Sample records for bivalvia current taxonomy

  1. Vesicomyidae (bivalvia: current taxonomy and distribution.

    Elena M Krylova

    Full Text Available Vesicomyid bivalves are a consistent component of communities of sulphide-rich reducing environments distributed worldwide from 77 degrees N to 70 degrees S at depths from 100 to 9050 m. Up-to-now the taxonomy of the family has been uncertain. In this paper, the current state of vesicomyid taxonomy and distribution at the generic rank are considered. This survey is founded on a database including information both from literature sources and also unpublished data of the authors on all recent species of vesicomyids. We suggest that the Vesicomyidae is not a synonym of Kelliellidae, and is therefore a valid family name. We propose to divide the family Vesicomyidae into two subfamilies: Vesicomyinae and Pliocardiinae. The Vesicomyinae includes one genus, Vesicomya, which comprises small-sized bivalves characterized by non-reduced gut and the absence of subfilamental tissue in gills. Symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria has, so far, not been proved for Vesicomya and the genus is not restricted to sulphide-rich reducing habitats. The subfamily Pliocardiinae currently contains about 15 genera with mostly medium or large body size, characterized by the presence of subfilamental tissue in the gills. The Pliocardiinae are highly specialized for sulphide-rich reducing environments, harbouring chemoautrophic bacteria in their gills. This is the first summary of the generic structure of the family Vesicomyidae that allow us to analyze the distribution of vesicomyids at the generic level. We recognize here five different distribution patterns that are related to the specific environmental demands. The general trends in the distribution patterns of the vesicomyids are an occurrence of the majority of genera in broad geographical ranges and the prevalence of near continental type of distribution.

  2. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A


    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids. PMID:25216773

  3. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    Angen, Øystein

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically...

  4. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Jennifer eMahony


    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  5. The complete maternally and paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of the endangered freshwater mussel Solenaia carinatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae and implications for Unionidae taxonomy.

    Xiao-Chen Huang

    Full Text Available Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI is an exception to the typical maternal inheritance of mitochondrial (mt DNA in Metazoa, and found only in some bivalves. In species with DUI, there are two highly divergent gender-associated mt genomes: maternal (F and paternal (M, which transmit independently and show different tissue localization. Solenaia carinatus is an endangered freshwater mussel species exclusive to Poyang Lake basin, China. Anthropogenic events in the watershed greatly threaten the survival of this species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of S. carinatus based on shell morphology is confusing, and the subfamilial placement of the genus Solenaia remains unclear. In order to clarify the taxonomic status and discuss the phylogenetic implications of family Unionidae, the entire F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus were sequenced and compared with the mt genomes of diverse freshwater mussel species. The complete F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus are 16716 bp and 17102 bp in size, respectively. The F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus diverge by about 40% in nucleotide sequence and 48% in amino acid sequence. Compared to F counterparts, the M genome shows a more compact structure. Different gene arrangements are found in these two gender-associated mt genomes. Among these, the F genome cox2-rrnS gene order is considered to be a genome-level synapomorphy for female lineage of the subfamily Gonideinae. From maternal and paternal mtDNA perspectives, the phylogenetic analyses of Unionoida indicate that S. carinatus belongs to Gonideinae. The F and M clades in freshwater mussels are reciprocal monophyly. The phylogenetic trees advocate the classification of sampled Unionidae species into four subfamilies: Gonideinae, Ambleminae, Anodontinae, and Unioninae, which is supported by the morphological characteristics of glochidia.

  6. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Renata Piwowarczyk


    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  7. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

    Piwowarczyk Renata


    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  8. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    On, Stephen L.W.


    The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong t...... identification of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy....

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available mphii_NS.png ...

  10. Web page publishing policy: Developing taxonomy for private higher education settings based on current practice

    Veronica F. McGowan


    Full Text Available Web page publishing has expanded rapidly in higher educational settings as administrative, faculty, staff, and student users lobby for server space. Increasingly, web publishing policies are needed to help maintain an institutional brand and insure that civil rights are not violated. Institutions that publish or host individual web pages must grabble with issues concerning web page ownership as well as style and content compliance. An analysis of the Web publishing policies of 59 Pennsylvanian private colleges yielded results which are presented in this paper as taxonomy for web site publishing policies for higher educational institutions.

  11. My Home is my Bazaar - A Taxonomy and Classification of Current Wireless Home Network Protocols

    Hjorth, Theis S.


    Recent advances in wireless communication have produced a multitude of related protocols, leading to a growing market of products for home automation systems within energy management, elder care, etc. These systems are different from wired ones in terms of architectures and qualities, which leads......, cost, security, etc. Third, a classification based on the taxonomy and the collected data is presented. In the final discussion, we identify a number of key aspects that could be important technology criteria for future development of home automation protocols....

