WorldWideScience
1

An update on blast furnace granular coal injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

1997-12-31

2

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

3

Probing the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stringent control on blast furnace operation has necessitated development of new and modern sensors. To quantify the behavior of gases and solids in G Blast Furnace at Tata Steel, a multi-point vertical probe, Tuyere probe and under burden probe have been installed. These inputs have helped in clarifying complex phenomena taking place in the furnace. This paper reviews the results of measurements done with help of these special purpose probes. 3 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

Upadhyay, A.; Kumar, A.; Jha, D.N.; De, A.; Maheswari, M.D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

2004-07-01

4

The use of blast furnace slag  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

Va?clavi?k, V.; Dirner, V.; Dvorsky?, T.; Daxner, J.

2012-01-01

5

The use of blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

V. Václavík

2012-10-01

6

Raceway modelling in the ULCOS blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThyssenKrupp Steel AG has developed a numerical model to study the combustion of coal particles that are fed into the blast furnace through the tuyeres. The basic aim is to evaluate various coal lance / tuyere configurations and assess their advantages or drawbacks for successful operation. In the ULCOS project, this model was used to check the feasibility of some tuyere configurations for the Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace process, which is especially challenging regarding tuyere design, combustion kinetics and raceway size.

Hulstrung, J. [ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

2009-09-15

7

Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

8

High productivity in Australian blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G. [BHP Slab and Plate Products Div., Port Kembla, New South Wales (Australia); Jelenich, L. [BHP Rod and Bar Products Div., Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Ward, R.F. [BHP Long Products Div., Whyalla, South Australia (Australia)

1995-12-01

9

Studies on High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags  

OpenAIRE

In the present work, viscosities and sulphide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were investigated. The systems investigated were four component CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-CaF2 quinary systems. Viscosities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined by the rotating cylinder method using Brookfield digital viscometer model LVDV-II+ pro. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1573- 1873 ...

Shankar, Amitabh

2007-01-01

10

PCI - impact of blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this report is to review the literature on the impact of high coal injection rates on blast furnace performance and summarise the issues faced by blast furnace operators, current trends in addressing these issues and the likely future requirements for PCI coal. The main operating costs, other than coal costs, are related to the milling and distribution of the coal to the blast furnace. LV coals, compared to HV coals, are generally softer and thus require less energy to grind, but they require a higher energy to dry the coal down to a moisture level required to eliminate the risk of handling problems. Free moisture in the pulverised coal can lead to handling problems in bins and transport lines. Clays in the coal may also increase the risk of the handling problems when there is excess free moisture. The injected coal quality can influence the quality of the hot metal, stability of the blast furnace and top gas composition. BF productivity is strongly influenced by the permeability of the BF furnace to upward gas and downward liquid flows. The full understanding of the all the physical and chemical mechanisms that influence the devolatilisation, fragmentation and char burnout under the intense conditions within the tuyere and raceway is not yet known. This limits the usefulness of modelling these processes. The main cost benefit of PCI is the replacement of coking coal.

Philip Bennett [CoalTech (Australia)

2007-03-15

11

Process for injecting brown coal into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a process for injecting fine-grain brown coal or lignite into a blast furnace through tuyere arches thereof, the initial speed at which coal dust, after leaving the supply conduit, moves towards the center of the blast furnace hearth is substantially lower than the speed at which the hot blast is blown into the furnace.

Daldrup, H. G.; Franke, F. H.; Limpach, R.; Nothhelfer, G.

1981-05-12

12

Blast furnace on-line simulation model  

Science.gov (United States)

A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation model, which provides a picture of the internal conditions of the BF, can be used to evaluate the current state of the process and to predict the effect of operating actions on the performance of the furnace.

Saxén, Henrik

1990-10-01

13

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and ...

Ali Azadeh; Ghaderi, S. F.

2006-01-01

14

Current situation and predictions further development of blast furnace technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper is to present analysis on main technological factors that determine blast furnace worldwide productivity in today’s time and may probably influence it in the future.Design/methodology/approach: to gain the purpose of the paper is based on the literature review of the proceedings of newest congresses and conferences on iron making technology. The review embraces manifold technical and technological changes in the area of the manufacture of iron in blast furnaces in most important regions of worldwide iron production. The prospects for future possible developments of blast furnace technology is presented, too.Findings: of this analysis show that directions of development of blast furnace technologies is characterized by: an increase the overall productivity of blast furnaces, the increase in volume blast furnaces and extending the period for campaign work of blast furnaces, systematic improving the quality of blast furnace charge, controlling its distribution, the introduction of coal dust injection and modernization of the equipments. Moreover, some specific researches were carried out e.g. a new process granulation for the control of melting materials, hybrid bonding iron ore of inferior quality, decreasing CO2 emissions in the process of sintering iron.The Chinese iron industry is oriented on modification of uneconomical structure of the iron production, excessive energy consumption and heavy impact on global environment. Research limitations/implications: Simulation calculations show that the future lines of the development of blast furnace technology should take into account: a use lower temperatures of hot blast and high blast enrichment in oxygen. b. injection of various fuels taking into account their prices in various world regions, c. the effective use of top gas, d. the possibility of eliminating blast furnace stoves. Originality/value: of the paper consist in transfer of knowledge helpful to further lowering energy for iron production and reducing harmful impact for the natural environment.

J. Mróz

2012-12-01

15

Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

16

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

17

Determination of leakages in blast furnace cooling plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of T into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation (LS) counting, the concentration of T in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 L/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author)

18

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

19

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results. PMID:12423043

Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

2002-01-01

20

Methods of mathematical modeling for evaluation of energy management of blast-furnace plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of energy consumption in the blast furnace is still the subject of investigations using mathematical modelling of a blast furnace plant. Theoretical-empirical hybrid models of a blast furnace and its equipment have been presented. This model is built based on the mass and energy balances of furnace zones and empirical data from the measurement of a blast furnace. The results of a numerical simulation of the injection of auxiliary fuels and the top-gas recirculation after the removal of CO2 to the blast furnace have been presented.

M. Szega

2015-07-01

21

New developments for powder coal injection into the blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments and results concerning powder coal injection into blast furnaces are presented. A pilot plant, similar to a blast furnace tuyere, with a high thermal gradient, developed at Escola de minas-UFOP, Brazil, is described. Several tests have been performed in this pilot plant, using a mixture of three coals and preheating the coal, giving the following conclusions: preheating of coal and the mixture of more than two coals, not commonly practised by now, are appropriate for improving the combustion rate and thus enhancing the coal injection technique. (orig.)

Assis, P.S.; Vieira, C.B. [Escola de Minas/UFOP and REDEMAT, Ouro Preto (Brazil); Sobrinho, P.J.N. [Escola Politecnica of USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2004-04-01

22

Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

Malgarini, G.; Giuli, M.; Davide, A.; Carlesi, C. (Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa (Italy); Deltasider, Piombino (Italy))

1989-03-01

23

A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.

Chao, John T.

1981-06-01

24

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two parallel blast furnace each containing of a joint raw material storage and furnace and cast-iron stations. Furthermore, there are 54 operations for each blast furnace workshop. The results and the structure of the integrated simulation model were verified and validated by comparative analysis and t-test. Moreover, the monthly production rate of cast-iron station is chosen as the performance measure for the actual system and simulation model in a twelve months trial. The results of t-test shows the average monthly production of cast-iron for the two system is statistically equal (at ?=0.05. Also, the industrial engineering unit and the production managers accredited the integrated model. After this stage, the simulation was run for a period of six months to evaluate major bottlenecks in the system. Finally, two optimizing alternatives, which can save the company millions of Dollars, are introduced and their economic advantages are discussed. The integrated simulation model has several unique features. First, it is integrated and considers all operations, maintenance, repairs, quality control activities, systems' limitations and interaction with other systems. Second, it is coded in parametric fashion so any alternative may be easily retrieved. Third, it is a practical tool due to its verification, validation and accreditation. Finally, a standard procedure for development of integrated simulation model for similar blast furnace or workshops is introduced.

Ali Azadeh

2006-01-01

25

New measurement technique for the investigation of the raceway in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work focuses the new technologies for measurements effectively applicable to blast furnaces. The work shows that reliable data on the operating blast furnaces combustion zones provide for the improvement of the present low-shaft blast furnaces simulation models which are applied to blast furnaces automation and special systems. This fact could offer an improved and more flexible operation control, resulting not only in economical but also ecological advantages considering that the blast furnace is the greatest energy consumer in a metal industry. The maintenance of the research activities for introduction of new technologies such as the injection of plastic wastes is another important characteristic, when considering the environmental aspects.

Gudenau, H.W.; Robert, F.

1995-07-01

26

Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind  

OpenAIRE

The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can...

Terpa?k, J.; Dorc?a?k, L.; Kos?tial, I.; Pivka, L.

2010-01-01

27

Optimisation of blast furnace raceway at high injection rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this project was to clarify the raceway behaviour during high coal injection operations and to establish its influence on the whole blast furnace operation. A two-dimensional physical model (coke combustion with cold air) was built to simulate the raceway dynamics. Results show an unsteady raceway, expanding cyclically from a minimal to a maximal size, followed by the massive collapsing of the coke vault. Without coal injection, most relevant parameters on the raceway size are coke grain size and gas flow rate, with opposite effects. Coal injection produces a quick change of the raceway behaviour, which becomes larger. Optical methods were developed to investigate raceway depth (peephole method) and three-dimensional raceway space (lance method) during blast furnace operation. Results show raceway dimensions of 40-110 cm in depth and 40-60 cm in width, with possible change of 30 cm in depth during short periods. These measurements could not be clearly correlated with the blast parameters and with the results of coke core borings performed in parallel at the tuyere level. The influence of many parameters (raceway, bird nest and dead man characteristics, burden distribution) on blast furnace operation has been studied with an upgraded mathematical model. Results contribute to get a better picture of the situation inside the blast furnace, mainly in terms of cohesive zone position and shape. They provide a better understanding of the involved phenomena, of their interactions and of the furnace behaviour in response to an increase of the coal injection rate. 108 figs., 22 tabs.

Lectard, E.; Danloy, G.; Blacknik, W.; Muelheims, K. [Arcelor, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

2005-07-01

28

Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

2011-02-15

29

Suitability of plastic waste for blast furnace fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy fuel oil, injected in the tuyeres with combustion air, is used as fuel and as a reduction agent at blast furnaces as a substitute of batch-coke. In German legislation, this type of utilisation of plastic is considered to be recycling of the material, the promotion of which is one of the targets of this work. The price of fuel oil, compared with that of blast furnace coke, is beneficial which makes it economically profitable to replace a part of the coke with oil. Stahlwerke Bremen in Germany and Nippon Kokan K.K. in Japan replace blast furnace coke by using crushed plastic waste as fuel. At Stahlwerke Bremen the level of utilisation of plastic waste is at 30 kg of plastic per produced ton of iron, and at the blast furnace about 80 000 tons of plastic is consumed annually. In Finland the utilization of plastic waste in blast furnace seems to be promising, because the share of high chlorine content PVC-plastic in the recyclable plastic waste is lower than in Central Europe. The plastic waste streams, generating in Finland, have been studied in this project, and the costs of plastic waste recovery and processing have been estimated. The dry-feed of plastic into a blast furnace requires the processing of the material into a chip size smaller than 8 mm, and that the material is homogenous and clean. Consequently the processing costs are high. The possibility to feed the plastic into the blast furnace after liquefaction with tall oil has been studied in the project. In connection to this, the combustion properties of different plastic-oils and Neste Oy's heavy residual fuel oil (ERP) were tested in the laboratory with thermobalance. The tests showed that the combustion speed of plastic-oils was higher than that of the ERP., and less coke was formed with the plastic-oil mixtures than with the ERP. A clear difference was also noticed in the CO and HCN contents of different oil qualities. An amount of 1300 liters of plastic-oil was processed in a special batch reactor for a pilot plan experimentation. Plastic oil combustion performance tests with plastic-oils were also carried out by using a 300 kW furnace equipped with a double nozzle burner. The plastic oil was fed into the burner nozzle trough an electrically heated pipe and further into the furnace using hot air as the carrier gas and spraying agent inside the nozzle. The average flame/flue gas temperature at the end in the partial refractory lined furnace was 1070 deg C; the share of O{sub 2} in flue gas was 5 % and that of CO 94 ppm.

Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1998-07-01

30

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

31

Three-dimensional modelling of coal combustion in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulverized coal injection technology is widely used in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout within the tuyere and raceway is required for high coal injection rate operation. In order to analyze the flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway more accurately and reliably, a three-dimensional model of coal combustion is developed. This model is validated against the measurements from two pilot scale test rigs in terms of gas species composition and coal burnout. The gas-solid flow and coal combustion are simulated and analysed. The results indicate that compared to our previous model, the present model is able to provide more detailed gas species distributions and better describe the evolutions of coal particles. It is more sensitive to various parameters and hence more robust in examining various blast furnace operations.

Shen, Y.S.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-07-01

32

Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

OpenAIRE

Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ...

Ashish Kumar Pathak; Pandey, Dr V.

2014-01-01

33

Evaluation Of Concrete Properties Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

OpenAIRE

Traditionally, Ordinary Portland Cement concrete is used for making the civil structures. Portland cement can be replaced by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) which is a non-metallic and non-hazardous waste of the Iron industry. It is suitable for concrete mix and improves properties of concrete like compressive strength, workability etc. It has been seen that when cement is replaced with GGBFS compressive strength increases. However, this increase in compressive strength continues...

Pathan, Veena G.; Ghutke, Vishal S.; MR. GULFAM PATHAN

2013-01-01

34

Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today?s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

Ashish Kumar Pathak

2014-05-01

35

Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.

Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-03-01

36

Coke heterogeneity of blast furnace coke; Heterogeneidade de coque de forno horizontal de coqueria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The smoothness of blast furnace driving rate can be affected by heterogeneity degree of blast furnace burden components. The coke heterogeneity is due to factors related to coal nature, coking process and it can be increased by anomalies at some steps of charge preparation and coking cycle. The heterogeneity character of blast furnace coke is analysed through studies on samples collected at coke wharf and coke guide from industrial coke oven batteries. (author). 1 ref., 12 figs.

Ulhoa, Murilo B.; Souza, Luiz O.B. de; Paiva Giudice, Francisco D. de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

1989-12-31

37

Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

1996-12-31

38

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

39

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

1996-12-31

40

New technologies in blast furnace burden distribution - physical modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental work carried out on a full scale physical model of Port Kembla's No. 5 blast furnace bell-less top is described. Measurements of surface profiles, particle size segregation, material trajectory and the coke collapse phenomenon were obtained. Experimental techniques developed for the trials included the use of photogrammetry for profile determination and novel methods of sampling material from burden layers. An analysis of the information has made it possible to determine appropriate practice specific data for the application of a burden distribution model. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Zulli, P.; Tanzil, W.B.U.; Monaghan, J.; McCarthy, M.J.; Hockings, K.L. (BHP Central Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia). Slab and Plate Products Division)

1988-01-01

41

Heat exchange in the hearth of a blast furnace operating with combined blast parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat exchange occurs most intensively in the hearth of the blast furnace (BF) and determines metal quality, furnace productivity and operating parameters. The heat and chemical energy needed for the HF process is generated in the raceways. This paper is dedicated to the advancement of the heat exchange theory in the hearth of a BF operating with combined blast. The heating processes of products of melting in the raceway and in the liquid bath of the hearth and the effect of pulverized coal injection (PCI) on heat exchange in the oxidizing zone and its extension are studied. An increase in furnace productivity requires additional heat power for the heating of pig iron and slag and therefore a rise in fame temperature. PCI increases radiation in the raceways, thus permitting BF operation with a lower flame temperature. These theoretical conclusions are confirmed by calculations for two BFs in the Ukraine and Spain and by statistical analysis of the operation of the majority of BFs in EU countries. Alone BF in Germany the effect of PCL and other combined blast parameters on the raceway extension was investigated using the laser technique. (author)

Formoso, A.

1999-11-01

42

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

43

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

44

Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

Verdeja, L. F.

2003-06-01

45

Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

1997-12-31

46

Laser sensing in the iron-making blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of parameters such as distance and temperature in the Ironmaking Blast Furnace is crucial to the performance of the furnace. A series of instruments has been designed, built and tested by BHP which perform these tasks optically requiring no physical intrusion into the harsh environment of the furnace. The problem of coupling high peak power Nd:YAG and ultra violet laser radiation into environments consisting of very high water vapour level, acidic, high aerosol loading, and high temperature environments is considered. The performance of two systems enabling distance measurement with sub-pulse length range resolution under the above conditions is discussed in detail. The use of optical fibres to deliver the pulsed energy to and from the environment together with specific window design parameters are also described. A major problem in making time of flight range measurements in very high density aerosol conditions is the signal processing required to extract the target return pulse position from the complex aerosol return signal. Incoherent detection techniques used to achieve this discrimination where target temperatures can exceed 2000°C are discussed. The selection of operating laser wavelength and repetition rate were based on an analysis of the optical characteristics of gases and aerosol forming the measurement environment together with the dynamic behaviour of the high temperature target. The extension of laser radar techniques to optical fibres is discussed and a distributed temperature sensing system is described which measures temperatures up to 250°C with a spatial resolution better than O.Sm.

Scott, J. Chris

1991-03-01

47

Reactions of sinter in a lead blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of the composition of the condensed phases derived from the sinter feed to a commercial furnace are presented. No significant reaction was detected at a level above about 3 m from the tuyeres at which the temperature was about 800/sup 0/C. The reaction zone was predominantly in a region 1 m to 2 m above the tuyeres accompanied by fusion and phase separation. Results do not agree with the predictions of a mathematical model. Some additional measurements of gas composition, temperature, and pressure are also given. Oxygen enrichment of blast air has resulted in more uniform temperature and pressure profiles. The principal phases in the sinter feed are silicates and ferrites. As the sinter descends, the lead silicates and ferrites react to form lead metal, hardystonite, and wustite.

Morris, D.R.; Amero, B.R.; Evans, P.G.; Owens, D.R.; Petruk, W.

1983-12-01

48

An approach to blast furnace coke quality prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although coke cold drum mechanical strength has historically been the most relevant coke quality parameter, currently coke reactivity and post-reaction strength (CRI/CSR) are the most important parameters used to assess blast-furnace coke quality. Many models of coke quality prediction have been proposed, most of which are based on coal characteristics and limited to the same coal geographic origin, but as yet there is no universally applicable prediction formula. The present work describes a simple model of coke CRI/CSR prediction based on the assumption that the CSR of a coke produced from a blend of coals can be predicted from the CSR obtained from the cokes of the individual coals through the application of the additivity law. The additivity law was also applied to the coke cold mechanical strength indices derived from the Irsid test, which are widely employed by the European coke industry as complementary coke quality indicators. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

R. Alvarez; M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; E. Diaz-Faes; J.L.G. Cimadevilla [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-09-15

49

Characterization of the permeability of the blast furnace lower part  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of high coal injection and high productivity operation, the coke behaviour inside the blast furnace hearth is the main parameter to control. Different and complementary investigations as radioactive and helium tracer injections, liquids and coke samplings, have been carried out at Sollac Fos BF1 using the tuyere probe to determine the hearth permeability and its evolutions as a function of the main control parameters, and to understand the hearth activity. The results of all these experiments give a very consistent picture of a heterogenous hearth with three concentric areas of various permeabilities to gas and liquids. A two concentric zones model has been built, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. It enables to evaluate the impact of the central zone on the liquids flow at the periphery. (author)

50

Iron ores, fluxes and tuyere injected coals used in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iron ores, fluxes and tuyere injected coals used as burden materials in the blast furnace have been characterised by chemical and granulometric analysis, moisture, density and porosity, softening and melting temperatures, reductibility, X-ray diffraction, electronic microscopy and thermoanalysis. Theoretical calculations on the influence of both the chemical composition and ash content of coals on some aspects of the blast furnace operation have been carried out. The combustion behaviour of pulverised coals in a pilot plant equipped with a combustion chamber has been studied to indicate what the behaviour of each type of coal will be, when injected in blast furnace tuyeres.

Cores, A.; Babich, A.; Muniz, M.; Isidro, A.; Ferreira, S.; Martin, R. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

2007-05-15

51

Simulation study on radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiative imaging of pulverised coal combustion in the blast furnace raceway plays an increasingly important role in working state diagnosis and monitoring in real time. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiation of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flames based on the Monte Carlo method and charge coupled device (CCD) imaging. The relationship between two-dimensional radiative image and 3D radiant energy in the blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of the combustion process in this study. The radiative images obtained from the blow pipe peephole of a blast furnace tuyere not only present the energy distribution on the CCD camera target plane but also examine 3D temperature distribution in the blast furnace. The numeral temperature field matching the actual combustion can be obtained by a proposed numeric image processing technique.

Ouyang, Q.; Zhao, L.M.; Wen, L.Y.; Bai, C.G. [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

2011-04-15

52

Numerical prediction and practical improvement of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The burning characteristics of pulverized coal in blowpipe and tuyere at two different injection patterns are simulated numerically, to aid improving the practical performance of blast furnace. With the condition of the same fuel and oxidant mass flow rates, the predictions indicate that the combustion efficiency of pulverized coal using double-lance can be substantially enhanced compared with that using single lance. Accordingly, the pulverized coal injection in a practical blast furnace was modified from single lance to double-lance. As a result, the practical injection rate of the pulverized coal in the blast furnace was increased from 110 to 153 kg/tHM, revealing that a profound decrease in operating cost of the blast furnace has been implemented.

Du, S.W.; Chen, W.H. [National Taiwan Ocean University, Chilung (Taiwan). Dept. of Marine Engineering

2006-03-15

53

The challenges of coal injection in today's blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fourteen papers (including the keynote address) addressed various aspects of pulverised coal injection in blast furnaces, including coal quality criteria, ramping up PCI production and tuyere development. The discussion of the papers is also included.

Irons, G.A. (ed.) [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Steel Research Centre

2009-07-01

54

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

55

Determination of cadmium in blast furnace slag by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since blast furnace slag is used widely (cement, concrete aggregate and so on), it is important to measure toxic heavy metal in slag. In this study, we measured Cd in blast furnace slag by Multiple Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (MPGA) and investigated LLD (Lower Limit of Determination). As a result, LLD for Cd in slag was 1 ppm order (counting time: 3h). In each sample, Cd peak was not confirmed in this measurement. (author)

56

Measurement of burden material level in blast furnace using radiometric level gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To increase reliability of recording circuit, to simplify adjustment and operation of radiometric level gauges for charge measuring in blast furnaces, a standart control unit on the base of semiconductors has been produced. It reduces radiation source activity by 6-7 times. The application of the control unit and the new modification of electromechanical driver makes it possible to increase considerably the life of radiometric level gauges of charge in blast furnaces

57

Limestone fillers cement-based composites: effects of blast furnace slags on fresh and hardened properties  

OpenAIRE

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixtures…etc. Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions for concrete like fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags are becoming rare; there is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and Granulated blast furnace slag ce...

