

133

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

134

Optimization of the operation of the blast-furnace top gas pressure recovery turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pressure existing at the top of modern large-size blast furnaces constitutes an energy potential that can be used for the generation of electrical energy provided the top gas is decompressed in a recovery turbine. Up to 50% of the electrical energy required for blast compression can be recovered in this way. Following some 20 years of development, the use of the blast furnace top gas pressure recovery turbine of axial design installed downstream of the wet cleaning system is common practice today. Within the framework of an investigation sponsored by the EC, all parameters of such a turbine were studied on Thyssen Stahl AG's No. 1 blast furnace at Schwelgern with a view to establishing the most favourable mode of operation from the point of view of energy. The collection of a great number of measurement data from the gas cleaning and distribution system has made it possible to understand the fundamental interrelations existing between the pressure gradient, the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the turbine performance. Apart from various steps taken to increase the turbine performance, particular mention was made of the effect of dry gas cleaning and the use of additional fuels in the blast furnace on the consumption of energy.

Hoffmann, J.; Held, B.; Reinitzhuber, F.

1987-09-07

135

Cold model of coal gas component concentration distribution in blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Primary distribution of coal gas in blast furnace raceway has an important effect on blast furnace ironmaking process. The coal gas component concentration distribution was studied experimentally using a three-dimensional cold model. The results showed that CH{sub 4} concentration diminishes along with the height increasing on vertical section of raceway, and the concentration is the highest in the bottom of raceway. CH{sub 4} concentration increases gradually along the raceway depth with the lowest concentration value in front of the tuyere. The distribution of CH{sub 4} concentration has different characteristics in different raceway zones.

Sheng-fu Zhang; Liang-ying Wen; Chen-guang Bai; Gui-bao Qiu; Mei-long Hu; Xue-wei Lu [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-11-15

136

Interpretation of radioactive tracing in hearth of Sollac Dunkerque blast furnace no. 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation and interpretation of radioactive tracing of the hot metal in Dunkerque blast furnace No. 4 have made it possible to form a picture of the void index of the hearth. In addition, the close relationship between the hydrodynamic conditions (the calculated void index) and the thermal conditions (the heat losses at the wall) of the blast furnace hearth is shown. This seems to be related to the coke quality, which would alter after the permeability of the coke mass in the hearth.

Didelon, F.

1995-12-31

137

Experiments at Sollac Dunkerque and Sollac Fos on coke quality and its influence on blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three investigations are reported: (1) the effect of a reduction in coking time on coke strength, and the modification of the coal blend to compensate for the strength decrease; (2) the breakage and stabilisation of coke between coke ovens and blast furnaces; (3) the effect of coke quality on blast furnace permeability, tapping characteristics and hearth conditions.

Le Mouel, D. (and others)

1992-05-01

138

Bio-fuels use in blast furnace ironmaking to mitigate GHG emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of substituting fossil fuel by biomass in the blast furnace ironmaking process as investigated. The use of biomass in the blast furnace ironmaking both was an injectant and addition to metallurgical coke was studied in this work. Charcoal was found to be the most suitable biomass material for substituting coal directly injected into the blast furnace. Using charcoal the ironmaking ability of the furnace can be preserved and GHG emissions from the blast furnace-cokemaking system can be mitigated. Bio-coke was prepared by addition of charcoal to the cokemaking coal blend. It was observed that the cold strength of the resultant bio-coke was not significantly affected. However, the prepared bio-coke is weak at elevated temperature due to its high mineral matter content originating from charcoal. The mineral matter content of charcoal can be effectively reduced by acid leaching and the strength of bio-coke can be further improved. It was estimated that complete substitution of coal injection by charcoal and application of bio-coke containing 10% of carbon originating from charcoal could reduce the annual CO{sub 2} emission associated with the Canadian ironmaking processes from 13.9 Mt/yr to 9.6 Mt/yr without sacrificing productivity. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Ka Wing Ng; Hutny, W.; MacPhee, T.; Gransden, J.; Price, J. [CANMET Energy Technology Center, Nepean, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

139

Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

Braemming, M.; Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Zuo, G. [Luleaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Process Metallurgy

1995-12-01

140

Approach for Minimizing Operating Blast Furnace Carbon Rate Using Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) Diagram  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach for reducing input carbon rate of a blast furnace using carbon-direct reduction (C-DRR) diagram has been developed. The role of shaft efficiency, blast input conditions, and heat loss rate in reducing the carbon rate has been brought out. A two-zone thermochemical model has been used to develop C-DRR diagrams for analyzing operating data of a furnace as well as predicting conditions for reducing its carbon rate. The model can be integrated with the control system of a blast furnace for driving an operating furnace to reduce carbon rates.

Paul, Soumavo; Roy, S. K.; Sen, P. K.

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

New technologies adopted in the construction of new No. 3 blast furnace at WISCO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1985, the annual iron and steel production at WISCO reached 3.98 Mt and 4.06 Mt respectively, however, the steel productivity was still insufficient to cope with the existing rolling capacity. Therefore, an expansion project aimed at matching the rolling capacity was proposed in 1986. Through modifications carried out in the 80's, the actual ironmaking capacity of the existing four blast furnaces reached 4.7 to 4.8 million tons per annum. In order to meet the final target of 7.0 million tons of pig iron, the capacity of the new blast furnace should have an annual tonnage of 2.2 to 2.3 million tons of pig iron. Therefore, the expansion project is mainly composed of the construction of one new blast furnace (known as new No.3 BF) with 2.2 to 2.3 million tons of pig iron capacity per annum as the first step. The new No. 3 BF is the first 3000m rank blast furnace constructed on the basis of domestic raw materials in combination with advanced technologies introduced from both home and abroad. The construction of the blast furnace started in June 1988 and tasted for over three years. The new furnace was blown-in October, 1991. Due to problems of equipment, instrumentation and raw material supply (including insufficient supply of sinter and coke), its productivity has been only 1.8t/m day. The authors hope that the new No. 3 BF will reach its designed operating indexes after the above-mentioned problems are resolved.

Shourong, Zhang; Han, Yin; Zhongjie, Yu

1993-01-01

142

Start-up of the blast furnace number one of the Steel Industry of Paraguay; Colocacao em marcha do alto forno numero 1 da ACEPAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper relates some important blast furnaces equipment from the Steel Industry of Paraguay. Furthermore, the training of engineers, technicians and operators from blast furnaces and raw material areas are also discussed. Finally, the preparations for start-up of the blast furnace and its first operational results were analyzed 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Santos, Jose Alencar dos; Silva, Marco Antonio M. [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo Mineira, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Cunha, Mario Fernando G.A. [Paul Wurth do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Prous, Enrique [Aceros del Paraguay (ACEPAR), Assuncion (Paraguay)

1987-12-31

143

The development by Sumitomo Metal Industries of a new ironmaking process to replace blast furnace ironmaking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sumitomo Metal Industries has developed a revolutionary new oxygen ironmaking process which is suited to the present scarcity of good quality metallurgical coal and the deterioration in the quality of iron ore. The principal fuel of the new process is pulverized coal. The reduction and melting functions of the blast furnace are separated and assigned to a shaft-type reducing furnace and a molten gasification furnace. This allows the use of low-grade iron ore coke. In addition, the combustion of pulverized coal in conjunction with pure oxygen injection makes possible the lowering of the coke ratio. (In Japanese)

1983-01-01

144

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

145

Increasing the coal injection rate at the blast furnace by optimising the injection lances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of different lance designs (single, double and coaxial) was determined. For best results coaxial lance design was optimised to improve mixing, reduce ignition time and increase burnout. With coaxial lances, an injection rate of up to 224 kg/tHM with a corresponding coke rate of 268 kg/tHM was achieved at Schwelgern No. 1 blast furnace.

Gudenau, H.W. (and others)

1994-01-01

146

Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

1997-12-31

147

Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

Illuminati, D.

1991-10-29

148

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C...

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muñiz, M.

149

Mathematical model of blast furnace raceway zone with pulverized coal and fine ore injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model of blast furnace raceway zone with pulverized coal (PC) and fine ore injection was developed to describe the reaction behaviour of injected PC and fine ore. The model is based on differential balances of mass and heat, taking account of the reaction kinetics and heat transfer of PC, coke, fine ore and gases. The kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition and reduction of fine ore were determined by laboratory testing. The kinetic parameters of PC and coke combustion were determined by applying the model to an experimental combustion furnace and to an actual blast furnace with coke and PCI operations. Furthermore, the raceway phenomena with simultaneous injection of PC and fine ore were predicted and the effects of operating conditions on reaction in a raceway were studied using the model.

Xiao, X.; Nozawa, K.; Sasahara, S.; Shimizu, M.; Inaba, S.

1995-06-01

150

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is a part of the research project High oil injection rates in a blast furnace, which is a part of the National Energy Research Program SULA 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the test rig and in the interpretation of the results. It has to be noted, however, that the surface tension of the test liquids was higher than what would have been desirable and that full similarity between model experiments and the actual blast furnace was therefore not achieved. The experiments were recorded on video tapes for visual observation of the injection process. A Malvern Particle Sizer was used for the measurement of the spray drop size distributions. The results show that the mean size of the drops increases with increasing liquid flow rate and with increasing surface tension of the liquid and that the mean size of the drops decreases with increasing velocity of the blast and with increasing diameter of the injection lances. The mean size of the drops was found to be independent of the viscosity of the liquid. A correlation equation was fitted to the experimental data and good fit was obtained. A correlation equation in dimensionless form was also developed. The results were compared with correlation equations presented in the literature. (18 refs.)

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-12-31

151

Numerical analysis of blast furnace hearth inner profile by using CFD and heat transfer model for different time periods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The campaign life of a modern blast furnace is determined by the residual thickness of the refractory in the hearth. A new methodology is established to predict the inner profile of a blast furnace during operation. This methodology combines 3-D CFD model, which is used to predict the hot face temperature for a given inner profile, and a 1-D heat transfer model, which is used to predict and fine tune the inner profile. The effectiveness of this methodology has been demonstrated by its application to one blast furnace with good agreement between predicted and measured temperatures. (author)

Zhang, Yu.; Deshpande, Rohit; Zhou, Chenn Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 46321 (United States); Huang, D.; Chaubal, Pinakin [Mittal Steel Company, USA R and D Center, East Chicago, IN 46312 (United States)

2008-01-15

152

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information is available for High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags, since much of the open literature deals with Low Alumina Slags, with alumina content less than 15 weight percentage. High Alumina slags (alumina content in the range of 15% to 30%) are predominantly encountered in Indian Blast Furnaces. It appears that these slags have higher viscosity and lower sulphide capacity than the low alumina slags. The effect of chemical composition / ionic structure on viscosity has been interpreted in this work, using the chemical parameter of optical basicity. Data reported in the literature have been used, along with the values of liquidus temperature, for high alumina slags. Three slag systems, i.e., CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 have been considered in this work. The trends observed are discussed in the paper.

Ghosh D.; Krishnamurthy V.A.; Sankaranarayanan S.R.

2010-01-01

153

Operational experience with the process control and optimization system of the blast furnace Schwelgern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the operating results of the blast furnace Schwelgern confirms the appropriateness of introducing the process control system 'Thybas'. Thus it was possible to reduce the heat load at the wall in the lower shaft and belly from 50 GJ/h to values below 20 GJ/h, and the frequency of disturbances in the gas flow and charge descent behaviour to 10% of the initial value. This results not only in an increase by up to 12% of the furnace output capacity and in a 3% fuel saving, but also in a longer service life of the furnace lining. Furthermore, this system of inner furnace monitoring enables an easier pinpointed improvement of the chemical and technological properties of the burden materials and the matching of the distribution of the material in the burden to modified operating procedures.

Peters, K.H.; Altpeter, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Guenther, G.; Kreibich, K.H.

1984-07-09

154

Research on carbonaceous substance of blast furnace dust under different PCI rates at Shouqin's No.1 blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microstructure of blast furnace (BF) dust (gravitational dust and bag dust of hop pocket) under increased pulverized coal injection (PCI) rate at Shouqin's No. 1 BF was investigated by means of microscopic analysis. The percentage of surface area of unconsumed coal and coke particles was determined under different PCI rates. The effect of increased PCI rate on the carbon mass fraction in BF dust and consequently on the unburnt coal and coke particles as well as the utilisation factor of pulverised coal are given for different PCI rates at Shouqin's No. 1 BF. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Ding, R.; Wu, K.; Wu, W.; Fei, S.; Zhang, J.; Ni, B. [Shouqin Metal Company Ltd., Qinhuangdao (China). Ironmaking Dept.

2008-11-15

155

Combustion phenomena in the race way of the blast furnace; Palamisilmioet masuunin hormeilla  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mean point of the `Combustion phenomena in the race way of the blast furnace` -project was to clear up combustion phenomena in the race way of the blast furnace so that oil injection could be increased without problems and oxygen enrichment could be optimised better. Project was accomplished with co-operation of combustion laboratories of Aabo Akademi and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. If combustion is out of control solid matter can be formed. This can make permeability in the blast furnace worse. Several models can be used to calculate the burning of oil droplet to maximise the oil injection. Calculation models developed in VTT in Jyvaeskylae have been used in this work. Burning with different process parameters can be compared with these models and apply the results to race way zone. The droplet has a time period of 7 - 15 ms time to burn in the race way when the blast speed is 210 m/s. The spreading of the blast gas coming to race way extends the delay time. In literature it has been shown that the delay time in the race way can be even i 0 ms when the gas speed in the bottom of the race way is about 10 m/s. The main point comparing the calculated oil drop burning results got from VTT models is that the droplet size of oil is the most important thing in burning. If the droplet size is too big the pyrolysis process will not be complete before oxygen has been exhausted and the pyrolysis gases don`t burn in the race way. These gases can cause troubles when they can get in the shaft. They can become soot that moves to the blast furnace gas and causes troubles in the permeability of the blast furnace and the dust cleaning system. Burning of the char is probably not a problem if pyrolysis gases have burnt completely. According to the calculations performed with the VTT models oxygen enrichment does not effect the pyrolysis

Ollila, S.; Haerkki, J.

1993-10-01

156

Variations in tensile strength and porous structure of blast-furnace cokes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts to formulate a strength/structure relationship for use in preparing coke for specific requirements are given. Existing methods of coke characterization are expanded with further details, to provide a narrower definition of the physical characteristics of the coke required. An examination of blast-furnace cokes showed wide variations in pore structure and tensile strength. The furnace size and operating conditions significantly affected the coke structure and strength requirements. Thus, it is considered useful to provide strength and structural data in material characterization. (6 refs.)

1982-08-01

157

ULCOS - Pilot testing of the Low-CO{sub 2} Blast Furnace process at the experimental BF in Luleaa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ULCOS blast furnace process aims at reducing the CO{sub 2} emission of the blast furnace by 50% in two steps: Decrease of carbon consumption by recycling most of the top gas after CO{sub 2} removal, which requires operating the blast furnace with pure oxygen; and Underground storage of CO{sub 2}. The first stage is essential to demonstrate the feasibility of this new process. It has been tested over a 6 week campaign at the LKAB experimental BF in Luleaa. The facility was adapted specifically for the trials (including the erection of a VPSA plant). Different operating conditions were investigated. In conclusion, and taking into account underground storage, the CO{sub 2} emission at the blast furnace was reduced by up to 76%. For the steelmaking plant, this should result in a net CO{sub 2}-savings of 65% at the level of the hot rolled coil.

G. Danloy; A. Berthelemot; M. Grant (and others)

2009-01-15

158

Numerical simulation of flow in the raceway of blast furnace with heavy oil combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is to simulate the flow and combustion in the raceway of an industrial blast furnace with heavy oil as an injection fuel. The raceway shape is estimated from the force balance. Different geometry models have been used in order to find a suitable model which allows appropriate solution for the flow. The velocity vector plot, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, and temperature distributions have been given. Predictions provide some insight into the flow mechanisms in the blast furnace and some useful information of engineering interests. Results show that there appear a recirculation zone located in the up-left region outside the raceway and a vortex below the raceway, and that the main flow moves upwards to the outlet. The flame penetrates into the raceway about two-fifth of its depth. (orig.) 15 refs.

Xia, Jiliang; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A.; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1998-12-31

159

Analyses on blast furnace raceway formation by micro wave reflection gunned through tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace raceway formation under the intensive coal injection by measurement of micro wave reflection gunned through a tuyere is discussed. As the flow rate of coke as the momentum of coke into raceway decreases by combustion of coal injected into tuyeres, the depth of raceway defined as the maximum position of micro wave reflection is easy to contract. It is expected that this new technology could detect the raceway collapse phenomena in short time and that the stability of raceway in coal injection is different from that in all coke operation. Finally the paper ends by summarizing the effect of raceway formation on unsteady phenomena forcing functional disorder on blast furnace performance of burden distribution for high productivity performance.

Matsui, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Nagai, N.; Imai, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-07-01

160

Analyses on blast furnace raceway formation by micro wave reflection gunned through tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace raceway formation under the intensive coal injection by measurement of microwave reflection gunned through a tuyere is discussed. As the flow rate of coke as the momentum of coke into raceway decreases by combustion of coal injected into tuyeres, the depth of raceway defined as the maximum position of microwave reflection is easy to contract. It is expected that this new technology could detect the raceway collapse phenomena in short time and that the stability of raceway in coal injection is different from that in all coke operation. Finally the paper ends by summarizing the effect of raceway formation on unsteady phenomena forcing functional disorder on blast furnace performance of burden distribution for high productivity performance.

Matsui, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Nagai, N.; Imai, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa (Japan). R& amp; D Lab.

2006-12-15

 
 
 
 
161

Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

1996-12-31

162

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

163

Physical properties of heat insulators prepared from blast furnace slag mixed with hemihydrate and portlandite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilizing blast furnace slag, porous light weight materials have been prepared at room temperature in order to apply them as heat insulators of general purpose for buildings and residences. For 28-d age specimens prepared from flurries of blast furnace slag mixed with hemihydrate and portlandite, physical properties such as thermal conductivities, bulk densities, porosities and compressive strengths were measured, each showing 0.22-0.30W/m-K, 780-1100kg/m{sup 3}, 45.2-66.6% and 16-81 MPa depending on W/S (water/solid) ratio. These results indicate that present materials have a potential to contribute to saving air conditioning energies as well as reducing green house effect on earth, especially for high W/S materials. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ikeda, K. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-09-01

164

Review and evaluation of alternative processes to the blast furnace; Revision y evaluacion de procesos alternativos al horno alto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critical review on the alternative processes to the blast furnace, involving both solid and liquid state reduction is presented. Process comparison allows to identify advantages and disadvantages of each type of processes as well as to highlight the major challenges faced in order to compete with the traditional iron making route: the blast furnace, which today rules the production of iron units worldwide. (Author) 31 refs.

Conejo Nava, A.