  12. Numerical taxonomy

    Inger, Robert F.


    For some strange reason the attitudes of taxonomists and systematists towards the phrase "numerical taxonomy" fall into two extreme positions. On the one hand are those who think numerical taxonomy provides the only means of reaching objective conclusions, that any other approach to taxonomy is sterile, subjective, and really not quite scientific. At the other extreme are those taxonomists who think numerical taxonomy has no place in their science, that it is unclean or is likely to be ...

  13. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students’ Competences

    Faruque A. Haolader


    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learning/ teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students’ competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans Nematoda Caenorhabditis_elegans_L.png Caenorhabditis_elegans..._NL.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_S.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_NS.png h...ttp:// ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/Dinosauria,Pterosauromorpha Tyrannosaurus_rex..._L.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_NL.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_S.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_NS.png ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pteranodon+longiceps&t=L ... ...nodon_longiceps_L.png Pteranodon_longiceps_NL.png Pteranodon_longiceps_S.png Pteranodon_longiceps_NS.png

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Amborella trichopoda Amborella_trichopoda_L.png Amborella_trichopoda_NL.png Amborella_trichopoda..._S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: white rhinoceros [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available g ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: rice [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ativa_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available a_NS.png ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _S.png Hordeum_vulgare_NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png ... ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian echidna [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available us_NS.png ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available NS.png ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: rabbit [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available g ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _NL.png Ardea_cinerea_S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ng Papilio_polytes_S.png Papilio_polytes_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ergillus_oryzae_S.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Danio rerio [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available io_NL.png Danio_rerio_S.png Danio_rerio_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available L.png Dugesia_japonica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available png Papilio_xuthus_S.png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ramazzottius [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ttius_S.png Ramazzottius_NS.png ...

  14. Company Taxonomy development

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore theoretically and empirically the understanding and implementation of an information taxonomy in the UN organization World Food Programme (WFP) by analysing users’ information behaviour and by establishing a minimum set of cross-silo metadata (tax...... research carried out on current taxonomy projects in corporate environments and international emergency response organizations and few has touched on how knowledge organization systems can enhance or constrain staff’s ability to access online content....... (taxonomy). Design/methodology/approach – The study implies the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. This includes desk review of key documents and interviews with information architecture staff from various WFP units; data collection carried out as semi-structured staff interviews in WFP; log...... analyses of search log-files from WFP intranet portal (WFPgo) from September to November 2013, the results were applied and a suggested taxonomy tested at workshops conducted for the staff in headquarters. Findings – The results reveal an organization with a high demand for easier access to information and...

  15. Asteroid taxonomy

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta


    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available field mustard Brassica rapa Brassica_rapa_L.png Brassica_rapa_NL.png Brassica_rapa_S.png Brassica..._rapa_NS.png ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: rape [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available rape Brassica napus Brassica_napus_L.png Brassica_napus_NL.png Brassica_napus_S.png Brassica..._napus_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available cabbage Brassica oleracea Brassica_oleracea_L.png Brassica_oleracea_NL.png Brassica_oleracea_S.png Brassica..._oleracea_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuberos...um_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorghum_bicolor..._NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchensi...s_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Acytostelium subglobosum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium_subglobosum_L.png Acytosteliu...m_subglobosum_NL.png Acytostelium_subglobosum_S.png Acytostelium_subglobosum_NS.png

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium_discoideum_L.png Dictyosteliu...m_discoideum_NL.png Dictyostelium_discoideum_S.png Dictyostelium_discoideum_NS.png

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Arthropoda Acyrthosiphon_pisum_L.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NL.png Acyrthosip...hon_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http:...// ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Polysphondylium pallidum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png Polysphondylium_pallidum..._NL.png Polysphondylium_pallidum_S.png Polysphondylium_pallidum_NS.png

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: white spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available white spruce Picea glauca Picea_glauca_L.png Picea_glauca_NL.png Picea_glauca_S.png Picea_glau...ca_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: tuatara [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available png Sphenodon_punctatus_NL.png Sphenodon_punctatus_S.png Sphenodon_punctatus_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic hagfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available L.png Myxine_glutinosa_NL.png Myxine_glutinosa_S.png Myxine_glutinosa_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: moose [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available lces_L.png Alces_alces_NL.png Alces_alces_S.png Alces_alces_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: tiger [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ra_tigris_L.png Panthera_tigris_NL.png Panthera_tigris_S.png Panthera_tigris_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available gaea_S.png Arachis_hypogaea_NS.png ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _troglodytes_L.png Pan_troglodytes_NL.png Pan_troglodytes_S.png Pan_troglodytes_NS.png ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available cucumis_S.png Beroe_cucumis_NS.png ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Solanum_lycopersicum_S.png Solanum_lycopersicum_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available las_L.png Pimephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ng Echiniscus_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: lemon damsel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ... ...luccensis_L.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_NL.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_S.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_NS.png