Courard, Luc; Michel, Fre?de?ric

2014-01-01

58

CFD modeling of multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft with layered burden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-current chemical reactor which includes the ascending gas flow and the counter-current descending porous bed (burden). A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft. The gas flow dynamics, burden movement, chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer between the gas phase and burden phase are included in the CFD model. The blast furnace burden consists of alternative layers of iron ore and coke. A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the effects of alternative burden layer structure on gas flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and chemical reactions. Different reactions and heat transfer characteristics are applied for difference types of layer. In addition, the layered CFD model accurately predicts the Cohesive Zone (CZ) shape where the melting of solid burden taking place. The shape and location of the CZ are determined by an iterative method based on the ore temperature distribution. The theoretical formation and the methodology of the CFD model are presented and the model is applied to simulate industry blast furnaces. The proposed method can be applied to investigate the blast furnace shaft process and other moving bed system with periodic burden structure configuration. - Highlights: •A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the blast furnace shaft with layered burden. •The effects of layered burden on flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions are considered in the model. •The shape and location of the cohesive zone is determined by an iterative method

59

Results obtained on Lorrain blast furnaces after development of measuring and control equipments at Patural (Sollac)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The burden of the P3 blast furnace at Sollac is made of low iron content sinter (40 to 49% Fe). It received new measurement devices progressively: continuous temperature and gas composition measurement above stock line; measurement of stock profile; and, continuous measurement of gas humidity at the top. All these devices have been put in operation in order to improve the blast furnace control. The blast furnace control has been only possible after having successfuly improved the operation regularity. With the industrial use of the gas distribution measurement equipments, connected to a process computer, and the models thus developped, the ways of improving blast furnace operation have been defined: control of charging in order to obtain a high and narrow peak of temperatures in the central zone of the blast furnace, whilst a sufficiently oxydized gas is maintained in this zone. Production of sinter with an improved reducibility. With all these measures, excellent results have been obtained. For the first time, a blast furnace with more than 500 kg of slag/tHM has achieved a fuel consumption of less than 500 kg/tHM.

Schneider, M.; Loubert, J.P. (IRSID, Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)); Druet, J.P.; Muller, J.C.; Sarre, J.; Mosser, F.

1983-06-01

60

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

OpenAIRE

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak.

Tague, I.; Llewellin, P.; Burton, K.; Buchan, R.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

61

Tuyere development as an effective measure for high PC rate operation of blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kobe Steel has developed technologies to reduce coke consumption in its blast furnaces by injecting coal at a high rate. This paper described a newly developed tuyere and its contribution to improving permeability under high pulverized coal (PC) rate conditions at the blast furnaces at Kakogawa Works. Reducing the coke rate while increasing the coal injection rate results in higher ore/coke at the center region of the furnace, resulting in excessive peripheral gas and inducing gas channeling. Central coke charging (CCC) helps attain a stable gas flow inside the furnace by forming a vertical gas passage in the coke column. It enables furnace operators to directly control or enhance the central gas flow and improves gas and liquid permeability in the furnace bottom. In a conventional tuyere, the PC is introduced in or before the converged blast flow inside the tuyere where coal fines begin to decompose and interact with hot blasts. This newly developed convergent and divergent (CD) type tuyere was instrumental in safely reducing the pressure drop and its variation to a tolerable level even under ultra-high PCR conditions over 250 kg/thm. This paper described the effects of tuyere structure on raceway shapes using 3 types of tuyeres in a coke packed test furnace. It was concluded that the CD tuyere reduces pressure drop at the tuyere. An increase in PC rate offers benefits in terms of furnace stability. The CD tuyere also reduces coke deterioration in the raceway. 7 refs., 8 figs.

Tagawa, T.; Kasai, A.; Nozawa, K.; Shibata, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa Works, Hyogo (Japan). Ironmaking Dept.

2008-07-01

62

A Study of the Heat Flow in the Blast Furnace Hearth Lining  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present thesis was to study the heat flows in the blast furnace hearth lining by experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Thermocouple data from an operating furnace have been used throughout the work, to verify results and to develop methodologies to use the results in further studies. The hearth lining were divided into two zones based on the thermocouple readings: a region with regular temperature variations due to the tapping of the furnace, and another region with...

Swartling, Maria

2010-01-01

63

Carbon transfer in the lower zone of a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper results from an investigation focused on coke/iron reactions occurring in the hearth of a blast furnace, below the slag layer, are presented. In this region, as coke dissolves in the iron there is the potential for a mineral layer to form and persist at the coke/iron interface and inhibit the rate of coke dissolution. Key findings of the investigation include that the composition of the mineral layer was principally composed of oxides of aluminium and calcium, present as various calcium aluminates and that the morphology of the layer profoundly affected the rate of carbon transfer. Follow-up up studies on the kinetics of carbon transfer focussed on how the wetting and interfacial characteristics of iron on the calcium aluminates would affect iron penetration of the mineral layer are also reported and discussed as was a new material, called coke analogue, that could be used in the study of real industrial coke. Analysis of the wetting behaviour of liquid iron on alumina and the calcium aluminates investigated indicated that iron wetting of the mineral layer was not a key parameter in coke dissolution in iron for the coke composition studied. The brief details given for the coke analogue indicated that it did replicate coke dissolution behaviour in iron, though more experimental work is required to fully understand and exploit the potential of this material. (Copyright copyright 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Monaghan, B.J.; Nightingale, Sharon A. [PYROmetallurgical Research Group, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Chapman, Michael W.

2010-10-15

64

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improv...

Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

2011-01-01

65

Effect of coke reactivity and nut coke on blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two measures for coke saving and increase in blast furnace efficiency related to coke characteristics - reactivity and size - are discussed in this paper. Modern blast furnace operation with low coke rate and high injection rate causes a change in coke quality requirements. A discussion has arisen recently about highly reactive coke. Here, a theoretical analysis of influence of coke reactivity on the thermal reserve zone, direct reduction and carbon consumption in the blast furnace has been undertaken. Experiments have been performed using non-standard test scenarios that simulate coke behaviour under real blast furnace operating conditions. Coke reactivity and microstructure have also been investigated under the impact of alkali and pulverised coal ash and char. Operation of many blast furnaces has proved the possibility of coke saving and increase in productivity when using small-sized coke (so-called nut coke) mixed with the burden, but the reasons for this phenomenon, and consequently the limit for nut coke consumption, are still not very clear. An analytical method and cold model simulations have been used to quantify the change in shaft permeability and furnace productivity when using nut coke.

Babich, A.; Senk, D.; Gudenau, H.W. [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

2009-04-15

66

Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activattrength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

67

Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ?The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ? The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. gular speed of rotary cup increases. ? The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ? Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ? A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

68

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500?m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future. PMID:20887042

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

69

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14

70

EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

2011-03-01

71

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

72

Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace. Ecoulement des liquides dans le creuset du haut fourneau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs.

Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)); Libralesso, J.M.

1992-03-01

73

Experiments at Sollac Dunkerque and Sollac Fos on coke quality and its influence on blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three investigations are reported: (1) the effect of a reduction in coking time on coke strength, and the modification of the coal blend to compensate for the strength decrease; (2) the breakage and stabilisation of coke between coke ovens and blast furnaces; (3) the effect of coke quality on blast furnace permeability, tapping characteristics and hearth conditions.

Le Mouel, D. (and others)

1992-05-01

74

The fate of volatiles from injectant coals and soot formation in blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relative abundance of coke particles, injectant coal-char, and soot found in blast furnace dust provides clues about the operation and efficiency of the blast furnace. The aim of the work has been to determine whether the source of the soots could be related to the injectant coal, in particular, to the nature of the extractable material within it. This paper describes the separation of soot from blast furnace dust and its characterization. Dust samples collected during coal injection tests in a blast furnace and in a pilot scale, 'single-tuyere' test rig have been extracted with NMP (1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The parent coals used in these tests were also extracted with NMP; the solvent is highly polar and useful in dissolving various types of soot as well as coal extracts and tars. Fresh coke gave no extract. The coal and dust extracts were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Differences were observed between chromatograms of the extracts from the two coals used-the first in the 'single-tuyere' test rig, and the second in the blast furnace. SEC was useful in identifying similar features in the chromatograms of extracts from the parent coal and the soot extracted from the blast furnace dust; similar observations were made on the 'single-tuyere' test rig dust and the coal injected into it. These findings support the view that tar evolution from the injectant coal contributes directly to soot formation and is a major contributor to levels of dust emission observed at high coal injection rates. 36 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Suneerat Pipatmanomai; Alan A. Herod; Trevor J. Morgan; Nigel Paterson; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

2004-02-01

75

Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

1995-12-01

76

Cold model of coal gas component concentration distribution in blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Primary distribution of coal gas in blast furnace raceway has an important effect on blast furnace ironmaking process. The coal gas component concentration distribution was studied experimentally using a three-dimensional cold model. The results showed that CH{sub 4} concentration diminishes along with the height increasing on vertical section of raceway, and the concentration is the highest in the bottom of raceway. CH{sub 4} concentration increases gradually along the raceway depth with the lowest concentration value in front of the tuyere. The distribution of CH{sub 4} concentration has different characteristics in different raceway zones.

Sheng-fu Zhang; Liang-ying Wen; Chen-guang Bai; Gui-bao Qiu; Mei-long Hu; Xue-wei Lu [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-11-15

77

Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

P. Bigoš

2015-01-01

78

Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace:  

OpenAIRE

The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in blast furnace. The fraction of smaller than 8 mm is used in the sinter plant. Therefore, a large fraction of coke around 20 % from coking plant/process is not used for iron ore reduction. Recent ...

Song, Q.

2013-01-01

79

Numerical analysis of static holdup of fine particles in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With increased pulverized coal injection rate into blast furnace, the importance of understanding flow characteristics of powders within packed bed increases because more unburned char and coke fragments would be generated, it would deteriorate permeability in the blast furnace. Although flow characteristics of dynamic or total holdup of powders in packed beds is found in several reports, behavior of powders in blast furnace using separate treatment of dynamic and static holdup has yet to be reported. In this study the behavior of static powders was examined through numerical simulation using the 'four fluid model',(3) which included the formulation of static powders behavior. The model results were compared with two dimensional temperature distributions measured in the furnace for three different pulverized coal injections (PCI) rates (100, 200 and 250 kg/thm) for validated. The model was applied to quantitative analysis of static powders holdup in the blast furnace operation with high-rate pulverized coal injection. The higher amount of static powders holdup was found mostly in the center lower deadman, above and below the tuyere level, and in upper shaft, for PCI rate 100 kg/thm, 150 kg/thm, 200 kg/thm and 225 kg/thm respectively. The lower amount of static powders holdup was found in the raceway region throughout the surface of deadman.

Pintowantoro, S.; Nogami, H.; Yagi, J. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

2004-07-01

80

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

81

Strength indexes of fine blast furnace coke according to DIN, ISO draft standards and COMECON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principles are given of determining strength indexes for blast furnace coke fines by the DIN method, the ISO draft standards, and COMECON standards. Tests results for Polish coke using the above methods are compared with the results of the conventional Micum test.

Magdziarz, M.

1978-03-01

82

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

83

Preparation of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection at Sollac Dunkirk works  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preparation of pulverized coal is a major step prior to its injection into the blast furnace, and must be considered as an integral operation justifying the development of a systematic technical follow-up. Sollac Dunkirk and IRSID have implemented a methodology for characterizing coal and follow-up of coal preparation, which participated in finalizing results in this work.

Capelani, R.; Eymond, J.L. (Etablissement Sollac, 59 - Dunkerque (FR)); Lassat de Pressigny, Y. de; Pazdej, R. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (FR))

1989-12-01

84

Slag optimization in charcoal blast furnaces; Otimizacao de escorias de altos-fornos a carvao vegetal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, it is shown the optimum composition of charcoal blast furnace slag using phase diagrams. The results are compared with industrial data and some possible changes in slag composition and mass are also suggested. (author) 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli; Lopes, Leonardo Braga Polido; Goncalves, Alexandre Ferreira [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1987-12-31

85

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

86

Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range equivalent to the thermal reserve zone temperature of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10 kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corporation Ltd, Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Processing Technology Centre

2006-03-15

87

Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range in the thermal reserve zone of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

2005-07-01

88

Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

Illuminati, D.

1991-10-29

89

Determination of thermal histories of coke in blast furnace through X-ray analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been undertaken to identify the source of coke fines sampled from the deadman area of the blast furnace. Using measurements of the coke crystallite dimension L{sub C}, it was established that some of the fines found in the deadman area of a blast furnace were not simply the degradation products of the lump coke in this area. The L{sub C} was measured using standard X-ray analysis techniques. The coke fines had a higher L{sub C} than the coke lump and therefore have experienced a higher maximum temperature than the associated coke lump. This finding has been interpreted as at least some of the coke fines found in the deadman area (lower temperature region) have been blown there from the raceway by the high velocity hot blast.

Monaghan, B.J.; Nightingale, R.; Daly, V.; Fitzpatrick, E.

2008-01-15

90

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

91

Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kimitsu, Chiba (Japan). Kimitsu Works; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan); Imuta, Akira [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Plant and Machinery Div.

1997-12-31

92

Data-driven analysis of blast furnace tuyere-level and hearth conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is focused on the high temperature region of the ironmaking blast furnace, developing models and methods for throwing light on phenomena inside the tuyere and raceway region and the furnace hearth. The work studies and applies the existing process information consisting of measurements from the process and laboratory analyzes of different samples taken regularly from the furnace. A model for monitoring the blast distribution is created. The model considers the partial combustion of the injected auxiliary reductant, heavy oil, in the tuyeres, and it can also be used in what-if-analysis to examine the influence of different parameters on the blast distribution and other related variables. Data from tuyere core drillings is analyzed and a correlation with thermal cycles observed in the heart is found. The thermal cycles are further studied by an analysis of balance studying accumulation/depletion of sulfur in the furnaces. A method for analyzing data from complex processes, based on the differences observed in the data rather than the absolute values, is presented and used to study the complex interactions between reductant parameters and hot metal properties. (orig.)

Helle, M.

2009-07-01

93

Application of optical basicity to viscosity of high alumina blast furnace slags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and properties of blast furnace slags greatly affect the furnace productivity and the quality of hot metal produced. Viscosity is an important physical property of slags, strongly influenced by the chemical composition, structure and the temperature. Experimental measurement of slag viscosity requires high temperature equipment and is time consuming. Therefore, chemical parameters are used to identify trends in viscosity as function of chemical composition. Limited information is available for High Alumina Blast Furnace Slags, since much of the open literature deals with Low Alumina Slags, with alumina content less than 15 weight percentage. High Alumina slags (alumina content in the range of 15% to 30% are predominantly encountered in Indian Blast Furnaces. It appears that these slags have higher viscosity and lower sulphide capacity than the low alumina slags. The effect of chemical composition / ionic structure on viscosity has been interpreted in this work, using the chemical parameter of optical basicity. Data reported in the literature have been used, along with the values of liquidus temperature, for high alumina slags. Three slag systems, i.e., CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 have been considered in this work. The trends observed are discussed in the paper.

Ghosh D.

2010-01-01

94

Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

95

Development of coal injection in the blast furnace at Usinor Sacilor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All blast furnaces within Usinor Sacilor are presently equipped with coal injection systems. A significant drop of coke rate has resulted from the progress in the understanding of the basic phenomena related to coal injection and simultaneously from a good operational control of the technique at each step of the process. The key point for a furnace, especially with respect to the gas distribution in the hearth and the shaft. Advanced control techniques are to be used to achieve simultaneously low heat losses, good protection of the walls together with high gas efficiency and smooth operation (authors). 9 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Steiler, J.M. [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France); Lao, D.; Lebonvallet, J.L.; Helleisen, M.

1996-01-01

96

Four years' operation of the Paris-Outreau No 7 blast furnace with plasma torches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Societe du Ferromanganese de Paris-Outreau has launched a plan in 1984 to raise blast temperature using a plasma torch. The aim of these developments was an appreciable cutting of the coke ratio through utilization of the own production of electricity. Five new torches have been added in 1988 to the existing three Aerospatiale torches of 1.5 MW each, installed in 1984 on No 7 blast furnace, which raises blast temperature from 1 150{sup 0}C in conventional operation to 1 500{sup 0}C. As a result, smoothness of the blast furnace operation is improved. S.P.F.O. is investigating the eventual profit to be derived from the equipment of the other blast furnaces with plasma torches. 10 MW save 175 kg of coke.

Bloise, R.; Lambin, Ph. (Societe du Ferromanganese de Paris-Outreau, 62 - Boulogne-sur-Mer (FR)); Nicolle, R.; Meunier, R. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (FR))

1990-01-01

97

Analyses on blast furnace raceway formation by micro wave reflection gunned through tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace raceway formation under the intensive coal injection by measurement of micro wave reflection gunned through a tuyere is discussed. As the flow rate of coke as the momentum of coke into raceway decreases by combustion of coal injected into tuyeres, the depth of raceway defined as the maximum position of micro wave reflection is easy to contract. It is expected that this new technology could detect the raceway collapse phenomena in short time and that the stability of raceway in coal injection is different from that in all coke operation. Finally the paper ends by summarizing the effect of raceway formation on unsteady phenomena forcing functional disorder on blast furnace performance of burden distribution for high productivity performance.

Matsui, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Nagai, N.; Imai, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). R& amp; D Labs.

2005-07-01

98

Analyses on blast furnace raceway formation by micro wave reflection gunned through tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace raceway formation under the intensive coal injection by measurement of microwave reflection gunned through a tuyere is discussed. As the flow rate of coke as the momentum of coke into raceway decreases by combustion of coal injected into tuyeres, the depth of raceway defined as the maximum position of microwave reflection is easy to contract. It is expected that this new technology could detect the raceway collapse phenomena in short time and that the stability of raceway in coal injection is different from that in all coke operation. Finally the paper ends by summarizing the effect of raceway formation on unsteady phenomena forcing functional disorder on blast furnace performance of burden distribution for high productivity performance.

Matsui, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sawayama, M.; Kitano, S.; Nagai, N.; Imai, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kakogawa (Japan). R& amp; D Lab.

2006-12-15

99

Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

100

Using FEM to determine temperature distribution in a blast furnace crucible  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature distribution in the crucible of a blast furnace is an important operation variable that is a function of the materials used in its construction, temperatures reached in the pig iron-refractory interface, and cooling-system performance. Defining the crucible zones where high shear and tensile stresses are reached is an important step in developing a tribological model to understand and predict high wear zones and crucible life. In this work, temperature distribution was simulated using the finite-element method for a blast furnace built following the ceramic solution (oxide and nitride ceramics in contact with the pig iron and carbon and microporous graphite blocks in contact with the refrigeration system).

Verdeja, Luis Felipe; González, Roberto; Ordóñez, Alejandro

2000-02-01

101

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

102

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

103

The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

OpenAIRE

 Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigating the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive streng...

Juan Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter Claisse

2011-01-01

104

Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag:  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy and causes less CO2 emission than Portland cement. Moreover, the use of limestone powder and BFS improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, such as workability and durability. Enginee...

Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M. G.; Ye, G.; Breugel, K.; Li, V. C.

2009-01-01

105

Chloride-binding effect of blast furnace slag in cement pastes containing added chlorides  

OpenAIRE

Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. It is standard industry practice to add various mineral admixtures such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), or fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF), to concrete mixtures to increase the corrosion resistance of the reinforcement in the matrix and its subsequent design life span. Various investigations have re...

Potgieter, J. H.; Delport, D. J.; Verryn, Sabine Marie Charlotte; Potgieter-vermaak, S. S.

2011-01-01

106

Technology of high-rate pulverized coal injection into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the results obtained from off-line model experiments, a test operation was carried out at Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace with a high-rate pulverized coal injection. Technological conditions were established for a stable operation at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t pig iron. The use of even higher injection rates has been studied, but several problems remain to be solved. (authors). 9 refs., 14 figs.

Takamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Ueno, H.; Matsunaga, S.; Kakiuchi, K.; Amano, S.

1995-03-01

107

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel' nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

108

Blast furnace slag utilisation in mine backfill: implications for sustainable development and greenhouse gas reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substitution of all or part of the 270 kilotonne per annum (ktpa) of blast furnace slag from BHP's Whyalla blast furnace for Portland cement in the preparation of low strength concrete (cemented aggregate fill or CAF) usually used to fill stopes created by underground hard-rock mining of ore, is discussed. This substitution would give a significant cost reduction for CAF, and allow for a future increase in the use of mine tailings. It could also help reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission by 100ktpa of carbon dioxide equivalent, avoiding the quarrying of dolomite aggregate (constituent of CAF), and the ability to backload copper products shipped from Whyalla, giving a significant reduction over current road transport distances. While the chemistry of CAF production using waste water, tailings and cementitious materials is complex, it it expected that if the substitution of blast furnace slag for cement is successful, it will represent substantial inter-business integration of economics and social benefits and at the same time yield significant environmental benefits. 7 refs., 10 figs.

Rigby, G.D.; Wibberley, L.J. [BHP Minerals Technology, Wallsend, NSW (Australia); Cao, H.T. [CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

2001-07-01

109

The pulverised coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnaces from ISPAT-SIDEX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the results obtained on the blast furnaces from ISPAT-SIDEX during the first 5 years of operation with pulverised coal and attempts to emphasise the difficulties, which appeared at the technology application. It is emphasised that, although from the technical point of view are possible injection rates up to 200 kg PC/t hot metal, the usual rates accepted for the blast furnaces are approx. 100 kg PC/t hot metal. One of the critical factors, which influence the increase of the technology efficiency, is the pulverised coal combustion at the tuyeres. By direct observations and measurements at the tuyere of the blast furnace no. 4, there were obtained information concerning the real conditions, under which takes place the combustion process. The results emphasised a bad mixing of the pulverised coal with the oxygen and the hot air, that allowing its heating and combustion up to the front of the tuyere. In this case, all the combustion stages are moved in the swirl zone, which can lead to a low process efficiency. In the paper are analysed the measures necessary to optimise the tuyeres zone conditions and it is proposed a new type of coaxial lance with swirling, which have to improve the mixing and increase the combustion efficiency.

Vasilache, G.; Hritac, M.; Atanasiu, G.; Nedelcu, P.; Neacsu, M.

2003-07-01

110

Productivity and performance of small scale blast furnaces; Produtividade e performance de altos fornos de pequeno porte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents some data concerning the re-start of the blast furnace number 2 of Mannesmann siderurgic company. The main characteristics concerning the operation with 100% coke fuel and the measurements adopted to increase the furnace productivity are described 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

Melo, Vamberto Ferreira de; Grandin, Friedrich Hans G.; Lanna, Pitagoras Gomes de; Castello Branco, Marco Antonio S.C. [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1994-05-01

111

Computational Study of Blast Furnace Cooling Stave using Heat Transfer Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the metallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is hence a matter of trade-offs and differs for every metallurgical application. This paper gives a systemic study and review of blast furnace cooling stave lining materials used in the metallurgical industries based on heat transfer analysis. Additionally, the paper describes a model which will be modeled and implemented using Pro- E modeling software. The model will further be utilized for the analysis of the behavior of lining materials at different loads through heat transfer analysis by finite element method software called ANSYS. In this study two different types of bricks like silicon carbide brick and high alumina bricks will be taken for the lining material of the blast furnace cooling stave as well as two different types of skull is considered, in which the first is having negligible thickness and the other one is having certain thickness, (thickness in mm is considered, so, with these two skulls, the heat transfer analysis will be done at different temperatures (loads from 773k to 1573k in order to compare which lining will give better results than the other.

Akash Shrivastava,

2012-11-01

112

The behavior of potassium in the blast furnace deduced from isotope tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two tracer tests were done with radioactive potassium (42 K) on blast furnace no. 1, Pretoria Works. Some 80% of the injected 42 K was recovered in 2 1/2 days. About 95% of both radioactive and natural potassium reported in the slag. Mean residence times of 18 and 25 hours confirmed the accumulation of potassium in the furnace. In these tests the slag basicity appeared to be an adequate indicator of furnace conditions governing the behaviour of potassium. A quantitative discontinious model with varying volume CSTR's and interflow controlled according to slag basicity - could be made to fit the results of both tests. The total amounts of K2O required by the model - 4 and 9 t respectively - were larger than estimates from input/output imbalance, or from mean residence time of the tracer

113

Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful mean to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF 2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials until the centre of the BF. Up-to-now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained with this probe allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and the operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is more lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced for 4.25 m in the furnace. In 20 months, it is more than 40 coke core borings which have been achieved on 9 different furnaces of 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it authorizes the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, the effect of the BF size. This text presents our approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings. 6 refs., 17 figs.

Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J.M. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)); Lao, D.; Eymond, J.L.; Fauchoit, P. (Sollac, 59 - Dunkerque (France)); Eibes, C.; Blaise, G.; Urvoy, A.; Helleisen, M.; Giroldini, F.; Hartig, M.; Rausch, H.

1993-04-01

114

Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful means to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons in weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials in the centre of the BF. Up to now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced 4.25 m into the furnace. In 20 months, more than 40 coke core borings have been achieved on 9 different furnaces in 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it enables the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, and the effect of the BF size. This paper presents an approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings.

Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J. [and others] [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

1996-11-01

115

Changes in the microstructure of coke while passing the blast furnace with respect to the quality of the charged coke and the behaviour of nut coke in the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides a comprehensive contribution to the understanding of the metallurgical stresses to which the coke is exposed in a blast furnace. The investigations refer to the change in the coke microstructure depending on the charged feed coke quality and the blast furnace operatic conditions. Also the behaviour of nut coke (coke - 35 mm) in the blast furnace is determined. To work on the scheduled activities and aims of the project various tools are used by the different partners. At TKS, a new microscopic measurement method quantifying the change in the coke carbon micro texture is used to compare the microstructure of feed coke, CRI/CSR treated coke and core drilled coke from the tuyere level of different TKS blast furnaces. Tuyere core drill exercises also are used to detect ZrO{sub 2} traced nut coke charged as mix with burden components in the lower part of the furnace, CSM used the MOSCA model and tuyere core drillings to investigate the behaviour of the nut at a blast furnace of Lucchini at Piombino (Italy). At MEFOS, cokes excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furance (EBF) are used as a basis for the research. The evolution of the EBF coke properties, particuly the carbon structure and alkali uptake were related to CO{sub 2} reactivity. At DMT synthetic coke materials of various qualites are produced for laboratory investigations also at the partner. The University of Aachen RWTH studies the behaviour of coke under various blast furnace scenarios to detect also the changes in the coke microstructure. 12 refs., 141 figs., 63 tabs.

Janhsen, U.; Guenbati, A.; Sautner, C. (and others) [ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

2007-07-01

116

Mathematical simulation of material trajectory for compact bell-less top of 'F' blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Correct prediction of material trajectory is a pre-requisite for effective burden distribution in a blast furnace. A mathematical model based on single particle approach has been developed to estimate the material trajectory for Tata Steel's 'F' Blast Furnace, fitted with a compact bell-less top (CBLT). The model has been validated with actual in-furnace measurements. Initial results about the applicability of the model are promising; however, further refinement is in the pipeline. 28 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Nag, S.; Koranne, V.M.; Bhattacharya, T.; Singh, U.; Basu, S. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

2004-07-01

117

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

2006-03-01

118

Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used [...] in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal) causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

Maria de Lourdes Ilha, Gomes; Eduardo, Osório; Antônio Cezar Faria, Vilela.

2006-03-01

119

Characterization of core-drilled cokes in a working blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A batch of tuyere-level core-drilled cokes, taken from a blast furnace working with coal injection has been characterized using a battery of analytical techniques. These included size exclusion chromatography (SEC), FT-Raman Spectroscopy (FT-RS) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). SEC tests on NMP-extracts of cokes taken from zones where temperatures were ca. 1500{sup o}C, showed the presence of heavy soot-like material (ca. 107-108 u apparent mass). By contrast, cokes in higher temperature zones (ca. 2000{sup o}C), only gave small amounts of extractable material with up to ca. 105 u apparent mass. The presence of soot-like material indicated the conversion-unfavoured locations at the tuyere-level. FT-Raman spectra of NMP-extracted cokes varied: the area ratios of D (at 1288-1295cm{sup -1}) to G (at ca. 1596cm{sup -1}) bands decreased as the exposure temperature increased. The random (r) fractions decreased with increasing exposure temperature, whereas, the graphitic (G) fractions increased whilst the defect (D) fraction showed a more complex variation with temperature. The latter is a likely indicator of graphitization of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. The Raman spectral results were validated by XRD analyses of the demineralised and NMP-extracted cokes. Raceway coke possessed the largest crystalline dimensions and closest inter-layer spacing because it had encountered highest temperatures as well as iron catalysis. The combination of SEC and Raman spectrometry on core-drill samples has provided information relevant for maintaining stable operation in a blast-furnace operating with coal injection. 13 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Shanning Dong; Nigel Paterson; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-07-01

120

Bosh slag chemistry control for high PCR and low slag volume blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the high pulverized-coal ratio (PCR) operation in the blast furnace, the slag volume should be minimized to secure good gas/liquid permeability in the low part of the blast furnace. As a measure of slag volume reduction, the MgO content in the sinter has been reduced to the level of 5%. As the slag volume is reduced, the chemistry of slags formed is expected to be changed. Using the tuyere probing technique in the field trials, the effects of slag volume reduction on the slag chemistry was studied. Based upon the analysis of the field trial data as well as laboratory experiment results, it is elucidated that the enhanced gas/liquid permeability is attributed not only to the slag volume reduction but also to the decrease of bosh slag viscosity. By lowering MgO content in the sinter, the bosh slag viscosity can be effectively decreased leading to a stable high PCR/low slag volume operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) [German] Bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten sollte die Schlackenmenge minimiert werden, um eine gute Durchgasung im unteren Teil des Hochofens zu gewaehrleisten. Bei Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wird eine Aenderung der Schlackenzusammensetzung erwartet. In Betriebsversuchen wurde der Einfluss der Schlackenmengenreduktion auf die Schlackenzusammensetzung durch Probenahmen durch die Blasformen untersucht. Gleichzeitig mit der Verringerung der Schlackenmenge wurde der Gehalt an MgO im Sinter auf rund 5% gesenkt. Auf Basis dieser Versuchsergebnisse und weiterer Labormessungen wird deutlich, dass die verbesserte Gas-/Schmelzdurchlaessigkeit nicht nur auf die Verminderung der Schlackenmenge, sondern auch auf eine geringere Viskositaet der Rastschlacke zurueckzufuehren ist. Durch Absenken des MgO-Gehaltes im Sinter kann die Viskositaet der Rastschlacke deutlich vermindert werden, was zu einer stabilen Betriebsweise bei hohen Kohlenstaub-Einblasraten und geringen Schlackenmengen fuehrt. (orig.)

Yi, S.H. [Technical Research Labs., POSCO, Pohang (Korea); Yi, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea)

2003-07-01

121

Effect of hot reducing gas (HRG) injection on blast furnace operational parameters: theoretical investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection rate of fossil fuels in the blast furnace is limited because of a drop in the flame temperature in the raceway as well as problems in deadman region and the cohesive zone owing to the unburnt char. An alternative option for coke saving, a clean deadman as well as increase in blast furnace productivity is injection of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas recycling after CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} removal. Calculations using a mathematical model show that HRG injection at higher temperature is desirable. Hot reducing gas injection is possible up to 300 Nm{sup 3} thm{sup -1}, above which the top gas temperature shoots up beyond practical limits. Furthermore, it also shows that if the flame temperature is maintained constant by varying steam and oxygen injection, the productivity is increased by 16% and coke rate is reduced by 84 kg thm{sup -1} with the replacement ratio of 1.4 kg coke/kg gasified coal at 300 Nm{sup 3}/thm of HRG injection. It was also observed that the complete replacement of pulverised coal (PC) injection with HRG injection is more effective over the coinjection of PC and HRG in terms of coke rate saving. However, oxygen enrichment is possible up to 75% with the coinjection of HRG and PC, with a resultant of rise in productivity. Injection of HRG in the form of top gas (blast furnace gas) is more effective over the injection of HRG generated from coal gasification. The productivity is increased by 25% and coke rate is reduced by 83 kg thm{sup -1} with the replacement ratio of 1.7 kg coke/kg HRG at 250 Nm{sup 3} thm{sup -1} of HRG injected from top gas.

Desai, B.; Ramna, R.V.; Sathaye, J.M. [Tata Steel, Burmamines (India)

2008-01-15

122

The Whyalla No. 2 blast furnace life extension with improved productivity and quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of the Whyalla No. 2 Blast Furnace has previously been reported, and at the time of that report it was planned that the furnace would be relined in January 1993. The actions and improvements previously reported have proved to be more beneficial than it was initially thought possible, and have since been progressed to the stage where a campaign life in excess of 15 years is now realistically targeted. This paper highlights the actions that have proved successful in exceeding 12 years of campaign life and current average productivity of 2.1 t/m[sup 3]/d I.V., fuel rate of less than 500 kg/thm and Hot Metal Silicon standard deviation less than 0.1%.

Ward, R.F.; Broadbent, P.F.; Tsalapatis, J.

1993-01-01

123

Fast neutron (14 MeV) activation analysis of fluorine in blast furnace slags  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents an application of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) for estimating the content of fluorine in blast furnace slag. The samples were irradiated for 200 sec. in a maximum neutron field of 1010 n/sec. Fluorine was detected by observing the 197 KeV gamma rays (T1/2 = 26.9 sec) following the 19 F(n,p)19 O reaction. The fluorine content was deduced by relating to standard (CaF2) samples measured in identical irradiation-measuring conditions. A maximum fluorine content of 3% was observed in our investigated samples. (Author)

124

Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

A. Bhattacharyya

2015-07-01

125

Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de la retracción por secado resulta un tema relevante, pues este parámetro determina la posibilidad de fisuración, y consecuentemente el deterioro de las propiedades mecánicas y durables de las estructuras. En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia que tiene la inclusión de contenidos variables de filler calcáreo y/o escoria granulada de alto horno al cemento portland sobre la retracción por secado de los morteros elaborados con ellos. Adicional mente se ha analizado la resistencia a flexión y el contenido de agua no evaporable. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la inclusión en forma conjunta o separada de estas adiciones incrementa la retracción inicial del mortero. Aun así, los morteros con filler calcáreo presentan una menor tendencia a la fisuración que los cementos con escoria o filler y escoria.

Carrasco, M. F.

2003-12-01

126

Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

1996-12-31

127

Material Recycling of Plastics in a Blast Furnace System; Hai purasuchikku kouro genryoka risaikuru  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NKK has developed a system in which waste plastics are pulverized by crushing and granulating of lumpy one or agglomerating of film type plastics and injected into a blast furnace. The plastics are used as a substitute for the coke used in ironmaking. The system with an annual capacity of 30,000ton, has been operated from October, 1996. It was found that the total recycling ratio of waste plastics reached as high as 76%, with 51% and 25% of material and thermal recycling respectively. (author)

Nemoto, Ken`ichi.; Iemoto, Mikoto.; Sekine, Shin`ya. [NKK Keihin Works, Kanagawa (Japan)

1999-02-15

128

Development of detecting technology of activity in blast furnace dead-man; Koro roshin kasseido kenshutsu gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blowing of pulverized coal (PC) into a blast furnace is effective for reduction in fuel cost. However, the problem in operation (e.g., deterioration in furnace permeability) is actualized during transition to the blowing specific operation of much PC. To measure the state of blast furnace dead-man more quickly, Nisshin examined the technology that detects the dead-man activity by measuring the pressure in a tuyere level. In other words, the pressure distribution in the tuyere level was measured, and the technology for detecting the dead-man activity was proposed. The technical possibility was confirmed by model experiment and numerical calculation. Moreover, an actual furnace evaluation test was made using tuyere zonde installed in Kure blast furnace 2. Because of dead-man inactivation (deterioration in permeability), the pressure in a tuyere level increases and the radial pressure gradient also increases. By measuring the pressure difference between the tuyere and dead-man, the dead-man activity can be univocally judged without the influence of permeability at the top of the furnace. The actual furnace test showed that the dead-man activity can be judged from pressure measurement data. 10 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Tomita, Y.; Kotani, S.; Takashima, K.; Tanaka, K.; Nunomura, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-31

129

A study of the behaviour of coal injected into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two part experimental study of coal injection into the iron blast furnace is reported. In the first part, a high-pressure, electrically-heated wire-mesh reactor is used to simulate conditions experienced by coal particles in the tuyere and raceway regions of a commercial furnace. Measurements at 3 bar and 1600{sup o}C, in 25% O{sub 2}, indicate that the extent of coal conversion is modest in the short times available (order of 20 ms) and that complete coal burn-out is dependent on exposure to CO{sub 2} rich gases in the raceway of the furnace for 10 or more seconds. In the second part, both Size Exclusion Chromatography and Fourier-Transform Raman Spectroscopy are being applied to the study of dusts recovered from the gas cleaning plants of commercial furnaces. Preliminary results suggest that both techniques show promise for differentiating between the various types of carbon present in the dusts, thereby providing a degree of early warning of poor injectant coal combustion in the raceway. 8 refs., 15 figs.

S. Dong; L. Wu; N.P.M. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-07-01

130

Application of surface contour gamma radar in automatic system for control burden surface state at a blast furnace top  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description and results of testing a quick-acting gamma radar, designed for rapid control of burden surface state on a blast furnace top, are presented. Tests showed that the radar enables to obtain rapidly important information about the character of burden material descent and peculiarities of technological process on the furnace top. Recommendations on effective application of the gamma radar in automatic control system are given

131

Numerical analysis on behavior of unburned char and fine coke in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model of blast furnace operation, which is able to estimate the behaviors of the unburned char and the fine coke simultaneously, has been developed. The model based on the multi-fluid theory treats dynamic powders that are moving entrained by the gas stream as individual phases and static powders as solid components. The former takes conservation equations of momentum, thermal energy, chemical species and continuity. The latter takes only mass balance equations of chemical species, and shares fields of flow and temperature with the other solid components, such as lump coke, sinter, and so on. In the simulations, the unburned char is derived from the pulverized coal injected from the tuyere, and there is no difference in model treatment between the unburned char and the pulverized coal. The fine coke is generated uniformly in the raceway region from the coke particles, and the generation rate is determined by a kinetic treatment. The simulation of the blast furnace operation by this model revealed that the unburned char and the fine coke having different diameters and densities show different flow patterns especially in the cohesive zone and deadman. Consequently these two powders formed different areas of accumulation and reactions while large amount of powders were deposited in the deadman zone regardless of difference in flow patterns.

Nogami, H.; Pintowantoro, S.; Yagi, J.I. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

2005-07-01

132

Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science & Engineering

2009-12-15

133

Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BHP Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 milliseconds. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 15 refs., 11 figs.

John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BHP Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2003-07-01

134

Numerical analysis on behavior of unburned char and fine coke in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model of blast furnace operation, which is able to estimate the behaviors of the unburned char and the fine coke simultaneously, has been developed. The model based on the multi-fluid theory treats dynamic powders that are moving entrained by the gas stream as individual phases and static powders as solid components. The former takes conservation equations of momentum, thermal energy, chemical species and continuity. The latter takes only mass balance equations of chemical species, and shares fields of flow and temperature with the other solid components, such as lump coke, sinter, and so on. In the simulations, the unburned char is derived from the pulverized coal injected from the tuyere, and there is no difference in model treatment between the unburned char and the pulverized coal. The fine coke is generated uniformly in the raceway region from the coke particles, and the generation rate is determined by a kinetic treatment. The simulation of the blast furnace operation by this model revealed that the unburned char and the fine coke having different diameters and densities show different flow patterns especially in the cohesive zone and deadman. Consequently these two powders formed different areas of accumulation and reactions while large amount of powders were deposited in the deadman zone regardless of difference in flow patterns.

Nogami, H.; Pintowantoro, S.; Yagi, J. [Ichinoseki National College of Technology, Ichinoseki (Japan)

2006-12-15

135

Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BlueScope Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 ms. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 17 refs., 11 figs.

John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2005-07-01

136

Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

2005-09-01

137

Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

El-Hussiny N.A.

2010-01-01

138

Improved CFD Model to Predict Flow and Temperature Distributions in a Blast Furnace Hearth  

Science.gov (United States)

The campaign life of a blast furnace is limited by the erosion of hearth refractories. Flow and temperature distributions of the liquid iron have a significant influence on the erosion mechanism. In this work, an improved three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the hearth of BlueScope's Port Kembla No. 5 Blast Furnace. Model improvements feature more justified input parameters in turbulence modeling, buoyancy modeling, wall boundary conditions, material properties, and modeling of the solidification of iron. The model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with the thermocouple data available, where agreements are established within ±3 pct. The flow distribution in the hearth is discussed for intact and eroded hearth profiles, for sitting and floating coke bed states. It is shown that natural convection affects the flow in several ways: for example, the formation of (a) stagnant zones preventing hearth bottom from eroding or (b) the downward jetting of molten liquid promoting side wall erosion, or (c) at times, a vortex-like peripheral flow, promoting the "elephant foot" type erosion. A significant influence of coke bed permeability on the macroscopic flow pattern and the refractory temperature is observed.

Komiyama, Keisuke M.; Guo, Bao-Yu; Zughbi, Habib; Zulli, Paul; Yu, Ai-Bing

2014-10-01

139

Determination of the coke bed voidage in the blast furnace hearth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the research were to develop and apply techniques and model tools allowing an online evaluation of the blast furnace hearth conditions and its permeability, in order to guarantee a stable furnace operation and to control the refractory wear through early corrective actions. CRM determined the coke bed voidage in the hearth of BFB of Cockerill-Sambre by two techniques: one based on pressure measurement inside the taphole and the other based on electromotive force measurement. A mathematicalmodel was developed taking into account the movements of the deadman. ln order to continuously determine the hot metal flow rate, BFI measured the filling level in the runner at BF 2 of TKS. A statistical wear model evaluated the cross-sectional runner geometry. The data have been fed into a model to calculate the coke bed voidage on multiple taphole blast furnaces. To control the wear caused by preferential liquid flow, Corus IJmuiden developed a monitoring of temperature and heat flux information from purpose-installed duplex thermocouples. This information has been correlated over time to identify any persistent trends and used to evaluate control measures such as blocked tuyeres and process shutdowns. Industrial trials at Fos BF1 enabled IRSID to propose a picture to describe the effects of the central coke charging practice. IRSID used the Fluent code to describe the liquid flow in the hearth with regard to the deadman conditions and to simulate tracer experiments. From studies of the behaviour of the hearth skull, Corus UK proposed a method for its monitoring. The iron flow rate was measured by using strain gauges attached to the torpedo ladles, and the slag flow rate was estimated from the slag pelletiser current. Data from tuyere core drilling samples were examined to estimate the voidage in the hearth. 38 refs., 127 figs.

Havelange, O.; Danloy, G.; Venturini, M.J. [and others] [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

2004-07-01

140

Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2009-03-15

141

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2015-02-01

142

CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-? SST and k-? Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

2015-02-01

143

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%. ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (% of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali Nazari

2011-09-01

144

The effects of ZnO2 nanoparticles on properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace Slag as binder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In the present study, flexural strength together with pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag with different amount of ZnO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granula [...] ted blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impact the properties of concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (%). ZnO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of 45 wt. (%) of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens was measured. ZnO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3 wt. (%) could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase flexural strength of concrete. The increased the ZnO2 nanoparticles' content more than 3 wt. (%), causes the reduced the flexural strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation together with unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. ZnO2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.

Ali, Nazari; Shadi, Riahi.

2011-09-01

145

Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

146

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muniz, M.

2009-07-01

147

Analysing blast furnace data using evolutionary neural network and multiobjective genetic algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately one year's operational data of a TATA Steel blast furnace were subjected to a multiobjective optimisation using genetic algorithms. Data driven models were constructed for productivity, CO{sub 2} content of the top gas and Si content of the hot metal, using an evolutionary neural network that itself evolved through a multiobjective genetic algorithm as a tradeoff between the accuracy of training and the network complexity. The final networks were selected using the corrected Akaike information criterion. Bi-objective optimisation studies were subsequently carried out between the productivity and CO{sub 2} content with various constraints at the Si level in the hot metal. The results indicate that a productivity increase would entail either a compromise of the CO{sub 2} fraction in the top gas or the Si content in the hot metal. The Pareto frontiers presented in this study provide the best possible parameter settings in such a scenario.

Agarwal, A.; Tewary, U.; Pettersson, F.; Das, S.; Saxen, H.; Chakraborti, N.

2010-07-15

148

Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

2013-06-01

149

Properties of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS at elevated temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal strength (NSC and high-performance concretes (HPC are being used extensively in the construction of structures that might be subjected to elevated temperatures. The behaviour of concrete structures at elevated temperatures is of significant importance in predicting the safety of structures in response to certain accidents or particular service conditions. This paper deals with the mechanical properties of concrete made with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS subjected to temperatures up to 350 °C. For this purpose, normal concrete having compressive strength of 34 MPa was designed using GGBFS as partial replacement of cement. Cylindrical specimens (150 × 300 mm were made and subjected to temperatures of 100, 200 and 350 °C. Measurements were taken for mass loss, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity. This investigation developed some important data on the properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperatures up to 350 °C.

Rafat Siddique

2012-01-01

150

Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

2014-02-15

151

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15

152

Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

Babich, A.

2005-12-01

153

Simulation of combustion and gasification behavior in blast furnace with pulverized coal and plastic injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of waste plastic recycling, the method of plastic injection with pulverized coal in a blast furnace is being carried out recently. In order to establish the injection technology and to find optimal furnace configurations, it is important to understand the behavior of plastic and pulverized coal in the blowpipe and raceway. In this work, a three-dimensional numerical simulation model is developed to investigate the pulverized coal and plastic injection effects. Gas flow is described by solving governing equations of mass, momentum, mass fractions of chemical species and enthalpy. It is treated for fuel particle phase with volatile release and char oxidation reaction model by Lagrangian descriptions. The fuel particle (particle diameter coal: 44-63{mu}m, plastic: 0.18-1.0 mm and 2-4 mm) is injected from the position of 300 mm upstream of tuyere tip. The calculated results are compared with available hot model experimental data. Coal particles injected into the blowpipe are heated rapidly and decomposed. On the other hand, plastic particles hardly burn within a blowpipe, due to the large heat capacity, and mainly burn within the coke bed. Therefore in the case of pulverized coal injection, the oxygen is rapidly consumed by volatile and char combustion, the maximum temperature position tends to move toward the tuyere tip compared with the case of plastic injection. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Akinori Goto; Tsuyoshi Yamamoto; Hideyuki Aoki; Takatoshi Miura [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2003-07-01

154

Laboratory experiments on materials for radioactive labelling of blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, the monitoring of refractory lining wear of hearth blast furnace uses for labelling of locations inside brick-work only two radionuclides 110m Ag and 60 Co. Consequently a great zone of hearth being unlabelled escapes to monitoring, leading to possible dangerous perforations. For augmentation of labelled hearth surface we have initiated research on 133 Ba, 134 Ce, 152+154 Eu, 204 Cl, and 65 Zn. It is known that it is not recommendable to use for labelling these elements in pure state because these are very reactive i.e. they are unstable, except for thallium. Moreover, at hearth and crucible temperatures they are volatile. Therefore, a major aspect that we took into consideration is the radioisotope chemical form which is used for radioactive labelling. In Ba or Eu case, oxides can be used being more stable but in Cs and Tl case, oxides are not useful; it is more suitable to employ simple or double silicates. Samples containing a mixture of pig iron, slag and silicates of the hearth furnace labelling elements have been prepared. After separation the samples were crushed and analysed by activation analysis. The obtained gamma spectra have shown the presence of Ba, Cs, and Eu separately in the slag sample into which they have been melt. (author) 2 tabs., 8 refs

155

Theoretical Study of COG and COG/BOF Gas Injection in a Blast Furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the availability of gases from the coke production and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process in an integrated metallurgical plant, a project of utilization of these gases is proposed. The gases are injected into the blast furnace to substitute reducing agents like heavy oil. The aim of this paper is to study the combustion characteristics of coke oven gas (COG) and a mixture of COG and gas from the BOF. The modeling approaches used are the thermodynamic equilibrium, the plug flow reactor (PFR) model with detailed chemistry (with and without consideration of the mixing time) and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling. Each approach leads to additional aspects for an improved understanding of the combustion processes. The COG/BOF gas mixture ignites earlier than the COG gas because of its different composition. The combustion of COG leads to a higher temperature due to its higher net calorific value so that the thermal strain on the tuyere is higher. The combustion of the COG gas results in higher H2O, H2 and CO and lower O2 and CO2 concentrations.