2000-07-01

165

Solidification of radioactive liquid waste - blast furnace slag as a binding agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the reprocessing of spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel elements from research reactor DIDO a radioactive waste solution is produced. Besides the radiotoxical elements, the waste solution contains aluminium from the cladding material of the spent fuel element and sodium hydroxide which is given to the acidic waste solution to reach a pH value between 12 and 13. After the neutralisation, the waste solution is solidified in a slag rich cement matrix. The final solidified product has to be assessed for a final disposal in a deep geological repository. One aspect of the assessment is related to intrinsic factors inherent to the solidified waste physical properties and the interaction between the binding agent and the waste solution. Another aspect of the safety assessment is related to the hydrolytic behaviour of the final cemented waste product under deep geological disposal conditions. The alkalinity of the waste solution acts as an activator for the hydration of the blast furnace slag. The rate of slag hydration decreases at late ages due to the formation of a denser microstructure of reaction products around the slag particles. The solidification of the waste solution with pure blast furnace slag and slag rich matrices leads to significant compressive strength. The effect is more marked for the waste solution cemented with only blast furnace slag. The solidification with blast furnace slag enables a physical immobilisation of the radiotoxical elements. In presence of MgCl2-rich salt brines, the solid waste matrice has no barrier function: the radiotoxical elements are released from the cement matrix within few months. Cs leaching behaviour shows no interaction with the cement matrix regardless of the pH in the surrounding aqueous phase. In contrast, a chemical interaction of Sr with the cement matrix can be identified for pH-value of leachant above 7. (orig.)

2003-01-01

166

Biological fluidized bed treatment of coke plant wastewater and blast furnace scrubber blowdown  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two pilot-scale studies of the applicability of using a coupled biological fluidized bed system for treatment of coke plant wastewater and blast furnace blowdown water are described. Complete nitrification and denitrification were achieved when treating both undiluted coke plant wastewater and the combined wastewater stream. Full-scale process design data and operating cost estimates for biological fluidized bed treatment of both wastewater streams were also developed. 115 refs.

Nutt, S.G.; Marvan, I.J.

1984-12-01

167

General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature and the degree of hydration.

De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)

1995-04-01

168

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

169

Operation of a large blast furnace with different coke grades at high coal injection rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Schwelgern blast furnace of Thyssen Stahl was operated with cokes from three coking plants (differing mainly in size analysis) and coal injection rates up to 180 kg/t iron. There was little difference in size of the coke at the tuyeres between these three cokes. At 160 kg/t coal injection (above which, operation tended to be uneven), a coke rate of 328 kg/t was achieved.

Peters, K.H.; Gerstenberg, B.; Mandel, J.; Peters, M.

1989-01-01

170

Blast furnace process with pulverised coal, oxygen and gas circulation for reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is proposed in which coal is injected at the tuyeres at a very high rate, using oxygen-enriched or pure oxygen blast and recirculation of top gas (after CO/sub 2/ removal) to the shaft to ensure solid-state reduction. Results of laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling are reported. It is concluded that the process has several advantages over conventional furnace operation.

Qin Minsheng; Yang Naifu

1986-01-01

171

Energy recovery from the zinc-lead blast-furnace process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An energy balance for a zinc-lead blast-furnace operation that produces 80,000 t/year zinc (of which 40,000 t is refined) and 40,000 t lead bullion is presented. In addition to a review of existing practice and proposals for energy recovery, special mention is made of the proposals for energy recovery from the condenser lead stream.

Harris, C.F.; Gabb, P.J.

1983-09-01

172

Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected.La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas) y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC), que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP) con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno alto. Los cálculos, utilizando un modelo matemático, muestran que la inyección de GRC en combinación con la ICP y enriquecimiento del viento con oxígeno pueden suministrar un aumento en la tasa de carbón pulverizado hasta 300-400 kg/t arrabio y una elevación en la productividad del horno de 40-50 %. La operación del horno alto con un máximo de oxígeno en el viento (100 % del oxígeno del proceso con la excepción para el viento caliente) es posible cuando se inyecta GRC.

Babich, A. I.; Gudenau, H. W.; Mavrommatis, K. T.; Froehling, C.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A.; García, L.

2002-01-01

173

Sideways tuyere probe for measuring the raceway region in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

in the recent low-Si operation in a blast furnace, it is important to control, for reducing the content of Si in the molten iron, the flow, components and temperature distribution of the gas and the melt in the dropping zone at the raceway and its vicinity. In most of the conventional zondes which measure the raceway region, the area of measurement is limited within the raceway, and the items of measurement are only the sampling of the gas and the dust. Kawasaki Steel Corp. developed a zonde which can measure the raceway region, furnace core region and the region between the raceways, and named the unit ''Sideway tuyere probe zonde''. This report compares the features of the zonde with the conventional ones; the results of measurement is described on the distribution of Si in the molten iron in the vicinity of the blast furnace raceway, and the behavior of the pulverized coal in the actual furnace. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Takeda, Kanji; Taguchi, Seiji; Nakai, Toshikazu; kato, Haruo (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1989-04-20

174

Computational Study of Blast Furnace Cooling Stave using Heat Transfer Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the metallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is hence a matter of trade-offs and differs for every metallurgical application. This paper gives a systemic study and review of blast furnace cooling stave lining materials used in the metallurgical industries based on heat transfer analysis. Additionally, the paper describes a model which will be modeled and implemented using Pro- E modeling software. The model will further be utilized for the analysis of the behavior of lining materials at different loads through heat transfer analysis by finite element method software called ANSYS. In this study two different types of bricks like silicon carbide brick and high alumina bricks will be taken for the lining material of the blast furnace cooling stave as well as two different types of skull is considered, in which the first is having negligible thickness and the other one is having certain thickness, (thickness in mm is considered), so, with these two skulls, the heat transfer analysis will be done at different temperatures (loads) from 773k to 1573k in order to compare which lining will give better results than the other.

Akash Shrivastava,; Dr. R.L. Himte,

2012-01-01

175

The behavior of potassium in the blast furnace deduced from isotope tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two tracer tests were done with radioactive potassium (42 K) on blast furnace no. 1, Pretoria Works. Some 80% of the injected 42 K was recovered in 2 1/2 days. About 95% of both radioactive and natural potassium reported in the slag. Mean residence times of 18 and 25 hours confirmed the accumulation of potassium in the furnace. In these tests the slag basicity appeared to be an adequate indicator of furnace conditions governing the behaviour of potassium. A quantitative discontinious model with varying volume CSTR's and interflow controlled according to slag basicity - could be made to fit the results of both tests. The total amounts of K2O required by the model - 4 and 9 t respectively - were larger than estimates from input/output imbalance, or from mean residence time of the tracer.

1978-01-01

176

Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC) - an efficient iron-making and power generation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new iron and power generating process, oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC), is presented. In order to support the opinion, the features of the oxygen blast furnace and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) are summarized. The relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity, as well as caloric value is calculated based on mass and energy balance. Analysis and calculation indicate that the OBF-CC will be an efficient iron-making and power generation process with higher energy efficiency and less pollution.

2003-01-01

177

Changes in the microstructure of coke while passing the blast furnace with respect to the quality of the charged coke and the behaviour of nut coke in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides a comprehensive contribution to the understanding of the metallurgical stresses to which the coke is exposed in a blast furnace. The investigations refer to the change in the coke microstructure depending on the charged feed coke quality and the blast furnace operatic conditions. Also the behaviour of nut coke (coke - 35 mm) in the blast furnace is determined. To work on the scheduled activities and aims of the project various tools are used by the different partners. At TKS, a new microscopic measurement method quantifying the change in the coke carbon micro texture is used to compare the microstructure of feed coke, CRI/CSR treated coke and core drilled coke from the tuyere level of different TKS blast furnaces. Tuyere core drill exercises also are used to detect ZrO{sub 2} traced nut coke charged as mix with burden components in the lower part of the furnace, CSM used the MOSCA model and tuyere core drillings to investigate the behaviour of the nut at a blast furnace of Lucchini at Piombino (Italy). At MEFOS, cokes excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furance (EBF) are used as a basis for the research. The evolution of the EBF coke properties, particuly the carbon structure and alkali uptake were related to CO{sub 2} reactivity. At DMT synthetic coke materials of various qualites are produced for laboratory investigations also at the partner. The University of Aachen RWTH studies the behaviour of coke under various blast furnace scenarios to detect also the changes in the coke microstructure. 12 refs., 141 figs., 63 tabs.

Janhsen, U.; Guenbati, A.; Sautner, C. (and others) [ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

2007-07-01

178

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01

179

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. (more) The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Gomes, Maria de Lourdes Ilha; Osório, Eduardo; Vilela, Antônio Cezar Faria

2006-03-01

180

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes; Eduardo Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Numerical study of gas-solid flow in the raceway of a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a numerical study of gas-solid flow in a blast furnace raceway using a 2D slot cold model. Numerical experiments are conducted by combining the discrete element method for the solid phase with computational fluid dynamics for the gas phase. The motion of particles caused by lateral gas blasting under conditions similar to that in the blast furnace process is examined at a particle scale. Combustion and associated solids movement around the raceway are simulated by extraction of particles from the bottom of the bed. The effect of bed height or solid pressure is considered by imposing a downward force on the top layers of particles in the bed. It is shown that depending on the gas velocity, the bed can transit from a fixed bed to a fluidized bed or vice versa. Two zones can be identified in such a bed: a stagnant zone in which the particles remain at their initial positions, and a moving zone in which particles can move in various flow patterns. In particular, if the gas velocity is in a certain range, the moving zone is formed just in front of the gas inlet, giving the so-called raceway in which the particles can circulate. The effects of gas velocity, solid pressure and solid extraction are quantified. The fundamentals governing the gas-solid flow and the formation mechanisms of a raceway are discussed in terms of particle-particle and particle-fluid interaction forces. (orig.)

Feng, Y.Q.; Pinson, D.; Yu, A.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Chew, S.J.; Zulli, P. [Steel Research Labs., BHP Steel, Port Kembla (Australia)

2003-09-01

182

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

1990-10-01

183

Analyses on dynamic solid flow in blast furnace lower part by deadman shape and raceway depth measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As one of the factors of frequent troubles that occur in the transition period from all-coke operation to PC injection operation in blast furnace as well as increased troubles in recent years, increased size of the blast furnace and high-productivity operation are pointed out. Consequently, great importance is attached to burden distribution control and burden descent condition, or control of melting zone, deadman shape, solid flow at the lower part of furnace and others. In the present study, the reduced stockline surface profile was measured by the reflection intensity of microwave struck from the furnace top after blow-off with stockline reduced, and investigation was made on the countermeasures for changes in the raceway depth and furnace body profile during operation. As a result, it has been clarified that flow-down of coke into the lower part of blast furnace and inflow into the raceway are greatly subject to the existence of deadman which is the packed structure of the lower part of furnace, and further, they are closely related to dynamic behavior of the raceway and affect changes of the furnace body profile.

Matsui, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Imai, T.; Goto, A. [Kobe Steel Ltd,, Katogawa (Japan). R& amp; D Laboratory

2006-12-15

184

Analyses on dynamic solid flow in blast furnace lower part by deadman shape and raceway depth measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As one of the factors of frequent troubles that occur in the transition period from all-coke operation to PC injection operation in blast furnace as well as increased troubles in recent years, increased size of the blast furnace and high-productivity operation are pointed out. Consequently, great importance is attached to burden distribution control and burden descent condition, or control of melting zone, deadman shape, solid flow at the lower part of furnace and others. In the present study, the reduced stockline surface profile was measured by the reflection intensity of microwave struck from the furnace top after blow-off with stockline reduced, and investigation was made on the countermeasures for changes in the raceway depth and furnace body profile during operation. As a result, it has been clarified that flow-down of coke into the lower part of blast furnace and inflow into the raceway are greatly subject to the existence of deadman which is the packed structure of the lower part of furnace, and further, they are closely related to dynamic behavior of the raceway and affect changes of the furnace body profile.

Matsui, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Imai, T.; Goto, A. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-07-01

185

Bosh slag chemistry control for high PCR and low slag volume blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the high pulverized-coal ratio (PCR) operation in the blast furnace, the slag volume should be minimized to secure good gas/liquid permeability in the low part of the blast furnace. As a measure of slag volume reduction, the MgO content in the sinter has been reduced to the level of 5%. As the slag volume is reduced, the chemistry of slags formed is expected to be changed. Using the tuyere probing technique in the field trials, the effects of slag volume reduction on the slag chemistry was studied. Based upon the analysis of the field trial data as well as laboratory experiment results, it is elucidated that the enhanced gas/liquid permeability is attributed not only to the slag volume reduction but also to the decrease of bosh slag viscosity. By lowering MgO content in the sinter, the bosh slag viscosity can be effectively decreased leading to a stable high PCR/low slag volume operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) [German] Bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten sollte die Schlackenmenge minimiert werden, um eine gute Durchgasung im unteren Teil des Hochofens zu gewaehrleisten. Bei Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wird eine Aenderung der Schlackenzusammensetzung erwartet. In Betriebsversuchen wurde der Einfluss der Schlackenmengenreduktion auf die Schlackenzusammensetzung durch Probenahmen durch die Blasformen untersucht. Gleichzeitig mit der Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wurde der Gehalt an MgO im Sinter auf rund 5% gesenkt. Auf Basis dieser Versuchsergebnisse und weiterer Labormessungen wird deutlich, dass die verbesserte Gas-/Schmelzdurchlaessigkeit nicht nur auf die Verminderung der Schlackenmenge, sondern auch auf eine geringere Viskositaet der Rastschlacke zurueckzufuehren ist. Durch Absenken des MgO-Gehaltes im Sinter kann die Viskositaet der Rastschlacke deutlich vermindert werden, was zu einer stabilen Betriebsweise bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten und geringen Schlackenmengen fuehrt. (orig.)

Yi, S.H. [Technical Research Labs., POSCO, Pohang (Korea); Yi, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea)

2003-07-01

186

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

2008-01-01

187

Gas flow modelling on blast furnaces; Modelamento do escoamento gasoso em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, gas flow in the blast furnace has been analyzed on the basis of a bi-dimensional mathematical model, involving simultaneous solution of momentum and continuity equations. The velocity profile of gas flow in front of the crucible, the influence of numerical methods employed for resolution of equation as well as the effect of structural configuration of the different layers of the solid bed on the velocity profile of the gas have been analyzed. (author). 22 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Miwa, Eloy K. [ELMA Consultoria e Projetos Industriais (Brazil); Seshadri, Varadarajan [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

1991-12-31

188

Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado; Eduardo Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria Vilela

2010-01-01

189

Projection pursuit regression and disaggregate productivity effects: The case of the Indian blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Productivity of blast furnaces in India is studied by disaggregating the production process and the utilization process. A dimension-reducing nonparametric approach-projection pursuit regression is used. We find that productivity can be increased significantly by improving the quality of coal. There is no evidence that executives have a positive marginal product. The production workers have a negative marginal product for the production process and a positive one for the utilization process. But the training of executives has a positive effect whereas that of the production workers has a negative effect on productivity.

Das, S.; Sengupta, R. [Indian State Inst., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Economics

2004-05-15

190

Effects of pulverized coal injection on fines behaviors in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate on the reasons for the fines increase with PCR, several analyses such as TGA, SEM and separation by heavy medium are carried out for blast furnace wet dust and fines obtained by coke sampling. The results show that the fines are composed of unburned pulverized coal and coke. The contribution of char and carbon contents in char and coke fines changes with coal combustibility. It is concluded that the origin of carbon source, coke or coal, can be discriminated by the relative intensity of graphite peak in XRD carbon analysis. 17 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Chung, Jin Kyung; Huh, Wan Wook [Research Laboratories, POSCO, Kwangyang (Korea); Park, Pan Wook [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)

1999-10-01

191

Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths  

Science.gov (United States)

The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

2013-04-01

192

Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-01

193

Blast furnace slag-cement grout blends for the immobilization of technetium-containing wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed low-level radioactive and chemically toxic process treatment wastes from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are stabilized by solidification in cement-based grouts. Conventional portland cement and fly ash grouts are shown to be very effective for retention of hydrolyzable heavy metals (including lead, cadmium, uranium, and nickel), but are marginally acceptable for retention of radioactive 99Tc (which is present in the waste as the highly mobile pertechnate anion). Addition of ground blast furnace slag to the grout is shown to reduce the effective diffusivity of technetium by several orders of magnitude; retention of technetium is improved by decreasing the waste loading in the grout or by increasing the proportion of blast furnace slag in the grout dry mix. The selective effect of slag is believed to be due to its ability to reduce Tc(VIII) to the less soluble Tc(IV) species. The addition of other reductive grout admixtures (e.g., sodium sulfide, ferrous ion, and powdered iron metal) also appear to improve the retention of technetium in grout. 31 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs

1988-01-01

194

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

2010-01-01

195

Use of blast-furnace slag in making durable concrete for waste management repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste repositories for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste rely greatly on the durability of concrete for their required 500-year service life. A research program is in progress based on laboratory testing of concretes containing either Type 1 cement or cements containing 65 and 75 percent of blast-furnace slag, each at 4 water-cement ratios. It has been established that the degradation of the concrete will depend on the rate of ingress of corrosive agents - chlorides, sulphate ions and CO2. The ionic profiles and the kinetics of diffusion of these ions in the concretes have been measured by Secondary Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) techniques, and the results plotted according to a mathematical model. Predictions for service life of the concrete have been made from this model. These predictions have been correlated with properties of the concrete obtained from micro-structural, thermochemical and permeability measurements. The improvements in concrete durability due to blast-furnace slag additions are illustrated and discussed

1991-01-01

196

Fixation of CO{sub 2} by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO{sub 2} pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied. A simple thermodynamic model was used to verify our results. The feasibility of the process was also discussed, addressing energy input requirements and the consumption of chemicals. According to our experiments, the addition of NaOH, i.e. an increase in solution pH, is required for the adequate precipitation of calcium carbonate at temperatures of 30-70 C and pressures of 1 or 30 bar. Preliminary process calculations showed that approximately 4.4 kg of blast furnace slag, 3.6 l of acetic acid, and 3.5 kg of NaOH would be required to bind 1 kg of CO{sub 2}, resulting in 2.5 kg of 90% calcium carbonate. While the heat needed for the evaporation of the acetic acid could probably be acquired as waste heat by process integration with other processes, the electricity required for NaOH regeneration would make the process unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (author)

Eloneva, Sanni; Teir, Sebastian; Salminen, Justin; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan [Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4400, FIN-02015 TKK (Finland); Zevenhoven, Ron [Heat Engineering Laboratory, Aabo Akademi University, Piispankatu 8, FIN-20500 Turku (Finland)

2008-09-15

197

Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BlueScope Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 ms. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 17 refs., 11 figs.

John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2005-07-01

198

Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BHP Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 milliseconds. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 15 refs., 11 figs.

John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BHP Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2003-07-01

199

Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

2005-09-01

200

High temperature properties of by-product cold bonded pellets containing blast furnace flue dust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation, the fundamental reactions occurring during the heat treatment of cold bonded pellets (CBP) comprised of iron and steelmaking by-products have been studied. Blast furnace (BF) flue dust, which contains fractions of coal and coke particles, has been included in the CBP blend as a source of solid reductant. Thermal analysis was performed on CBP samples in inert atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg C/min in order to observe their high temperature properties, specifically, the mechanisms of self-reduction within CBPs. Both endothermic and exothermic reactions were observed during heating. The gases generated during thermal analysis were analyzed using a quadropole mass spectrometer (QMS). Furthermore, CBP samples heated to several different temperatures and quenched in argon were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the decomposition of hydrates and carbonates in CBP samples contribute, as gaseous intermediates, to an earlier reduction of contained iron oxides. The gaseous intermediates are responsible for an initial gasification of carbon contained in blast furnace flue dust leading to low temperature iron oxide reduction. The step-wise reduction of iron oxides in CBPs at the given conditions begins at ?500 deg C and is nearly completed at 1200 deg C. This work can help to provide a fundamental understanding of the reduction characteristics of iron and steelmaking by-product agglomerates.