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available drillus_sphinx_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png Arabidopsis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: emu [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available g Dromaius_novaehollandiae_NL.png Dromaius_novaehollandiae_S.png Dromaius_novaehollandiae_NS.png ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _salar_NL.png Salmo_salar_S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _NL.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_S.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_NS.png ... ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: oriental silverfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available olepisma_villosa_NL.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_S.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: wapiti [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Cervus_canadensis_L.png Cervus_canadensis_NL.png Cervus_canadensis_S.png Cervus_canadensis_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: turkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bornean orangutan [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available te Pongo_pygmaeus_L.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NL.png Pongo_pygmaeus_S.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: sea urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available rotus_lividus_NL.png Paracentrotus_lividus_S.png Paracentrotus_lividus_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available png Populus_tremuloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese weasel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ra Mustela_itatsi_L.png Mustela_itatsi_NL.png Mustela_itatsi_S.png Mustela_itatsi_NS.png ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: brown bear [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available s_arctos_L.png Ursus_arctos_NL.png Ursus_arctos_S.png Ursus_arctos_NS.png ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: reindeer [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available a Rangifer_tarandus_L.png Rangifer_tarandus_NL.png Rangifer_tarandus_S.png Rangifer_tarandus_NS.png ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sea anemone [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available nia_equina_S.png Actinia_equina_NS.png h...ttp:// ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Capra_aegagrus_L.png Capra_aegagrus_NL.png Capra_aegagrus_S.png Capra_aegagrus_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese squirrel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available urus_lis_L.png Sciurus_lis_NL.png Sciurus_lis_S.png Sciurus_lis_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available e Macaca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available o_papio_L.png Papio_papio_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: emperor penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available L.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NL.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_S.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NS.png ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png htt...p:// ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available white shark Carcharodon carcharias Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carcharodon_carcharias_L.png Carcharodon..._carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http:/.../ ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus_subtilis_L.png Bacillus_subtilis_NL.png Bacillus..._subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: maize [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available maize Zea mays Zea_mays_L.png Zea_mays_NL.png Zea_mays_S.png Zea_mays_NS.png http:/.../ ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png h...ttp:// ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png htt...p:// ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: spotted seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available oca_largha_L.png Phoca_largha_NL.png Phoca_largha_S.png Phoca_largha_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png Schistosoma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available aromyces_pombe_NL.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_S.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_NS.png ... ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: sheep [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available es_L.png Ovis_aries_NL.png Ovis_aries_S.png Ovis_aries_NS.png ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Human [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available s_L.png Homo_sapiens_NL.png Homo_sapiens_S.png Homo_sapiens_NS.png ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: house mouse [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available house mouse Mus musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Mus_musculus_L.png Mus_musculus..._NL.png Mus_musculus_S.png Mus_musculus_NS.png ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_hamadry...as_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypan...osoma_brucei_S.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl


    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Clementine Citrus clementina Citrus_clementina_L.png Citrus_clementina_NL.png Citrus_clem...entina_S.png Citrus_clementina_NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Guillardia theta Guillardia theta Guillardia_theta_L.png Guillardia_theta_NL.png Guillardia_the...ta_S.png Guillardia_theta_NS.png

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sympetrum frequens [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _frequens_NL.png Sympetrum_frequens_S.png Sympetrum_frequens_NS.png ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: red fox [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _vulpes_L.png Vulpes_vulpes_NL.png Vulpes_vulpes_S.png Vulpes_vulpes_NS.png ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aegilops speltoides [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available es_NL.png Aegilops_speltoides_S.png Aegilops_speltoides_NS.png ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: saddleback dolphin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Delphinus+delphis&t=L ... ...etacea Delphinus_delphis_L.png Delphinus_delphis_NL.png Delphinus_delphis_S.png Delphinus_delphis_NS.png

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia_coli_L.png Escherichia_coli_NL.png Escherichia_coli..._S.png Escherichia_coli_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapia_john...stoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png ... ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: blue whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available blue whale Balaenoptera musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Balaenoptera..._musculus_L.png Balaenoptera_musculus_NL.png Balaenoptera_musculus_S.png Balaenoptera_musculu...s_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: platypus [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Prototheria Ornithorhynchus_anatinus..._L.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NL.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_S.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=S ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Magellanic penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Spheniscus_magellanic...us_L.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_NL.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_S.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_NS.png h...ttp://