Andahazy, D.; Loeffler, G.; Winter, F. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Chemical Engineering at High Temperatures, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Feilmayr, C.; Buergler, T. [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

2005-06-15

156

Influence of nut coke on iron ore sinter reducibility under simulated blast furnace conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important factors to increase the economic efficiency of the blast furnace process is to reduced coke losses (undersieve product known as nut coke). In recent years there has been increased interest in mixing nut coke in the sinter layers. In order to clarify the influence of nut coke on sinter reducibility, sinter and sinter-nut coke mixtures were isothermally reduced with 30%CO-70%N{sub 2} at 1173-1523 K using a muffle furnace supported by an on-line gas analyser. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray technique were used to characterise the microstructure and the different phases developed in the original and reduced sinter. Sinter reduced without nut coke participation exhibited reduction retardation at elevated temperatures (>1373 K) while the presence of nut coke prevented such phenomena. The rate controlling mechanism of sinter and sinter-nut coke mixture was predicted from the correlation between apparent activation energy calculations, mathematical modelling derived from gas-solid reaction model and microstructure examination.

Mousa, E.A.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W.

2010-04-15

157

Transient mathematical model of blast furnace based on multi-fluid concept, with application to high PCI operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter current chemical reactor whose main purpose is to produce hot metal (pig iron) from iron oxides. In the furnace, five phases: gas, lump solids (iron ore, sinter, pellets and coke), liquids (pig iron and molten slag) and powders (tuyere injectants: pulverized coal, coke fines or dust from the lump coke) interact with one another. In order to evaluate productivity, energy efficiency and transient phenomena occurring in the blast furnace, a comprehensive two-dimensional transient mathematical model has been developed. The model was composed of conservation equations of mass, momentum, chemical species and thermal energy for all phases mentioned above. This model includes phase transformations and chemical reactions such as melting of pig iron and slag components, moisture evaporation, reduction of iron oxides, solution loss, coke and pulverized coal combustion, silica reduction and gas phase reactions. With this model, the transient behavior of the blast furnace process has been successfully predicted for different injection rates of pulverized coal. (author)

Castro, J.A.

2000-07-01

158

Silicon addition in charcoal blast furnaces. Part 1: pig iron/slag equilibrium; Incorporacao de silicio em altos-fornos a carvao vegetal. Parte 1: equilibrio gusa-escoria no cadinho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering that the silicon content in the iron is sometime the unique thermal control used in blast furnaces, it has been decided to investigate such silicon transfer in charcoal blast furnaces. The results from five industrial furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces have shown that also in charcoal operated furnaces such phenomena occurs, and the level of silicon oxidation depends on operational practices 7 refs., 7 figs.

Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Grossi [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

1987-12-31

159

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo / Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de t [...] opo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque). Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente. Abstract in english Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnac [...] e where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de, Matos; José Adilson de, Castro.

2012-03-01

160

Modelamento da utilização de aglomerado autorredutor em minialto-forno com recirculação de gás de topo Modeling of self-reducing agglomerates charging in the mini blast furnace with top gas recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minialtos-fornos são reatores que, tradicionalmente, produzem gusa a partir de carvão vegetal, utilizando minério granular com alguma substituição de minério por carga elaborada. Nesse trabalho, propõe-se a substituição de carga metálica por aglomerado autoredutor com reaproveitamento de gás de topo reformado em minialtos-fornos com cenários onde o agente redutor seria o CV e retorno de coque de grandes altos fornos (small coque. Essa tecnologia foi avaliada, utilizando-se um código computacional do alto-forno previamente validado, tendo como base fenômenos de transporte. Diversos cenários combinando carregamento de aglomerado autorredutor e reutilização do gás de topo foram simulados. Com base nos resultados de simulação, pode-se concluir que até 45% da carga poderia ser substituída por aglomerado autorredutor combinando reutilização do gás. As melhores condições indicaram aumento de produtividade da ordem de 8% com agente redutor carvão vegetal. Resultados mostraram que reduções da ordem de 30% e 40% de agente redutor podem ser alcançadas para operações com carvão vegetal e small coque, respectivamente.Mini blast furnaces are reactors that traditionally produce pig iron from charcoal using granular ore with some agglomerate substitution. This work proposes metallic burden replacement by self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas injected into the shaft of the mini blast furnace where charcoal or small coke from a large blast furnace are used as the reducing agent. This technology was evaluated using a previously validated, blast furnace computational code based on the transport phenomena. Several scenarios combining the charging of the furnace with self-reducing agglomerates and reutilization of cleaned top gas were simulated. Based on the simulation results, it can be concluded that up to 45% of the metallic burden could be replaced by self-reducing agglomerate combined with the reutilization of the top gas. The best conditions indicated an increase in productivity of around 8% with charcoal as the reducing agent. Results showed that decreases of 30% and 40% of the reducing agent could be achieved for operations with charcoal and small coke, respectively.

Ulysses Forastieri de Matos

2012-03-01

161

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15

162

Reactivity and conversion behaviour of Brazilian and imported coals, charcoal and blends in view of their injection into blast furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has been using pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology in blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal which has limited use due to high ash content is suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim of this study is to examine the reactivity and combustion behaviour of the mentioned materials. The use of charcoal in the Brazilian steel industry reduces the CO{sub 2} emissions, since it represents a renewable source of carbon. The reactivity of the coal, charcoal and mixtures is evaluated through TGA. To provide a useful insight into the practice of PCI in blast furnaces, experiments are carried out with a laboratory rig at RWTH Aachen University that simulates the behaviour of fines injected into the raceway. The results of this study are presented and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Machado, J.G.M.S.; Osorio, E.; Vilela, A.C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Research Group/LASID - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS - Technology Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Babich, A.; Senk, D.; Gudenau, H.W. [Institut fuer Eisenhuettenkunde/IEHK - RWTH Aachen (Germany)

2010-01-15

163

Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as ? Radiation Shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (?) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher ?r value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

164

The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review  

OpenAIRE

Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concer...

Lena Johansson Westholm

2010-01-01

165

The injection of ultrahigh rates of reducing gas into a modern blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot plant for gas injection consists of a screw compressor unit to supply two blast furnaces with reduction gas. Almost all of the reducing gas will react in the raceway; only a small part will combust inside the tuyere. Comparing different injection systems in the case with two lances, the gas will react faster than for the one lance system where the gas is more trapped inside a beam. During the project the melting rate of the furnace was increased by more than 30 %. Injecting reducing gas compensates increased raceway adiabatic flame temperature, RAFT by higher oxygen enrichment rates. The operation results showed that a lower RAFT and low-quality raw material result in increased consumption of reducing agents. 1 kg coke oven gas, COG substitutes 0.81 kg oil and 1.03 kg coke. Sulfur input was reduced by 40 % in comparison with heavy fuel oil operation. The top-gas calorific value is increased up to 30 %. This reduces the consumption of natural gas used to control a constant calorific value in the gas network. A high hydrogen content up to 12 % is no problem for the gas consumers. Tests with simultaneous COG/BOF gas injection have shown that a decrease in the oil rate can be compensated. The replacement of a carbon-rich resultant such as coke and oil in the BF process with a carbon-lean resultant such as COG leads to an absolute reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of the BF process and the power plant of approximately 184.000 t/a for both BFs or 102 kg/tHM. 3 refs., 98 figs., 16 tabs., 1 annex.

Buergler, T.; Skoeld, B.E. [Voestalpine, Linz (Austria)

2007-07-01

166

Control of heating coke-oven batteries by a mixture of coal gas and blast-furnace gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four coke-oven batteries in the Karaganda coking plant were heated by a mixture of coal gas and blast-furnace gas. Each battery consisted of 65 coke ovens, each with a volume of 21.6 m/SUP/3. The coke ovens started operation from 1960 to 1972. Disturbances in the heating systems started in 1972. Temperature distribution along heating channels was irregular and coking temperature in coke ovens decreased (temperature decrease was compensated by coking time increase). Investigations showed that disturbances in the heating system of 4 coke-oven batteries were caused by buildup of char and blast-furnace dust in the heating system of the batteries. The following countermeasures were used: improved system for dust separation from blast-furnace gas, replacing control equipment for coke-oven batteries every 3 years. These countermeasures were only partially effective. Temperature distribution in the heating system of the batteries deteriorated in 1.5-2.0 years after replacing control equipment. A procedure of removing buildup by a fire jet (combustion of coal gas, gas pressure ranging from 3 to 4 KPa, fire jet action from 15 to 18 min) followed by compressed air treatment (pressure 6 kG-force/cm/SUP/2) is described. Efficiency of buildup removal by a fire jet and compressed air is evaluated and shown in a table. (In Russian)

Chemarda, N.A.; Peshkov, V.I.; Galkin, V.V.; Ignatov, A.V.; Muzychuk, V.D.; Dobrovinskii, G.B.; Shkilev, A.F.

1982-12-01

167

Analysis of a blast furnace running using the multi-cylindrical model; Analise da marcha de um alto-forno atraves do modelo multicilindrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work describes a mathematical multi-cylindrical model for blast furnace running analysis based on global thermal and mass balances and process energy differential balance. It gives the characterization of the furnace operation radial variation using temperature and composition of the gas sampled at various points along of a penetrating lance installed in the furnace stack. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

Carneiro, Rogerio Tales Silva; Goncalves, Carmelio Augusto [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

1995-12-31

168

Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas' eva, Z.K.

2006-05-15

169

The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

Awang H.

2014-01-01

170

Time series analysis and prediction on complex dynamical behavior observed in a blast furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a strategy for building a predictive model for actual complex time series. Time series data of temperature fluctuations observed in a blast furnace for iron-making are taken as an example. Chaotic features of the data are investigated with diagnostic algorithm for instability and parallelism of neighboring trajectories in phase space reconstructed from the time series data. Stationarity of the data is examined with diagnostic algorithm based on the KM 2O-Langevin equations developed by Okabe. A short time series for which no control actions were taken to the plant during measurement is diagnosed as possibly low-dimensional chaos, while for a long time series including many control actions during measurement, determinism is less visible and its predicted behavior exhibits a scaling property similar to self-affine random noise. Characteristic exponents are estimated from the scaling properties of the prediction error as a function of the prediction-time interval. Such information is exploited as prior knowledge for designing a generalized Gaussian radial basis function network as a predictor. The performance of the network is improved when linear algebraic polynomials are added to the network. The characteristic exponents estimated are used as reliability indices of forecasting future trends of the data.

Miyano, T.; Kimoto, S.; Shibuta, H.; Nakashima, K.; Ikenaga, Y.; Aihara, K.

171

Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater (TP 45 mg l(-1)) was percolated through buckets planted with reed (volume 9.1 l; hydraulic load 151 m(-2) d(-1)). One group of buckets was kept under aerobic conditions and the other group under anaerobic conditions, monitored by continuous redox potential measurements. Even at high mass loading rates of 0.65 g P m(-1) d(-1) the slag provided 98% removal efficiency and showed no decrease in performance with time. However, phosphorus fractionation data indicate that the high phosphorus retention capacity under aerobic conditions is to a great extent attributable to unstable sorption onto calcium compounds (NH4Cl-P). Phosphorus sorption of both the slag (200 microg P g(-1)) and the iron-ore (140 microg P g(-1)) was promoted by predominantly anaerobic conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth. PMID:11804160

Grüneberg, B; Kern, J

2001-01-01

172

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

2010-04-01

173

Effect of blast furnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs) before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+). Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM III (Portland cement + blast furnace slag) cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material. (authors)

174

Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm. PMID:20064689

Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

2010-05-15

175

Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)2 solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO42? ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. - Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation

176

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y-1 for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y-1. (authors)

177

on the Structure and Viscous Behavior of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provided a fundamental analysis of the viscous behavior and structure of Ti-bearing blast furnace slags modified by different B2O3 additions with a basicity (CaO/SiO2) range of 0.5-0.9. The viscosity of slag melts was measured by rotating cylinder method, and the results showed that both slag viscosity and apparent activation energy for viscous flow remarkably decreased with B2O3 addition. To connect the viscosity variation of slags to the melt structure, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was performed. The results indicated that B2O3 acted as a typical network forming oxide, which was introduced into the network and existed dominantly as a two-dimensional structure, BO3 triangular. With the increase of B2O3 content, the stretching vibration of BO3 triangular gradually became more pronounced, which resulted in a simpler and less complex structure and caused the decrease of slag viscosity.

Sun, Yongqi; Liao, Junlin; Zheng, Kai; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

2014-10-01

178

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

179

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.

Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.

2009-04-01

180

Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

Sánchez, R.

2011-06-01

181

Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluorgypsum contents and lower Portland cement contents. These cements generated heats of hydration of 40–57 KJ/Kg after 28 hours, which are lower than portland cement.Se realizó la caracterización de la hidratación, desarrollo de resistencia y la composición de los productos de hidratación de los cementos supersulfatados durante las primeras 48 horas y hasta 360 días. Se estudiaron dos composiciones de 80% de Escoria de alto horno, 10–15% de Fluoryeso y 10–5% de Cemento portland, se curaron en condiciones secas y húmedas. Los principales productos de hidratación fueron etringita y C-S-H desde las primeras horas y hasta 360 días, como se evidenció por difracción de rayos X, análisis térmico y microscopía electrónica de barrido. La resistencia se favoreció con mayor contenido de fluoryeso y bajos contenidos de cemento portland. Estos cementos generaron calores de hidratación de 40–57 KJ/Kg después de 28 horas, los cuales resultan más bajos que los generados por el cemento portland.

Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.

2015-03-01

182

BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

2013-12-01

183

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

2007-08-01

184

Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

Ortega, J. M.

2014-03-01

185

Blast furnace process analysis using a mathematical thermochemical model; Analise da marcha do alto forno atraves do modelo termoquimico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical thermochemical model, based on the Rist Diagram theory, was developed at USIMINAS Research and Development Center in order to provide the blast furnace operator with a correct evaluation of some process instability. The model consists of a mass and heat balance applied to the bottom segment and to entire furnace, and evaluation of the main thermochemical parameters which help the process control and analysis. A practical example of the model application is presented during some instability periods of USIMINAS B F 3. The results confirms the method suitability for a correct instabilities prediction and provide elements for the countermeasures to be taken to assure an optimized B F practice. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Carneiro, Rogerio T.S.; Paiva Giudice, Francisco D. de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

1996-12-31

186

Injection of coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures by blast furnace`s tuyere; Injecao de misturas de finos de carvoes mineral e vegetal atraves das ventaneiras do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, fines injection by tuyere contributes directly to iron pig production in terms of reducing costs. Talking about Brazilian case, this paper has studied coal fines and charcoal fines mixtures combustion under conditions similar to blast furnace`s. In conclusion, this simulation showed that the mixture has presented a better performance than the other presented by coal fines or charcoal fines separately. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

Weber, Stephan Heinz J.V. [Industria de Aco Korf S.A. (IKOSA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Renato Minelli; Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica; Birkhauser, Lothar [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gudenau, Heinrich W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

1991-12-31

187

Upper limits to combustibility of pulverized coal in blast furnace raceway and desirable injection position. Koro raceway bu de no bifuntan no nensho ryo genkai to fukikomi ichi no tekisei ka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the combustion experiment on pulverized coal and analysis of a mathematical model, upper limits of pulverized coal injection and grain size with due regard to combustibility, and optimum injection method of pulverized coal to the blast furnace with regard to form of the raceway were investigated. An equation was derived for the estimation of the upper limits to the coal injection rate at which the pulverized coal can burn 100% in the tuyere combustion zone, and it was made clear that the upper limit in the particle size of granular coal is 0.70mm in terms of characteristic particle diameter. A relational expression was derived for optimum injection position of pulverized coal, injection rate of pulverized coal, and characteristic particle diameter to clarify that it is necessary to bring the injection position near the tuyere nose when the injection rate is increased. Since April, 1990, Kimitsu No.4 blast furnace continued stable operation at a high rate coal injection of 132kg/t, proving that the coke replacement ratio does not decrease at a low theoretical flame temperature of 2,050 {degree} C. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Amano, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tamura, K.; Sugata, M.; Ueno, H.; Yamaguchi, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-06-01

188

Implementation of top turbine of blast furnace 3 - USIMINAS Ipatinga; Implantacao da turbina de topo do alto-forno 3 - USIMINAS Unidade Ipatinga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of turbine for energy recovery from top gas from blast furnace is aligned with the strategic objectives of USIMINAS Ipatinga to increase their own power generation, reduce environmental impacts and improve operational control of pressure from the top. This study aimed to present the progress in controlling the top pressure and electric power generation using turbine drawing gas kinetic energy. Will be addressed by developing methods used to control the pressure of the top from the start of operation of Blast Furnace 3 to the present day. Will also be discussed operating procedures and expected performance. (author)

Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

189

Development of analytical methods for characterizing metallurgical coke and the injectant coal chars, tars and soots formed during blast furnace operation  

OpenAIRE

Blast furnace operation with coal injection at rates greater than 200 kg coal/tonne of hot metal, a rate less than the theoretical limit, has been often found problematic. The present study aims to gain a better understanding of the fate of injectant coal in the blast furnace by means of characterizing samples extracted from working BFs and pilot-scale rigs. The NMP (1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) solvent has been used to extract carbons relevant to BF operation, and comparison of the Size Exclusi...

Dong, Shanning

2008-01-01

190

Numerical analysis of blast furnace operations with top gas recycling; Analyse numerique de la conduite du haut-fourneau avec recyclage du gaz de gueulard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative blast furnace operations with top gas recycling after CO{sub 2} scrubbing were numerically examined. The fully kinetic mathematical model was applied to the operations with recycled gas injections into the tuyere and stack parts of the furnace, and the top gas recycling combined with waste plastics injection. The simulation results showed that the top gas recycling decreased the reducing agent rate and increased the productivity. (authors)

Nogami, H.; Chu, M.; Yagi, J.I. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

2005-03-01

191

The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

2014-04-01

192

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

193

Incorporação de lama de alto forno em cerâmica vermelha / Incorporation of blast furnace sludge into red ceramic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar um resíduo siderúrgico, a lama de alto forno, e avaliar o efeito da sua incorporação até 20% em peso nas propriedades e na microestrutura de uma massa argilosa. O resíduo foi submetido a ensaios de caracterização mineralógica, química, física e morfológica [...] . Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial a 20 MPa para queima em forno de laboratório a 900 ºC. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a lama de alto forno é constituída predominantemente de compostos de ferro e de material carbonoso. A granulometria deste resíduo é favorável à incorporação em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo ocasionou um efeito deletério nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da cerâmica queimada. Abstract in english This work has for objective to characterize a steel making plant waste, the blast furnace sludge, and to evaluate the effect of its incorporation, up to 20 wt.%, on the properties and microstructure of a clayey ceramic used for the fabrication of bricks and roofing tiles. The waste was submitted to [...] mineralogical, chemical and physical tests. In order to determine the physical and mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength, specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired in a laboratory furnace at 900 ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the blast furnace sludge is predominantly composed of iron compounds and carbonaceous material. The particle size of the waste is appropriated for its incorporation into red ceramics. However, the waste incorporation resulted in deleterious effect on the physical and mechanical properties on the fired ceramics.

C. M. F., Vieira; C. A. C. M., Dias; A. V., Mothé; R., Sánchez; S. N., Monteiro.

2007-12-01

194

Combined injection of coal, fine ore and iron containing recycling into the blast furnace - a new way to an ecological pig iron production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work emphasizes the tracing out blast furnace process as advantages and economical and ecological benefits by a combined coal/fine ore injection. The present researches aim an injection rate up to 300 kg/t of liquid pig iron.

Gudenau, H.W.; Azevedo, F.; Denecke, H.; Wippermann, S.

1995-07-01

195

Integration of the blast furnace route and the FINEX {sup registered} -Process for low CO{sub 2} hot metal production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blast furnace is the most important process for the production of hot metal. An integral part of this process route is the coking of coal and sintering of fine ore. The FINEX {sup registered} -process is a new technology for hot metal production which uses untreated fine ores and coal instead of sinter and coke. This paper deals with the investigation of integration concepts of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered}. Low reduced iron (LRI) and/or reducing gas are/is produced in FINEX {sup registered} and are/is considered as substitute/s of burden and fuel in the blast furnace, respectively. In the article the overall fuel demand and CO{sub 2} emissions for the integration of the blast furnace and FINEX {sup registered} are shown. For that reason two case studies for the integration are carried out and compared with the base case, that is, the two-independent processes. The CO{sub 2} emissions are calculated considering the fuel and electric power consumption of the different cases. (Copyright copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Thaler, Christoph; Schenk, Johannes L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Chair of Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria); Tappeiner, Tamara; Kepplinger, Werner L. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria); Plaul, Jan Friedemann [Siemens VAI Metals Technologies GmbH, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Stefan [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

2012-02-15

196

Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time. PMID:17532623

Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

2008-04-01

197

Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace; Prediccion mediante redes neuronales de la temperatura de arrabio de un horno alto. Temperatura subyacente de arrabio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

Cantera, C.; Jimenez, J.; Varela, I.; Formoso, A.

2002-07-01

198

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la presencia de char, muestra que con el aumento de la concentración del char, la resistencia del coque después de la reducción se hace más pequeña. La reactividad del char con el CO2 es más elevada que con la del coque. Por tanto, el char se consume con preferencia. En presencia del char inyectado aumentan el volumen total de poros del coque y la resistencia al desgaste. Se ha estudiado la reactividad y microestructura del coque con la presencia de distintos tipos de cenizas. Se observaron muchas esferas de ceniza sobre la superficie matriz del coque y el tamaño de las esferas depende de la naturaleza de las cenizas.

Gudenau, H. W.

2003-10-01

199

Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-08-15

200

Potential usage of 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in labelling of the blast furnace hearth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of the study concerning the possibility to use the radionuclides 133 Ba, 134 Cs, and 152 Eu in the labelling of the blast furnace hearth for monitoring the wear out of the refractory lining. One presents a mathematical modelling method, based on a Monte Carlo procedure which has been used to simulate the transmission of the gamma radiations in a radiometric system containing cylindrical samples of slag and a NaI(Tl) scintillation type detector. The detection probability per decay obtained with a computer program, for a sample in which one of the considered radionuclides is uniformly distributed, is used to estimate the minimum specific detectable activity; the adequate set of parameters different for each arrangement has been: radiation background, threshold energy of the detecting equipment and the measuring time interval. (author) 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

201

Experiences with the utilization of waste plastics in blast furnaces; Erfahrungen mit der Altkunststoff-Verwertung im Hochofenprozess  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a worldwide production of 1,417 million tons in 2010 steel is the most important metallic construction material. At the end of the life cycle steel is recycled completely. Subsequently, plastics follow with a worldwide production of 265 million tones in 2010. In contrast to the production of steel the recycling of plastics at the end of the life cycle resulted in a plurality of process solutions. Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Linz, Austria) has opened a new niche process by implementing recycling rates. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the use of waste plastics as a substitute for primary raw materials and as a reducing agent in blast furnaces.