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Model to Simulate Titanium Behavior in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth  

Science.gov (United States)

The erosion of hearth refractory is a major limitation to the campaign life of a blast furnace. Titanium from titania addition in the burden or tuyere injection can react with carbon and nitrogen in molten pig iron to form titanium carbonitride, giving the so-called titanium-rich scaffold or buildup on the hearth surface, to protect the hearth from subsequent erosion. In the current article, a mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics is proposed to simulate the behavior of solid particles in the liquid iron. The model considers the fluid/solid particle flow through a packed bed, conjugated heat transfer, species transport, and thermodynamic of key chemical reactions. A region of high solid concentration is predicted at the hearth bottom surface. Regions of solid formation and dissolution can be identified, which depend on the local temperature and chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity to the key model parameters for the solid phase is analyzed. The model provides an insight into the fundamental mechanism of solid particle formation, and it may form a basic model for subsequent development to study the formation of titanium scaffold in the blast furnace hearth.

Guo, Bao-Yu; Zulli, Paul; Maldonado, Daniel; Yu, Ai-Bing

2010-08-01

202

Continual Measuring of Local Stress Values on Shell of the Blast Furnace Hearth and of Total Shell Expansion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with installation of strain gauges on the external surface of the blast furnace shell in two rows, whereas there will be defi ned 8 measuring points in every row. The fi nal result is evaluation of data obtained during up to 45 days of the operation. In this papers are commentary and discussions to measured time behaviours. The main purpose of this measuring was investigation of impact of salamander on blast furnace shell expansion after its lay off , cooling and next starting of operation.

P. Bigoš; J. Ku?ka; M. Manti?; J. ?urilla

2012-01-01

203

Statistical analysis of the blast furnace process output parameter using arima control chart with proposed methodology of control limits setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the statistical analysis of the selected parameter of the blast furnace process. It was proved that analyzed measurements have been autocorrelated. ARIMA control chart was selected for their analysis as a very useful statistical process control (SPC) method. At first the methodology for control limits setting in ARIMA control charts considering the time series outlier analysis as an integral part of the ARIMA model building was designed. Then this proposal was applied to the statistical analysis of the selected blast furnace process output parameter with the aim to compare two production methods.

D. Noskievi?ová

2009-01-01

204

Deposition of 60Co and 137Cs adsorbed on zeolite in matrices on the blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The experimental data (leaching tests and compressive strength measurements) are presented for case the radionuclides from model water solution and radioactive waste water were uptake on natural and chemically modified granular zeolitic tuffite which show improved sorption ability and were subsequently incorporated into cement casts on blast furnace slags (BSF) basis. The all experiment were carried out with zeolite tuffite from Nizny Hrabovec, Slovak Republic. The natural zeolite was treated by the NaOH solution. The blends of individual components were casted into rectangular prism moulds (1 x 1 x 3 cm). The cast consisted invariably of 90% of BSF, 10% of fine zeolite and solution of water glass and to this basic mixture were added either 10 or 20% granular active, or non active zeolite during the mix formation, in excess to content of previous solid components. The water/cement ratio varied in interval 0.32-0.40. Model solutions labelled by cesium-137 or cobalt-60 have been used for sorption experiment and real waste water concentrate from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice as well. The real water consisted of cesium-134, cesium-137, cobalt-60, in borate and nitrate form. The radioactivity of dry cement casts was measured in 4? geometry. The leaching experiments were performed in three solutions: water (W), 0.03 M HCl (A) and 0.04 M NaOH (B). The mechanical properties of sample with non active granular zeolites and their corrosion characteristics as reflected by the bulk density changes. The experiments showed that leaching of radionuclides, which were sorbed from solution and radioactive waste water, in water and bases solution were negligible. Changes of radioactivity of casts, prepared from model solution, in acid solution, which were less than 5%. The mechanical strength of prepared composites is favourable and shows good compatibility of zeolitic additives with a basic matrix. Leaching experiments and mechanical strength are hopeful and show good retention of observed radionuclides in samples exposed in leaching solutions. 2 tabs., 3 figs

1995-01-01

205

Optimization of physical parameters of discrete element method for blast furnace and its application to the analysis on solid motion around raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of solid motion in the vicinity of raceway of the blast furnace has been carried out by discrete element method (DEM). The physical properties of particle for DEM calculation are important factors to simulate precisely the solid motion in the blast furnace. In order to represent the feature of burden such as coke in the lower part of the blast furnace, the rolling friction was cautiously determined. Through the simulation results, it was found in the result of simulation that the contact friction and the rolling friction have a great influence on the solid motion especially in the lower part of blast furnace. In the present study, the contact friction of actual coke used for blast furnace was experimentally measured. The optimum combinations of contact and rolling friction coefficients were derived from the angle of repose obtained from the DEM. On the basis of the physical parameters optimized for blast furnace, the solid motion around the raceway where the ununiformity was remarkable in blast furnace was analyzed. The influence of variation of raceway is examined to clarify the motion of coke in the lower part of blast furnace. According to the results, it was found that the height of deadman varied with changing the depth of raceway. The interval of tuyeres seriously influences on the ununiformity of solid motion in the direction of circumference. Owing to DEM based on the optimized physical parameters, three dimensional analysis of solid motion containing the ununiform region became possible.

Natsui Shungo; Ueda Shigeru; Oikawa Masashi; Fan Zhengyun; Kano Junya; Inoue Ryo; Ariyama Tatsuro [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

2009-07-01

206

Results of tests on a slightly extendable water blasting device for furnace walls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests were performed on a water blasting device specially developed for local cleaning of zones of intense slag formation in the P-67 boiler designed to burn Berezovsk coal. The device is characterized by rotating and sliding displacement of the nozzle head which traces a spiral jet on the furnace wall and has the following main characteristics: nozzle head full travel - 685 mm, head rotational frequency - 4 rpm, sliding displacement spacing - 64 mm, nozzle angle of attack 5 degrees, overall operating time - 5 minutes. The results showed that the intensity of the thermal and hydrodynamic effect of the water jet is non-uniform over the blasting radius but remains at a high level over the whole area being cleaned. The size of the points where the jet comes into contact with the surface is not determined by the geometry of the free jet: the longer the range is, the lower is the effective length of the point of contact and the duration of the cooling. In usual conditions for water blasting and with an effective radius of about 3 m, a sufficiently high level of cleaning is achieved. 8 refs.

Maidanik, M.N.; Vasil' ev, V.V.; Levitskii, G.G.; Shteinbok, V.S.; Kamolova, O.N.

1988-07-01

207

Consumption of residual char in blast furnace during coal injection -- Slag/carbon/gas interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the factors limiting the maximum rate of coal injection in the blast furnace is the accumulation of unburnt char. The interaction of unburnt char with slag, hot metal and the gaseous phases could have a significant influence on char assimilation. This work examines the interaction of a low iron oxide bearing slag with different carbonaceous substrates with varying levels of ash content (0.05%--12.25%). Experiments were conducted in a high temperature tube furnace at 1,500 C (2,732 F) in an argon atmosphere, and the slag/carbon/gas interactions were studied in-situ. The results showed that ash content and composition of the carbonaceous substrates influenced their wettability by the slag. With good wetting, there is a significant decrease in the contact angle from the initiation of melting. The carbonaceous materials that showed good wetting were reacting with the slag phase and resulting in a change in the slag composition. The consumption of carbon could occur when it is in contact with a slag bearing appreciable levels of iron oxide, for example. The kinetics of iron oxide reduction reaction could dictate the consumption rate of carbon in a char present in the blast furnace during coal injection. The dissolution of ash components in a char into the slag phase could also result in the consumption of char during coal injection. These research topics are currently under investigation at the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation in the School of Materials Science and Engineering UNSW, Sydney; the investigation presented here forms a part of the overall study.

Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Co-operative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation; Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

208

Determination of the coke bed voidage in the blast furnace hearth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the research were to develop and apply techniques and model tools allowing an online evaluation of the blast furnace hearth conditions and its permeability, in order to guarantee a stable furnace operation and to control the refractory wear through early corrective actions. CRM determined the coke bed voidage in the hearth of BFB of Cockerill-Sambre by two techniques: one based on pressure measurement inside the taphole and the other based on electromotive force measurement. A mathematicalmodel was developed taking into account the movements of the deadman. ln order to continuously determine the hot metal flow rate, BFI measured the filling level in the runner at BF 2 of TKS. A statistical wear model evaluated the cross-sectional runner geometry. The data have been fed into a model to calculate the coke bed voidage on multiple taphole blast furnaces. To control the wear caused by preferential liquid flow, Corus IJmuiden developed a monitoring of temperature and heat flux information from purpose-installed duplex thermocouples. This information has been correlated over time to identify any persistent trends and used to evaluate control measures such as blocked tuyeres and process shutdowns. Industrial trials at Fos BF1 enabled IRSID to propose a picture to describe the effects of the central coke charging practice. IRSID used the Fluent code to describe the liquid flow in the hearth with regard to the deadman conditions and to simulate tracer experiments. From studies of the behaviour of the hearth skull, Corus UK proposed a method for its monitoring. The iron flow rate was measured by using strain gauges attached to the torpedo ladles, and the slag flow rate was estimated from the slag pelletiser current. Data from tuyere core drilling samples were examined to estimate the voidage in the hearth. 38 refs., 127 figs.

Havelange, O.; Danloy, G.; Venturini, M.J. [and others] [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

2004-07-01

209

Extending the campaign life of the Kashima No. 3 blast furnace. Kashima san koro ro mei encho taisaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kashima No.3 Blast furnace of Sumitomo Metal Industries KK was blown in September 1976. It was one of the largest in the world at that time. It attained the world record of 13 years and 5 months of continuous operation and the total production of 48,150 kilo tons and was blown out in January 31, 1990. This paper reports various measures berformed during those years to extend its campaign life. As for maintenance of the furnace, the repair of the side wall of the upper shaft to maitain the wall profile, the development of gunning materials for the upper part, replacement of staves of the lower shaft part, the injection of refractory mortar in the bosh level, the installment of cooling plates and cooling pins for the bosh level, and development of the refractory materials for the bosh level are carried out. As a result, damage of the furnace above the bosh level do not limit the campaign life of blast furnaces. These measures made it possible to extend the campaign life of the blast furnace to about 15 years from a conventional length of 6 to 7 years. The protective techniques for the bottom part of the furnace will be a target of the development of the maintenance technology. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 4 refs.

Hiroki, N.; Yamanishi, I.; Koike, A.; Tanizawa, Y.; Koba, M. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1991-10-10

210

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace sla (more) g was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi

2011-09-01

211

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

2011-01-01

212

Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique...

Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

213

Process for the production of briquettes made of brown coal or similar material, particularly for blast furnace coke. [German Patent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown coal pulverized to about 2 mm is pulverized more finely in a gyroscopic device by the use of friction, shear, and cavitation forces. The dispersion produced can be made into briquettes after drying which are converted into blast furnace coke in the usual way.

Zucker, F.; Bruchmann, H.D.

1980-07-24

214

On-line and off-line applications of heat and mass balance model for blast furnaces at Tata Steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using steady state heat and mass balance equations for the wustite reduction zone of a blast furnace, a computer model to estimate the fuel rate has been developed. The model was useful in quantifying the influence of common operating variables on fuel rate, quantifying the influence of burden quality e.g. percentage of sinter in burden, sinter RDI, etc. as well as the benefits in fuel rate by high blast humidity operation under Tata Steel`s operating conditions. A linerarised relationship developed with the help of the model was found to correlate well with the operating data and is currently being used on-line in the `G` Blast Furnace for process analysis and control. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Ramna, R.V.; Das, A.K. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1997-05-01

215

Raceway smelting reduction process with fine ore injection from blast furnace tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic research was conducted with the aim of developing a raceway melting and reduction process, using the injection of fines and pulverized coal through the tuyeres of the blast furnace. With regard to the melting and reduction behaviour of fines in the presence of solid reducing agents, it was found that the speed with which iron ore is reduced increases greatly when fines and pulverized coal are injected together, and the effects of pulverized coal were determined. The contact between molten wustite and solid reducing agents is though to be more effective in the rapid reduction of fines in the raceway than an increase in the reduction potential of the bulk gases. By coating the surface of the fines with carbon, it is possible to improve reduction conditions and increase the reduction speed.

Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K.; Shimizu, M.; Gudenau, H.W.

1995-06-01

216

Combustibility of petroleum coke-oil slurry in the raceway of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of distribution of temperature and gas composition in the raceway was conducted by using sonde and evaluated the combustibility of slurry at its injection. Experiment was pursued for the different kinds of coke and for the different particle size disribution, and by step wise thrusting of the water-cooled sonde into the blast furnace with the pich of 25cm. Result of the experiment was shown as the temperature and gas composition distribution map of raceway. By the experimental result, it was understood that the distribution of gas composition was varied with the depth of raceway but not distribution of temperature, and that, by applying the understanding of more quick oxygen consumption for better combustibility, heavy oil had the best combustibility as the result of combustibility study by the oxygen distibution map. It was considered that slurry had sufficient combustibility, too. (11 figs, 2 tabs, 20 refs)

Deguchi, Mikio; Sasahara, Shigeki; Kasai, Taketsugu; Tanaka, Kozo; Tamura, Setsuo

1988-09-01

217

Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

2013-06-01

218

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muniz, M.

2009-07-01

219

Rapid in-flight'' reduction of fine iron ore injected into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current need for cost cutting and more efficient use of resources makes it desirable to attain a higher rate of ore injection from the blast furnace tuyeres. One area to be researched is the microscopic reduction behavior of fine iron ore in hot reducing gas flow, to ascertain the optimum conditions for smelting reduction. Microanalysis of injected ore revealed the complete spheroidization of the reduced ore particles. In addition, a peculiar morphology resulted: iron produced on the surface of the melted wustite droplets was immediately engulfed by liquid wustite. This morphology suggests the importance of frequent contact between the ore particles and the reducing agents. Of the possible reducing agents, carbon coating seems the most desirable for promoting the in-flight smelting reduction.

Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K.; Sasahara, S.; Shimizu, M. (Kobe Stell Ltd., Hatano (Japan))

1993-01-01

220

Sialon-bonded silicon carbide - a tool for extending the life of a blast furnace lining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicon carbide has been used as a blast furnace lining material for more than twenty-five years. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide and to a lesser degree, direct bonded and self-bonded silicon carbide products were the initial products used. Beginning in the mid 80`s, sialon-bonded silicon carbides were developed. The key attribute for a silicon carbide refractory has always been it is alkali resistance. Sialon-bonded silicon carbides and sialon-bonded silicon carbide are the predominant choices for lining materials. In any year fifty to seventy-five percent of the silicon carbide refractory specifications are for sialon-bonded silicon carbide. A review of the development of sialon-bonded silicon carbide, as well as some comparison between available products will be discussed. In addition, installations using sialon bonded products and information available to date will be offered. (author) 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Keran, Corley Lee [Carborundum Co., NJ (United States). Performance Refractory Div.

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
221

An experimental study on explosive properties of bituminous coal powder for blast furnace injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The explosive properties of bituminous coal powder were studied experimentally. The results show that coal powder explosibility is related not only to the volatile content of the coal, but also to the particle size or specific surface area of the powder. It is beneficial to widen the size range of coal powder, but this must be done according to operating conditions of the blast furnace. Keeping the oxygen content of the injection gas below 15%, possibly by introducing some N/sub 2/ into the gas medium, will prevent coal explosions. In order to avoid coal powder storage bins from choking, an effective measure is to fluidize the powder by admitting fluidizing air through porous plates in the bins. (4 refs.)

Yan Wei; Gu Fei

1981-01-01

222

Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represe (more) nts a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

Machado, Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva; Osório, Eduardo; Vilela, Antônio Cezar Faria

2010-09-01

223

Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester 99Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion [prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)] through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs

1988-01-01

224

Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs

2009-01-01

225

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

2009-01-01

226

Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester /sup 99/Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion (prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)) through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.; Evans-Brown, B.S.; Morgan, I.L.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bostick, W.D.

1988-01-01

227

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the disscusion in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience.Recientemente se ha incorporado un valor del coeficiente de eficacia K para la escoria de horno alto en la norma europea EN 206-1:2000. Los valores propuestos en los grupos de trabajo eran muy diversos ya que en algunos casos sólo consideraban la resistencia mecánica para su determinación mientras que en otros se remarcaba la importancia de tener en cuenta, además, aspectos relativos a la durabilidad del hormigón con dicha adición. En el presente artículo se discuten las ventajas y desventajas de proponer unos valores del coeficiente de eficacia K más o menos conservadores. La conclusión final se resume con la propuesta de una recomendación lógica que consiste en trasladar a cada país la elección del coeficiente K para que pueda aplicarse a los hormigones empleados en su territorio; tales valores de K deberán ser seleccionados de acuerdo con la experiencia de cada uno de los países.

Sanjuán, M. A.; Piñeiro, A.; Rodríguez, O.

2011-01-01

228

Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The understanding of the softening and melting properties of iron-bearing blast furnace burdens is becoming increasingly important in the quest for higher fuel efficiencies and improved control of blast furnace operation. Currently high temperature burden quality is becoming even more important due to the increasing levels of powdered coal injection. This paper deals with the investigation of the fundamental causes of, and mechanisms involved in softening. The first hypothetical cause of softening involves the high temperature deformation of the individual phases present, due to a mechanism referred to in materials science as creep or plastic deformation. Particularly wustite, being non-stoichiometric and thus having a defect structure sensitive to plastic deformation, may potentially be fairly easily deformed at high temperature. Because it is one of the main phases present in the core of reducing material, the high temperature deformation behavior of wustite, by itself, was investigated experimentally. Another hypothetical cause of softening may be the presence of melt in the microstructure. Based on the chosen model system FeO-SiO{sub 2}, the effect of the quantity, as well as the properties of the melt present in the microstructure on the deformation properties were investigated. The basic question to be answered was whether local melting is a crucial factor for softening of iron-bearing material. By answering this question, attempts to increase the initial softening temperature can be studied in a more directed and less empirical fashion. Also, a clearer definition of the onset of softening may be defined. An example demonstrating this approach will be presented.

Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Applied Earth Sciences

1997-12-31

229

Stress field and solid flow analysis of coke packed bed in blast furnace based on DEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stability of blast furnace operation, such as blast pressure, burden descending, liquid holdup and residual amount of slag in hearth, are dominated by the permeability of coke packed bed. The coke degradation in packed bed is caused by abrasion. Then the stress field is calculated by simulation based on discrete element method (DEM) to make clear the abrasion mechanism. Coke free space shape affects on the liquid drainage efficiency and hearth refractory erosion. Then the effects of hearth depth, burden load and coke consumption on the coke free space shape is considered by using the DEM simulation. The calculated results show that a force network is formed in the whole of BF and supports the load of burden. The stress of particle in the network is much larger than the average, which can be estimated by continuous simulation. A coke in force network is abraded until the contact cross section larger and contact stress is less than the compressive stress. After then another coke particle participates in force network. Coke abrasion is caused by such force network reconstructions. Coke free space shape is dominated by the solid flow caused by coke consumption in hearth. The coke free space shape, hearth refractory erosion and drainage efficiency can be affected by the hearth depth, burden load and coke consumption in hearth.

Nouchi, Taihei; ; Sato, Takeshi; Sato, Michitaka; Takeda, Kanji [JFE Steel Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan). Steel Research Laboratory

2006-07-01

230

Laboratory experiments on materials for radioactive labelling of blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Currently, the monitoring of refractory lining wear of hearth blast furnace uses for labelling of locations inside brick-work only two radionuclides 110m Ag and 60 Co. Consequently a great zone of hearth being unlabelled escapes to monitoring, leading to possible dangerous perforations. For augmentation of labelled hearth surface we have initiated research on 133 Ba, 134 Ce, 152+154 Eu, 204 Cl, and 65 Zn. It is known that it is not recommendable to use for labelling these elements in pure state because these are very reactive i.e. they are unstable, except for thallium. Moreover, at hearth and crucible temperatures they are volatile. Therefore, a major aspect that we took into consideration is the radioisotope chemical form which is used for radioactive labelling. In Ba or Eu case, oxides can be used being more stable but in Cs and Tl case, oxides are not useful; it is more suitable to employ simple or double silicates. Samples containing a mixture of pig iron, slag and silicates of the hearth furnace labelling elements have been prepared. After separation the samples were crushed and analysed by activation analysis. The obtained gamma spectra have shown the presence of Ba, Cs, and Eu separately in the slag sample into which they have been melt. (author) 2 tabs., 8 refs

1994-01-01

231

Determination of data of heat transport at charging burden in blast furnace. Die Bestimmung der Waermetransportdaten beim Einsatz des Moellers im Hochofen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For description of the softening and melting process of charged burden materials in blast furnace it is necessary to know the fundamental physical data of heat transport in burden material. By it the thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity and the thermal conductivity of burden and actual material of cohesive zone of a quenched blast furnace were determined. Additionally, the important softening processes were described in dependence on burden characteristics to get the fundamentals for a model of cohesive zone in blast furnace. (orig.).

Gudenau, H.W.; Gerlach, W. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde); Kreibich, K. (Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

1989-09-01

232

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

233

Use of computer systems and process information for blast furnace operations at U. S. Steel, Gary Works  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US Steel Iron Producing Div. consists of four operating blast furnaces ranging in process control capabilities from 1950's and 1960's era hardware to state of the art technology. The oldest control system consists of a large number of panels containing numerous relays, indicating lights, selector switches, push buttons, analog controllers, strip chart recorders and annunciators. In contrast, the state of the art control system utilizes remote I/O, two sets of redundant PLC's, redundant charge director computer, redundant distributed control system, high resolution video-graphic display system and supervisory computer for real-time data acquisition. Process data are collected and archived on two DEC VAX computers, one for No. 13 blast furnace and the other for the three south end furnaces. Historical trending, data analysis and reporting are available to iron producing personnel through terminals and PC's connected directly to the systems, dial-up modems and various network configurations. These two machines are part of the iron producing network which allows them to pass and receive information from each other as well as numerous other sources throughout the division. This configuration allows personnel to access most pertinent furnace information from a single source. The basic objective of the control systems is to charge raw materials to the top of the furnace at aim weights and sequence, while maintaining blast conditions at the bottom of the furnace at required temperature, pressure and composition. Control changes by the operators are primarily supervisory based on review of system generated plots and tables.

Sherman, G.J.; Zmierski, M.L. (USX Corp., Gary, IN (United States))

1994-09-01

234

Control of the temperature distribution at the dropped charge surface of a blast furnace using the Irbis DPS infrared equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Irbis DPS infrared equipment has been developed in the Esch-Belval works of Arbed in cooperation with AGA Infrared and Arbed Recherches. It is a control device which has proved successful, especially in conjunction with a bell-less P. Wurth top system. It enables the dynamic following of the temperature distribution of the dropped charge surface in the blast furnace and also the recording of representative temperature distributions. Consequently, troubles can be detected early and an optimum gas permeability profile adjusted accordingly. Favourable effects on fuel consumption and furnace wear have already been ascertained.

Wietor, N.; Tonteling, P.; Vinciotti, J.

1982-02-08

235

Application of non-linear programming to the blast furnaces cost optimization; Aplicacao de programacao nao-linear na otimizacao de custo de altos-fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the Nonlinear Programing as a decision making support tool applied to the pig iron production cost optimization from a blast furnace mathematical model. (author). 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

Assis, Paulo Santos [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil); Medeiros, Fernando Tadeu Pereira de; Sarchis, Darcio de Paula; Botteon, Arnaldo Mendes [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Evsukoff, Alexandre [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

1995-12-31

236

Method for preparing potassic fertilizer by using high temperature steel slag or high temperature blast furnace slag and potash feldspar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for preparing potassic fertilizer by using high temperature steel slag or high temperature blast furnace slag and potash feldspar. The method comprises the followingsteps of: using high temperature steel slag or high temperature blast furnace slag as heat source, processing potash feldspar by using CaO and MaO therein and extra assistant, destroying lattice structure of the potash feldspar, causing potassium ions therein to be extracted by a leaching method, thus obtaining the potassic fertilizer. As silicon oxide and aluminium oxide in potash feldspar reactwith calcium elements in the assistant to generate matters such calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and the like, solid slag can be used for generating cement, steel slag micro powder, serves as roadengineering material or refilling material, asphalt concrete aggregate or is used for producing microcrystalline glass after the potassium is extracted.

HAIDI LIU; ZHENJIANG WU; LIANQI WEI; RENLIANG YUE; YUNFA CHEN

237

Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as ? Radiation Shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (?) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher ?r value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

2002-06-27

238

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque). Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de Matos; José Adilson de Castro

2012-01-01

239

The injection of ultrahigh rates of reducing gas into a modern blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot plant for gas injection consists of a screw compressor unit to supply two blast furnaces with reduction gas. Almost all of the reducing gas will react in the raceway; only a small part will combust inside the tuyere. Comparing different injection systems in the case with two lances, the gas will react faster than for the one lance system where the gas is more trapped inside a beam. During the project the melting rate of the furnace was increased by more than 30 %. Injecting reducing gas compensates increased raceway adiabatic flame temperature, RAFT by higher oxygen enrichment rates. The operation results showed that a lower RAFT and low-quality raw material result in increased consumption of reducing agents. 1 kg coke oven gas, COG substitutes 0.81 kg oil and 1.03 kg coke. Sulfur input was reduced by 40 % in comparison with heavy fuel oil operation. The top-gas calorific value is increased up to 30 %. This reduces the consumption of natural gas used to control a constant calorific value in the gas network. A high hydrogen content up to 12 % is no problem for the gas consumers. Tests with simultaneous COG/BOF gas injection have shown that a decrease in the oil rate can be compensated. The replacement of a carbon-rich resultant such as coke and oil in the BF process with a carbon-lean resultant such as COG leads to an absolute reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of the BF process and the power plant of approximately 184.000 t/a for both BFs or 102 kg/tHM. 3 refs., 98 figs., 16 tabs., 1 annex.

Buergler, T.; Skoeld, B.E. [Voestalpine, Linz (Austria)

2007-07-01

240

Development of knowledge on combustion and ash behavior of pulverized coals injected in ArcelorMittal Tubarao blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study between the mineral coals used by ArcelorMittal Tubarao has been carried out, aiming at determining complementing criteria to the current energy model for the mineral coals purchasing qualification used for injection in the blast furnace. Material characterization techniques were employed allowing the mapping of the characteristics of the coals which potentially affect the stability of the pig iron production process.

Defendi, G.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Correa, M.; Cruz, R.; Rezende, R.; Osorio, E.; Parreiras, R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2008-07-15

 
 
 
 
241

Blast furnace to produce fuel gas from organic materials. Schachtofen zum Erzeugen von Brenngas aus organischen Stoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a blast furnace to produce fuel gas from organic materials, particularly organic waste, with a gasification space, an ash space and a separating floor between these spaces carrying a fiery bed, devices for introducing air into the gasification space and devices for sucking out fuel gas, as well as a large number of slots in the separating floor, through which the fuel gas can be drawn off downwards from the fiery bed.

Rose, E.A.; Henfling, M.

1983-11-10

242

Conditions of coke bed in the hearth (dissection results of the hearth in Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of elucidating materials behaviour in the hearth, Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace was blown out by lowering the burden surface to the tuyere level. Materials in the hearth were cooled naturally, were sampled and the properties were examined. In this report, conditions of coke bed in the hearth are shown and the rise of dead man coke from the hearth bottom is studied. 2 references.

Abe, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsuda, A.; Shiki, C.; Katahira, H.

1985-01-01

243

Estimation of the inner states by the use of the model to evaluate the influence of sinter and coke properties at blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examination was made on the behavior of the charges in the blast furnace. The reduction-powdering model of a sintered ore was incorporated into the two-dimensional mathematical model of a blast furnace. With the increase in the reduction-powdering factor, the indirect reductio of the ore is progressed, resulting in an enhancement in the gas utilization ratio in the furnace top. For the purpose of maintaining the pig-iron melting at a constant temperature, the increase in the ratio of ore to coke from 3.25 to 3.75 gives a reduction in the temperature in the upper blast furnace. The decrease in the particle size of the charged sintered ore enhances the reduction-performance of the ore and the solid-gas heat exchange effect. Then, the coke behavior in the blast furnace is incorporated into the two-dimensional mathematical model for a blast furnace. The particle size and the strength of the coke is rapidly reduced in the solution loss zone and lower. The apparent reduction in the coke strength accelerates the decrease in the particle size of the coke toward the tuyere. After the coke reaction, the strength of the coke is increased to inhibit the solution reaction, accompanied with elevation in the in-furnace temperature and enhancement of the gas utilization ratio. (14 figs, 11 refs)

Kurita, Koichi; Iwanaga, Yuji; Motoshige, Masahiro; Aminaga, Yoichi

1987-11-01

244

Quantitative description of void distributions i blast furnace raceway; Koro raceway no kukan kozo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A void distribution in a blast furnace raceway significantly affects the results of numerical simulations for the raceway combustion zone. Despite its importance, technical difficulty in measuring this physical property had left a quantitative description out of reach. In the present paper, the direct ,measurement of raceway void distributions was attained in a three-dimensional cold model with the aid of laser sensors. Measured void fractions clarified the typical distribution pattern in a raceway, showing the inlet region with relatively high and constant void fractions (the gas core region) from the buyers tip to the middle part of the raceway, followed by the linear decrease of voidage toward the raceway boundary. The extent of the gas core region was used to achieve the non-dimensional representation for the axial void distribution, and was successfully estimated by the newly established correlation between a gas core length (DM), a tuyere diameter (DT) and a raceway factor (Rf), expressed by DM/DT = 0.963Rf{sup 0.546}. 20 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Nozawa, K.; Kamijo, T.; Shimizu, M. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

1995-09-01

245

Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view

2003-01-01

246

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

U?ur FA; Turhan S; Sahan H; Sahan M; Gören E; Gezer F; Ye?ingil Z

2013-01-01

247

Phase development and pore solution chemistry in ageing blast furnace slag-Portland cement blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Blast furnace slag (BFS) cement blends have certain advantages for their encapsulation of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. However, their hydration reactions are more complex than for Portland cement because Portland cements fully react within several years whereas slag hydration takes considerably longer. Empirical testing of blends matured for short periods, up to several years, are not therefore adequate to characterise the chemical immobilisation potential of such systems. A modelling approach is required to predict long-term properties. This paper is concerned with defining the internal environment within slag-cement matrices. The important parameters for definition are pH, Eh, solubilities and speciation in the aqueous phase, and solid phase equilibria. Compatibility studies in the CaO-CaSo4-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-H2O system are described and compared with the results of X-ray diffraction on pastes aged up to 2 years. In addition, pore water compositions for slag-rich cements are given, and the potential for predicting their redox level (Eh) by extending the present model is discussed

1989-01-01

248

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2012-07-22

249

Dynamic shear strength of improved soil with B-type blast-furnace cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is attempted to apply the improved soil using cement materials as the hardening agent to the foundation ground of the important buildings for electric power plants. The current design procedure of the improved ground is based on the static strength such as the unconfined compressive strength of the improved soil. However, it is not clear whether the static strength is relevant to seismic designs where the effects of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake shall be considered. Hence, the authors studied the dynamic strength of the improved soil in comparison with the static strength, by executing a series of the cyclic triaxial tests with different loading frequencies and the consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests (CUB tests) with different axial strain rates. The tested soil specimens which have the unconfined compressive strength of about 5 MPa were made in laboratory using the mixture of a dredged marine clayey soil, a B-type blast-furnace cement (300 kg/m3) and water. Both of the CUB tests and the cyclic triaxial tests showed similar results with respect to the relationships between the strength and the strain rate. The larger the compressive strain rate was, the higher the strength became. It is concluded that the static strength could be used as a sufficiently safe value in seismic designs since the strain rate of the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake is much larger than that of the static test. (author)

2012-01-01

250

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muñiz, M.

2009-01-01

251

Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

Liu CF; Shih SM

2004-08-01

252

Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO{sub 2} under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO{sub 2}, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO{sub 2} capture, 0.45 g SO{sub 2}/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and molar content of Ca (M{sup -1}); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing S{sub g0}/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Chiung-Fang Liu; Shin-Min Shih [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2004-08-15

253

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 {+-} 0.011 and 0.038 {+-} 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.s [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-01-01

254

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

Zemskov, Serguey V.; Ahmad, Bilal; Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Vermolen, Fred J.

2013-02-01

255

Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

2013-02-08

256

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent.

Asaoka S; Yamamoto T

2010-04-01

257

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

2009-12-08

258

Business diversification in blast furnace steel makers. Koro kakusha no takakuka no jokyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scenarios are presented for the current business diversification and future business developments by the three Japanese blast furnace steel makers (Kawasaki Steel, Kobe Steel and Shin Nippon Steel). The conceptions for their advancement into the 2lst century are more or less similar. The business diversification commenced for Kawasaki Steel in 1985, Kobe Steel in 1989 and Shin Nippon Steel in 1987, all taking a pattern of tree-like development into related businesses starting from the basic industry. Their new businesses may be summarized generically as: electronics industry (LSI, silicon, electronic devices, information and communication); new material related business (ferrite, ceramics, metal powder, metal foils); chemical business (plastics, etc.); engineerings (architecture, urban andregional developments, etc.); and service business (system network development, lease business, real estate, leisure business, etc.). Endeavors are made also on full-scale entity into tertiary industries, and amenity field. M A and joint venture businesses are attempted in wide scale and positive manners also in overseas countries. 6 fige., 4 tads.

1991-11-01

259

Ash outlet for a blast furnace with down draft for producing combustion gas. Ascheaustrag fuer einen Schachtofen mit Abwaertszug zur Erzeugung von Brenngas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a blast furnace for producing combustion gas from organic material, which has organic material passing through it in a layer of material unter the effect of gravity, above an ash outlet, there is a centrally positioned rotating ash outlet device, which supports the layer of material and closes the inside of the blast furnace downwards to an outlet gap between the edge of the outlet device and the blast furnace wall. Blades are fixed to the outlet device, which extend to the floor of an ash bed formed in the ash outlet below the outlet gap. A combustion gas extractor is connected at the ash outlet for combustion gas produced in the furnace. So that combustion gases can be extracted largely free of ash particles, the blades are situated in an ash chamber, which are situated in a ring below the outlet gap. The ash chamber has a transparent wall for the combustion gas.

Mallek, H.; Rose, E.A.; Henfling, M.

1983-11-24

260

Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento) para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

Sánchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relación escoria/metacaolín son los parámetros más relevantes.

Higuera, I.; Varga, C.; Palomo, J. G.; Gil-Maroto, A.; Vázquez, T.; Puertas, F.

2012-01-01

262

Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa) have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution), Ca(OH)2 (3,5?10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N) at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa). Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia), Ca(OH)2 (3,5?10-3N), NaOH (1N), Na2CO3 (2N), CaSO4?2H2O (3,0?10-3N) a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

Fernández Jiménez, A.; Puertas, F.; Fernández-Carrasco, L.

1996-01-01

263

Automated measurement of material trajectories at the top of a blast furnace under operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cockerill Sambre carried out the design and engineering of the automated trajectory probe. After several technical discussions with potential constructors, they achieved a detailed technical solution for the system, including a preventive risk analysis. Another important task of Cockerill Sambre was the support to CRM and IRSID. A change for a new chute at Seraing blast furnace No 6 (BF 6) (in Belgium) in October 2002 has been the opportunity for starting an evaluation of the impact of the chute wear on the trajectories. IRSID carried out three painted bar trajectory measurement campaigns in October 2002, December 2002 and March 2003. Between October and December 2002, little evolution of the trajectories occurred. The last campaign performed in March 2003 indicates similar inner limits but a significantly smaller width of the stream for both coke and ore. A clear impact of the chute wear is thus observed after six months. CRM transmitted to Cockerill Sambre its know-how concerning the trajectory probe and began the study of the working logic of the probe by processing records of charging sequences of the Seraing BF 6, provided by Cockerill Sambre. On 18 June 2003, Cockerill Sambre informed the coordinator that BF 6 at Seraing would be shut down in 2005. ln this context, the industrial objectives of the project are considered no longer relevant by Cockerill Sambre. No substitute industrial site has been found. Hence, a letter was sent by the coordinator at the Commission, requesting a premature ending of the project on 30 June 2003. 30 figs., 4 tabs., 2 photos., 1 annex.