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: dugong [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available dugong Dugong dugon Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Dugong_dugon_L.png Dugong_dugo...n_NL.png Dugong_dugon_S.png Dugong_dugon_NS.png ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Nile crocodile [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Crocodylus_nil...oticus_L.png Crocodylus_niloticus_NL.png Crocodylus_niloticus_S.png Crocodylus_niloticus_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aardvark [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Aardvark Orycteropus afer Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Orycteropus_afe...r_L.png Orycteropus_afer_NL.png Orycteropus_afer_S.png Orycteropus_afer_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    Eman Ghanem Nayef


    Full Text Available This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  1. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail


    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  2. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Polepeddi, S


    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  3. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian


    Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy....... The two literature streams combined to form the basis for the suggested recipe. Findings: The paper highlights the need for further large-scale empirical studies leading to a potential business model taxonomy, a topic that is currently under-exposed even though its merits are highlighted continuously...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: chinese pangolin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/et...i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=S ...

  5. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and Its Effects in Developing Students' Competences.

    Haolader, Faruque A.; Ali, Md Ramjan; Foysol, Khan Md


    Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learning/teaching material design, in…

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese skink [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese skink Eumeces latiscutatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Eumeces_latiscutatus_L.png Eumeces_lati...scutatus_NL.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_S.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NS.png ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese serow Capricornis crispus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capricorn...is_crispus_L.png Capricornis_crispus_NL.png Capricornis_crispus_S.png Capricornis_crispus..._NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: pronghorn [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available pronghorn Antilocapra americana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Antilocapra_americ...ana_L.png Antilocapra_americana_NL.png Antilocapra_americana_S.png Antilocapra_american...a_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus..._familiaris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Pan_pan...iscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http:...// ...

  11. A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools

    Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Taxonomy for Information Privacy Metrics

    Rasika Dayarathna


    Full Text Available A comprehensive privacy framework is essential for the progress of the information privacy field. Some practical implications of a comprehensive framework are laying foundation for building information privacy metrics and having fruitful discussions. Taxonomy is an essential step in building a framework. This research study attempts to build taxonomy for the information privacy domain based on empirical data. The classical grounded theory approach introduced by Glaser was applied and incidents reported by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP are used for building the taxonomy. These incidents include privacy related current research works, data breaches, personal views, interviews, and technological innovations. TAMZAnalyzer, an open source qualitative data analysis tool, was used in coding, keeping memos, sorting, and creating categories. The taxonomy is presented in seven themes and several categories including legal, technical, and ethical aspects. The findings of this study helps practitioners understand and discuss the subjects and academia work toward building a comprehensive framework and metrics for the information privacy domain

  13. Connectionist Taxonomy Learning

    Frey, Miloslaw


    The paper at hand describes an approach to automatise the creation of a class taxonomy. Information about objects, e.g. "a tank is armored and moves by track", but no prior knowledge about taxonomy structure is presented to a connectionist system which organizes itself by means of activation spreading (McClelland and Rumelhart, 1981) and weight adjustments. The resulting connectionist network has a form of a taxonomy sought-after.

  14. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A


    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  15. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Richard C Wilkerson

    Full Text Available The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K. Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1 restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2 enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3 maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4 correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new

  16. Early stage morphogenesis: an approach to problems of taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution in the Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)%早期形态发生:一种解决贻贝科(软体动物门:双壳纲)分类、系统发育和进化问题的方法



    Sequence of appearance and transformations of morphological structures during larval and juvenile mytilids life histories have been examined. Ontogenies of about 60 taxa were typified into 4 morphogenetic patterns, or modes. Origin, developmental changes and homologies of the stage morphostructures were considered according to their location in three morphogenetic fields. The first, or central, field forms at the prodissoconch Ⅰ stage (PD-Ⅰ). It can be inherited by prodissoconch Ⅱ (PD-Ⅱ) and nepioconch (N) stages in one taxa, or PD-Ⅱ, N and dissoconch (D) stages in others. The second, or postero-dorsal, field appears at the N stage, and the third field, or antero-dorsal, at the D stage. The postero-dorsal field of the stage D inherits the N-morphostructures in one taxa, or D-stage in others. Central and postero-dorsal field morphostructures exhibit developmental sequences, or a system of characters which possess polarity, in contrast to adult characters applied in mytilid taxonomy. Based on early stage morphological characters of and well-known features studied previously but not used in taxonomy and phylogeny, a revaluation Soot-Ryen's system of supraspecific taxa and reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among the Recent Mytilidae have been attempted. In the presented scheme, the subfamilies of Scarlato and Starobogatov (1984) form four phylogenetic lines beginning with the Modiolinae.%作者对贻贝科贝类的幼虫和幼贝期发育阶段形态结构的出现和变化顺序进行了研究,其约60个不同分类单元的个体发生可归纳为4种形态发生类型或模式.主要对3个形态发生区域的阶段形态结构的起源、发育变化和同源性做了研究.其一,即中央区域,开始形成于前双壳Ⅰ期(PD-Ⅰ),在某个分类单元它可以在前双壳Ⅱ期(PD-Ⅱ)和幼贝期(N)形成,而在其它分类单元则在前双壳Ⅱ期、幼贝期和双壳期(D)形成;第二区域,即背部后区,在幼贝期出现;第

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray slender loris [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available a_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: northern fur seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available _NS.png ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available L.png Eisenia_fetida_S.png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png Aplysia_kurodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png ...