Buergler, Thomas [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Unternehmensbereich Roheisen; Kieberger, Nina [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria). Projekt Kunststoffeinblasanlage

2012-11-01

202

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

203

Reduction effects of CO{sub 2} emission from steel products by reduction agent injection into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduction effects of CO{sub 2} emission from typical steel products by reducing agent injection into blast furnace were analyzed by Life Cycle Assessment methodology, using the statistical data. As the results, the reduction effects by pulverized coal injection and waste plastic injection were estimated to be 0.07 kg and 0.16 kg-CO{sub 2} at the point of 0.1 kg/kg-HM of injection, respectively. As the coke is replaced with pulverized coal on the equivalent in carbon content, the CO{sub 2} emission from coke manufacturing is reduced. And the reduction effect Of CO{sub 2} emission by waste plastic injection is higher than that by pulverized coal injection, because the replacement ratio of coke with waste plastics is higher. The injection ratio of waste plastics would not be raised to the same ratio as the pulverized coal in the viewpoint of the material balance of waste plastics.

Narita, N.; Sagisaka, M.; Inaba, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2001-07-01

204

[Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].  

Science.gov (United States)

There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

2014-01-01

205

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5, using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC and pH (9 and 12. Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC; Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC. An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

Monaliza Maia Rebelo

2012-01-01

206

Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno / Layered double hydroxides produced from blast furnace slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT) were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5), using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC) and pH (9 and 12). Depending of the temperatu [...] re two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC); Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC). An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

Monaliza Maia, Rebelo; Márcia Valéria Porto de Oliveira, Cunha; José Augusto Martins, Corrêa.

207

Study of the devitrification and hydration of vitreous, high-magnesia blast-furnace slag by means of differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) curves are presented for vitreous blast-furnace slag with a high magnesia content and an explanation for the various peaks on the curves is given. It is shown how DTA data can be used to estimate the slag content of mixtures of unhydrated Portland cement and granulated blast-furnace slag. DTA thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data are presented for blast-furnace slag hydrated in ambient conditions, in boiling water and in steam at 215 degrees Celsius. The products of hydration are mentioned. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the magnesium in the slag during hydration

208

Oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption optimization at hot stove of Usiminas blast furnace 3; Otimizacao do consumo de oxigenio e GCO nos regeneradores do alto forno 3 da Usiminas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the model developed for determination of the correlation between oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption in the hot stove at Usiminas blast furnace 3, the applicability and results obtained. (author)

Cervino, Marco Antonio; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usiminas, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

2001-07-01

209

Thermomechanical analysis of refractory lining in the blast furnace shaft; Analise termomecanica do revestimento refratario na regiao da cuba superior de um alto forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the temperature and thermomechanical stress profiles in the blast furnace shaft obtained by mathematical modelling, using ANSYS 5.1 software, which is based on finite element analysis to solve the differential equations pertaining to phenomena associated with temperature and stress fields. This model allows to conclude that the gunning reduces the brick temperature and the inner stress field. (author) 9 refs., 16 figs.

Andrade, Sidmei O.C. de; Correa Filho, Gerson [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Machado, Jackson C. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia de Obras

1996-12-31

210

Times series statistical model to relate blast furnace operation variables; Modelo estadistico en series temporales para la prediccion de la temperatura del gas de tragante del horno alto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work, through techniques seldom used in the iron making field, establishes a criterion to define the behaviour along the time of significant operating variables of the blast furnace. A time series autoregressive model has been developed, achieving with it an adequate forecasting level. The methodology used has been the Yule-Walker equations to establish the model, the Akaike test to choose the best one and the autocorrelation function analysis to check it. 15 refs.

Martinez, A.; Rieiro, I.; Formoso, A.; Cores, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

1995-11-01

211

Carbon structure of coke at high temperatures and its influence on coke fines in blast furnace dust  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermal annealing study of three industrial cokes was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace at a range of temperatures up to 1600 °C under N2. Evolution of the carbon structure of cokes was established by determining the stack height (L002) of aromatic carbon layers on the basis of the 002 carbon peak in their X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra by using the classical Scherrer’s approach. The heat-treatment temperature is shown to have a strong impact on the growth of crystalline order of coke carbon by demonstrating a linear correlation between the carbon crystallite height (L002) and the annealing temperature. The intensity of the thermal effects on the growth of the crystalline order of coke carbon is influenced by the coke ash chemistry, particularly with the iron content of the coke. The carbon structure of blast furnace (BF) dust samples was also analyzed by using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under a similar range of heat-treatment temperatures, growth of the carbon crystallite (L002) of coke, in both the laboratory and the industrial BF, was found to be of the same order of magnitude. The correlation between the carbon structure (L002) of coke and the annealing temperature is used to ascertain the temperature of the origin of coke fines in a BF. The carbon structure of coke is shown to have a significant influence on the coke behavior in a BF such that highly ordered coke displayed lower reactivity as well as higher proportion of coke fines in the dust. The carbon structure of coke fines in BF dust has been shown as an indicator of the crystallite dimension (L002) of the coke in a BF, and has a potential to assess coke performance, particularly of the coke fine generations from different thermal regimes of a BF and also their subsequent consumption.

Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Chaubal, Pinakin; Youmans, Ted

2005-06-01

212

Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal

213

Effect of cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of perovskite in high titanium-bearing blast furnace slag  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of cooling rate on the crystallization of perovskite in high Ti-bearing blast furnace (BF) slag was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Results showed that perovskite was the primary phase formed during the cooling of slag. On the slag surface, the growth of perovskite proceeded via the successive production of quasi-particles along straight lines, which further extended in certain directions. The morphology and structure of perovskite was found to vary as a function of cooling rate. At cooling rates of 10 and 30 K/min, the dendritic arms of perovskite crossed obliquely, while they were orthogonal at a cooling rate of 20 K/min and hexagonal at cooling rates of 40 and 50 K/min. These three crystal morphologies thus obtained at different cooling rates respectively corresponded to the orthorhombic, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures of perovskite. The observed change in the structure of perovskite could probably be attributed to the deficiency of O2-, when Ti2O3 was involved in the formation of perovskite.

Liu, Lu; Hu, Mei-long; Bai, Chen-guang; Lü, Xue-wei; Xu, Yu-zhou; Deng, Qing-yu

2014-11-01

214

Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

2014-01-15

215

Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag  

Science.gov (United States)

Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80-95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

Hyatt, N. C.; Schwarz, R. R.; Bingham, P. A.; Stennett, M. C.; Corkhill, C. L.; Heath, P. G.; Hand, R. J.; James, M.; Pearson, A.; Morgan, S.

2014-01-01

216

Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

217

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

2012-10-15

218

Activation of deadman state in the blast furnace using serpentine injection through tuyere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the injection test of serpentine through one tuyere executed as a means to improve the furnace lower filling structure, the tuyere sampler insertion depth and the deadman temperature rose greatly by the amount of the fine serpentine injection of 20 kg/t or more. It is presumed for the melting point of slag piling up in the deadman surface part to decrease by the injection of fine serpentine through tuyere, for the fine ratio (-3 mm) of the melt origin and a slag hold-up ratio to decrease greatly, and for the gas and liquid permeabilities in deadman to have been improved. In addition, the possibility that the desulfurization reaction is able to be promoted efficiently while maintaining the active state of deadman and the possibility of the low temperature operation by the serpentine injection through tuyere were suggested.

Ichida, M.; Orimoto, T.; Sakatani, M.; Nakamura, K.; Kumaoka, H.; Ueno, H. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan). Environmental & Protection Technology Center

2004-07-01

219

Char refiring under O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is attempted in pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace tuyeres to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. The unburned char can cause problems in the blast furnace operation, such as reduced permeability, undesirable gas/temperature distribution, excessive coke erosion and significant char carryover. In the near tuyere region the coal is injected with air but the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with a progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study an experimental approach has been followed to address this situation trying to separate the combustion process into devolatilization and combustion steps. Initially coal has been injected in a drop tube furnace (DTF) operated at 1300{sup o}C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration to ensure volatile combustion and prevent soot formation. Then the char has been refired into the DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxycombustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Also coal injection under higher oxygen concentration for both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres was performed. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke, and coals ranging in rank from high volatile to low volatile bituminous currently used for PCI injection. A thermogravimetric analyser and microscopy techniques have been used to find out about char reactivity and appearance. Different trends of burnout have been observed between the coals which are related with the characteristics of the parent fuels and those of the resolidified chars. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

D. Alvarez; M.D. Casal; A.G. Borrego; E. Osorio; A.C.F. Vilela [Instituto Nacional del Carbon(CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2007-07-01

220

Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

Safi, B.

2011-09-01

221

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. PMID:22440404

Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

2012-07-01

222

Temperature profile of the blast furnace tap hole wall; Monitoramento da temperatura e modelamento matematico do furo de corrida de alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USIMINAS blast furnace 3 tap hole wall was modeled using Finite Element Method (FEM), applying the software ANSYS 5.1 aiming to determine the temperature profile, in the wall and in the tap hole mix. This analysis allowed a visualization of the thermal cycle of the tap hole, during and after tapping. The temperature profile obtained was checked by measurement of the tap hole mix temperature, using a probe containing several thermocouple which was introduced through the hole after plugging. The paper compares the results of the profiles from FEM and those measured directly in the tap hole wall and mix. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Scudeller, Luis Augusto Marconi; Andrade, Sidmei Oswaldo Costa de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Pandolfelli, Victor Carlos; Anchieta Rodrigues, Jose de [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

1996-12-31

223

Environmental impacts of early metallurgy in Moshyttan : A study of one of Europe's oldest blast furnaces, using three lakes records in Nora bergslag  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the environmental effects of Moshyttan, one of the earliest known blast furnaces in Europe (ca. 11th century). The study was based on the analysis of three lake records in the immediate surroundings of the smelter. Fickeln lies directly downstream and is the main recipient of waterborne pollution. Mosjökälla lies directly upstream and served as the main water reservoir for the water-powered bellows. Kramptjärnen lies 1 km to the NW in a separate catchmen...

Myrstener, Erik

2013-01-01

224

Charcoal injection on blast furnace 2 of ACESITA/USIMINAS, Minas Gerais State. Brazil; Injecao de carvao mineral no alto-forno 2 da ACESITA/USIMINAS, MG, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The parameters of coal, which is injected into ACESITA`s number 2 blast furnace, are presented. The experience showed that ACESITA`s injection process is adapted for coal injection. The maximum pulverized coal rate achieved was 110 kg/Ton. When the pulverized coal injection in USIMINAS will be started, USIMINAS does not need purchasing more 120000 ton. of coke/year. The pulverized coal injection in USIMINAS blast furnace will be 120 kg/Ton (maximum). (author). 5 figs., 5 tabs., 2 refs

Braga, Raimundo N.B.; Goncalves, Henrique T.; Santiago, Rui; Silva Braz Neto, Jeronimo da [Acos Especiais Itabira (ACESITA), Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Andrade, Jose O.C. de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

1986-12-31

225

Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes estudiados en este trabajo está gobernado fundamentalmente por la repulsión estérica. Utilizando el modelo YODEL se ha podido predecir el esfuerzo de cizalla umbral de sistemas de escoria con y sin superplastificantes. Los resultados calculados están de acuerdo con los valores de esfuerzo de cizalla determinados experimentalmente.

Palacios, M.

2012-12-01

226

Study of permeability factors in blast furnaces with extremely low coke consumption; Studio dei fattori della permeabilita dell altoforno con bassissimi consumi di coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research project is to study the blast furnace permeability factors namely the downward movement of the burden and the pressure drop of the gases, which are critical when decreasing the coke rate to the minimum possible level in commercial operation. The experimental work has been carried out on a 1:10 scale physical model of the ILVA NO. 5 BF of Taranto Works (10.6 m hearth diameter). For the present research project it has been equipped with systems for blowing air from the tuyeres and measuring the air pressure at several points across the charge. The materials used were coke (5-10 mm size), and calcium nitrate (2-8 mm) simulating the ferrous materials. The calcium nitrate is dissolved along the ore melting line, previously defined by water vapour injected through a series of nozzles. The experimental procedure involves the model being operated first with coke only for a relatively long period in order to stabilize the dead-man; then the ore is charged and vapour is injected along the melting line until stable conditions are again attained. At that moment the complex structure of the charge, which simulates the blast furnace situation, is aerodynamically characterized by measuring the air pressure at different points along the radius on different levels of the model.

Giuli, M.; Falzetti, M.; Pinti, M. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Roma (Italy)

1997-12-31

227

The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

228

PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

2010-04-15

229

Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

230

Strength, leachability and microstructure characterisation of Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag solidified MSWI fly ash.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were measured and analysed. For the leachability of unstabilized MSWI fly ash it was found that the concentrations of Pb and Cr exceeded the leaching toxicity standard. Cementitious solidification of the MSWI fly ash by Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (NS) was investigated. Results show that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standards after 28 days of curing. The heavy metals were immobilized within the hydration products such as C-S-H gel and ettringite through physical encapsulation, substitution, precipitation or adsorption mechanisms. PMID:17985665

Zhang, Dajie; Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; He, Xinghua

2007-10-01

231

Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

2011-07-01

232

The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

Joeri Van Mierlo

2013-03-01

233

Operation of blast furnace gas (BFG) gas holder with ld gas (LDG); Operacao do gasometro de gas de alto forno com gas de aciaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intendente Camara plant, one of USIMINAS steel works, located in Ipatinga - MG, operates its network of process gases with two Coke-Oven Gas (COG) oil-seal gas holders, one Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) oil-seal gas holder and a LD gas (LDG) telescope type gas holder. During the repair of LDG gas holder, this gas would be completely burned in the flares for a period of five months. Due to this loss, the cost of additional fuel and interventions in the production rhythm of the Hot Strip Mill, its biggest consumer, would be high. This paper presents the philosophy and pillars that mitigated these losses, highlighting how it was possible to operate the BFG gas holder with LDG, the achieved economy and lessons learned from the process. (author)

Sampaio, William Genelhu; Valentino, Waldir Smith [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

2010-07-01

234

Theoretical analysis on the injection of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} rich gases into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is the determination of the combustion characteristics of two different fuel gases for their blast furnace utilization. The availability of gas from the coke production as well as from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process in an integrated metallurgical plant makes it possible to substitute reducing agents like oil. For a description of the varieties of the gases, coke oven gas (COG) and a mixture of COG and BOF gas, four independent modeling approaches were applied to cover all aspects. The different applied modeling approaches are the thermodynamic equilibrium, the plug flow reactor (PFR) model with detailed chemistry with or without, resp., consideration of the mixing time and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This guarantees an improved understanding of the whole combustion process. The earlier ignition of the COG/BOF gas mixture in comparison to the COG can be ascribed to the higher excess air ratio, in spite of the better ignition propensity of COG. The higher net calorific value of the COG results in higher combustion temperatures, which implicates a higher thermal strain on the tuyere. In addition, greater amounts on CO and H{sub 2} in the raceway result from the COG combustion.

Andahazy, D.; Loffler, G.; Winter, F.; Feilmayr, C.; Burgler, T. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

2005-07-01

235

Thermoeconomical analysis of CO{sub 2} removal from the Corex export gas and its integration with the blast-furnace assembly and metallurgical combined heat and power (CHP) plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the possibility of integration of the Corex process, blast furnace, CO{sub 2} removal installation and metallurgical combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Such an integration has significant advantages from the technical and environmental points of view. As the Corex export gas (after CO{sub 2} removal) is a highly valuable reducing agent, it is proposed to use it as a reducing gas injected to the thermal reserve zone of the blast-furnace process. Such an application leads first of all to a saving of coke. Besides the reduction of the consumption of coke, also the consumption of blast, high-purity oxygen, the amount and lower heating value (LHV) of blast-furnace gas as well as many other parameters are changed. CO{sub 2} separation is realized by physical absorption, which has been chosen and analysed as the most appropriate technology in similar applications. Higher LHV of the Corex gas obtained by CO{sub 2} removal provides the possibility of its utilization in the gas-and-steam CHP plant. Such a possibility has been also tested by means of energy and economical analyses. (author)

Lampert, Krzysztof; Ziebik, Andrzej; Stanek, Wojciech [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

2010-02-15

236

Thermoeconomical analysis of CO{sub 2} removal from the Corex export gas and its integration with the blast-furnace assembly and metallurgical combined heat and power (CHP) plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the possibility of integration of the Corex process, blast furnace, CO{sub 2} removal installation and metallurgical combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Such an integration has significant advantages from the technical and environmental points of view. As the Corex export gas (after CO{sub 2} removal) is a highly valuable reducing agent, it is proposed to use it as a reducing gas injected to the thermal reserve zone of the blast-furnace process. Such an application leads first of all to a saving of coke. Besides the reduction of the consumption of coke, also the consumption of blast, high-purity oxygen, the amount and lower heating value (LHV) of blast-furnace gas as well as many other parameters are changed. CO{sub 2} separation is realized by physical absorption, which has been chosen and analysed as the most appropriate technology in similar applications. Higher LHV of the Corex gas obtained by CO{sub 2} removal provides the possibility of its utilization in the gas-and-steam CHP plant. Such a possibility has been also tested by means of energy and economical analyses.

Krzysztof Lampert; Andrzej Ziebik; Wojciech Stanek [Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland). Institute of Thermal Technology

2010-02-15

237

Evaluation of mixtures of sugar cane bagasse and charcoal to inject in the blast furnace tuyeres; Avaliacao do uso de mistura de bagaco de cana-de-acucar com carvao vegetal para injecao nas ventaneiras do alto-forno  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the possibilities for using mixtures of sugar cane bagasse and charcoal for injecting into tuyeres of blast furnaces. Mixtures varying by 20 % from 0 till 100 % of charcoal in these have been done. The Bagasse can be used for energy generation to produce steam, as electrical main source, and now it is proposed a possible use to be considered in powder to be injected into blast furnaces.. The main advantage is under the point of view of Environment, but in some cases and time, can be a good opportunity to reduce the cost for producing hot metal. Based on this idea, it is proved that fossil fuels can be partially substituted using this biomass, giving the concept of zero consumption and generation of CO{sub 2}. That means reducing the Green House Effect. (author)

Brum, Janaina Solvelino; Silva, Thiago Lucas da; Reis, Eric Rafael dos; Assis, Paulo Santos [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas; Silveira, Natalia Carolina da [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas

2009-11-01

238

Técnicas de caracterização para o desenvolvimento de massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos / Characterization techniques for the development of blast furnace tap hole mixes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As massas de tamponamento para furos de corrida de altos-fornos são materiais refratários diretamente ligados a toda logística de produção de ferro gusa, pois é um dos agentes responsáveis pela estabilidade de vazamento destes equipamentos siderúrgicos. Durante a injeção da massa no interior do furo [...] (na operação de tamponamento do forno), toda a escória e gusa remanescentes devem ser conduzidas para dentro do forno, a fim de que o furo seja completamente preenchido. Além disso, este produto deve recompor o cogumelo, que é a parte interior do cadinho do alto-forno, formada principalmente por massa de tamponamento antiga. No momento do vazamento do forno a massa de tamponamento, que foi injetada, curada e sinterizada no furo de corrida, deve apresentar relativa facilidade de perfuração por uma broca conduzida por máquina perfuratriz, proporcionando vazamento estável do forno. Desta forma, a massa de tamponamento é um material refratário monolítico de elevado nível tecnológico, com um conjunto de características que deve atender plenamente a exigências distintas. Ao mesmo tempo em que o produto deve apresentar determinado nível de densificação para suportar o agressivo ataque do gusa e da escória líquidos, deve proporcionar também relativa facilidade de perfuração, com um adequado nível de porosidade após sua sinterização. Além disso, este produto deve suportar condições extremamente elevadas de temperatura e pressão interna do alto-forno. Neste trabalho serão apresentadas técnicas de caracterização das massas de tamponamento para altos-fornos focando o balanço entre suas principais características. Entre estas, serão considerados aspectos ligados à adesão, usinabilidade e densificação do produto. No final será aplicada a metodologia AHP (Processo de Hierarquização Analítico) para priorização e escolha da melhor formulação testada, considerando-se todos os parâmetros envolvidos. Abstract in english The hot metal production process is very dependent on the performance of the taphole mix, which directly influences the stability of the blast furnace. During the plugging operation the taphole mix must conduct all the metal and slag back into the furnace, thereby filling in and sealing the hole. Ad [...] ditionally it must also adhere to the old mix and recompose the so-called mushroom, which protects the inner part of the furnace hearth. Conversely, for the tapping operation, the mix, which has been cured and sintered, needs to be easily drilled in order to provide a stable and safe tapping? Therefore, the taphole mix is a complex and highly technological refractory product, designed to attend widely different demands. During operation it must be sintered and consolidated in order to attain good corrosion/erosion resistance against slag and hot metal, whereas for the tapping operation it must be soft enough to provide an easy drilling. Moreover, the taphole mix should resist to high temperatures and to the high pressure coming from the inner part of the blast furnace. In this work, a number of tests are presented in order to evaluate the performance of taphole mixes. The experiments were selected according to the most important demands that the mixes need to attain in actual operations: extrusion index, adhesion capacity, drilling resistance, mechanical strength, refractoriness, and others. The results of the tests were assessed according to the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method, which allows for the selection of the best formulation considering all parameters involved.

A. S., Ribeiro; G. F. B. Lenz e, Silva; H. C., Bassalo; P., Bonadia Neto; V. C., Pandolfelli.

2013-03-01

239

Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

1996-12-31

240

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH)2-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH)2 and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH)2 occurs only with the use of Ca(OH)2, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO3), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH)2. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH)2, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH)2 causes some degree of carbonation

241

Resistencia a los cloruros en el concreto adicionado con escoria de alto horno / Resistance to chloride in the additioned concrete with blast furnace slag  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar la resistencia a los cloruros en diferentes mezclas de concreto se realizó el ensayo de permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, estipulado en la norma ASTM 1202 [1]. Para ello se utilizó un equipo hecho en el país que sigue los requerimientos dados por esta norma. Se ensayaro [...] n concretos con 6 diferentes relaciones agua/cementante (a/c) y tres porcentajes de adición de escoria en reemplazo de parte del cemento. Aunque la edad a la que se evaluaron las muestras de concreto fue la misma, también se varió el tiempo de saturación de las muestras en agua. Abstract in english For determining the chloride resistance of different concrete samples, the rapid chloride permeability test was used. This procedure has been established in the standard test method ASTM 1202 [1] For this purpose, national equipment was used. It follows the specifications of the me [...] thod. The tested concretes had 6 different water/binder ratios (w/b) and three percentages of blast-furnace slag as a replacement of part of cement. Although the age of the concrete was the same in all the cases, the time of saturation in water was different.

Naliett Karina, Santamaría Díaz; Luis Eduardo, Yamín Lacouture; Carlos Alberto, Arcila López.

2006-05-01

242

Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

Dawei Zhao

2014-05-01

243

Coke degradation mechanism and properties with less fine generation in lower part of blast furnace; Koro rokabu ni okeru kokusu no funka kiko oyobi nanfunka seijo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the coke degradation mechanism in the lower part of blast furnace, several kinds of model experiment were conducted based on the conditions that are possible to occur in the above region by considering the reaction form, reaction temperature, reaction degree and impact energy with 15 kinds of coke having different strength and reactivity. In the above region, the control reaction affected more on the coke degradation and fine generation is CO{sub 2} gasification than contact to molten FeO or contact to molten metal. As coke is received CO{sub 2} gasification, fine (-1 mm) is generated from the degraded part by abrasion. One property of coke with less fine generation is that having high cold strength (I{sub 1}{sup 600}{>=} 86%) and low reactivity (CRI {<=} 25%), and the other is that having high cold strength and high reactivity (CRI {>=} 45%). In the former coke, CO{sub 2} gasification is gathered only on the surface of particle, and in the latter coke, CO{sub 2} gasification is occurred in the whole area of particle. From now on, the coke breakage mechanism in the above region will be expected to be researched. (author)

Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi [Nippon steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Steel Research Laboratories; Uno, Takeo [Shin-nikka Environmental Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Kimitsu Branch

1999-09-20

244

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo / Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. [...] Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L.) Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos. Abstract in english This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel produ [...] ction by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L.) Merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3). The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano, Gargantini; A. Gentil, Gomes.