Steyls, D.; Franssen, C.; Sert, D. [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

2004-07-01

264

Increased use of natural gas in blast furnaces in North America; Utilisation accrue du gaz naturel dans les hauts-fourneaux d'Amerique du Nord  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steel makers routinely inject alternate fuels into their blast furnaces that remain the heart of the integrated steel mill. Throughout the 1990's, gas industry sponsored tests at integrated steel mills demonstrated that natural gas injection could successfully provide up to 50% of a blast furnace's total energy requirements, reduce coke usage by 34% per kg of iron produced, increase productivity up to 30% and reduce operating costs by $4.40 to $5.50 per 10{sup 3} kg of iron produced. The success of these tests was instrumental in increasing total natural gas blast furnace injection in North America from under 850 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} (30 billion cubic feet) per year in 1985 to over 3.3 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (116.5 billion cubic feet) per year currently. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) has been clearly demonstrated to reduce coke consumption and therefore operating costs although the use of PCI provides little or no flexibility in production levels from a particular furnace. Worldwide steel demand/use is cyclical and to remain competitive, plants must adjust production to match market demands while controlling total production costs and maintaining the operation's profitability. Recent blast furnace operating practices demonstrate that co-injecting natural gas along with pulverized coal can provide the benefits of each individual fuel. This paper provides a historic perspective on North American blast furnaces, their operation and the use of natural gas in relation to other fuels routinely injected into the blast furnace. The perspective leads to a projection of the impact of natural gas co-injection in North American integrated steel plants over the next 5 years. (authors)

Rogers, B.E.; Smith, M.R. [Union Gas Limited (Canada)

2000-07-01

265

Charge distribution experiments using a reduced-size bell-less model and their application to blast furnace operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charge distribution experiments using a 1/5 reduced model were carried out, and the results applied to an actual furnace. Three types of charge were used in the experiments: coke, sintered ore, and pellets. The results were used to compare bell charging and bell-less charging, and the nature of the build-up in bell-less charging was investigated. The results obtained in the experiments were arranged systematically and a simulation model was drawn up. In actual operations smooth starting is ensured, and there are no problems in the changeover to stable, normal operation. Coke ratios in all-coke operation are among the very best in Japanese blast furnaces. (1 ref.) (In Japanese)

Nishida, T.; Yatagai, S.; Tanaka, K.; Satoh, K.; Inaba, S.; Okimoto, K.

1982-01-01

266

On the possibility of usage of Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 for labelling of blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The results of the augmentation of the number of the types of radionuclides suitable for labelling of the blast furnace hearth are presented. Accounting for physical, chemical, nuclear and technological properties which must be fulfilled for this purpose, it is concluded that Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 are appropriate. Using a mathematical modelling method the minimum specific detectable activity has been calculated for contaminated cylindrical slag samples measured with a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. These results have been tested by measurements on extended plane sources of Ba 133, Cs 134 and Eu 152 of activities between 200 Bq and 1500 Bq. (Author)

1993-01-01

267

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash) can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI) and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno) de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas). El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP) y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la presencia de char, muestra que con el aumento de la concentración del char, la resistencia del coque después de la reducción se hace más pequeña. La reactividad del char con el CO2 es más elevada que con la del coque. Por tanto, el char se consume con preferencia. En presencia del char inyectado aumentan el volumen total de poros del coque y la resistencia al desgaste. Se ha estudiado la reactividad y microestructura del coque con la presencia de distintos tipos de cenizas. Se observaron muchas esferas de ceniza sobre la superficie matriz del coque y el tamaño de las esferas depende de la naturaleza de las cenizas.

Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Fukada, K.; Babich, A.; Froehling, C.; García, L. L.; Formoso, A.; Alguacil, F. J.; Cores, A.

2003-01-01

268

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material.

Qiu L; Wang G; Zhang S; Yang Z; Li Y

2012-01-01

269

Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

1997-12-31

270

Injection of flue dust and pulverized coal into blast furnaces; Einblasen von Gichtstaub mit Kohlenstaub in den Hochofen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

German ironmakers produce about 300000 t/a of flue dust. This dust contains 10-30% carbon and 25-40% iron. The possibility of recycling this material in a blast furnace by injection with pulverised coal has been investigated. The influence of the mixture on the process in the raceway and the blast furnace operational parameters has to be considered. Laboratory tests led to the result that the reduction degree of ferrous by-products depends on the content of volatile matter in the coal. The combustion degree of coals with low volatile matter increases by 10-20% for flue dust contents of 10-30% in the mixture. An effective control of the thermal state of the hearth can also be achieved. Industrial tests with a pulverised coal/flue dust mixture injection confirmed the technical feasibility of flue dust recycling. No negative effect on the blast furnace operation, crushing and injection equipment was observed. Coke consumption decreased, pig iron quality remained constant. The accumulation of alkalis and zinc in the furnace can be neutralised by applying technical measures. (orig.) [German] Bei der Roheisenerzeugung in Deutschland fallen jaehrlich 300 000 t Gichtstaub an. Dieser Staub enthaelt 10-30% Kohlenstoff und 25-40% Eisen. Es wurde untersucht, inwieweit dieses Material im Hochofen wiederverwertet werden kann. Zu beruecksichtigen waren dabei die Vorgaenge in der Blasform und der Wirbelzone sowie die technisch-wirtschaftlichen Kennziffern des Hochofenprozesses. Laborversuche zeigten, dass der Reduktionsgrad von eisenhaltigen Huettenreststoffen beim gleichzeitigen Einblasen mit Kohle abhaengig von deren Fluechtigengehalt ist. Der Umsetzungsgrad einer niederfluechtigen Kohle kann bei 10-30% Gichtstaub in der Mischung um 10-20% gesteigert werden. Zusaetzlich wird eine effektive Steuerung des Waermezustandes im Gestell erreicht. Betriebsversuche zum kombinierten Einblasen von Kohle und Gichtstaub ergaben, dass sich dieser Verfahrensweg technisch realisieren laesst. Negative Auswirkungen auf den Hochofenprozess und den Betrieb der Mahl- und Einblasanlage traten nicht auf. Der Koksverbrauch wird verringert, die Roheisenqualitaet bleibt nahezu unveraendert. Eine zusaetzliche Akkumulation von Alkalien und Zink bei der Wiederverwertung von Gichtstaub kann durch technische Massnahmen neutralisiert werden. (orig.)

Gudenau, H.W.; Babich, A.; Denecke, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde; Yaroshevskii, S.; Kochura, V. [Donetskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Donetsk (Ukraine)

1999-12-15

271

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F. Vieira; C. A. C. M. Dias; A. V. Mothé; R. Sánchez; S. N. Monteiro

2007-01-01

272

Invesigation on behavior of unburnt pulverized coal blast furnace. Minensho bifuntan no koronai kyodo ni kansuru kisoteki kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The combustion reaction of pulverized coal (PC) blown into blast furnace tuyeres and the effect of resultant unburnt PC on in-furnace reaction were studied mainly in some fundamental experiments. Most of PC blown into the furnace through the tuyeres burned rapidly in a raceway, however, a part of PC was probably carried out of the raceway as it was. The unburnt PC tended to adhere to a softened and fused ore bed, and that on the ore bed was consumed for direct reduction of FeO resulting in improving high temperature properties (shrinkage factor, permeability and others) of ores. The gasification reaction rate of the unburnt PC was larger than that of coke, and the presence of H {sub 2} promoted the reaction, while that of CO suppressed it. The gasification reaction rate of lump coke decreased due to selective gasification of the unburnt PC, and degradation of coke in the raceway was thereby prevented probably. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Iwanaga, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1991-01-01

273

Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-08-15

274

Calculation of optimum conditions for blast furnace pulverized coal injection (II): combustion of pulverized coal in the raceway, the optimization of injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reports are given on 1) the use of a complete mixing model in a theoretical study of combustion in a blast furnace raceway, and 2) an attempt to optimize injection conditions using the resulting combustion analysis in combination with the theory of combustion in a blowpipe. 4 references, 2 figures.

Nomura, S.

1986-01-01

275

The coke use at Belgo-Mineira`s blast furnaces; Utilizacao de coque nos altos-fornos da Belgo-Mineira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reasons for the Belgo-Mineira to perform experiments on the coke use in the blast furnaces are presented. Results from the B F 5, which are using 100% coke since 1992 are shown and discussed. The coke future use by Belgo-Mineira are commented. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Braga, Raimundo N.B.; Oliveira Borges, Wander de; Quintao, Miguel A.; Santos, Jose A. dos; Silva, Marco A.M. e; Lamas, Vicente de P.B.; Souza, Ildeu A. de; Inacio, Jaime S. [Companhia Siderurgica Belgo-Mineira, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

1996-12-31

276

Development of an Operation Support System for the Blast Furnace in the Ironmaking Process: Large-scale Database-based Online Modeling and Integrated Simulators  

Science.gov (United States)

In the pig-ironmaking process, factors that cause operation malfunctions have increased with both the enlargement of the blast furnace and the increasing use of low quality ore. Therefore, an operation support system that predicts blast furnace performance is demanded. This paper reports the development of a blast furnace operation support system with an integrated simulator and “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM).” To develop the integrated simulator, a sophisticated burden distribution model is integrated with a two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state by using Java technology. Moreover, an integrated simulator for the partial non-stationary state is developed by modifying the two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state. To incorporate the LOM system into the operation support system, a cross-platform LOM system with general versatility is rebuilt by an existing LOM system. The operation support system is realized by the simulator of the physical modeling method and the LOM of the local modeling method. As a result, the operation support system predicts a dynamic molten pig-iron temperature in the blast furnace. The operation support system is expected to provide staff with useful information.

Ogai, Harutoshi; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Uchida, Kenko; Matsuzaki, Shinroku; Ito, Masahiro

277

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydra...

Francesco Colangelo; Raffaele Cioffi

278

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

279

Car for COSIPA`s blast furnace II tuyere exchange, Brazil; Carro para troca de ventaneiras do alto forno 2 da Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (COSIPA), Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work has the following as main subject: studies, concept, production and experimental utilization of a car for COSIPA`s blast furnace 2 tuyere exchange. The production of such a car will considerably improve safety conditions, reduce tuyere exchange time and reduce the physical effort required for doing the respective job. (author). 9 figs., 3 refs

Cunha, Jose C. da; Silva, Antonio C. da; Silva, Euquias F. da; Martins, Eugenio H. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

1986-12-31

280

The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

Lena Johansson Westholm

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

Monaliza Maia Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira Cunha; José Augusto Martins Corrêa

2012-01-01

282

Experiences with the utilization of waste plastics in blast furnaces; Erfahrungen mit der Altkunststoff-Verwertung im Hochofenprozess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a worldwide production of 1,417 million tons in 2010 steel is the most important metallic construction material. At the end of the life cycle steel is recycled completely. Subsequently, plastics follow with a worldwide production of 265 million tones in 2010. In contrast to the production of steel the recycling of plastics at the end of the life cycle resulted in a plurality of process solutions. Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Linz, Austria) has opened a new niche process by implementing recycling rates. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the use of waste plastics as a substitute for primary raw materials and as a reducing agent in blast furnaces.

Buergler, Thomas [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Unternehmensbereich Roheisen; Kieberger, Nina [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Projekt Kunststoffeinblasanlage

2012-11-01

283

Investigation of SrSO4 desulfurization during reductive roasting of celestite ore with blast-furnace coke  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of statistic planning of an experiment, the SrSO4 desulfurization process has been studied in the case of reductive roasting of celestine with the use blast-furnace coke. The main factors that determine the rate of the SrSO4 desulfurization are the roasting temperature and charge components dispersity. The desulfurization rate increases proportionally to the increase in the roasting temperature and dispersity of the reaction mixture components. To decrease the SrSO4 desulfurization and the concentration of sulfur-containing components in gases released at rather a high celestine reduction rate, the roasting is recommended to proceed at the temperature of 1100 to 1150 deg, in this case it is necessary to limit the content of small (less than 3.2 mm) fractions of reagents

1983-01-01

284

PepTec -- A clay-free ultra-fine coal product for use in blast furnace injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Removal of clay from the surfaces of the minus 15c micron fraction of an as-mined metallurgical or non-metallurgical grade coal using the PepTec Process can produce a pyrite free, highly reactive ultra fine coal suitable for blast furnace injection without further milling. Employing mechanical and chemical techniques, the PepTec{reg_sign} process deagglomerizes clay and clay/coal agglomerates, stripping the clay from the coal surfaces. Thereafter, the clay is dispersed as a colloid in the surrounding aqueous medium. The solution of colloidal clay and liberated fine coal particles can then be treated in state-of-the-art froth flotation equipment to concentrate the fine coal as a clean product and discharge the clay and other impurities as a tailings stream.

Greenwald, E.H. Sr. [Washington Energy Processing, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States); Wesner, R.F.; Bayer, J.L. [Eavenson, Auchmuty and Greenwald, Coraopolis, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

285

Potential usage of 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in labelling of the blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper presents the results of the study concerning the possibility to use the radionuclides 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in the labelling of the blast furnace hearth for monitoring the wear out of the refractory lining. One presents a mathematical modelling method, based on a Monte Carlo procedure which has been used to simulate the transmission of the gamma radiations in a radiometric system containing cylindrical samples of slag and a NaI(Tl) scintillation type detector. The detection probability per decay obtained with a computer program, for a sample in which one of the considered radionuclides is uniformly distributed, is used to estimate the minimum specific detectable activity; the adequate set of parameters different for each arrangement has been: radiation background, threshold energy of the detecting equipment and the measuring time interval. (author) 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

1994-01-01

286

The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research highlights: ? Nanoparticles in concrete. ? Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. ? Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

2011-02-25

287

Cold model study on burden behaviour in the lower part of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-and three-dimensional models were used to study the motion of solid particles flowing into the raceway and the behaviour of the raceway and deadman. Two flow zones were identified, with smooth and zigzag motion of particles. The effects of coal injection, depth of tuyere insertion and blast rate were determined.

Takahashi, H.; Komatsu, N.

1993-01-01

288

On Hearth Phenomena and Hot Metal Carbon Content in Blast Furnace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the hearth operation and the factors influencing the total quality of hot metal, especially its carbon and sulphur contents. Regarding the hot metal quality there are many sources of disturbances starting from raw materials, continuing through the blast ...

Raipala, Kalevi

289

Determination of the state of the hearth of BHP Steel's blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer model has been developed which calculates the internal profile of the hearth from thermocouples placed in the bottom and side walls. The model accounts for both erosion of the refractory material, and the formation of skull on the refractory surfaces. Analysis of the hearth on a regular basis, by visualizing the three-dimensional hearth profile and by calculating the effective hearth liquid volume, has proved to be an effective means of evaluating the influence of feedstock (e.g. coke mean size) and operating practices on the hearth performance, and hence impacts on the furnace life.

Rex, A.; Skimmings, T.; Jelenich, L. (BHP Steel, Newcastle (Australia). Rod and Bar Products Division); Zulli, P. (BHP Research, Newcastle (Australia). Newcastle Laboratories); Plat, P.; Tanzil, W.F. (BHP Steel, Port Kembla (Australia). Slab and Plate Products Division)

1993-01-01

290

Mathematical model of blast furnace raceway zone with pulverized coal and fine ore injection. Bifuntanter dot funkoseki fukugo fukikomi ni kansuru koro raceway sugaku model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One dimensional mathematical model with the consideration of gas flow in the raceway and heat transfer during pulverized coal ( coal )and fine ore injection was developed. Parameters of thermal decomposition and reduction experiment of fine ore at high temperature gas flow, combustion experiment of PC by using experimental combustion furnace and actual blast furnace were determined and the reaction phenomena in the raceway were analyzed. The reaction and distribution of temperature and gas composition inside the raceway has been greatly affected by temperature drop of the gas caused by the complex mass injection of PC and fine ore, however effect of amount of injection of PC and fine ore on the combustion degree of fine coal has been small. Reaction rate of PC has increased with the oxygen enrichment. In case of complex injection, it was estimated that the increase of blast temperature has been more effective than oxygen enrichment to promote reduction inside the raceway. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Xingguo, X.; Nozawa, K.; Sasahara, S.; Shimizu, M.; Inaba, S. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

1992-07-01

291

Green house effect reduction thorough charcoal blast furnaces and tropical forests deforesting reduction through coal fines injection in these blast furnaces; Reducao do efeito estufa atraves de altos fornos a carvao vegetal e reducao do desmatamento de florestas tropicais atraves de injecao de finos de carvao vegetal nestes altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work describes how the use of charcoal as a fuel in the blast furnaces may diminish the greenhouse effect. It also discusses how this technique may diminish the deforestation of the tropical regions. Calculations were performed in order to quantify the benefits of the fuel substitution. An economic analysis was performed, and the implementation process is presented. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Jansohn, Klaus [Kuttner do Brasil, Contagem, MG (Brazil)

1992-12-31

292

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement.

Geso?lu M; Güneyisi E; Mahmood SF; Öz HÖ; Mermerda? K

2012-10-01

293

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

2012-08-10

294

Measurement of phases in sinter and the influence of certain phases on the coke rate in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phase proportions that change in a sinter of varying basicity are measured with the aid of an image analysis system. The increased difficulty in differentiating the phases in more highly basic sinter is attributed to the overlapping of the grey-value reflection ranges of calcium-ferrites and magnetite. In equilibrium measurements carried out with CO/CO/sub 2/ mixtures in a thermobalance it was possible to show that C/sub 2/F in particular, almost independent of the temperature, is not changed into iron and CaO until there is a gas composition of CO/sub 2/' = 21%. This finding is all the more important in that all types of calcium ferrite form this C/sub 2/F ferrite during their reduction. Regarding the exchange of oxygen between the descending burden and rising reduced gas, the reduction of the C/sub 2/F, CF and CF/sub 2/ ferrites at 900/sup 0/C means for the wustite boundary, which governs the fuel consumption, a shift towards more oxygen having to be removed and towards a higher reduction potential. For an even heat and oxygen balance in the blast furnace this means that the rising gas must have a higher reduction capability at the fuel-consumption governing wustite boundary. The result is that increasing calcium ferrite proportions in the sinter lead to a rise in the fuel consumption.

Beppler, E.; Gerstenberg, B.; Janhsen, U.

1987-01-01

295

Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper.

Gong G; Ye S; Tian Y; Wang Q; Ni J; Chen Y

2009-07-01

296

Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

2008-11-30

297

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. PMID:22440404

Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

2012-03-21

298

Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA) from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA) proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA), de escoria de alto horno (GBFS) y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

Mejía, J. M.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; Puertas, F.

2013-01-01

299

The temperature of the boundary pig iron/refractory as variable to determine the corrosion mechanism of the blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The wear of materials in the blast furnace could be carried out under the consideration of abrasion mechanisms or with the prevalence of the components chemistries and erosive resulting as of the circulation of flowing on the refractory. Nevertheless, although in determining situations the abrasion or the components chemistries could result the control mechanism, it is necessary to consider, that all the abrasion, erosion, chemical corrosion, adhesion and thermal waste-thermal shock they cooperate to the degradation of the refractory of blast furnace. For whatever the mechanisms that intervene in the wear of the materials, it results interesting to know the temperature boundary of the refractory with the solids, liquids or present gases in the furnace. In the report, it will be developed from specific form, the importance that has the temperature in the boundary refractory-pig iron on the wear of the materials of the hearth. The different hypothesis of transport (energy, quantity of movement and material) more adequate for the obtaining of the boundary temperatures will be discussed. (Author) 11 refs

1998-01-01

300

Study of blast furnace raceway conditions with high rates of injection of coal and oxygen and typical blast pressures. Final report; Studio delle condizione della raceway dell`altoforno ad altissimi tassi di iniezione di carbone ed ossigeno e alle pressioni del vento. Rapporto finale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to study the blast furnace raceway conditions typical blast pressures and very high rates of oxygen and coal. The study concentrated in particular on the role of the pressure, which is an important parameter affecting the process in the zone in front of tuyeres as far as the combustion behaviour, the raceway shape and its stability are concerned. For this study an experimental technique on a Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) pilot apparatus named Raceway Plant has been set up. The research activity is apart of more general study which also involves British Steel and Hoogovens, having the aim of developing the know-how concerning the blast furnace raceway, which is considered critical for a smooth blast furnace operation. Moreover its importance will increase because of development of a current trend towards lower coke consumption that involves different conditions at the tuyeres due to the massive use of coal injected.