  4. EPA Web Taxonomy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  5. Exploring and Upgrading the Educational Business-Game Taxonomy

    Jerman Blažic, Andrej; Džonova Jerman Blažic, Borka


    This article explores existing attempts to design a comprehensive and complex taxonomy framework for an educational business game intended to categorize and evaluate various properties. The identified missing elements in the current proposed taxonomies were used as a starting point for the design of a new category that addresses the game's…

  6. Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) - the new freshwater clam for Slovakia

    Specimens of the expansive Asian freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea O. F. Mueller, 1774 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) were found on the following three localities of Danube river of Slovakia: Radvan nad Dunajom env. (DFS - 8276a), Komarno env. (DFS - 8274b), Gabcikovo env. (DFS - 8171a). The basic information about this species, key for determination and a photo of an adult individual are presented on the poster. (authors)

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium..._castaneum_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png ... ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available aimondii_NL.png Gossypium_raimondii_S.png Gossypium_raimondii_NS.png ... ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available nus_L.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NL.png Coptotermes_formosanus_S.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: cape rock hyrax [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Procavia_capensis_L.png Procavia_capensis_NL.png Procavia_capensis_S.png Procavia_capensis_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona intestinalis (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ttp:// ... Ciona_intestinalis_L.png Ciona_intestinalis_NL.png Ciona_intestinalis_S.png Ciona_intestinalis_NS.png h

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available ponicus_L.png Andrias_japonicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Striped bark scorpion [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Centruroides_vittatus_NL.png Centruroides_vittatus_S.png Centruroides_vittatus_NS.png ...

  16. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Case, Emily


    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium_falciparum_L.png Plasmodium_falcipar...um_NL.png Plasmodium_falciparum_S.png Plasmodium_falciparum_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available aon_NL.png Papilio_machaon_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available yla_japonica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png ...

  1. Taxonomy in Epistemology

    Galloway, Jerry P.


    This paper outlines a theoretical paradigm for distinguishing thinking, knowing and believing. A new taxonomy is presented for categorizing levels of knowing and outlines a structure of justification for each level. The paper discusses and explains the importance of such distinctions in decision making and thinking in general.

  2. Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ヒトアイコンの別候補を作成してみました。 ttamura 2008/11/06 17:14:44 ... ...Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for

  3. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  4. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  5. Silurian Bivalvia from Chichagof Island, Southeast Alaska (Alexander terrane

    Kříž J


    Full Text Available The new Silurian Bivalvia Goniophora thula-Mytilarca boucoti Community from a new locality east of the Hoonah Airport on Chichagof Island, Southeast Alaska, U.S.A. is composed of 9 species [?Colpomya aff. hugini Liljedahl, 1994 and ?Colpomya aff. audae Liljedahl, 1994 (Colpomyidae; Modiolopsis aff. modiolaris Conrad, 1838 (Modiolopsidae; Mytilarca boucoti sp. nov. (Ambonychiidae; ?Schizodus sp. A and ?Schizodus sp. B (Schizodidae; Sanguinolites sp. (Sanguinolitidae; ?Modiomorpha sp. and Goniophora thula sp. nov. (Modiomorphinae]. In this paper two new species are described. The Goniophora thula-Mytilarca boucoti Community most probably occupied a gently inclined upper slope environment lying seaward of a cyanobacterial reef front which marked the outer edge of a late Silurian carbonate platform (represented by the Kennel Creek Limestone. The fauna of this locality consists of a rich benthos, especially rich in brachiopods, but secondarily dominated by bivalves and gastropods. Cephalopods are rare, favositid tabulate corals are also present, but form only a very minor component. The new community is most closely related to the homologous and analogous late Wenlock Bivalvia community described from Gotland, Sweden, Baltica. Similar biotic ties are with the shallow water early Ludlow Janicula potens Community from the Prague Basin, Bohemia, Perunica. Cosmopolitanism is characteristic for the Silurian Bivalvia genera, which were dispersed in most regions of the world due to their relatively long pelagic larval life and relatively small distances between the basins, islands and continents in the Silurian. For the distribution of Bivalvia during the Silurian were more limiting physical factors like temperature, salinity, substrate, food, oxygen content, light, and depth. The fauna described here is from the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheri...a/Carnivora Mirounga_leonina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: silver-gray brushtail possum [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available silver-gray brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Metatheria Trichosur...us_vulpecula_L.png Trichosurus_vulpecula_NL.png Trichosurus_vulpecula_S.png Trichosur...us_vulpecula_NS.png ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available flava_L.png Ptychodera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png ...