245

Tests with blast furnace slag as bed material in a 12 MW waste fired BFB boiler; Fullskalefoersoek med Hyttsand som baeddmaterial i 12 MW avfallseldad BFB-panna  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A full-scale trial has been performed at Saeverstaverket twin 12 MWth BFB boilers in Bollnaes using Hyttsand (a proprietary blast furnace slag) as bed material. The purpose has been to investigate if Hyttsand can be used as bed material in FB boilers for difficult types of fuels. Used fuel has been municipal waste, recovered wood fuel and different types of bio fuels. The test period was 19 days and nearly 100 tons of Hyttsand was used. The most important conclusions are: Good fluidisation can be achieved with Hyttsand as bed material. Hyttsand can fluidise without any changes in boiler settings. Hyttsand can also be mixed with Baskarpsand (a natural sand with over 90% SiO{sub 2}) and used as bed material without any negative changes to the boiler performance. Bed material make-up rate is reduced with up to 30 % when using Hyttsand compared to using Baskarpsand. Other conclusions are: Bed temperature increased slightly and bed temperature deviation decreased. Emissions was in general not affected, however emissions of SO{sub 2} increased slightly. More deposit containing more sulphur was formed on superheater surfaces when using Hyttsand. The increased amount of sulphur when using Hyttsand could be an effect of higher content of sulphur in the fuel or, which is more likely, that sulphur is released from Hyttsand and forms gaseous sulphurous gases. No significant change in produced amounts of fly-, cyclone- or bottom ash. Hyttsand and Baskarpsand had both similar coatings on their particles and similar agglomeration tendencies. There have been some start-up problems during the trials, including two more severe boiler disturbances, but most of these disturbances can be explained and avoided in the future. Previous investigations in laboratory scale using Hyttsand as bed material when firing different bio fuels have shown the advantage of Hyttsand with its higher resistance against a chemical reaction with alkali in the fuel ash compared to conventional bed materials, e.g. quartz. However, in these trials a waste fuel was used and all the analysed sintered samples clearly showed that melted glass was the main reason for de-fluidisation and bed sintering and not the reaction between alkali and the bed material. Therefore, the risk for bed sintering was not reduced when using Hyttsand in this boiler for this kind of waste fuel and the effect of glass in the bed was not studied in the laboratory tests. Hyttsand is today sold commercially with a high quantity available. The advantage of Hyttsand is a lower cost per kWh, despite a higher purchase price, due to the reduced bed consumption and that the cost for taking care less amount of used sand and ash also decreases. Also, Hyttsand opens the possibility of firing more difficult and less expensive fuels.

Eklund, Anders; Oehman, Marcus

2004-11-01

246

Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L. Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos.This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L. Merril was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3. The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

1962-01-01

247

Influencia de la adición de escoria de alto horno en la penetración de los cloruros en el concreto / The influence of the blast furnace slag replacement on chloride penetration in concrete  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido a que en estructuras de concreto hechas con cemento Portland la penetración del ion cloruro es la principal causa de deterioro por corrosión del refuerzo, el estudio y prevención de los mecanismos que generan corrosión en el concreto son fuentes de constante investigación. En el presente artí [...] culo se presentan los resultados de una investigación analítica y experimental sobre la influencia de la adición de la escoria de alto horno en las propiedades que gobiernan los fenómenos de transporte iónico del concreto, especialmente los del ion cloruro. Las relaciones entre los coeficientes de difusión con la resistividad eléctrica, la carga pasada y la resistencia a la compresión, fueron evaluadas para mezclas con diferentes porcentajes de remplazo de escoria. De la misma forma, mediante un modelo computacional y un ensayo de migración eléctrica se obtuvieron los coeficientes intrínsecos de difusión, la porosidad, la capacidad de fijación de cloruros y la concentración química de la solución de poros. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la escoria aporta importantes beneficios en la penetración del ion cloruro, obteniéndose un concreto menos vulnerable a la corrosión. Abstract in english Corrosion of steel reinforcement due to chloride penetration is the greatest cause of durability problems in concrete; intense international research has been carried out to understand and avoid this. This paper summarises the results of a theoretical and experimental research programme investigatin [...] g the influence of blast furnace slag on chloride-related transport properties. The relationship between the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity and compressive strength was measured. Chloride, hydroxide, sodium and potassium’s intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained by using a computational model and an electrical migration test. The initial hydroxide composition of the pore solution, porosity and chloride binding capacity were also determined from the model. The results showed that blast furnace slag improved chloride penetration resistance, resulting in concrete which was less vulnerable to corrosion.

Juan, Lizarazo Marriaga; Peter, Claisse.

2011-08-01

248

EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE UNIDADES SÍLICO-CALCÁREAS A PARTIR DE ESCORIA DE ALTO HORNO Y CAL HIDRÁULICA PARA MAMPOSTERÍA / EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SILICON - CALCAREOUS UNITS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND HYDRAULIC LIME FOR MASONRY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo estudia la posibilidad de fabricar elementos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería a partir de dos tipos de materias primas como son las escorias de Alto Horno y las cales hidráulicas. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron algunas propiedades físicas de las probetas fabricadas con los [...] anteriores materiales con respecto a la Norma Técnica Colombiana, para 5 tipos de mezclas que varían entre 10 y 50 % de cal. Los resultados mostraron que es factible la fabricación de ladrillos sílico-calcáreos para mampostería que cumplen con la NTC 922. Abstract in english The present paper studies the possibility of making silicon-calcareous elements for masonry from two types of raw material like the blast furnace slag and hydraulic limes. In the present study some physical properties of samples made according to the Norma Técnica Colombiana with the previously ment [...] ioned materials were evaluated for 5 types of mixtures that vary among 10% and 50% of lime. The results show that the silicon -calcareous brick manufacture is feasible for masonry that fulfills the NTC 922.

NILSON, ARIEL LEÓN; NÉSTOR RICARDO, ROJAS REYES; BERNARDO, UMBARILA SUÁREZ; M. OSWALDO, BUSTAMANTE R..

2009-12-01

249

Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-12-21

250

Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative roofing tiles were similar to the ceramic tiles and could be used as a substitute for asbestos roofing tiles.

Maristela N. da Conceição

2008-10-01

251

Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace  

OpenAIRE

Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

Baricova?, D.; Futa?s?, P.; Pribulova?, A.; Fedorko, G.; Demeter, P.

2012-01-01

252

Identification of the influence of blast-furnance working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnance gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of theoretical empirical mathematical model the of blast furnace and energy characteristics of a Cowper stove to identify the influence of working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnace-gas has been discussed. Results of exemplary calculations have also been presented.

Stanek Wojciech

2003-12-01

253

Identification of the influence of blast-furnance working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnance gas  

OpenAIRE

The application of theoretical empirical mathematical model the of blast furnace and energy characteristics of a Cowper stove to identify the influence of working parameters upon the supply and net calorific value of blast furnace-gas has been discussed. Results of exemplary calculations have also been presented.

Stanek Wojciech; Ziebik Andrzej

2003-01-01

254

Caracterização mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída para aplicações em estradas florestais / Mechanical characterization of soil and granulated blast furnace slag mixtures for forest road applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo objetivou avaliar a resistência mecânica de misturas solo-escória de alto-forno granulada moída e ativada com cal hidratada, para aplicações como camada de pavimentos de estradas florestais. O solo analisado é um residual jovem de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, de t [...] extura areno-silto-argilosa, classificado como A-2-4 (0) pelo Sistema TRB e como NS' pela Metodologia MCT. A escória de alto-forno granulada moída empregada foi fornecida pela companhia brasileira Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. Utilizou-se uma cal hidratada comercial como agente ativador das reações de hidratação da escória. Trabalhou-se com teores de escória de 5, 10 e 15%, em relação à massa de solo seco, e de cal hidratada de 5, 10 e 20%, em relação à massa seca de escória. O estudo englobou a realização de ensaios de caracterização química da escória e de caracterização geotécnica do solo, bem como ensaios de compactação e de compressão não-confinada das misturas na energia de compactação do Proctor intermediário, considerando-se os períodos de cura em câmara úmida de 1, 7 e 28 dias. Os resultados indicaram ganhos significativos de resistência mecânica das misturas com relação ao solo, observando-se aumentos expressivos na resistência mecânica, com aumentos nos teores de escória, cal e período de cura. Abstract in english This paper addresses the evaluation of the mechanical strength of mixtures of a soil and a granulated blast furnace slag activated with hydrated lime for forest road engineering applications. The tested soil is a young residual gneiss soil classified as A-2-4 (0) by the TRB System and as NS' by the [...] MCT Methodology. The slag was supplied by the Brazilian company Valemassa Indústria e Comércio de Argamassa Ltda. A commercial hydrated lime was used to activate slag hydration reactions. The laboratory testing program encompassed the following: geotechnical soil characterization; specimens prepared at slag contents of 5, 10 and 15 % related to the soil dry mass, and lime contents of 5, 10 and 20 % related to the dry slag mass; specimens compacted at the intermediate Proctor compaction effort; unconfined compression strength tests performed in specimens at the curing times of 1, 7 and 28 days. Data from the laboratory testing program supported significant increase in mechanical strength of mixtures when increasing slag and lime contents, as well as curing time.

255

Mezcla ternaria de cemento Portland, escoria de alto horno y piedra caliza: Resistencia mecánica y durabilidad / Ternary mixture of Portland cement, blast furnace slag and limestone: Mechanical Strength and Durability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los cementantes compuestos, basados en la sustitución parcial del cemento por otros minerales y/o subproductos industriales, surgen como una alternativa sostenible técnica y ambientalmente. Se basan en la introducción de dos o más adiciones para obtener mejores propiedades finales a través de los ef [...] ectos sinérgicos de sus componentes. El presente trabajo estudia el efecto en las propiedades de desempeño de un cemento portland cuando se incorpora adición de caliza (hasta 20%) y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno (hasta 30%), para generar una mezcla ternaria. Las propiedades evaluadas fueron resistencia a la compresión, absorción y porosidad, succión capilar, permeabilidad a cloruros, y resistencia química de los morteros expuestos a sulfatos. Los resultados indican que la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los cementos ternarios es hasta un 35% superior con relación al mortero de referencia y a su vez presentan menores coeficientes de succión capilar, confirmando la acción tanto de carácter físico como químico de los materiales de adición. Respecto a la resistencia al ataque por sulfatos el mejor comportamiento lo presento la mezcla con menor porcentaje de caliza; en este caso se determinaron los productos de reacción formados utilizando difracción de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Abstract in english The blended cements based on partial replacement of cement by other minerals and / or industrial by-products arise as a technically and environmentally sustainable alternative. These cements are based on the introduction of two or more additions for better final properties through the synergistic ef [...] fects of its components. The present research examines the effect on the performance properties of Portland cement with addition of limestone (up to 20%) and blast furnace slag (up to 30%), to generate a ternary mixture. The compressive strength, absorption and porosity, capillary suction, chloride permeability, and chemical resistance of mortars exposed to sulfates were evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of the cements ternary is up to 35% higher with respect to the reference mortar and in turn have lower coefficients of capillary suction, confirming the action of both physical and chemical nature of the materials addition. The best performance of resistance to sulfates attack was found in mixture with minor proportion of limestone. The characterization of the reaction products was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Jherson, E. Díaz; Silvia, R. Izquierdo; Ruby, Mejía de Gutiérrez; Marisol, Gordillo S.

2013-12-01

256

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

257

Vitrification furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive liquid wastes formed in a nuclear power plant are mixed with liquid glass in a vitrification furnace in a liquid waste processing facility, and then they are filled into a glass solidification vessel and solidified. A reflection plate is disposed at a predetermined position of a lower portion of a flow down nozzle disposed at the bottom of a main body of the vitrification furnace. The flowing down nozzle is heated by heating coils, and liquid glass is started to be flown down from the flowing down nozzle. In this case, radiation heat generated by the heating coils is reflected to the lower end of the flow down nozzle by the reflection plate. Temperature at the lower end of the flowing down nozzle is made substantially uniform in the circumferential direction, and the viscosity of the liquid glass flowing down the flowing down nozzle is not varied substantially in the circumferential direction. As a result, the liquid glass flowing down the flow down nozzle is not curved but fallen substantially vertically. (I.N.)

258

Blast Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... or exercise until cleared by their medical provider. Limit activities that require intense concentration, such as writing reports or playing video games. More Information: 04/12/11: Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain 04/06/09: Military Studies Shed Light on Brain Injuries From Blasts ...

259

The influence of forced draft system on the efficiency of scavenging in the production of stainless steels in arc furnaces. Communication 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using cold simulation techniques, the influence of the design of blasting devices on the blasting efficiency when making stainless steels in arc furnaces has been studied. A tuyere directing oxygen to the centre of the steel bath of an electric steel-making furnace is shown to be most effective

260

Reactivity to CO{sub 2} of chars prepared in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures for pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace in relation to char petrographic characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres in order to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack. When coal is injected with air in the region of tuyeres, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study, an experimental approach comprising refiring has been followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. A drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration was used to simulate devolatilization and then the char was refired into DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals ranging in rank from high to low volatile bituminous, currently used for PCI injection. Specific surface areas, reactivity to CO{sub 2} and char petrography have been used to chars characterization. The morphology and appearance of the chars generated under oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) and conventional combustion (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) conditions with similar amount of oxygen were similar for each parent coal. Vitrinite-rich particles generated cenospheres with anisotropic optical texture increasing in size with increasing coal rank, whereas inertinite yielded a variety of morphologies and optical textures. The apparent reactivity to CO{sub 2} measured at high temperature (1000 C) tended to increase with burnout reflecting the operation under a regime controlled by internal diffusion in which surface area also increased. This may have a significant effect in the reactivity to CO{sub 2} of the chars inside the stack of the blast furnace, even under oxygen lean atmosphere. (author)

Pohlmann, Juliana G.; Osorio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Laboratory, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Borrego, Angeles G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

2010-12-01

261

SAF line furnace operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line incorporates three different furnace operations, all of which are automated and remotely controlled. The debinding furnace operation removes organic material from the pressed pellets prior to sintering, the sintering furnace operation densifies the pellets and the off-line property adjustment furnace removes excess gases after sintering

262

Melting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a melting furnace to be used for reducing the volume of low radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear power plant, which can start and stop flowing of the wastes repeatedly. Namely, a molten slag nozzle made of alumina ceramics is disposed to a molten slag exit extended downwardly from molten slag pool of the reactor main body. Induction coils are disposed to the outer circumference of the molten slag nozzle and connected to a high frequency power source. Further, a tungsten rod is disposed to the inside of the molten slag nozzle. With such a constitution, when an appropriate amount of the molten slag is stored, high frequency current is flown to the induction coils to inductively heat the tungsten rod. The slag clogging the molten slag nozzle is melted, and the slag of the molten slag pool is discharged. Then, the electric current of the induction coil is cut off so that the molten slag nozzle is cooled spontaneously, then the slag in the nozzle is solidified and clogs the nozzle. The discharge of the molten slag is stopped. The operation is repeated to discharge and stop the molten slags. (I.S.)

263

Blast management  

OpenAIRE

Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financ...

Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

2011-01-01

264

Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

Senk, D.

2005-12-01

265

Blast injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health-care providers are increasingly faced with the possibility of needing to care for people injured in explosions, but can often, however, feel undertrained for the unique aspects of the patient's presentation and management. Although most blast-related injuries (eg, fragmentation injuries from improvised explosive devices and standard military explosives) can be managed in a similar manner to typical penetrating or blunt traumatic injuries, injuries caused by the blast pressure wave itself cannot. The blast pressure wave exerts forces mainly at air-tissue interfaces within the body, and the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and auditory systems are at greatest risk. Arterial air emboli arising from severe pulmonary injury can cause ischaemic complications-especially in the brain, heart, and intestinal tract. Attributable, in part, to the scene chaos that undoubtedly exists, poor triage and missed diagnosis of blast injuries are substantial concerns because injuries can be subtle or their presentation can be delayed. Management of these injuries can be a challenge, compounded by potentially conflicting treatment goals. This Seminar aims to provide a thorough overview of these unique primary blast injuries and their management. PMID:19631372

Wolf, Stephen J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Bonnett, Carl J; Pons, Peter T; Cantrill, Stephen V

2009-08-01

266

Blast Waves  

CERN Document Server

The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

Needham, Charles E

2010-01-01

267

Commercial vacuum melting furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principles of operation and main design peculiarities are described for domestic and foreign commercial vacuum electron beam and arc furnaces used for melting refractory metals and alloys. A schematic representation is made for various furnaces and their specifications are given

268

Heat treatment furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

269

Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

Whellock, J.G. [JW Technologies, LLC, Englewood, CO (United States); Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S. [Tetronics Ltd., Faringdon (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

270

Blast injury research models  

OpenAIRE

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung compl...

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

271

Induction Furnace - A Review  

OpenAIRE

A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the p...

Gandhewar, Vivek R.; Bansod, Satish V.; Borade, Atul B.

2011-01-01

272

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

273

Induction Furnace - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

Vivek R. Gandhewar

2011-09-01

274

Franklin Furnace Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

275

Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

D. Baricová

2012-01-01

276

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-10-01

277

Glass melting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a glass melting furnace for processing radioactive liquid wastes discharged from nuclear facilities, and provides a furnace in which an accumulation layer of a glass material is not formed on the surface of a liquid glass. Namely, the melting furnace main body has a storing space capable of storing liquid glass. A starting material supply port is disposed to the upper portion of the melting furnace main body passing from the outside of the main body to the storing space, which can pass the glass material. A liquid waste supply port is disposed to the upper portion of the melting furnace main body passing from the outside of the main body to the storing space. Since the starting material supply port and the liquid waste supply port are disposed separately, each of the materials is supplied alone to a predetermined portion of the inside of the storing space. An accumulation layer of the glass material is not formed on the surface of the liquid glass. Accordingly, the liquefying progress of the glass material is not hindered. As a result, the operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

278

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

Science.gov (United States)

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

279

Blast furnace refractory lining wear status using radioactive sources. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radioactive sources provides a means of determining the performance of new lining designs and new refractories less than campaign time periods, thereby allowing material and/or design changes for improved service. In this two-part article, which is from a paper presented at the AIME 1974 Ironmaking Conference, Part I deals with the techniques of the method. A description is given of the use of radioactive 60Co in sizes ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 millicuries in the refractory lining. The 60Co sources are encapsulated with stainless steel cylinders, with their caps heliarc welded. The cylinders are small

280

Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

Pérez, M.

2012-06-01

281

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

282

Directed Relativistic Blast Wave  

OpenAIRE

A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar direc...

Gruzinov, Andrei

2007-01-01

283

BLAST+: architecture and applications  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line ...

Bealer Kevin; Papadopoulos Jason; Ma Ning; Avagyan Vahram; Coulouris George; Camacho Christiam; Madden Thomas L

2009-01-01

284

New gunpowder blasting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book introduces gunpowder blasting, which consists of ten chapters. It deals with conception of gunpowder on the history of gunpowder, difference between gunpowder and general materials and classification of gunpowder, reaction of gunpowder, shock wave and detonation, on properties, material velocity and structure, test method on gunpowder and an article processed with heat, gunpowder such as igniter charge, carlit and slurry gunpowder, propellant and an article processed with heat, blasting on basics and Bench cut, blasting operations and security blasting construction and using of gunpowder.

285

Granular Electronic Systems  

CERN Document Server

A granular metal is an array of metallic nano-particles imbedded into an insulating matrix. Tuning the intergranular coupling strength a granular system can be transformed into either a good metal or an insulator and, in case of superconducting particles, experience superconductor-insulator transition. The ease of adjusting electronic properties of granular metals makes them most suitable for fundamental studies of disordered solids and assures them a fundamental role for nanotechnological applications. This Review discusses recent important theoretical advances in the study of granular metals, emphasizing on the interplay of disorder, quantum effects, fluctuations and effects of confinement in formation of electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of granular materials.

Beloborodov, I S; Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

2006-01-01

286

Carbon-free induction furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 16500C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials

287

Lightweight blast shield  

Science.gov (United States)

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

288

Blast wave energy diagnostic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations. PMID:19044574

Tierney, Thomas E; Tierney, Heidi E; Idzorek, George C; Watt, Robert G; Peterson, Robert R; Peterson, Darrell L; Fryer, Christopher L; Lopez, Mike R; Jones, Michael C; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, James E

2008-10-01

289

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

290

Blast optimization at Kriel Colliery  

OpenAIRE

Kriel Colliery has experienced some sub-standard blast results on the overburden. Blast results are considered poor when the fragmentation is too big, back break into the new highwall, capping is experienced and/or excess overburden material is thrown into the void. Poor blasting leads to lower productivity, equipment breakdowns, and poor drilling and blasting results on the adjacent blast, contamination of coal or loss of coal. A simulation was developed in Microsoft Exc...

Neale, A. M.

2010-01-01

291

BLAST+: architecture and applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

Bealer Kevin

2009-12-01

292

Wet Granular Materials  

CERN Document Server

Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, constructions, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g., the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

Mitarai, N; Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

2006-01-01

293

Vertical boiler furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is proposed that in the annular furnace (F) of an energy boiler formed of coaxially arranged internal and outer tubular screen having the shape of a regular polyhedron, that two-light screens be installed radially in the cavity of the F, adjoining with the internal and outer edge of the angles of the corresponding side screens. The number of two-light screens can be equal to or less than the number of edges of the F. The burners are installed on each outer edge of the F and are directed radially. Motion of gases in the F is vertically upwards. As compared to the annular F according to cert. of author. of the USSR number658358, the heat absorbing surface of the F has been significantly enlarged, which made it possible to reduce its overall dimensions, and consequently, the capital outlays for its construction.

Serant, F.A.; Bulgakov, V.V.; Parshin, A.A.; Pugach, L.I.; Tochilkin, V.N.

1982-01-01

294

High pressure oxygen furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

295

High pressure furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

296

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources...Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray...

2010-07-01

297

Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma  

OpenAIRE

Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

2010-01-01

298

Biomedical Informatics and Granularity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An explicit formal-ontological representation of entities existing at multiple levels of granularity is an urgent requirement for biomedical information processing. We discuss some fundamental principles which can form a basis for such a representation. We also comment on some of the implicit treatments of granularity in currently available ontologies and terminologies (GO, FMA, SNOMED CT.

Daniel D. Novotny

2006-04-01

299

Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

Belt, Cynthia

2014-09-01

300

pp-Blast: a "pseudo-parallel" Blast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We have developed a software called pp-Blast that uses the publicly available Blast package and PVM (parallel virtual machine) to partition a multi-sequence query across a set of nodes with replicated or shared databases. Benchmark tests show that pp-Blast running in a cluster of 14 PCs outperformed [...] conventional Blast running in large servers. In addition, using pp-Blast and the cluster we were able to map all human cDNAs onto the draft of the human genome in less than 6 days. We propose here that the cost/benefit ratio of pp-Blast makes it appropriate for large-scale sequence analysis. The source code and configuration files for pp-Blast are available at http://www.ludwig.org.br/biocomp/tools/pp-blast.

E.C., Osório; J.E. de, Souza; A.C., Zaiats; P.S.L. de, Oliveira; S.J. de, Souza.