Malgarini, G.; Di Sante, L.; Gualco, N. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Roma (Italy)

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
301

Relation between shape of race-way and production rate of blast furnace taking account of properties of coke sampled at tuyere level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the productivity of No. 2 blast furnace at Sakai Works, Nippon Steel Corporation, was cut down because of the economic deterioration in Japan in the latter half of the 1970's, coke was sampled at the tuyere level seven times. On the basis of the test results on the properties of sampled coke it was found that (1) as the production rate decreases, the point of maximum race-way temperature moves towards the tuyere and the temperature of the dead-man decreases. (2) Coke becames fragile because of the long exposure to high temperatures at the lower part of the furnace. The amount of coke fines in the race-way increases and consequently gas flows upward along the wall side rather than in the center.

Nishi, T.; Haragushi, H.; Miura, Y.

1980-11-01

302

Combustion of injectants in a simulated iron blast furnace tuyere raceway: Part 2. The mathematical models of combustion and their calibration methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of a simple one-dimensional mathematical model of the mixing and combustion processes of injectants (coal-oil slurries) in a simulated iron blast furnace tuyere raceway is described. The model has been produced from known equations of combustion of oil droplets and coal particles. The main objective of the model is to be able to predict either burnout point of the slurry flame or the proportion, composition and size distribution of the fuels remaining at the end of the raceway. A theory of the statistical description of formation of 'free' coal particles during coal slurry atomization is advanced. (42 refs.)

Davies, C.; Jenkins, D.P.

1986-06-01

303

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ? The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ? The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO42- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO42- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO42- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m?2, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

2000-01-00

304

Investigation of the behavior of hot metal, slag and coke in the vicinity of raceway and deadman in blast furnace. Koro no roshin, raceway ryoiki ni okeru yosen slag oyobi kokusu no kyodo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the changes in characteristics of coke at the lower part of blast furnace, the behavior of molten iron and slag, tuyere sampler was installed and the study was conductecl, in Fukuyama Works, NKK. As the result, the followings were found: Coke temperature in raceway region was influenced not only by theoretical flame temperature but also distribution of burden and gas flow. By coke sampling from all tuyere tips and measurement of melting band, the degration of coke was hastened with increasing reactivity in the vicinity of raceway, and the average disintegrated rate in blast furnace was increased. Molten iron and slag were dealt with mixed body, then presumed equation which estimates statical hold-up of droplet in blast furnace, was obtained. Si in drip region depended on temperature and was simultaneously influenced by coke reactivity. 20 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Niwa, Yasuo; Sumigama, Takashi; Maki, Akira; Nagano, Seiki; Sakai, Atsushi; Sakurai, Masaaki (NKK Corp., Tokyo, (Japan))

1990-03-01

305

Study of the devitrification and hydration of vitreous, high-magnesia blast-furnace slag by means of differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) curves are presented for vitreous blast-furnace slag with a high magnesia content and an explanation for the various peaks on the curves is given. It is shown how DTA data can be used to estimate the slag content of mixtures of unhydrated Portland cement and granulated blast-furnace slag. DTA thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data are presented for blast-furnace slag hydrated in ambient conditions, in boiling water and in steam at 215 degrees Celsius. The products of hydration are mentioned. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the magnesium in the slag during hydration

1983-01-01

306

Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42-/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO42-/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO42- favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI).

1100-01-00

307

Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV-vis light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis light irradiation. For the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), the photocatalytic activities of TBBFS catalysts were found to be strongly dependent of the calcination temperature and TBBFS calcined at 700 deg. C showed a higher photocatalytic activity compared to other TBBFS catalysts. In contrast, sulphation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS catalysts. At low calcination temperature, the photocatalytic activities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/TBBFS catalysts were markedly higher than TBBFS prepared under high calcination temperature, suggesting that the presence of surface SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} favored the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

Lei, X.F. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 313, Shenyang 110004 (China)], E-mail: leixuefei69@163.com; Xue, X.X. [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 313, Shenyang 110004 (China)

2008-12-20

308

Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production. Summarizing, the modern practices in the use of the auxiliary fuels, implemented in the AHMSA blast furnaces, have derived benefits, succeeding in diminishing the productions costs in the pig iron production process, faced to the true need of standing out in the even more competitive world of iron and steel industry of the world. [Espanol] Altos Hornos de Mexico es una industria siderurgica integrada al Grupo Acereros del Norte, localizada en la ciudad de Monclova Coahuila, contando con una capacidad anual instalada de 3.1 MMT de acero liquido. Dentro de sus instalaciones, AHMSA cuenta con el alto horno de mayor capacidad instalado en Mexico, el alto horno No. 5, el cual tiene un volumen util de 2,163 metros cubicos disenado para producir 4,800 toneladas de arrabio por dia. La meta basica a lograr en las operaciones involucradas en la elaboracion de acero via elaboracion de arrabio en el alto horno, es la produccion de metal caliente al mas bajo costo posible y dentro de los requerimientos de calidad especificado por las acerias. El mas importante criterio para la medicion del exito alcanzado es el consumo de combustible por tonelada de arrabio producida, siendo el coque el principal combustible alimentado al alto horno y por ende el que mayor impacto tiene sobre el costo final del producto. AHMSA contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico, la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivadas del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones mayores de 2.6 MMT de acero liquido. En respuesta a esto, y ante la verdadera necesidad de disminuir los costos de produccion en el proceso de elaboracion de arrabio, se han implementado nuevas practicas en el uso de los combustibles auxiliares que sustituyan en parte el consumo de coque metalurgico como fuente de energia en el proceso del alto horno. El uso del gas natural, combustoleo y el incremento paulatino de la temperatura de soplo caliente, han repercutido fuertemente en el consumo de coque metalurgico disminuyendolo considerablemente bajando los

Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

1993-12-31

309

Using of a simulator for evaluation of the coal injected behavior in blast furnaces; Utilizacao de um simulador para avaliacao do comportamento de carvoes injetados em altos-fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study among pulverized coals (A, B, C and D) was carried out with variable contents of volatile matter, ash, fixed carbon and moisture, simulating the blast furnace conditions into raceway zone using a bench-scale equipment. This equipment was built at UFOP - Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, during Master ship course (1997-98) in order to analyze the behaviour of the injected materials into blast furnace by tuyer, using a high heating rate (105 K/s) and a low residence time of particles (13 ms). Re-circulation of particles int his case is disrespect. Different injection rates have been simulated modifying also other variables like air enrichment, blast volume, kind of coal for simulated blast furnaces and blast temperature, combustion temperature and sample mass for equipment. Following conclusions can be written from the test results: the present experimental set-up simulates realistically the coal combustion phenomena into raceway zone in terms of heating rate and residence time of particles: combustion temperature has a stronger influence on combustion characteristics compared with blast temperature; the coals with high volatile matter showed better combustion efficiency; air enrichment improvement the combustion characteristics. (author)

Nolasco Sobrinho, Pedro Jose [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas]. E-mail: nolasco@usp.br; Assis, Paulo Santos [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais]. E-mail: psau@inetminas.estaminas.com.br

1999-09-01

310

Outlook of kinetic studies on the combustion of pulverized coal in a blast furnace. Koro ni okeru bifuntan nensho ni kansuru sokudoronteki kenkyu no genjo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental and theoretical study are carried out on the combustion reaction rate (volatization process, combustion of volatile gases, combustion reaction of char, reaction of char and oxygen, reaction of char and carbon gas), analysis of the turbulent burning movement at the tip of the tuyere and the behavior of the pulverized coal in the packed bed. One dimensional analysis about the combustion reaction of the pulverized coal in the raceway is explained based on the experimental results using cavity combustion furnace. It is pointed that the most important factors for blast furnace operation actually are the amount of heat produced by combustion and also the control of the amount and properties of unburnt pulverized coal along with the gas supplied inside the furnace from the raceway. Further, the necessity of the proper understanding of the amount and characteristics of the gas composition or unburnt pulverized coal in the raceway and its periphery are emphasized, and the necessary of the solution of the reaction in the softening melting zone is discussed. 49 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Yagi, J. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Advanced Materials Processing); Inaba, S. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

1992-08-01

311

Combustion and gasification behaviors of plastics injected into raceway of blast furnace; Koro raceway nai ni okeru plastic no nensho gas ka kyodo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to inject waste plastics into a blast furnace for combustion and gasification is proposed as an effective method for utilizing waste plastics. Model experiment and a test melting furnace were used to discuss combustion characteristics of coarse plastic particles of greater than 1mm in diameter when they were injected into a raceway. The combustion behavior of a single particle of coarse plastic particles differs from that of fine dust coal. The behavior takes a pattern of surface reaction, and the combustion progresses slowly. From the results of the hot model experiment and scrap melting furnace operation, it is found that plastics can achieve high combustion rate even if their diameter is large. The plastics are burned and gasified deep in the raceway, rather than at the tip of a twyer. The coarse plastic particles are inferred to reside and circulate in the raceway. The result of an estimation calculation on combustion rate by using a combustion and gasification model assuming a particle residence time agreed nearly well with the measured value of the hot model. From these results, it was discovered that coarse plastic particles are retained in the raceway achieving high combustion rate, and can be utilized efficiently as an injection raw material. 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Asanuma, M.; Ariyama, T.; Sato, M.; Murai, R.; Sumigama, T. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-10-01

312

Effect of NaOH addition on the reactivities of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for low-temperature flue gas desulfurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NaOH was added to iron blast furnace slag (BFS)/hydrated lime (HL) slurries to prepare the sorbents for semidry and dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. For sorbents prepared without NaOH, both the Ca utilization and the SO{sub 2} capture increased with increasing slurrying temperature and varied with the BFS/HL weight ratio. With NaOH addition, the sorbents contained much less high surface area products of pozzolanic reaction. Their reactivities were insensitive to the slurrying temperature and greatly enhanced when the NaOH/(BFS + HL) ratio was about 10/100. NaOH is deliquescent, and its presence increases the amount of water collected by a sorbent, which is required for the sulfation of a sorbent at low temperatures. The use of NaOH addition at or below the optimal ratio can raise the sorbent reactivity and reduce the cost of sorbent for a semidry or dry FGD process.

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2004-01-07

313

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity was evaluated. Cold bonded artificial aggregates were characterized by determining physical and mechanical properties of two selected size fractions of the granules for each studied mixture. Eighteen types of granules were employed in C28/35 concrete manufacture where coarser natural aggregate were substituted with the artificial ones. Finally, lightweight concretes were obtained, proving the suitability of the cold bonding pelletization process in artificial aggregate sustainable production.

Francesco Colangelo; Raffaele Cioffi

2013-01-01

314

Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

2001-07-01

315

Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Nestle, N.; Galvosas, P.; Karger, J.

2001-07-01

316

Investigation of coal conversion under conditions simulating the raceway of a blast furnace using a pulsed air injection, wire-mesh reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operating difficulties are encountered when high coal injection rates are used into the blast furnace raceway. An insight into the problems has been gained using a wire mesh reactor, which has been modified to inject short (5-500 ms) pulses of air or O{sub 2}-enriched air through the sample holder, once the particles have reached peak experimental temperature. By manipulating the test procedure, it has been possible to measure the extents of successive pyrolysis, char combustion, and CO{sub 2}-gasification that occur under simulated raceway conditions. In the wire-mesh reactor, the release of volatiles was completed within the heat-up period {approximately} 300 ms, at a heating rate of 5000 C s{sup -1}. For 20 ms air pulse times, complete consumption of the inlet O{sub 2} occurred (with concentrations in the range 21-75%) and the extent of combustion was limited by the amount of O{sub 2} supplied (i.e., it was diffusion-limited). Extents of CO{sub 2}-gasification were measured in the temperature range 800-1500{sup o}C, and the results suggest than many seconds are needed to achieve a reasonable extent of gasification. Overall, the results indicate that the extents of combustion and gasification of the char in the raceway (residence time {lt} 50 ms) are likely to be low. However, a significant proportion of the char will subsequently react by gasification within the blast-furnace bed. Unreacted char and soot may either be trapped in the coke bed or entrained in the gas stream, giving rise to the problems observed at high coal injection rates. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Pipatmanomai; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College (University of London), London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

2003-04-01

317

Application of a computer to estimation of refractory wear and solidified layer distribution in the blast furnace hearth. Koro roshobu no taikabutsu shishoku to gyokoso bunpu no suitei ni okeru computer no oyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the blast furnace, the most important problem, to lower the cost for pig iron making, is to maintain a stable operation, by corresponding to the raw fuel condition, and elongate the furnace in life. Its factors comprise, among others, the control of lower portion, particulaly hearth state of blast furnace and life of hearth refractory. Therefore through combining the thermal analysis by the boundary element method (BEM) and optimization by the experimental regression analysis, method was introduced to quickly and accurately assume the refractory erosion line and solidified layer line of blast furnace hearth. First, the BEM was summarized as compared with the finite element method (FEM). Next, modeling and assuming method were explained of the assuming problem of erosion line and solidified layer line. Finally, points to be heeded and assuming result were explained in the analysis by BEM and optimization method. The solidified layer on the hearth refractory must be continuously grasped in layer thickness distribution, and in order to stabilize the operation, protect the refractory and elongate its life, it is important to grasp and control the refractory state. Thus, the above method is effective. 25 refs. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Yoshikawa, F.; Nigo, S.; Kiyohara, S.; Taguchi, S. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-10-10

318

Development of a process to utilize waste heat for district heating purposes. Pusher furnaces in the hot strip mill II in Beeckerwerth - blast furnace Schwelgern. Final report. Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Nutzung von Abfallwaerme fuer Fernwaerme. Stossofenanlage Warmbandwerk II in Beeckerwerth - Hochofenanlage Schwelgern. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process has been developed for the utilization of waste-heat produced by the steel industry with the main aim to save primary energy. The heat released by the pusher furnaces in the hot strip mill Beeckerwerth is taken off the flue-channels and is converted by waste-heat boilers into hot water for district heating. At the same time waste-heat is utilized produced by the blast furnace cowpers of the Schwelgern plant. The use of this additional heat-volume produced by the blast furnace results in a balance heat supply. The heat recovering plants are designed in such a way that the production of the production plants is not effected. Due to energy conservation measurements the accumulation of waste-heat is slightly decreasing. (orig.) With 5 refs., 28 tabs., 45 figs.

Wiesten, M.

1987-01-01

319

Use of Rist and Reichardt operational diagrams in the control of reduction process in the blast furnace number 2 of COSIPA; Aplicacao dos diagramas operacionais de Rist e Reichardt no controle do processo de reducao do alto-forno 2 da COSIPA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model based on the equating of the blast furnace reduction process according to the methodology suggested by Rist (and others) was developed and applied to the COSIPA number 2 blast furnace. The results show that this model is a useful tool to the operator. A clear vision of the thermal and chemical efficiency of this equipment is showed. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs.

Dias Junior, Osvaldo S. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil); D`Abreu, Jose C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

1989-12-31

320

Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
321

Comportamento de tipos de escórias de siderurgia como corretivo da acidez do solo Conduct of blast furnace slags on the correction of soil acidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o comportamento de tipos de escórias da siderurgia nacional, na correção da acidez de solo argilo-arenoso do Terciário, foi instalado um ensaio comparando-as com o de um calcário dolomítico. Empregaram-se 6.000 quilogramas por hectare de todos os materiais estudados, em canteiros mantidos com vegetação espontânea roçada, periòdicamente. Os resultados mostraram que o calcário dolomítico foi o mais eficiente, seguido pelas duas escórias. Estas mostraram-se, também, eficientes no contrôle à acidez, mas sem diferenças significativas entre si.With the purpose to examine the behavior of two types of blast furnace slags in the combat against soil acidity, a test was installed comparing them with a dolomitic limestone. This test was established in soil of the Pinda series, at the Experiment Station of the Departamento da Produção Animal, in the Pindamonhangaba county, Paraiba River valley, during a 23-mouths period. Six thousand kilograms per hectare of all the materials studied were utilized and the ploots were kept without cultivation, being cleaned periodically of the natural vegetation. The results obtained showed that the limestone was the most efficient, followed by the two types of scoria with no difference between them revealing themselves also efficient in the control of acidity.

A. Gentil Gomes; Hermano Gargantini; H. Garcia Blanco

1965-01-01

322

Influence of composition of slag and carbonaceous materials on the wettability at the slag/carbon interface during pulverised coal injection in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of slag/char interactions is essential to understand the behaviour of unburnt char within a blast furnace during pulverised coal injection. While slag/carbon reaction kinetics have been reported in the literature, limited work is reported on study of the wetting behaviour in these systems. In the present study, wettability of slag/carbon systems has been investigated by measuring the variation in dynamic contact angle at the slag/carbon interface with time for different slag compositions and carbonaceous materials, at 1500{sup o}C. The influence of liquid and solid composition on wetting has been discussed. The concept of a modified slag composition present at the slag/carbon interface during the interaction is introduced due to the presence of ash in the carbonaceous material. The wetting behaviour is found to be a function of the composition of this modified slag. Increased silica content at the interface, that is lower basicity slags and higher silica bearing carbonaceous materials, result in an improved wetting in the slag/carbon systems, when the iron oxide content is low. This is attributed to the increased reduction of silica at the slag/carbon interface, and when the reaction slows down, to a decreased interfacial tension at the slag/carbon interface; these contribute to lowering the interfacial energy. For the high iron oxide bearing slag the wetting behaviour at the interface is dependent on the slag/iron interaction due to the deposition of the reduced iron at the interface.

Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science, CRC for Black Coal utilisation

2000-07-01

323

Estimation of metal flow in the hearth brick protection mechanism in Chiba No.6 blast furnace; Chiba dai 6 koro (ichiji) ni okeru rosho yosen nagare to rotei hogo kiko no suitei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chiba No. 6 blast furnace was blown out after the world record of service life, twenty years and nine months. During the blowing out operation, tracer was injected from the No.23 tuyere. Further, metal, coke and slag in the lower part of the furnace were gathered and analysed to investigate the metal flow at the hearth bottom, and the protection mechanism of the hearth brick. As a result, a stable solidified layer of hot metal formed during most of the operation period has played a key role to prevent the hearth brick wear. The formation of the solidified layer is explained by the stagnant metal flow which is caused by the 'low permeability zone'.