  13. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.


    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data pr...

  14. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  15. Microbial genomic taxonomy

    Cristiane C Thompson; Chimetto, Luciane; Edwards, Robert A.; Swings, Jean; Stackebrandt, Erko; Thompson, Fabiano L


    A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes,  70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (G...

  16. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John


    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The act of reflection has been analysed and abstracted from goal, content, context, means, and moment of reflecting. Reflection was operationalised as answering reflective questions. Bloom’s taxonomy ...

  17. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png ...

  19. Towards a Taxonomy of Mobile Applications

    Nickerson, Robert; Varshney, Upkar; Muntermann, Jan; Isaac, Henri


    Both the number and types of mobile applications have been seeing a significant increase in the last few years. Such an increase can lead to an overwhelming situation for researchers, users, and developers who are trying to understand them from many different viewpoints. One way to create a more tractable treatment of both the current as well as the emerging mobile applications is to develop a taxonomy of mobile applications. This paper describes an on-going work towards developing such a tax...

  20. Application of Bloom´s taxonomy of learning objectives in vocational subjects

    Procházka, Miloslav


    Bachelor thesis with entitle "Application of Bloom's taxonomy of objectives in teaching vocational subjects" is focused on analyzing the current taxonomy of educational aims in education, the goal is to find out what is the final function in education process and what is the experience with the use of taxonomy targets among secondary school teachers. For the research were used three methods and tools for educational research. Firstly, content analysis of curriculum documents. Secondly, obser...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region


    The ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is a useful genomic region for understanding evolutionary and genetic relationships. In the current study, the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) was performed using the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ITS region in nine species of this family. The sequences were obtained from the scallop species Argopecten irradians, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, Amusium pleuronectes and Mimachlamys nobilis, and compared with the published sequences of Aequipecten opercularis, Chlamys farreri, C. distorta, M. varia, Pecten maximus, and an outgroup species Perna viridis. The molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1, ITS2, or their combination always yielded trees of similar topology. The results support the morphological classifications of bivalve and are nearly consistent with classification of two subfamilies (Chlamydinae and Pectininae) formulated by Waller. However, A. irradians, together with A. opercularis made up of genera Amusium, evidences that they may belong to the subfamily Pectinidae. The data are incompatible with the conclusion of Waller who placed them in Chlamydinae by morphological characteristics. These results provide new insights into the evolutionary relationships among scallop species and contribute to the improvement of existing classification systems.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Philippine flying lemur [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Philippine flying lemur Cynocephalus volans Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Cynoceph...alus_volans_L.png Cynocephalus_volans_NL.png Cynocephalus_volans_S.png Cynocephalus_volan...s_NS.png ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Loxodonta_afri...cana_L.png Loxodonta_africana_NL.png Loxodonta_africana_S.png Loxodonta_africana_NS....png ...

  4. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Iida Tetsuya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  5. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Studentsâ Competences

    Haolader, Faruque A.


    Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavor to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. Quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learn-ing/teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing stu-dents and its effect on studentsâ competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion ...

  6. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal

    Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Bairoch, Amos Marc


    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at

  7. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal.

    Phan, I Q H; Pilbout, S F; Fleischmann, W; Bairoch, A


    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at PMID:12824428


    Sujatha R; Bandaru Rama krishna Rao


    For any information to be organized, taxonomy is essential. Taxonomy plays a very important role for information and content management. Also it helps in searching of content. The most common method forconstructing taxonomy was the manual construction. As the information available today is huge, constructing taxonomy for such information manually was time consuming and maintenance was difficult. This paperpresents an overview of various taxonomy construction techniques available for easier co...

  9. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.;


    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...... tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI), genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios....... RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a...

  10. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.


    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  11. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    Giovanni Bonanno; Nicolas Vandewalle; Mantegna, Rosario N.


    We investigate sets of financial non-redundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  12. Taxonomy and Notation of Spatialization

    Ellberger, Emile Benjamin; Pérez, Germán Toro; Cavaliero, Linda; Schütt, Johannes; Zoia, Giorgio; Zimmermann, Basile


    The SSMN Spatial Taxonomy and its symbols libraries, which are the corner stone of the Spatialization Symbolic Music Notation (SSMN) project, emanates from research into composers’ attitudes in this domain. It was conceived as the basis for the development of dedicated notation and rendering tools within the SSMN project. The taxonomy is a systematic representation of all relevant features necessary to specify sound spatiality: shape and acoustic quality of the space, structure, position and ...