2003-04-01

301

Radioactive waste melting furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a reactor capable of rapid melting and appropriate temperature control even when radioactive inorganic wastes and metal wastes are melted at the same time. Namely, induction heating coils are disposed for heating a waste-containing vessel made of ceramics in the inside of a furnace main body which can be tightly sealed. The frequency of the induction heating coils is made variable depending on the kind of radioactive wastes. Further, a thermometer is disposed for detecting the temperature of the ceramic vessel, and the induction heating coils are controlled depending on the output. Then, not only the inorganic wastes but also metal wastes can be melted rapidly. Accordingly, the melting time can be shortened. Even in a case of melting the inorganic wastes and the metal wastes at the same time, the melting temperature can be controlled appropriately by controlling the temperature of the ceramic vessel itself, instead of controlling the melting temperature of the inside of the ceramic vessel. (I.S.)

302

pp-Blast: a "pseudo-parallel" Blast  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a software called pp-Blast that uses the publicly available Blast package and PVM (parallel virtual machine) to partition a multi-sequence query across a set of nodes with replicated or shared databases. Benchmark tests show that pp-Blast running in a cluster of 14 PCs outperformed conventional Blast running in large servers. In addition, using pp-Blast and the cluster we were able to map all human cDNAs onto the draft of the human genome in less than 6 days. We propose here...

Osório E.C.; Souza J.E. de; Zaiats A.C.; Oliveira P.S.L. de; Souza S.J. de

2003-01-01

303

Blast wall design review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document gives guidance on the design of stainless steel blast walls made from profiled sheeting, including guidance on material behaviour and selection, response to blast loading, design for longitudinal and transverse bending effects, evaluation of plastic deformation capacity and recommendations on construction details. The document specifically addresses walls constructed of panels with simple trapezoidal corrugations with or without longitudinal flange stiffeners manufactured from the grades of wrought stainless steel which are widely used in offshore structural applications. Longitudinal web stiffeners are not specifically covered, since they rarely prove economic because local effects tend to govern profile design. The guidance is also generally applicable to the more complex proprietary profile shapes. (author)

NONE

2000-03-01

304

Kinetics of Granular Media  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis investigates a model of granular flow patterned after the kinetic theory of gases. First, the grains of the granular material are assumed to be hard spheres interacting only through binary, inelastic (energy -dissipating) collisions. Then, the formalism of kinetic theory, modified to take into account particle inelasticity, is used to derive continuum equations. This thesis examines the consequences of this theory, focusing on two issues: the spontaneous formation of density inhomogeneities and the importance of the size of the system. Chapter I reviews the standard kinetic theory of gases and summarizes the changes necessary to adopt it to granular materials. Chapters II and III study the one dimensional granular medium: a collection of inelastic particles confined to move in one dimension. Chapter II concerns "inelastic collapse": a group of particles can undergo an infinite number of collisions in finite time, ending with the particles in contact, thus violating the binary collision assumption. For a given particle inelasticity, there is a definite minimum number of particles required for collapse. Chapter III presents an example of a nonstandard continuum model, valid for nearly elastic particles. The theory successfully predicts instabilities observed in simulations. Chapter IV uses conventional granular continuum theory in two dimensions to show that the cooling granular medium is unstable. There is a short wavelength cutoff for the instability, so it does not appear in small systems. Chapters V and VI discuss simulations of two dimensional granular media. They verify the existence of inelastic collapse and of the instabilities predicted in Chapter IV. In addition, they reveal unexplained phenomena which clarify the difficulties with the conventional granular kinetic theory.

McNamara, Sean Christopher

305

Granular transport in driven granular gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We prove that the dynamical clustering which is expected for such a system is affected by the asymmetry. As a consequence, the cluster position can be fully controlled. This property could lead to various applications in the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environment. Moreover, the dynamical cluster is characterized by natural oscillations which are also captured by a model. These oscillations are mainly related to the cluster size, thus providing an original way to probe the clustering behavior. PMID:25704899

Noirhomme, M; Opsomer, E; Vandewalle, N; Ludewig, F

2015-02-01

306

BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ?8.7 deg2 centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5? in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

307

Mysteries of Granular Planet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The behavior of self-organizing granular medium in its own gravitational field is considered. The study is led within an approach proposing the existence of only three types of mesoscopic states in the material: so named hydrostatic, columnar and arched mesoscopic states. The results of this study are not obvious. Indeed, in the center of granular gravitating ball, as it turns out, pressure may be absent, though it is well-known that the pressure in either non-compressible liquid or solid linear-elastic medium is maximal. Such an uncommon stress state takes place at the arched mesoscopic state. Using the Mohr-Coulomb condition has given that the arched state can embody when sinus of internal friction’s angle increases up to the threshold value 1/3. At the hydrostatic mesoscopic state granular medium is like a liquid. The study also has shown the transition between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress states being sharp in granular gravitating ball that opposes the known results of the linear theory of elasticity. At the columnar mesoscopic state any gravitating granular ball cannot be.

Mikhail N. Skachkov

2013-01-01

308

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

309

Shaken Granular Lasers  

CERN Document Server

Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission from shaken granular matter is so far unexplored; here we provide experimental evidence that it can be affected and controlled by the status of motion of the granular, we also find that competitive random lasers can be observed. We hence demonstrate the potentialities of gravity affected moving disordered materials for optical applications, and open the road to a variety of novel interdisciplinary investigations, involving modern statistical mechanics and disordered photonics.

Folli, Viola; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

2012-01-01

310

Neurological Effects of Blast Injury  

OpenAIRE

Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the cu...

Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

311

Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures  

OpenAIRE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast l...

GeoffreyLing

2014-01-01

312

Blast response of aircraft structures  

OpenAIRE

The scope of this project is the realization of composite and hybrid sub-aerostructures which exhibit superior blast performance compared to reference composite and hybrid substructures. The scope will be fulfilled with minimum weight penalty. Within the scope of this work is to provide a roadmap for the integration of explicit hardening measures for blast in future aerospace structural components. In the case of blast loading, the proposed methodology for achieving these aims involves vulner...

????????????, ??????????

2011-01-01

313

Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 ?m increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 ?m of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60%.

314

Labyrinthic granular landscapes  

CERN Document Server

We have numerically studied an evolution model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by $90^\\circ$. The occurence of such structures are discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density $n_k$ of `defects' as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power law behavior of $n_k$ is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from 2 to 1. The presence of two asymptotic values of $n_k$ implies the existence of a memory affect of the granular topography.

Caps, H

2001-01-01

315

Granular Convection in Microgravity  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the role of gravity on convection in a dense granular shear flow. Using a microgravity modified Taylor-Couette shear cell under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity, we demonstrate experimentally that secondary, convective-like flows in a sheared granular material are close to zero in microgravity and enhanced under high-gravity conditions, though the primary flow fields are unaffected by gravity. We suggest that gravity tunes the frictional particle-particle and particle-wall interactions, which have been proposed to drive the secondary flow. In addition, the degree of plastic deformation increases with increasing gravitational forces, supporting the notion that friction is the ultimate cause.

Murdoch, N; Nordstrom, K; Green, S F; Michel, P; de Lophem, T -L; Losert, W

2013-01-01

316

Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

A. Pribulová

2012-09-01

317

Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

318

The Investigation of Furnace Operating Characteristics Using the Long Furnace Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reports the results of the numerical evaluation of some furnace operating characteristics by use of the ‘long furnace model’. The furnace characteristics considered include the furnace output, efficiency, heat input, stock emissivity and line speed. In this analysis, it is found that the computed wall to stock view factors differ from those obtained by graphical method in the range of 0 - 0.46%. This suggests that computed results could be used with confidence. The effects of stock emissivity on both the furnace efficiency and output increased as the furnace zones increase. Furnace performances are influenced by the heat input to the enclosure with the maximum performance being at a heat input of 700kW. It was found in all analyses that the higher the number of furnace zones, the better will be the furnace performance.

Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED

2007-01-01

319

Control blasting of reinforced concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

320

The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

W. Derda

2009-04-01

321

Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This pminimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

322

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

323

Shaken Granular Lasers  

OpenAIRE

Granular materials have been studied for decades, also driven by industrial and technological applications. These very simple systems, composed by agglomerations of mesoscopic particles, are characterized, in specific regimes, by a large number of metastable states and an extreme sensitivity (e.g., in sound transmission) on the arrangement of grains; they are not substantially affected by thermal phenomena, but can be controlled by mechanical solicitations. Laser emission fr...

Folli, Viola; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio

2012-01-01

324

Spreading of a granular droplet  

OpenAIRE

The influence of controlled vibrations on the granular rheology is investigated in a specifically designed experiment. We study experimentally a thin granular film spreading under the action of horizontal vibrations. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived theoretically that describes the evolution of the deposit shape. A self-similar parabolic shape (the``granular droplet'') and a spreading dynamics are predicted that both agree quantitatively with the experimental result...

Sanchez, Ivan; Raynaud, Franck; Lanuza, Jose; Andreotti, Bruno; Clement, Eric; Aranson, Igor S.

2007-01-01

325

Stresses in Granular Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Forces are carried in a granular materials along tenuous complex structures--force/stress chains, whose properties depend on the sample preparation. Several models of force propagation have been proposed recently, a) the q-model of Coppersmith et al. and b) the three-leg model of Claudin et al. The first predicts a parabolic PDE for stresses in the continuum limit, and the second predicts a hyperbolic PDE. We present two experiments that probe force propagation in granular materials. Both use 2D particles (disks and pentagons) made from a photoelastic material. The first experiment determines the response function by applying local forces. We explore both ordered packings of disks and disordered packings of pentagons. For the disks, the response follows a `cone' that broadens with distance from the source. For the pentagons, this structure is present but less clear. The second set of experiments explores the effects of preparation on the stresses at the bottom of a 2D granular heap. We determine the force on a horizontal band of disks near the bottom of the heap. There is a clear force minimum if the disks are poured from a fixed-height funnel, but for other preparation techniques, the presence of a stress dip is more subtle. The most dramatic difference related to preparation occurs in the orientation of the grain contacts.

Behringer, R.; Geng, J.; Longhi, E.; Howell, D.; Clement, E.; Reydellet, G.

2000-11-01

326

Domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background BLAST is a commonly-used software package for comparing a query sequence to a database of known sequences; in this study, we focus on protein sequences. Position-specific-iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) iteratively searches a protein sequence database, using the matches in round i to construct a position-specific score matrix (PSSM) for searching the database in round i?+?1. Biegert and Söding developed Context-sensitive BLAST (CS-BLAST), which combines information from se...

Boratyn Grzegorz M; Schäffer Alejandro A; Agarwala Richa; Altschul Stephen F; Lipman David J; Madden Thomas L

2012-01-01

327

NCBI BLAST: a better web interface  

OpenAIRE

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plan...

Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; Mcginnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L.

2008-01-01

328

Mathematical models of granular matter  

CERN Document Server

Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

2008-01-01

329

Melting of titanium in vacuum arc furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview about mostly applied and most important process of melting of titanium and titanium alloys in vacuum arc furnace is given. Essentially two types of furnace are used. Generally the vacuum arc furnace with consumable electrode is used as it allows necessarily double or triple melting processes until final ingot is achieved. Vacuum arc furnace with non-consumable electrode is exclusively applicable for premelting. Preparation of raw materials especially of processes scrap is discussed and comparison of both types of melting procedures is given. (orig.)

330

Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces  

OpenAIRE

The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated te...

Piekarski, B.; Drotlew, A.

2011-01-01

331

Tracer tests on furnaces at Metalloys Limited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1980, thirteen double tests were carried out with five radioactive isotopes on three furnaces at Metalloys Limited, near Meyerton. Each double test involved the introduction of a sample of coke impregnated with lanthanum and a sample of irradiated manganese ore (54Mn or 59Fe), irradiated quartzite (46Sc), or irradiated coal (46Sc, 59Fe, and 60Co). The tests were conducted on the three large furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese, viz M10, M11, and M12. The radioactivity of samples of the metal and the slag leaving the furnace was measured by the Isotopes and Activation Division of the Atomic Energy Board (AEB). Response curves and computer analyses are presented on the elution of the tracers from the furnaces. The response curves for the tracers, which were inserted close to the electrodes, are discussed so that the salient differences between their passage through the three furnaces can be established. The results obtained give support to the findings of a dig-out carried out on furnace M10 during 1977. The metal and slag products of furnace M12 were subjected to mineralogical investigation so that the major phases in the furnace products could be determined. Details of the calculation of the mean residence time for material in furnace M12 are given in an appendix

332

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

333

CO2 pellet blasting studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial tests with CO2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

334

The BLAST experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

Hasell, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States)], E-mail: hasell@mit.edu; Akdogan, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Alarcon, R. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Bertozzi, W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Booth, E. [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Botto, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Calarco, J.R. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Dutta, D. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Filoti, O. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Franklin, W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Gao, H. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Geis, E. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Gilad, S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Middleton, MA 01949 (United States); Hersman, W. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)] (and others)

2009-05-21

335

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

336

Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

GeoffreyLing

2014-04-01

337

Stability of Relativistic Blast Waves  

OpenAIRE

A spherical blast wave with relativistic velocity can be described by a similarity solution, that is used for theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts. We consider the linear stability of such a relativistic blast wave propagating into a medium with density gradient. The perturbation can also be expressed by a self-similar form. We show that the shock front is unstable in general, and we evaluate the growth rate.

Ogura, Jun; Kojima, Yasufumi

2000-01-01

338

Design of Blast Resistant Structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

C. K. Gautam

2013-04-01

339

Porcine head response to blast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation.

JayShridharani

2012-05-01

340

30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Science.gov (United States)

...blasting prior to connecting to the power source, and in nonelectric blasting...post-blast examination addressing potential blast-related hazards has been...by a person with the ability and experience to perform the...

2010-07-01

341

30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Science.gov (United States)

...blasting prior to connecting to the power source, and in nonelectric blasting...post-blast examination addressing potential blast-related hazards has been...by a person with the ability and experience to perform the...

2010-07-01

342

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

343

CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast.The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass.Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners.The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

Branko Boži?

1998-12-01

344

Granular Cell Schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An 11 year old female child had a small painful spot over the scalp of 4 months duration. Earlier, she had undergone a local excision for a similar problem, but it had recurred at the same site after a few months. Examination revealed a skin colored sessile tender firm papule of 3 mm size on the right parietal region. Excision biopsy showed broad fascicles of tumor cells with eosinopilic cytoplasmic granules infiltrating the dermis amongst the collagen bundles, which was consistent with granular cell schwannoma.

Dheepa R

2004-01-01

345

Strongly inelastic granular gases  

CERN Document Server

The expansion of the velocity distribution function for the homogeneous cooling state (HCS) in a Sonine polynomial series around a Maxwellian is shown to be divergent, though Borel resummable. A convergent expansion for the HCS has been devised and employed to obtain the HCS velocity distribution function and (using it) the linear transport coefficients for a three dimensional monodisperse granular gas of smooth inelastic spheres, for all physical values of the coefficient of normal restitution. The results are in very good agreement with findings of DSMC simulations.

Noskowicz, S H; Serero, D; Goldhirsch, I

2006-01-01

346

Instabilities in Granular Flow  

CERN Document Server

We consider the stability of a system of equations which are a singular perturbation of the incompressible rigid-plastic flow equations used to model granular flow. A linear stability analysis shows that solutions of these equations are unstable, in general, and that these instabilities may lead to ill-posedness. However, the analysis suggests that these equations are more regular, in a certain sense, than the unperturbed incompressible rigid-plastic flow equations. Numerical solutions are presented which illustrate the growth of instabilities and the development of shear-bands in the flows.

Hendy, S

2000-01-01

347

Advancements in the SPLC furnace power stabilizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high voltage shielded arc operation of smelting furnaces can cause significant power swings that in turn result in generator turbine speed variations in smaller capacity power systems. This paper discussed the use of a smart predictive line controller (SPLC) technology with a continuously variable thyristor-controlled series reactor to smooth out arc power swings. The SPLC equipment was installed in the main substation on the load side of a smelting furnace circuit breaker in 3 high power furnaces. Various configurations of thyristor valves, reactors and switchgear were also compared in relation to maintenance, installation costs, and long versus short arc performance. The study showed that the SPLC technology compensates the furnace arc with predictive changes in circuit reactance at a speed of up to 60 times per second. It was concluded that the SPLC technology increased furnace average power and improved the energy efficiency of the power generation equipment. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs.

Ma, T.; Derrah, S.; Sedighy, M.; Janzen, J.; Voermann, N. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

2009-07-01

348

Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

Sopori, Bhushan L.

2014-08-05

349

Forecast of blasting fragmentation for stope leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blasting fragmentation is mostly determined by ore sampling and screening after blasting in the present study. This method needs to determine parameters by means of conditional experiment of field blasting with high cost and long time. A new method of using SHPB test data and numerical simulation is presented. The areas of blasthole crushing zone and fissure zone can be determined with the new method, and the blasting fregmentation can be effectively forecasted according to the determined area. The new method is simple in operation, requires little time and low cost. A new method and idea are provided for the theoretical analysis of blasting fragmentation and adjusting the blasting parameters. (authors)

350

Biomass furnace: projection and construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

2008-07-01

351

Bulldozing of granular material  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N

2014-01-01

352

Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

353

Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%. (author)

Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2007-10-15

354

Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure  

OpenAIRE

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is...

Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

2010-01-01

355

DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

1995-12-31

356

Locally Resonant Granular Chain  

CERN Document Server

We report the design and testing of a tunable and nonlinear mechanical metamaterial, called locally resonant granular chain. It consists of a one-dimensional array of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing local resonators. The resonant particles are made of an aluminium outer spherical shell and a steel inner mass connected by a polymeric plastic structure acting as a spring. We characterize the linear spectra of the individual particles and of one-dimensional arrays of particles using theory, numerical analysis, and experiments. A wide band gap is observed as well as tunability of the dispersive spectrum by changing the applied static load. Finally, we experimentally explore the nonlinear dynamics of the resonant particles. By using nonlinear acoustical techniques, we reveal a complex, nonclassical nonlinear dynamics.

Bonanomi, Luca; Daraio, Chiara

2014-01-01

357

Mask materials for powder blasting  

Science.gov (United States)

Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

2000-06-01

358

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

359

Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size. PMID:23460420

Schiller, Marvin R G

2013-04-01

360

Mastering of baddeleyite melting in electric arc furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To expand the production of zirconium dioxide refractories for the fabrication of fused baddeleyite nozzles on their basis was organized. Baddeleyite of PB-2 sort of natural granularity and grinded chalk of Beldorodsky deposit were used as raw material. Baddellyite composition was the following: 97.6-98.6% ZrO2+HfO2, 0.45-0.66% SiO2, 0.15-0.20% Fe2O3, 0.48-1.0%CaO+MgO. Chalk contained 54.07-5.20%CaO. Baddeleyite with chalk addition was melted in three-phase electric arc furnace of 400 kVA capacity at 3500-4000 A current and 82 V voltage with automatic keeping of assigned melting parameters. Melting was conducted in metal water-cooled bath 900 mm in diameter and of 1200 mm height without lining (using scull); it provided the preparation of the most pure melted material. It is shown that fused powders were characterized by high content of ZrO2+HfO2 and were composed of zirconium dioxide, completely stabilized in cubic form. It is also shown that baddeleyite nozzles application enabled to teem 09G2, 14G2 and other manganese steels by the ''melting-to-melting'' method, which improved technical and economic factors of production

361

Mathematical modelling of industrial furnaces and boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper describes the state of art in Mathematical Modelling of Industrial Furnaces and Boilers. A review of the current submodels techniques commonly used in the mathematical modelling of industrial furnaces and boilers, for both single phase and multi-phase combustion is presented. Recent applications of three-dimensional codes to industrial cases are presented such as: (1) mathematical modelling and validation of a natural gas air fired end port glass furnace, (2) use of a mathematical model for the optimization of the design of oxy-fuel furnace, (3) application of a domain decomposition and validation to an oil-fired utility and (4) use of mathematical models for the assessment of NO{sub x} abatement control technologies and CO{sub 2} separation and recover in coal-fired utility boilers. Based on the current scenario of research and development, future research priorities are identified. 196 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Carvalho, M. da G. [Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

1995-12-31

362

Chamberless residential warm air furnace design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

1996-07-01

363

Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

B. Piekarski

2011-07-01

364

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

365

Thermal operation of arc foundry furnaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data on the temperature distribution over the lining thicknesses of the walls, roof, and bottom of a 6-t arc steel-melting furnace are processed. The time dependence of the heat flux density distribution over the lining thickness is determined, and the change in the enthalpy of the lining during a heat is found. Recommendations for the rational use of the heat accumulated by the lining during furnace downtime are given.

Mironov, Yu. M.; Petrov, V. G.

2010-06-01

366

Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces  

OpenAIRE

The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for th...

Drotlew, A.; Piekarski, B.

2010-01-01

367

[The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher. PMID:10365467

Royère, C

1999-03-01

368

Energy optimisaton at the Whyalla reheating furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the installation and commissioning of the 220 t/h I.H.I.Walking Beam Reheating Furnace at the Whyalla Steelworks in 1975, efforts have been devoted to improving the heating efficiency of this furnace. A program to optimize reheating furnace energy consumption commenced in 1978. Since then significant reductions have been achieved in specific energy consumption for all steel sections by changing heating practices. Monthly average specific energy consumption has been improved from over 3.0 GJ/tonne to less than 2.0 GJ/tonne. Some of these changes were, alteration of the proportion of fuel used in each zone of the furnace (7 zones). reduction of bar spacing the use of double strands of blooms instead of scattered strands and the use of mathematical modeling techniques to predict the effect of zone temperature changes on the temperature distribution in the heated blooms and blanks. The last mentioned improvement was established in conjunction with the introduction of a relatively simple computer control in 1981, which enabled refinement of the optimization program. As a result, the response of the furnace to rolling rate changes and to rolling mill delay situations has been improved. The relatively simple single line production facility at the Whyalla Steelworks means the energy demand pattern of the reheating furnace has a significant effect on overall by-product fuel gas management. The above improvements helped reduce peak energy demand and energy demand variability permitting more consistent gas availability to other energy consumer units.

Abdelmalek, S.H.

1985-01-01

369

Blast vulnerability detected in novel blast-resistant germplasm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research in artificially inoculated greenhouse tests and field nurseries identified new rice germplasm accession as being resistant to the common blast (Pyricularia grisea) races found in Arkansas (IB-1, IB-49, IC-17, IE-1, IE-1k, IG-1, and IH-1) and eliminated those accessions with major b...

370

Application of radiotracer method for study of glass furnaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operation of several glass furnaces has been investigated by means of radiotracers. These investigations enable us to define some general parameters of glass movement and its behaviour in different zones of the furnaces. The information obtained about the furnace output is discussed in terms of a diffusion model. The diffusion model renders it possible to evaluate some technological parameters: the mean residence time of the material in the furnace, the efficient volume of the furnace, Peclet number, etc. (author)

371

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

Science.gov (United States)

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature “spikes” in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 °C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

1991-04-01

372

Rice blast disease in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

373

Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space and improve query performance, especially on resource-constrained systems with limited storage and query processing capabilities. A number of data reduction solutions have been developed, however an effective solution particularly based on gradual data reduction is missing. This paper presents an effective solution for data reduction based on gradual granular data aggregation. With the gradual granular data aggregation mechanism, older data can be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. For instance, when data is 3 months old aggregate to 1 minute level from 1 second level, when data is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective query processing due to a reduction in data volume. In addition, the paper describes the implementation strategy derived from a farming case study using standard technologies.

Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

2010-01-01

374

Properties of Foamed Mortar Prepared with Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m3 was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight. Four different curing conditions were adopted for both types of foamed mortar to assess their compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and thermal insulation performance. The test results indicated that utilizing 50% of slag as cement replacement in the production of foamed mortar improved the compressive strength, UPV and thermal insulation properties. Additionally, the initial water curing of seven days gained higher compressive strength and increased UPV values as compared to the air cured and natural weather curing samples. However, this positive effect was more pronounced in the case of compressive strength than in the UPV and thermal conductivity of foamed mortar.

Xiao Zhao

2015-01-01

375

Self-sensing properties of alkali activated blast furnace slag (BFS) composites reinforced with carbon fibers  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.). In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible applic...

Pedro Garcés; Emilio Zornoza; Oscar Galao; Josep Lluís Vilaplana; Francisco Javier Baeza

2013-01-01

376

Mitigation of Leachates in Blast Furnace Slag Aggregates by Application of Nanoporous Thin Films  

Science.gov (United States)

The reutilization of slag materials as aggregates is seriously limited by the production of contaminant leachates rich in heavy metals and sulfur when these materials are contacted by water. A unique type of thin-film nanotechnology was used to ameliorate this problem. The surface of the slag was altered by depositing a thin-film comprised of nanoporous oxides. The deposition was performed by coating the aggregates with a suspension containing nanoparticles. Once the water evaporated, a nanoporous thin-film (performed using three different nanoparticles oxides films including silica, and titanium. These films were compared against a control. The preliminary results demonstrated that samples coated with one layer of these oxides can decrease the amount of sulfur and calcium in the leachate by 70 and 80%, respectively.

Muñoz, J. F.; Sanfilippo, J. M.; Tejedor, M. I.; Anderson, M. A.; Cramer, S. M.

377

Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.. In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible application of carbon fiber reinforced alkali activated slag pastes has been evaluated. Cement pastes with 0, 0.29 and 0.58 vol % carbon fiber addition were prepared. Both carbon fiber dosages showed sensing properties. For strain sensing, function gage factors of up to 661 were calculated for compressive cycles. Furthermore, all composites with carbon fibers suffered a sudden increase in their resistivity when internal damages began, prior to any external signal of damage. Hence, this material may be suitable as strain or damage sensor.

Pedro Garcés

2013-10-01

378

The US merchant blast furnace coke market: current state of play  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A five page text is accompanied by a set of 11 slides/overheads. The talk discussed the reasons why the presenter believes that coke prices will stay above their historical levels for the foreseeable future. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Aloe, A. [Shenango Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)

2004-07-01

379

Behaviour of fines and coal combustibility with high rate pulverized coal injection in blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behaviour of fines with a high rate of pulverized coal injection was studied using a mathematical model (BRIGHT), experiments and tuyere sample analysis. Improvement of pulverized coal combustion efficiency with several injection lances was investigated and evaluated using a spectroscopic technique.

Matsuzaki, S.; Ichida, M.; Sugiyama, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Deno, T.; Matsunaga, S. [NSC, Kimitsu (Japan). Kimitsu Works

1998-03-01

380

Experimental Studies on Concrete Replacing Fine Aggregate with Blast Furnace Slags  

OpenAIRE

In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous. It is hard to imagine modern life without it. Approximately five billion tonnes of concrete are used around the world each year. The increasing popularity of concrete as a construction material is placing a huge burden on the natural sand reserves of all countries. In view of the environmental problems faced today considering the fast reduction of natural resources like sand and crushed granite aggregate, engineers have become aware to exten...

Selwyn Babu, J.; Mahendran, Dr N.

2014-01-01

381

Silo collapse under granular discharge.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d/?[Rt]. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results. PMID:25615503

Gutiérrez, G; Colonnello, C; Boltenhagen, P; Darias, J R; Peralta-Fabi, R; Brau, F; Clément, E

2015-01-01

382

Continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows  

CERN Document Server

A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is developed. The theory is based on a combination of the equations for the flow velocity and shear stresses coupled with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this theory to several important granular problems: avalanche flow in deep and shallow inclined layers, rotating drums and shear granular flows between two plates. We carry out quantitative comparisons between the theory and experiment.

Aranson, I S; Aranson, Igor S.; Tsimring, Lev S.

2002-01-01

383

Temperature inversion in granular fluids under gravity  

OpenAIRE

We study, via hydrodynamic equations, the granular temperature profile of a granular fluid under gravity and subjected to energy injection from a base. It is found that there exists a turn-up in the granular temperature and that, far from the base, it increases linearly with height. We show that this phenomenon, observed previously in experiments and computer simulations, is a direct consequence of the heat flux law, different form Fourier's, in granular fluids. The positiv...

Ramirez, Rosa; Soto, Rodrigo

2002-01-01

384

Simulations of granular gravitational collapse.  

Science.gov (United States)

A freely cooling granular gas in a gravitational field undergoes a collapse to a multicontact state in a finite time. Previous theoretical [D. Volfson et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 061305 (2006)] and experimental work [R. Son et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 041302 (2008)] have obtained contradictory results about the rate of energy loss before the gravitational collapse. Here we use a molecular dynamics simulation in an attempt to recreate the experimental and theoretical results to resolve the discrepancy. We are able to nearly match the experimental results, and find that to reproduce the power law predicted in the theory we need a nearly elastic system with a constant coefficient of restitution greater than 0.993. For the more realistic velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution, there does not appear to be a power-law decay and the transition from granular gas to granular solid is smooth, making it difficult to define a time of collapse. PMID:24483431

Kachuck, Samuel B; Voth, Greg A

2013-12-01

385

Driven granular gases with gravity  

CERN Document Server

We study fluidized granular gases in a stationary state determined by the balance between an external driving and the bulk dissipation. The two considered situations are inspired by recent experiments, where the gravity plays a major role as a driving mechanism: in the first case gravity acts only in one direction and the bottom wall is vibrated, in the second case gravity acts in both directions and no vibrating walls are present. Simulations performed under the molecular chaos assumption show averaged profiles of density, velocity and granular temperature which are in good agreement with the experiments. Moreover we measure the velocity distributions which show strong non-Gaussian behavior, as experiments pointed out, but also density correlations accounting for clustering, at odds with the experimental results. The hydrodynamics of the first model is discussed and an exact solution is found for the density and granular temperature as functions of the distance from the vibrating wall. The limitations of suc...

Baldassarri, A; Puglisi, A; Vulpiani, A

2000-01-01

386

Microwave studies of granular superconductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microwave absorption in low magnetic fields is a sensitive contactless indicator of surface granular superconductivity, a significant source of surface resistance. Granularity is also responsible for microwave absorption in the ceramic high-temperature superconductors and in ceramic Chevrel-phase compounds. Modulated microwave absorption signals from granular ceramics show critical behavior with pinning and depinning of intergranular flux over a modulation cycle. In single-crystal YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-/? the absorption arises from the motion of flux within twin-plane domain boundaries. Modulated absorption signals from these domain boundaries show additional absorption from fluxon nucleation above critical levels of microwave current. Such losses may contribute significantly to microwave absorption in zero magnetic field

387

Mathematical Model to Locate Interference of Blast Waves from Multi-Hole Blasting Rounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maximum charge per delay in a blasting round is universally accepted as the influencing parameter to quantify magni-tude of vibration for any distance of concern. However, for any blasting round experimental data reveals that for same charge per delay magnitude of vibration varies with total charge. Considering linear transmission of blast waves, the paper firstly investigates into the influence of explosive weight, blast design parameters and geology of strata on magnitude and characteristics of vibration parameters and thereafter communicates that possibly interference of blast waves generated from same and different holes of a blasting round result into variation in vibration magnitude. The paper lastly developed a mathematical model to evaluate points of interference of blast waves generated from single- and multi-hole blasting round.

Sujit Kumar Mandal

2012-03-01

388

HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of micron-sized particles; extension of the theory to account for these effects is also considered. A set of continuum models are proposed for use in the future dust transport modeling.

Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

2009-01-29

389

Some myths about DC arc furnaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available DC arc furnaces are widely used for steel scrap melting as well as for reductive smelting of ore fines. Industrial smelting applications include the smelting of chromite to produce ferrochromium, the smelting of ilmenite to produce titania slag and pig iron, and the recovery of cobalt from nonferrou [...] s smelter slags. A number of myths and misconceptions are widely held, especially regarding: the age of the technology, the use of a hollow electrode, arc stability and shape, arc and bath radiation, interaction between the arc and molten slag, electrical behaviour of arcs and slags, a comparison between AC and DC furnaces, DC reactors, the lifespan of bottom electrodes, and the applicability of DC arc furnaces to various metallurgical systems.

R.T, Jones; Q.G, Reynolds; T.R, Curr; D, Sager.

2011-10-01

390

Application of blasting vibration measurement to underground deep-hole blasting of a uranium deposit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aimed at the potential vibration damage to residents' houses on surface after underground deep-hole blasting of a uranium deposit in stope leaching, two real-time blasting vibration measurements were made. The safe distance and safety criterion of maximum charge weight on millisecond delay explosive in large-scale blasting of the uranium deposit were summed up. These data can provide the design basis for future large scale ore stacking by blasting. (authors)

391

DUNE - a granular flow code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DUNE was designed to accurately model the spectrum of granular. Granular flow encompasses the motions of discrete particles. The particles are macroscopic in that there is no Brownian motion. The flow can be thought of as a dispersed phase (the particles) interacting with a fluid phase (air or water). Validation of the physical models proceeds in tandem with simple experimental confirmation. The current development team is working toward the goal of building a flexible architecture where existing technologies can easily be integrated to further the capability of the simulation. We describe the DUNE architecture in some detail using physics models appropriate for an imploding liner experiment.

Slone, D M; Cottom, T L; Bateson, W B

2004-11-23

392

Geometric Morphology of Granular Materials  

CERN Document Server

We present a new method to transform the spectral pixel information of a micrograph into an affine geometric description, which allows us to analyze the morphology of granular materials. We use spectral and pulse-coupled neural network based segmentation techniques to generate blobs, and a newly developed algorithm to extract dilated contours. A constrained Delaunay tesselation of the contour points results in a triangular mesh. This mesh is the basic ingredient of the Chodal Axis Transform, which provides a morphological decomposition of shapes. Such decomposition allows for grain separation and the efficient computation of the statistical features of granular materials.

Schlei, B R; Skourikhine, A N

2000-01-01

393

Gas cleaning with Granular Filters  

OpenAIRE

The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the...

Natvig, Ingunn Roald

2007-01-01

394

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRANULAR MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Basic mechanisms of heat transfer in granular media have been presented in this paper. The erfective thermal conductivity calculated for different models of the granular structure was formulated as a multivariable function, where the effect of varloua factors had been taken into account, e.g. type of grain space configuration, pressure of fluid filling the pores, thermal conductivities of individual components of the medium, grain, diameter and its surface roughness, porosity, moisture contents, impact of the external mechanical load etc. In this review various formulas recorded in the available literature have been classified with the account to the effect of the particular thermodynamic, structural and mechanical interactions.

Wies?aw Gogó?

1977-01-01

395

Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

A. Drotlew

2010-10-01

396

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01

397

Tools to qualify experiments with bloomery furnaces  

OpenAIRE

Five experimental bloomery iron ore smelts were carried out in a reconstruction of an early medieval furnace of the Boécourt type (Switzerland). A part of the bloom from the most successful experiment was forged to a billet. Starting materials and products were weighed, described and chemically characterized (ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and WD-XRF). The calculation of the yield and mass balance based on the chemical analyses from the ore (optimum) and from the ore, furnace lining, slag and ash (applie...

Senn, M.; Gfeller, U.; Gue?nette-beck, Barabara; Lienemann, P.; Ulrich, A.

2009-01-01

398

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

399

Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

400

Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

Christopher Griffith

401

BLAST: improvements for better sequence analysis  

OpenAIRE

Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains a BLAST server with a home page at . We report here on recent enhancements to the results produced by the BLAST server at the NCBI. These include features to highlight mismatches between similar sequences, show where the query was masked for low-complexity sequence, and integrate information about the database sequences from the NCBI Entrez syst...

Ye, Jian; Mcginnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

402

PROGRESS IN THERMO-ABRASIVE BLASTING SYSTEMS  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Quality of surface preparation of components and structures for further painting and/or coating is important in many fields of engineering. One of the most widely used methods of surface preparation is abrasive blasting. In the last few years, a new method for surface preparation has evolved, namely thermo-abrasive blasting. This technique utilises a high enthalpy thermal jet, generated by the thermo-abrasive blasting gun, to propel abrasive particles. Thermo-abrasi...

Gorlach, I. A.

2012-01-01

403

Mining Data, What a Blast!  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic network data processing involves a number of critical decisions which are a balance of available funding and manpower vs the amount and extent of data being processed. In an ideal world, any event detected by a given network would have associated arrivals and usually an associated origin. In this world of decreasing telecommunications costs, that has resulted in an ever increasing number of sensors and stations along with accessibility to ever expanding real-time data flow, this complete human data review is no longer a feasible reality with the existing personnel support. Decisions on catalogue inclusiveness are being made based on expediency and budget constraints rather than on a scientific or technical basis. One of the critical time sinks for an analyst is the location and discrimination of the large number of daily man-made blasts, whether they be from road construction, quarries, or mines. Given that mines exist in a given location it is possible to first, automatically assign event locations to blast sites in real-time, and second, to provide quick mine site associations on the post-real-time processing level. This reduces the analyst's job from a complete event location to simply verifying and correcting automatic detections. A study has been carried out using a grid of mine locations and running an event associator with automatic detections over this grid. Mine blasts are automatically located at the grid mine sites. This has been particularly successful with large blasts outside the network which were previously creating poor locations and necessitated analyst involvement to ensure that these events were not a seismic event within or near the boundaries of the network.

Mulder, T. L.

2007-12-01

404

CO2 blasting in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide blasting can be used during the lifetime of nuclear facilities to remove deposited contamination and reduce the dose to personnel during repair and maintenance. By contrast with conventional mechanical or chemical decontamination methods, it does not leave additional secondary wastes. During the process, liquid CO2 is expanded and converted into dry snow which is compressed and extruded to form small dry ice pellets. These low temperature pellets are blasted at high speed in a stream of compressed air against the surface to be treated where the mechanical and thermal shock embrittles the contaminating layer and severs its bond with the surface. The dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere as CO2 gas and the loosened contamination can be removed via a ventilation and filtration system. Some examples of the effective use of CO2 blasting are given. They include decontamination of: a supercompactor used on radioactive waste drums; the walls and floors of a nuclear fuel fabrication plant; the vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus, hot cells; a phosphate fertilizer plant contaminated by radium 226. (UK)

405

The Next Generation BLAST Experiment  

CERN Document Server

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

2014-01-01

406

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

407

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Act. Commercial warm air furnace means a warm air furnace that is industrial...per hour or more. Thermal efficiency for a commercial warm air furnace equals 100 percent...furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not...

2010-01-01

408

Neuro-Glial and Systemic Mechanisms of Pathological Responses in Rat Models of Primary Blast Overpressure Compared to “Composite” Blast  

OpenAIRE

A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position toward blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate traumatic brain injury and defined “composite” blast ...

VictorPrima; StanislavI.Svetlov; DanielKirk; KennethCurley; VictorSerebruany

2012-01-01

409

High-gradient continuous-casting furnace  

Science.gov (United States)

High gradient allows rapid growth rates in directionally-solidified eutectic alloys. Furnace design permits cost reductions in directional solidification process through its increased solidification rates, which reduces melt/mold interaction. It produces structural engineering materials for any application requiring properties directionally-solidified eutectic materials.

Scheuermann, C. M.; Flemings, M. C.; Neff, M. A.; Rickinson, B. A.; Young, K. P.

1979-01-01

410

Comparative thermal behavior of furnaces and engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the thermal efficiencies of furnace and engines are compared under both the infinite time (thermodynamic) and real time (kinetic) conditions. In real time, the Furnace Analysis (kinetic) procedure leads to performance equations for the firing curve, the operational efficiency, and the intrinsic efficiency as functions of output, where the functional forms of the equations are the same for all devices (furnaces and engines); they differ from one device to another only by the magnitudes of three defined coefficients. The equations show that the limit (maximum) intrinsic efficiency is obtained at zero output, and has the same functional dependence on temperature that is also obtained for furnaces from thermodynamic analysis, with a nominal theoretical limit of 100%. The thermodynamic (Carnot) limit for engines, of course, is less than 100% and this appears to contradict the kinetic analysis results; but a mechanistic limit to efficiency for engines is shown to exist in the kinetic analysis that corresponds to the Second Law thermodynamic limit. This result is obtained from the need for a work feedback from the gross output to drive the engine; and this work feed back equals the gross output at a minimum practicable (idle) firing rate. Below that rate, the engine can only be motored

411

Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

Sutanwi Lahiri

2015-03-01

412

Ratification of the Large Furnace Regulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes problems which emanate from the realisation of the Large Furnace Regulation (13 BImSchV). He provides comments which are necessary for establishing concepts for the reinstigation of old plants and for the approval and installation of fumes desulphurisation equipment.

Albracht, J.

1984-02-27

413

Titanat aluminium synthesized in a solar furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar furnace technology is an ecologically clean and economically attractive way, most suitable for research and development of new advanced materials. Such features of the solar furnace as sterile conditions of heating, high speed temperature delivering, materials processing in the whole range of the solar spectrum, quenching of the melt with rates of {proportional_to}10{sup 6} K/s, possibility of melting in the cold crucible etc. allow to synthesize complex oxide compositions, such as Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}. The study of Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized in the solar furnace has shown that the material is pure {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and possesses orthorhombic crystal structure. Microstructure of the material obtained from the melt has a prolonged prismatic shape. When the material is obtained by quenching the microstructure displays fine-grain structure with crystallites of 3-5 micron in size. Raman spectroscopy investigations have been performed on {beta}-Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} synthesized on the solar furnace. It has been observed a distinct band at 900 1/cm which is not presented in other six coordinated titanates. Most probably this band is connected with valent vibrations of the Al-O coupling in distorted octahedrons [AlO{sub 6}]. (orig.)

Suleimanov, S.; Gulamova, D. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Materials Science Inst.; Boehmer, M.; Fend, T.; Rietbrock, P. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). MD-ET

1997-12-31

414

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe2?+?/Fe3?+? ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Mössbauer spectroscopy the Fe2?+?/Fe3?+? ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

415

Design of advanced industrial furnaces using numerical modeling method  

OpenAIRE

This doctoral thesis describes the fundamentals ofmathematical modeling for the industrial furnaces and boilersand presents the results from the numerical simulations of sometypical applications in advanced industrial furnaces andboilers. The main objective of this thesis work is to employcomputational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology as an effectivecomputer simulation tool to study and develop the newcombustion concepts, phenomena and processes in advancedindustrial furnaces and boilers. The ...

Dong, Wei

2000-01-01

416

Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

Davis, R A

1998-01-01

417

Effectiveness of using coke produced from gassy coal in annular furnaces for conversion silicomanganese smelting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intensification of electro-thermal production of metals depends on quality of carbon reducing agent used. Stratified coking for blast furnaces produces coke which is unsuitable as a reducing agent. Research shows low rank coal with a high yield of volatile matter should be used, but coking with this coal is difficult. A new method is described for producing required type of coke using an experimental MKhT1 annular furnace, 120 t of 25-13 mm gassy coal from the Pavlograd plant at an initial temperature of 1000 C and rate of temperature increase of about 9 C/min. This coke has higher reactivity and specific resistance than traditionally produced coke and tests on reducing agents in a carbon dioxide atmosphere at 1300 C showed that the new type of coke reacts much more quickly than metallurgical coke. Gas chromatography showed that the specific internal surface area of the new coke increased much quicker during gasification, reaching a maximum of 11.2 m/sup 2//g before decreasing again. Using the new coke increased the reduction of manganese and silicon in the 1400-1600 C range. The laboratory results were confirmed at the Zaporozhe Ferroalloy Plant using CMn26; productivity increased by 5-7% and specific energy consumption decreased by 2%. 3 references.

Nefedov, Yu.A.; Sokolovskaya, I.B.; Vlasov, T.E.; Bukvareva, O.F.; Zagorets, A.M.; Makarov, G.N.

1986-01-01

418

Waste stabilization/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and class F fly ash have been processed for studying the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. Compressive strength tests and leaching tests for determining the efficiency of heavy metal immobilisation have been carried out. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classic Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. Compressive strength values far better than those achieved by hydraulic S/S methods were easily obtained by geopolymer solids at 28 days. Regarding leachability, the geopolymer S/S solids also manifested in general a better behaviour, showing very promising results. 40 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

C. Fernandez Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). School of Industrial Engineering

2009-07-15

419

Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-14

420

Blast-related traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

2013-09-01

421

Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies  

CERN Document Server

Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

2013-01-01

422

Material challenges in ethylene pyrolysis furnace heater service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operating temperatures of pyrolysis furnaces are sometimes in excess of 2000/sup 0/F (1100/sup 0/C). These temperatures are very detrimental to the life of the typical HK-40 furnace tubes which normally have a three to five year life in the hot section of these furnaces. Short life is attributed to rapid carburization of ID surfaces which subjects tubes to higher than normal stresses and results in creep cracking of furnace tubes. As an aid to understanding the materials problems the ethylene process will be presented, along with data on the carburization of furnace tubes.

Ibarra, S.

1980-02-01

423

AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

2007-02-01

424

Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries. PMID:23631323

Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

2013-03-01

425

Optimization of the Number of Burner Nozzles in a Hot Blast Stove by the Way of Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the burner nozzles in a blast furnace hot stove including their number, location, and angle has a vital effect on the flow field, temperature distribution, combustion efficiency, etc. In this article, simulation models were established for the hot stove located at Shougang Qianan. The model, eddy dissipation model, and P-1 model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiative heat transfer, respectively. The effect of different number of burner nozzles on the flow field and temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was investigated. The results indicated that 19 or 21 burner nozzles were preferred to obtain the optimum flow field and temperature distribution.

Guo, Hongwei; Yan, Bingji; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Feng; Pei, Yi

2014-07-01

426

Dilatancy in slow granular flows.  

Science.gov (United States)

When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

2009-06-01

427

Statistical Dynamics of Granular Drainage  

CERN Document Server

A simple microscopic model for granular drainage is proposed which takes into account the essential cooperative motion of neighboring particles through the concept of upward-diffusing `spots' of slightly decreased density. These dynamical correlations greatly inhibit particle mixing, while preserving the well-known diffusive streamlines of the mean flow. The spot model is based on geometric considerations, as the material irreversibly relaxes through different random close packings. While predicting many observable features of granular flows, such as velocity correlation functions, particle diffusivities, and mean flow profiles, the model also contains very few adjustable parameters, so it can be carefully tested and calibrated against silo drainage experiments (underway at MIT). The basic idea of a diffusing `spot of influence', which induces cooperative particle motion, may have relevance for other strongly correlated systems, such as glasses.

Bazant, M Z

2003-01-01

428

Driven low density granular mixtures  

CERN Document Server

We study the steady state properties of a 2D granular mixture in the presence of energy driving by employing simple analytical estimates and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo. We adopt two different driving mechanisms: a) a homogeneous heat bath with friction and b) a vibrating boundary (thermal or harmonic) in the presence of gravity. The main findings are: the appearance of two different granular temperatures, one for each species; the existence of overpopulated tails in the velocity distribution functions and of non trivial spatial correlations indicating the spontaneous formation of cluster aggregates. In the case of a fluid subject to gravity and to a vibrating boundary, both densities and temperatures display non uniform profiles along the direction normal to the wall, in particular the temperature profiles are different for the two species while the temperature ratio is almost constant with the height. Finally, we obtained the velocity distributions at different heights and verified the non gaussianity of ...

Pagnani, R; Puglisi, A

2002-01-01

429

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

430

76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...