Watakabe, S.; Takeda, K.; Sawa, Y.; Kawai, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-05-01

324

Influencia de la temperatura de curado: hidratación y resistencia de pastas de cemento con escoria/ Influence of curing temperature: hydration and strength of cement paste with granulated blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Actualmente son muy conocidos los beneficios tecnológicos, económicos y el menor impacto medioambiental que produce el empleo de adiciones minerales como reemplazo del cemento portland. Estas razones, han consolidado el uso de muchas adiciones como: escoria granulada de alto horno, ceniza volante, material calcáreo, humo de sílice, etc. En los últimos años, los cementos presentan un importante aumento en el contenido de las adiciones; el cual influye sobre la distri (more) bución de partículas, sobre la velocidad y naturaleza de las reacciones de hidratación y en consecuencia en su ganancia de resistencia. El presente trabajo evalúa la influencia de la temperatura en el curado (20, 40 y 60 ºC) de pastas con contenido variable de escoria granulada de alto horno (0 a 80 %) elaboradas con relación agua/material cementante de 0,40, sobre la resistencia mecánica. La evolución de la hidratación se estudió a través del análisis de los compuestos de hidratación por DRX y el contenido de agua no evaporable. La resistencia mecánica se evaluó empleando un diseño de experimentos central compuesto centrado. Los resultados obtenidos indican que a medida que la temperatura de curado aumenta con el incremento del contenido de escoria en el cemento mezcla, se aumentan la resistencia y el contenido de agua no evaporable, y disminuye la cantidad de hidróxido de calcio de la pasta. Abstract in english Nowadays it is well known that using blast furnace slag as partial replacements for Portland cement adds technological, economic and environmental benefits. Those are some of the reasons why cements containing several additions (blast furnace slag, fly ash, calcareous material, etc) are commonly used. In recent years, blended cements started to increase amounts of additions as replacement of Portland cement; in this regard these variations influence the rate and the mecha (more) nism of hydration and, consequently, strength development. The present work evaluated the effect of different curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 ºC) on the mechanical strength of cement paste with different proportions of granulated blast-furnace slag (0 to 80 %). Pastes were prepared with water/cementitious material ratio (w/cm) equal to 0,4. The hydration evolution was determinated following the hydration products using XRD analysis and evaluated the content of non evaporable water. Mechanical strength was evaluated trough central composite experimental design. When granulated blast-furnace slag content increases with curing temperature, the results show that mechanical strength and non evaporable water increases, while the calcium hydroxide content decreases.

Castellano, C. C.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Irassar, E. F.

2010-01-01

325

Effects of fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder in alkali-aggregate reaction inhibition; Flyash oyobi koro slag bifunmatsu no arukari kotsuzai hanno yokusei koka chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To restrain alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of concrete aggregate, ASR curbing capability of pozzolanic admixtures was experimentally investigated. For the experiment, augite-andesite, rhyolite welded tuff, chert, and sandstone were used as typical reactive aggregates. The pessimum proportions showing maximum expansion coefficient were determined by means of mortar bar test method. As a result, they were, by volume, 20% for augite-andesite, 60% for sandstone, and 100% for rhyolite welded tuff and for chert. In the case of these pessimum proportions, ASR curbing effect was examined when a part of cement was replaced by fly ash and blast-furnace slag powder. Experimental results demonstrated that both of them have an effect of curbing ASR of concrete. Even in the case of augite-andesite with high expansion coefficient, it was found that the expansion coefficient of concrete aged for six months can be repressed below 0.10% by replacing 30% of cement with fly ash and 40% of cement with blast-furnace slag powder. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Sakai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

1997-01-31

326

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos.This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke; Hermano Gargantini; A. Gentil Gomes

1962-01-01

327

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo/ Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória (more) de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos. Abstract in english This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment rec (more) eived no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Wutke, Antônio Carlos Pimentel; Gargantini, Hermano; Gomes, A. Gentil

1962-01-01

328

Tests with blast furnace slag as bed material in a 12 MW waste fired BFB boiler; Fullskalefoersoek med Hyttsand som baeddmaterial i 12 MW avfallseldad BFB-panna  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A full-scale trial has been performed at Saeverstaverket twin 12 MWth BFB boilers in Bollnaes using Hyttsand (a proprietary blast furnace slag) as bed material. The purpose has been to investigate if Hyttsand can be used as bed material in FB boilers for difficult types of fuels. Used fuel has been municipal waste, recovered wood fuel and different types of bio fuels. The test period was 19 days and nearly 100 tons of Hyttsand was used. The most important conclusions are: Good fluidisation can be achieved with Hyttsand as bed material. Hyttsand can fluidise without any changes in boiler settings. Hyttsand can also be mixed with Baskarpsand (a natural sand with over 90% SiO{sub 2}) and used as bed material without any negative changes to the boiler performance. Bed material make-up rate is reduced with up to 30 % when using Hyttsand compared to using Baskarpsand. Other conclusions are: Bed temperature increased slightly and bed temperature deviation decreased. Emissions was in general not affected, however emissions of SO{sub 2} increased slightly. More deposit containing more sulphur was formed on superheater surfaces when using Hyttsand. The increased amount of sulphur when using Hyttsand could be an effect of higher content of sulphur in the fuel or, which is more likely, that sulphur is released from Hyttsand and forms gaseous sulphurous gases. No significant change in produced amounts of fly-, cyclone- or bottom ash. Hyttsand and Baskarpsand had both similar coatings on their particles and similar agglomeration tendencies. There have been some start-up problems during the trials, including two more severe boiler disturbances, but most of these disturbances can be explained and avoided in the future. Previous investigations in laboratory scale using Hyttsand as bed material when firing different bio fuels have shown the advantage of Hyttsand with its higher resistance against a chemical reaction with alkali in the fuel ash compared to conventional bed materials, e.g. quartz. However, in these trials a waste fuel was used and all the analysed sintered samples clearly showed that melted glass was the main reason for de-fluidisation and bed sintering and not the reaction between alkali and the bed material. Therefore, the risk for bed sintering was not reduced when using Hyttsand in this boiler for this kind of waste fuel and the effect of glass in the bed was not studied in the laboratory tests. Hyttsand is today sold commercially with a high quantity available. The advantage of Hyttsand is a lower cost per kWh, despite a higher purchase price, due to the reduced bed consumption and that the cost for taking care less amount of used sand and ash also decreases. Also, Hyttsand opens the possibility of firing more difficult and less expensive fuels.

Eklund, Anders; Oehman, Marcus

2004-11-01

329

Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM); Caracteristicas solido-fluido en el crisol del horno alto segun el modelo de desgaste nodal (MDN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs.

Martin, R.; Barbes, M. A.; Barbes, M. F.; Marinas, E.; Ayala, N.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Garcia, F.

2009-07-01

330

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion.  Debido a que en estructuras de concreto hechas con cemento Portland la penetración del ion cloruro es la principal causa de deterioro por corrosión del refuerzo, el estudio y prevención de los mecanismos que generan corrosión en el concreto son fuentes de constante investigación. En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación analítica y experimental sobre la influencia de la adición de la escoria de alto horno en las propiedades que gobiernan los fenómenos de transporte iónico del concreto, especialmente los del ion cloruro. Las relaciones entre los coeficientes de difusión con la resistividad eléctrica, la carga pasada y la resistencia a la compresión, fueron evaluadas para mezclas con diferentes porcentajes de remplazo de escoria. De la misma forma, mediante un modelo computacional y un ensayo de migración eléctrica se obtuvieron los coeficientes intrínsecos de difusión, la porosidad, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la concentración química de la solución de poros. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la escoria aporta importantes beneficios en la penetración del ion cloruro, obteniéndose un concreto menos vulnerable a la corrosión.  

Lizarazo Marriaga Juan; Claisse Peter

2011-01-01

331

Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto/ The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Debido a que en estructuras de concreto hechas con cemento Portland la penetración del ion cloruro es la principal causa de deterioro por corrosión del refuerzo, el estudio y prevención de los mecanismos que generan corrosión en el concreto son fuentes de constante investigación. En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación analítica y experimental sobre la influencia de la adición de la escoria de alto horno en las propiedades que gob (more) iernan los fenómenos de transporte iónico del concreto, especialmente los del ion cloruro. Las relaciones entre los coeficientes de difusión con la resistividad eléctrica, la carga pasada y la resistencia a la compresión, fueron evaluadas para mezclas con diferentes porcentajes de remplazo de escoria. De la misma forma, mediante un modelo computacional y un ensayo de migración eléctrica se obtuvieron los coeficientes intrínsecos de difusión, la porosidad, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la concentración química de la solución de poros. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la escoria aporta importantes beneficios en la penetración del ion cloruro, obteniéndose un concreto menos vulnerable a la corrosión. Abstract in english Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and (more) compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium?s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion.

Lizarazo Marriaga, Juan; Claisse, Peter

2011-08-01

332

Formation of methanol and dimethyl ether from a model gas of blast furnace by-product gas; Koro haishutsu gas model gas kara no methanol oyobi dimethyl ether no seisei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of suppressing greenhouse gases emitted from iron-making systems, the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether was studied by using mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 gases as a model gas of the blast furnace by-product gas. Since the equilibrium yield of dimethyl ether is estimated to be essentially higher than that of methanol from the blast furnace byproduct gases, the objective of this study is to prepare highly active catalysts, based on Cu-ZnO-Al2O3, for direct syntheses of dimethyl ether, as well as methanol. Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 (Cu/ZnO=4/6, Al2O3-14.3% in molar basis) catalyst exhibited the highest activity in the synthesis of dimethyl ether among catalysts tested. From the XPS analysis on the surface of the catalyst, the surface Al2O3 content Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 (Cu/ZnO=4/6, Al2O3=14.3% in molar basis) was remarkably higher than the Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 (Cu/ZnO=3/7, Al2O3-14.3% in the molar basis). The enhancement of the activity by the increase in Cu content may be attributed to the enrichment of Al2O3 species on the surface, because Al2O3 was known to be active in the formation of dimethyl ether from methanol. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Sato, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Muramatsu, A.; Akiyama, T.; Yagi, J. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Advanced Materials

1997-09-01

333

Numerical modeling of grinding rate in granular flow of brittle materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a iron-making blast furnace, the operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) causes accumulation of powder, attributed to an unburned char and a ground coke, and then the permeability through the coke bed in the furnace would be decreased. It is so difficult to measure a mount of powder divided up into an unburned char and a ground coke, that the authors have developed numerical simulation models to estimate the grinding rate in granular flow of brittle material, such as coke and gypsum. In the simulation the particle motion is analyzed by the Distinct Element Method (DEM). The grinding rate of particles is calculated by the experiment equation, which is formulated on the basis of mutual friction of grinding test. To examine the simulation models in this study, the authors analyze the motion of particles and estimate the grinding rate in a small drum mill. The estimated particle flow pattern and the grinding rate are similar to observed.

Kitamura, Y.; Ogawa, M.; Tsuge, H.; Furuhata, T.; Miura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry and Engineering

1996-12-31

334

EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE UNIDADES SÍLICO-CALCÁREAS A PARTIR DE ESCORIA DE ALTO HORNO Y CAL HIDRÁULICA PARA MAMPOSTERÍA/ EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SILICON - CALCAREOUS UNITS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND HYDRAULIC LIME FOR MASONRY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente artículo estudia la posibilidad de fabricar elementos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería a partir de dos tipos de materias primas como son las escorias de Alto Horno y las cales hidráulicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron algunas propiedades físicas de las probetas fabricadas con los anteriores materiales con respecto a la Norma Técnica Colombiana, para 5 tipos de mezclas que varían entre 10 y 50 % de cal. Los resultados mostraron que es factible la fabricación de ladrillos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería que cumplen con la NTC 922. Abstract in english The present paper studies the possibility of making silicon-calcareous elements for masonry from two types of raw material like the blast furnace slag and hydraulic limes. In the present study some physical properties of samples made according to the Norma Técnica Colombiana with the previously mentioned materials were evaluated for 5 types of mixtures that vary among 10% and 50% of lime. The results show that the silicon -calcareous brick manufacture is feasible for masonry that fulfills the NTC 922.

ARIEL LEÓN, NILSON; ROJAS REYES, NÉSTOR RICARDO; UMBARILA SUÁREZ, BERNARDO; BUSTAMANTE R., M. OSWALDO

2009-12-01

335

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

336

Use of a flow control plate to modify a maruyama backpack air blast spreader for the application of Pronone 10G granular herbicide. Forest research report No. 54  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the main factors limiting the use of Pronone 10G herbicide is the lack of appropriate equipment designed for low-volume applications (10-20 kilograms per hectare). This report describes the use of a flow control plate installed in a Maruyama Model MD150DX backpack air-blast spreader to regulate Pronone application rates. The plate enables precise adjustment of flow at the low rates required for ground application. The equipment typically produces a 60-foot swath at a coverage rate of four hectares per hour. The report details the construction and installation of a flow control plate and describes proper application technique as well as methods for calibrating flow and determining swath width.

NONE

1995-11-01

337

Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria/ Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV) sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH). Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó (more) la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV) on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general (more) rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

Fernández, Jorge L; Sota, Jorge D; Carbonari, Ricardo O; Romagnoli, Roberto

2010-01-01

338

Variación de la Adherencia de las Armaduras Polarizadas Católicamente en Morteros de Cemento con Escoria Variation in Rebars Bond Strength in Cathodically Protected Mortar Specimens Containing Ground Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar el efecto de diferentes sobrepotenciales aplicados al acero (-250 y -500 mV) sobre la adherencia al mortero de cemento Portland adicionado con escoria granulada de alto horno (EGAH). Para realizar esta investigación se elaboraron probetas de mortero que fueron polarizadas católicamente, a los sobrepotenciales mencionados, durante 2 años en agua potable y cloruro de sodio 3%. Una vez finalizado el período de ensayo se determinó la tensión de adherencia de las barras de acero por medio de un ensayo de arrancamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las variaciones de adherencia son, en general, aleatorias; observándose ligeros aumentos de la adherencia y en algunos casos una disminución que no superó el 5%. La superficie de las barras de acero se observó por microscopía electrónica de barrido, comprobándose que la polarización modificó la película protectora.The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of two applied overpotentials (-250 and -500 mV) on the adhesion of rebars in Portland cement mortars containing ground blast furnace slag. In order to carry out this investigation mortar slabs which were polarized, during 2 years, at the above mentioned overpotentials, in tap water and 3% sodium chloride, were made. After this exposure period, rebars bond strength was determined by a pull out test. As a general rule, bond strength variations were found to be random, observing slight bond strength increasing and in some cases a deceasing that did not exceed 5%. Rebars surface was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, finding that the protective layer on rebars changed as a consequence of the applied overpotentials.

Jorge L Fernández; Jorge D Sota; Ricardo O Carbonari; Roberto Romagnoli

2010-01-01

339

Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2009-09-15

340

Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), escória de alto-forno (EAF) e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana). Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade), ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade), CTR (carga térmica radiante) e entalpia (H) em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), blast furnace slag (EAF), active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana) were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H) were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

Maristela N. da Conceição; Sulivan P. Alves; Aurélio Telatin Júnior; Iran J. O. da Silva; Sônia M. S. Piedade; Holmer Savastano Júnior; Gustavo Tonoli

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

342

Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões/ Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Po (more) rtland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), escória de alto-forno (EAF) e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana). Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade), ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade), CTR (carga térmica radiante) e entalpia (H) em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto. Abstract in english The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735), blast furnace slag (EAF), active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana) were compa (more) red with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H) were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

Conceição, Maristela N. da; Alves, Sulivan P.; Telatin Júnior, Aurélio; Silva, Iran J. O. da; Piedade, Sônia M. S.; Savastano Júnior, Holmer; Tonoli, Gustavo

2008-10-01

343

Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de textura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0) pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura.This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0) by the TRB System and as NS' by the MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

Rodrigo Zorzal Velten; Alexandre Pelissari Sant'Ana; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Cláudio Henrique de Carvalho Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Lauro Gontijo Couto; Carlos Cardoso Machado

2006-01-01

344

Fracture strength of blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compression fracture experiments were carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure on spherical and cylindrical specimens made from four kinds of coke derived from different parent coals. It was discovered that fracture strength S is KV/SUP/-/SUP/1/SUP///SUP/m exp (-CPHI) where V is the apparent volume, PHI the porosity and K, m and C are constants. The dependence of compression strength on porosity and specimen volume was investigated for both spherical and cylindrical specimens. The drum strength index was compared with the strength, specific fracture energy, Young modulus and Poisson ratio. (11 refs.)

Kiyono, K.; Saito, F.; Yashima, S.

1982-01-01

345

Effect of blast parameters and coke properties on raceway geometry in a hot model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of blast conditions and coke properties on the size of the raceway has been evaluated in a hot model simulation of the blast furnace raceway zone. Coke fines surrounding the raceway after quenching have been sampled and analysed and their distribution has been found to be a function of the experimental conditions. The results from the model have been compared with data from operating blast furnaces, and similar raceway depth and coke behaviour correlations have been found. 30 references.

McCarthy, M.J.; Taggart, I.J.; Rogers, H.; Goldsworthy, P.C.; Burgess, J.M.

1983-01-01

346

Fireplace furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fireplace furnace is constructed with two flues which merge into a single chimney. An upper flue is directly above the fire as is in ordinary fireplace and includes a first damper which can be moved between open and closed positions. A lower flue is near the bottom of the fireplace and contains a secondary damper. Glass or metal doors enclose the front of the fireplace furnace and the fire is built with the upper damper fully open. The glass doors are closed, the upper damper is closed and the lower damper is open. The fireplace then operates as a furnace and can be connected to duct work existing throughout the house. The use of the lower flue increases the radiation of heat and conserves fuel by forcing the heated products of combustion to remain within the burning chamber of the fireplace furnace for a greater length of time. One outside air intake is connected to each side of the fireplace furnace firebox. Dampers are provided in the outside air intakes and are operated through connecting shafts to a pair of dampers disposed in house heating ducts connected on each side of the furnace. The house duct work includes fans disposed on each side of the furnace and as more heat is required within the house, the house thermostat activates the fans which cause movement of the respective dampers within the duct work. The duct dampers in turn control the air intake dampers thus increasing the intensity of the fire.

Mcdonald, C.B.

1981-10-06

347

Blast-off time for HIsmelt technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rio Tinto is to construct the world's first commercial-scale HIsmelt direct smelting plant at Kwinana in Western Australia, with production planned for the last quarter of 2004. HIsmelt technology gives a low-cost, high-quality ferrous metallic product, using lower-cost raw material, while producing lower greenhouse emissions than comparable blast furnaces.

NONE

2002-11-01

348

Furnace assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

349

Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality. [Espanol] La crisis de energia ha acaparado la atencion mundial sobre la necesidad de conservar la energia y desarrollar en un mayor grado el uso de combustibles en base a carbon y otras fuentes de energia (energia nuclear). Siendo el alto horno no solo un consumidor de energia sino tambien un generador de la misma (gas alto horno), la mayor contribucion al costo de arrabio es la energia necesaria para fundir y reducir al estado metalico los minerales de fierro, dicha energia en su mayoria proviene del coque. La dependencia del carbon via planta de coque para producir hierro de primera funcion se incrementa cada dia como resultado de los altos niveles de produccion. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivada del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones superiores a 2.6 MMt de arrabio. La inyeccion de combustibles al alto horno a traves de sus toberas es una tecnologia para disminuir el consumo de coque, su uso implica un cambio en la filosofia de operacion del alto horno y es actualmente utilizada por la mayoria de los altos hornos del mundo. AHMSA aprovechando la generacion de alquitran (aprox. 130 ton/dia) de sus plantas coquizadoras decide disenar y poner en operacion un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran y gas natural, las actividades encaminadas a realizar lo anterior dieron inicio el mes de abril de 1993 efectuandose todas ellas con recursos propios de la empresa, finalizando el dia 18 de julio de 1993 dia en el cual se inicio la co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el Alto Horno no. 4 en forma estable. A la fecha (octubre 1993), la inyeccion de alquitran se ha incrementado hasta 36 kg/t. de arrabio, durante los periodos de inyeccion, la presencia de problemas operativos, mecanicos y de instrumentacion no han sido obstaculo para la evolucion de la inyeccion cumpliendo su funcion de sustituir al coque en una relacion de reemplazo de 1:1, es decir, 1 kg de alquitran por cada kg de coque sin

Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

1993-12-31

350

Fireplace furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fireplace furnace for the hot air heating of a room is disclosed. The fireplace furnace in a particular embodiment has an enclosed primary combustion chamber and a primary air supply for the initial burning of the fuel. A separate enclosed secondary combustion chamber and a secondary air supply for burning the volatiles remaining in the flue gas generated by the primary combustion chamber is also provided. The secondary combustion chamber is located between the primary combustion chamber and an enclosed room air heating chamber. The flow of the air in the room air heating chamber is counter to the flow of the flue gas in the secondary combustion chamber. With this construction, the heat transferred to the room air is from the flue gas of the secondary combustion chamber and none of the heat transferred to the room air is transferred directly from the primary combustion chamber.