  13. Taxonomy of cloud computing services

    Hoefer, C.N.; Karagiannis, G.


    Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic, and many big players of the software industry are entering the development of cloud services. Several companies want to explore the possibilities and benefits of cloud computing, but with the amount of cloud computing services increasing quickly, the need for a taxonomy framework rises. This paper describes the available cloud computing services, and proposes a treestructured taxonomy based on their characteristics, to easily classify cloud computi...

  14. Construction of Cubic Dynamic and User-oriented Taxonomy forAutomatic Classification of Internet Information


    Based on the requirements of the development of Internet, thenecessity of establishing cubic dynamic and user-oriented taxonomy for automatic classification is presented. Then the basic algorithm to construct such taxonomy is discussed. The view is up to date in current world.

  15. Microbial genomic taxonomy.

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Chimetto, Luciane; Edwards, Robert A; Swings, Jean; Stackebrandt, Erko; Thompson, Fabiano L


    A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes,  70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (GGDH). Species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and supertree analysis. In addition to the established requirements for species descriptions, we propose that new taxa descriptions should also include at least a draft genome sequence of the type strain in order to obtain a clear outlook on the genomic landscape of the novel microbe. The application of the new genomic species definition put forward here will allow researchers to use genome sequences to define simultaneously coherent phenotypic and genomic groups. PMID:24365132

  16. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Vences Miguel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: three-spined stickleback [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Gasteros...teus_aculeatus_L.png Gasterosteus_aculeatus_NL.png Gasterosteus_aculeatus_S.png Gasterosteus_aculeatus_...NS.png ...

  18. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Girguis Peter R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  19. The remote experiment position in actual taxonomy

    Samoila, Cornel; Ursutiu, Doru; Cotfas, Petru; Zamfira, Sorin


    Taxonomy is a classification effort for establishment of learning/teaching operational objectives. There are some famous taxonomies, Bloom's being the most quoted. In spite of the fact that some researchers have tried to explain the position of elearning in already known taxonomies, this subject was not too much in the general attention. In the paper the authors intend to go deeply and to analyze the position of the new methodology-remote experiment-in the actual taxonomies. In addition they ...

  20. Towards a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence

    Sandel, Brody Steven


    why? I argue that this is likely to be a productive way forward for ecology, but that progress in this direction is currently hindered by the conflation of a set of distinct concepts under the category of ‘scale-dependence’. Here, I propose a taxonomy of spatial scale-dependence that categorizes its......-dependence (the class). I illustrate the need for these distinctions with a set of examples demonstrating causes of different types of scale-dependence. I then describe how this taxonomy relates to an array of scale-related concepts from other fields. Finally, I discuss the generalization that biotic interactions...... are most important at small scales in light of this taxonomy....

  1. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    Arleth, Mette


    project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  2. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    good frameworks for understanding different options when building LF systems. This paper proposes a taxonomy to address both of these problems. The proposed taxonomy has been constructed from a literature study of 51 papers and articles about LF. For researchers the taxonomy can also be used as an aid...

  3. From Genome Sequence to Taxonomy - A Skeptic’s View

    Özen, Asli Ismihan; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ussery, David


    many commonly used methods and also describes potential pitfalls if used inappropriately, as well as which questions are best addressed by particular methods. After a brief introduction to the classical methods of taxonomy, a description of the bacterial genomes currently available is given, and then...

  4. Reflections on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    Amer, Aly


    In the application of the "Original" Bloom's taxonomy since its publication in 1956, several weaknesses and practical limitations have been revealed. Besides, psychological and educational research has witnessed the introduction of several theories and approaches to learning which make students more knowledgeable of and responsible for their own…

  5. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    Plávalová, E


    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun.We know its approximate mass, temperature, age and size. In our work with extrasolar planets database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification), for example, like the Harvard classification for stars. This new taxonomy has to be comprehensible and present the important information about extrasolar planets. The important information of extrasolar planets are their mass, radius, period, density, eccentricity, temperature, and their distance from the parent star. There are too many parameters, that is, taxonomy with six parameters would be complicated and difficult to apply. We propose following the extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with only four parameters. The first parameter is the information about the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of the units of the mass of other known planets, where M - Mercury, E - Earth, N - Neptune, and J - Jupiter. The second parameter is the distance from its pa...