Steel, J.S.

1983-09-20

351

Granular Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A granular material can be defined as any loosely interacting collection of (usually) solid particles.1 Depending on the conditions, a granular material can be best described as a solid, or as a fluid, or as a gas, or in some case not adequately as any of these, which makes this both an interesting and difficult field of study. The behavior of granular materials is something that is encountered frequently in all aspects of everyday life. Some of the situations include grain silos, trash piles, sand & salt that is used for building and on winter roads, snow (as in avalanches), and mixing of various food and medical supplies, such as pharmaceuticals. A granular material would be generally defined as consisting of discrete units of a solid material that neither chemically interact, nor otherwise strongly cohere together. Thus, the arrangement and motion of these materials is neither that of a solid (in which the various parts are tightly bound together) nor that of a fluid (in which the parts may easily flow over & around other parts). The size of the particles, per se, is not important -- the phenomenology is similar with very fine grains (such as powders) and with rather large âgrainsâ (such as cannonballs). The possibility of using various sizes of grains allows for some interesting research proposals covering several length scales. For many experiments the size of the container needs to be âlargeâ compared to the grain size (typically a factor of 100 could be considered as âlargeâ), so that end effects are indeed restricted only to the ends. This of course means also a large number of particles â easy with things like sand, less so with things like marbles (1003 marbles can be quite massive!)

Dolan, Paul

2012-03-08

352

Fireplace furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A furnace insert is described for an enclosed fireplace having an open front and a chimney, the furnace insert including: a. a generally box-shaped sheet metal outer housing positioned within the fireplace and extending outwardly from within the fireplace and lapping the surrounding fireplace walls, the housing having bottom, top, rear, and opposing side walls; b. a generally box-shaped sheet metal inner housing defining a firebox, the inner housing positioned within the outer housing and having bottom, top, rear and opposing side walls in spaced-apart relation to the corresponding walls of the outer housing to define a heat exchange chamber therebetween; c. a heat exchange chamber air inlet between the bottom wall of the outer housing and the bottom wall of the inner housing for admitting air to the heat exchange chamber for heating; d. a heat exchanger air outlet between the top wall of the outer housing and the top wall of the inner housing for permitting air which has entered the heat exchanger chamber through the inlet and has been heated within the heat exchange chamber to exit the heat exchange chamber into the area to be heated.

DeRisi, J.

1986-08-26

353

Bosom furnace  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bosom furnace is provided with a build-in battery (1) and a heater (3) in a plastic-made casing (2), a radiating fin (4) made of metal is fixed on the surface of the casing (2). The casing is provided with a throughhole (8) for exposing the heater outside on a flashing (5) overlapped on the inner side of the radiating fin. The casing is provided with a circuit plaque (7) formed after connecting the heater in the inner side of the flashing, for guiding the heater into the throughhole to thermally join with the inner wall of the radiating fin. Further, a joining piece (24) for interpenetrating the flashing by a water sealing structure is arranged on the radiating fin the radiating fin (4) is connected with the casing (2) through the joining piece (24). In addition, the inner wall of the radiating fin and the surface of the flashing are connected with each other annularly with a water enclosed state in a region of the outer side of the throughhole enclosing the flashing. In this way, the casing may be made of plastics, also the radiating fin of the metal plate may be connected with the casing with water enclosed state. The assembly of the heater is simple, efficiency is high, cost is less and the bosom furnace may be manufactured in enormous quantities.

HIDEYO MORITA; KOICHI INOUE; EIJI SATSUMA

354

Furnace construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a furnace comprising: a pot with an open top for holding fuel during the burning process, an elongate tube connecting at the outfeed end thereof with the interior of the pot and extending laterally therefrom, and an elongate rotable auger extending within the tube for moving fuel along the length of the tube and thence into the pot, perforate means formed in the side of the pot, and air-flow-producing means including power-driven blower means. A structure connects with the blower means producing air flow by the blower means outside the perforate means and through the perforate means to the pot interior for supporting combustion. Another structure connects with the blower means producing air flow by the blower means through the tube and out the outfeed end thereof to further support combustion and to inhibit reverse air flow through the tube.

Traeger, J.P.; Traeger, R.J.; Traeger, M.A.

1986-10-28

355

Furnace afterburner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An afterburner is described for the exhaust effluvia of a furnace, which exhaust contains combustible material, the afterburner comprising: a. an elongated, generally cylindrical combustion chamber having an inlet for the exhaust at or adjacent one end thereof, and an outlet at or adjacent its other end, b. means operable to induce a draft through the combustion chamber from its inlet to its outlet, c. a series of air nozzles disposed to direct jets of air into the interior of the combustion chamber. Certain nozzles are arranged to direct air jets into the combustion chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a clockwise direction, and the remainder of the nozzles and arranged to direct air jets into the chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a counter-clockwise direction, whereby to induce turbulence within the chamber to intermix the air and the exhaust thoroughly, and d. means operable to deliver air to the air nozzles.

Angelo, J.F. II

1987-01-13

356

Combustion furnace-based study of raceway coke degradation and gas flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a coke-filled vertical combustion furnace to simulate the bottom section of a blast furnace, a study was made of the effect of blast conditions (oxygen enrichment, moisture additions, pulverized coal injection) on coke degradation and gas flow in the vicinity of the raceway. Oxygen enrichment resulted in a shallower raceway and in the formation of peripheral gas flows. Conversely, moisture addition resulted in a larger raceway and in centralized gas flows. Temperature and blast pressure in the raceway were subject to fluctuations when small particle size coke was used. 1 reference.

Seki, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Kanayama, H.; Maekawa, M.

1984-01-01

357

Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP) fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

2005-01-01

358

Blast performance analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blast monitoring can be carried out far-field or near-field. The former checks the magnitude and effect of ground vibrations and air over-pressures on buildings, and the latter is carried out as part of a programme to optimise blast design. Discussion is presented of the use of the Omni Probe 1200 in the optimization of blast design. 4 figs.

Sprott, D.L.; Martin, B.W. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1990-04-01

359

Plasma melting furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A plasma melting furnace includes one or more plasma burners penetrating the furnace lining, in particular a plasma burner projecting vertically into the interior of the furnace. In order to ensure a most uniform stress on the lining by the heat radiation, the inner surface of the lining is designed to be inclined, convergining upwardly.

Lugscheider, W.; Kilches, H. D.; Riegler, E.; Zajicek, E.

1985-01-08

360

Radiotracer glass furnaces investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and results of radiotracer investigation of a furnace for flat glass production are presented. Lanthanum oxide activated in a nuclear reactor was used as glass tracer. The dynamic characteristic of the furnace and principal parameters of its operation were determined. The glass flow in the furnace was proposed. (author). 4 refs, 15 figs

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Find true furnace efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficiency is very important in furnace selection. However, the true meaning of refinery and petrochemical furnace efficiency must be understood. While efficiency has a well defined meaning, it is subject to misunderstanding. This confusion was of little importance during times of lowcost energy. Now that energy is expensive, more complex thermal systems are being used. Therefore, a better understanding of furnace efficiency is essential.

Meunier, J.P.

1985-02-01

362

Granular media : flow & agitations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is about weakly driven granular flows and suspensions. Chapter 1 is an overview of the current knowledge of slow granular flows in so-called split-bottom geometries, which in essence consist of a disk rotating at the bottom of a container. In chapter 2 we study dry granular flows in this...

Dijksman, Joshua Albert

363

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

364

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

365

Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

1996-12-01

366

Granular Electronic Systems  

CERN Multimedia

A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for nanotechnological applications. This Review discusses recent important theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing on the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations and effects of confinement in formation of electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of granular materials.

Beloborodov, I S; Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

2006-01-01

367

Blast control plugs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the performance of blast control plugs in the stemming of blast holes to optimize the explosive power and fracturing. The paper describes the designs of these plugs and describes the installation, positioning, and construction of these plugs. It also describes the effects these have on reducing airblast and control of flyrock.

Long, L.

1996-12-31

368

Optical structure and crack formation in blast furnace coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is known that cracks in coke have a major effect on its mechanical strength. Coke formation was therefore divided into a carbonization and a calcination stage, and microscopic examination was employed to investigate the nature of crack formation during carbonization and of crack formation and growth at the same point during calcination. The relation of crack formation and growth to optically anisotropic structure and pore configuration was then studied. The data gained is used in a discussion of ways of preventing cracks. (19 refs.)

Mochida, I.; Maeda, K.; Korai, Y.; Takeshita, K.

1982-01-01

369

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and...

K. Tervola J. Haerkki

1996-01-01

370

Substitution of blast furnace coke by supplementary fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria for metallurgical coke consumption are given as are limits to coke substitution. The present state of additional-fuel utilization is reported. An assessment of the possible scope of coke substitution in the GDR is followed by one of those alternatives concerning utilization of additional fuels under aspects of national economy.

Oppermann, K.; Hach, H.F.

1983-06-01

371

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

1993-05-01

372

Topping turbine generator in blast furnace power house  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project to install a 22 megawatt topping turbine for waste heat utilization is described in this paper. Selection criteria, design, installation, startup, and initial operation are described in detail. The facility was initially depressurizing and desuperheating steam sufficient to generator 8 MW(e). Analysis showed that, with the addition of a low pressure feedwater heater, the capacity of the 900 psig boilers could be increased. This allowed a turbine generator capacity increase and a shutdown of the low pressure boilers. Minor startup problems were identified and corrected, and the project is generating significant revenue.

Mooney, R.E. [REM Engineering, Roswell, GA (United States); Ganga, R.C. [The McBurney Corp., Norcross, GA (United States); Owen, P. [US Steel, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1996-12-31

373

Manufacture and regeneration process of granular activated carbon. Tsubujo kasseitan seizo saisei gijutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces features and applications of a technology for manufacturing and regenerating granular activated carbon by using a vertical multiple hearth furnace. Simple and robust in construction, and easy in controlling each hearth, the multiple hearth furnace has high stability against load variation. The furnace, performing heat exchange by having gases and materials contact in opposite flows, works with high thermal efficiency, consumes less motive power due to its structural characteristics, and requires smaller installation space because of its compactness. Product characteristics are governed largely by the material properties and activating conditions, which may be adjusted finely with use of a multiple hearth furnace. An application of the multiple hearth furnace as an activating facility to production of activated carbon at 3.6 to 8.1 t/d required a furnace size of 5100 mm in outer diameter and 12640 mm high. A granular activated carbon regeneration process using a multiple hearth furnace consists of drying, calcination, and activation. In discussing an activated carbon regeneration facility, if regeneration loss is defined as a refill amount for new activated carbon, the new activated carbon refill rate in an actual facility was 2% to 5%. A multiple hearth regeneration furnace specification calls for a furnace size of 2140 mm in outer diameter and 7320 mm high to regenerate activated carbon at 5.2 t/d. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Iwata, N.; Mori, T.; Iijima, S. (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-12-10

374

Passive blast pressure sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

375

New blast weapons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services.

Dearden P

2001-02-01

376

On Granular Knowledge Structures  

CERN Document Server

Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

Zeng, Yi

2008-01-01

377

Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

1980-08-01

378

Wet Granular Materials  

CERN Document Server

Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, constructions, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g., the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

Mitarai, N; Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

2006-01-01

379

Granular Volcano Group  

Science.gov (United States)

S'bastien Dartevelle, a Ph.D. student at Michigan Tech, created this Web site devoted to the understanding of "granular flows, granular processes, fluid dynamic, supercomputer modeling, and grain-size analysis of Volcanology, Geophysics, and Physics." Providing challenging materials in an accurate and simple manner, students can easily learn about topics including granular theory and granular medium. Users will find essential facts about viscous phenomenon in the newly added link, All I Wanna Know 'bout Viscous Stress. Educators and students can view the Plinian Cloud simulations. The author also provides mathematical equations, atmospheric profiles, and much more.

380

Emulsion blasting composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsion blasting agents are described. They have a discontinuous aqueous phase, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid organic phase, and an emulsifier having an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain for its lipophilic portion. 18 claims.

Sudweeks, W.B.; Jessop, H.A.

1981-06-04

 
 
 
 
381

Computer cast blast modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

382

Biomedical Informatics and Granularity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explicit formal-ontological representation of entities existing at multiple levels of granularity is an urgent requirement for biomedical information processing. We discuss some fundamental principles which can form a basis for such a representation. We also comment on some of the implicit treatments of granularity in currently available ontologies and terminologies (GO, FMA, SNOMED CT).

Anand Kumar; Barry Smith; Daniel D. Novotny

2006-01-01

383

Fast granular superconducting bolometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A granular superconducting thin film bolometer made by anodizing a thin film of such materials as niobium nitride to form a thin granular film separated by and covered with the anodized oxide. The bolometer is cooled to its superconducting state and electrically connected to a biasing and detecting network. Its temporal response is better than 1 ns

1984-01-01

384

Fast granular superconducting bolometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A granular superconducting thin film bolometer made by anodizing a thin film of such materials as niobium nitride to form a thin granular film separated by and covered with the anodized oxide. The bolometer is cooled to its superconducting state and electrically connected to a biasing and detecting network. Its temporal response is better than 1 ns.

Wolf, S.A.; Strom, U.; Weiser, K.

1984-08-07

385

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

386

Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo dos fenômenos fluido-dinâmicos de escoamento em meios porosos tem sido de grande interesse por diversas áreas das ciências, de forma a se avaliar não só a permeabilidade do material, mas também analisar o comportamento do fluido permeante quando no interior destes materiais. Tratando-se de compósitos à base de cimento, a mensuração da permeabilidade torna-se fundamental para que sua durabilidade possa ser estimada, pois é a permeabilidade que controla a taxa de ingresso e movimentação de agentes deletérios no interior destes materiais. Dessa forma, diversas metodologias e equacionamentos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para prever a permeabilidade de materiais à base de cimento. No entanto, várias discrepâncias e disparidades nos resultados têm sido encontradas. Dentre as metodologias empregadas para mensurar a permeabilidade de meios porosos, encontra-se a desenvolvida por Thenoz, a qual tem demonstrado bons resultados em materiais à base de cimento. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa, por meio de ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar, realizado de acordo com a metodologia de Thenoz, avaliar o comportamento fluido-dinâmico do ar durante o ensaio de permeabilidade em argamassas. Para isto, foram utilizadas argamassas preparadas com dois tipos de cimento Portland (CP II E - 32 e CP III - 32), duas relações água/cimento (0,5 e 0,6) e ensaiadas em idades de 14 e 28 dias. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível observar que durante o escoamento a compressibilidade do ar pode ser ignorada e o regime de escoamento pode ser considerado como laminar, demonstrando que a metodologia proposta por Thenoz e o equacionamento matemático empregado pode resultar em coeficientes de permeabilidade ao ar confiáveis, pois fenômenos e considerações que poderiam influenciar neste tipo de escoamento podem ser negligenciados.Fluid-dynamic phenomena study in porous media flow has been of great interest for diverse areas of sciences. These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32), two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6) and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

V. M. Pereira; E. Carvalho; P. S. Bardella; G. Camarini

2008-01-01

387

Computer cast blast modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, Ontario (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

388

European arc fast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The speed of a furnace is characterized by the tap-to-tap time. The productivity of an electric arc furnace is improved either by a reduction in power-on time (increase in the effective electrical or chemical power, energy recovery), or by a reduction in the power-off time (decrease in energy consumption, energy recovery using the Consteel, Shaft, Tokyo Steel and IHI processes, post-combustion). The electric arc furnace has a-more and more favorable impact on the environment. (authors). 3 figs.

Bowman, B.; Camagna, L.

1995-01-01

389

Blast lung: experience at CIMS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blast lung is a clinical condition which is characterised by respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest in bomb blast cases. Two patients of the bomb blast episode were brought at emergency department at Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur in a state of shock. After proper wound care, resuscitation and investigation both the cases proved to be that of blast lung. In bomb blast cases although there might not be any external injury over chest wall, it will be sensible to rule out blast lung in all cases with the help of computerised tomography.

Singh A; Deshkar AM; Kashyap BK; Choudhary KN; Naik SK; Tembhurnikar PS; Singh BP

2012-02-01

390

pp-Blast: a "pseudo-parallel" Blast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We have developed a software called pp-Blast that uses the publicly available Blast package and PVM (parallel virtual machine) to partition a multi-sequence query across a set of nodes with replicated or shared databases. Benchmark tests show that pp-Blast running in a cluster of 14 PCs outperformed conventional Blast running in large servers. In addition, using pp-Blast and the cluster we were able to map all human cDNAs onto the draft of the human genome in less than 6 (more) days. We propose here that the cost/benefit ratio of pp-Blast makes it appropriate for large-scale sequence analysis. The source code and configuration files for pp-Blast are available at http://www.ludwig.org.br/biocomp/tools/pp-blast.

Osório, E.C.; Souza, J.E. de; Zaiats, A.C.; Oliveira, P.S.L. de; Souza, S.J. de

2003-04-01

391

Induction Furnace - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

Vivek R. Gandhewar; Satish V. Bansod; Atul B.Borade

2011-01-01

392

Microbial Genome Helps Blast Devastating Rice Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... Genome Helps Blast Devastating Rice Disease Genetic sequence of rice blast fungus provides critical ... of rice blast fungus, providing them with key information to tackle the devastating rice blast ...

393

Particle Deposition in Granular Media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

Tien, C.

1992-01-01

394

Granular flow : dry and wet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

2012-01-01

395

Electric furnace fireplace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electric furnace fireplace including a heat exchanging fireplace for burning any type of combustible fuel, and electric heating elements positioned near the fireplace plenum exhaust for operation as an electric furnace. An oven is provided above the fireplace combustion chamber for heating combustibles placed therein. Water contained in a tank overlying the combustion chamber and surrounding the fireplace flue is heated by fuel burned within the combustion chamber or by heating elements within the tank.

Johnson, R.

1981-03-03

396

Emulsion blasting composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-in-oil emulsion blasting composition is described. It is composed of (1) a water-immiscible liquid organic fuel, (2) an emulsified aqueous inorganic