  6. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    D. Vaněček


    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  7. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the prismatic layer in the Bivalvia



    The shell structure of the Bivalvia has been observed with the use of optical and electron microscopes since the early 1900's. The prismatic structure is one of the more attractive shell structures in bivalved mollusks. This structure is composed of the aggregation of polygonal prisms arranged densely. Each prism is made of small calcite crystallites arranged perpendicular to a growth shell surface. Organic materials, named organic sheaths, accumulate around prisms and stain well with heamatox-ylin-eosin.The Bivalvia, which make prismatic structures, are divided into two groups. One group has the inner shell layer made up of a nacreous structure, and the other has the inner shell layer made up of a foliated structure. The aragonite prismatic layer and the prismatic layer are clo-sely related to each other, as is the aragonite prismatic layer to the composite prismatic one.


    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita


    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  9. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  10. Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Mobile botnets taxonomy and challenges

    MALATRAS APOSTOLOS; Freyssinet, Eric; BESLAY Laurent


    The proliferation of mobile devices with increased capabilities and the widespread penetration of wireless networks have spurred a convergence of mobile and commodity computing systems. In this respect, botnets have also found their way to the mobile ecosystem, where they exploit characteristics of phones (e.g. linked to user accounts, repositories of private and sensitive information) to have a profound impact on operations and user privacy. We report here on an in-depth taxonomy of mobile b...

  12. Solar and Extrasolar Planet Taxonomy

    Russell, David


    A mass-based definition for planets is proposed with dynamical circumstances and compositional characteristics used to define types of planets. Dynamical planet classes include Principal planets, Belt planets, Moons, and Rogue planets. Compositional classes include rock, ice, and gas planets with refined classes when sufficient data is available. The dynamical and compositional definitions are combined with a six class planetary mass scale into a taxonomy that can be used to classify both Sol...

  13. Geometric Representations of Language Taxonomies

    Blanchard, Ph.; Petroni, F.; Serva, M.; Volchenkov, D.


    Abstract A Markov chain analysis of a network generated by the matrix of lexical distances allows for representing complex relationships between different languages in a language family geometrically, in terms of distances and angles. The fully automated method for construction of language taxonomy is tested on a sample of fifty languages of the IndoEuropean language group and applied to a sample of fifty languages of the Austronesian language group. The Anatolian and Kurgan hypoth...

  14. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Plávalová, Eva


    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  15. Target-driven merging of Taxonomies

    Raunich, Salvatore


    The proliferation of ontologies and taxonomies in many domains increasingly demands the integration of multiple such ontologies. The goal of ontology integration is to merge two or more given ontologies in order to provide a unified view on the input ontologies while maintaining all information coming from them. We propose a new taxonomy merging algorithm that, given as input two taxonomies and an equivalence matching between them, can generate an integrated taxonomy in a fully automatic manner. The approach is target-driven, i.e. we merge a source taxonomy into the target taxonomy and preserve the structure of the target ontology as much as possible. We also discuss how to extend the merge algorithm providing auxiliary information, like additional relationships between source and target concepts, in order to semantically improve the final result. The algorithm was implemented in a working prototype and evaluated using synthetic and real-world scenarios.

  16. A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach

    Vrettos S.


    Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

  17. A Proposed Taxonomy of Software Weapons

    Karresand, Martin


    The terms and classification schemes used in the computer security field today are not standardised. Thus the field is hard to take in, there is a risk of misunderstandings, and there is a risk that the scientific work is being hampered. Therefore this report presents a proposal for a taxonomy of software based IT weapons. After an account of the theories governing the formation of a taxonomy, and a presentation of the requisites, seven taxonomies from different parts of the computer securit...

  18. Performativity of economic systems: Approach and implications for taxonomy

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten


    The paper proposes to ground the taxonomy of economic systems on the identification of strongly performative institutions as distinctive features. I analyse performativity on the basis of the Aoki model of institutions, enriched by current approaches to performativity, which I combine with Searle's notion of a status function. Performativity is conceived as resulting from the conjunction of public representations (sign systems) and behavioral dispositions which channel strategic interactions ...

  19. A taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in education

    Duncan, Ishbel Mary Macdonald; Miller, Alan Henry David; Jiang, Shangyi


    Virtual worlds are an important tool in modern education practices as well as providing socialisation, entertainment and a laboratory for collaborative work. This paper focuses on the uses of virtual worlds for education and synthesises over 100 published academic papers, reports and educational websites from around the world. A taxonomy is then derived from these papers, delineating current theoretical and practical work on virtual world usage, specifically in the field of education. The tax...

  20. 04101 Discussion -- A Taxonomy of Model Transformations

    Mens, Tom; CZARNECKI, Krzysztof; Van Gorp, Pieter


    This report summarises the results of the discussions of a working group on model transformation of the Dagstuhl Seminar on Language Engineering for Model-Driven Software Development. The main contribution is a taxonomy of model transformation. This taxonomy can be used to help developers in deciding which model transformation approach is best suited to deal with a particular problem.

  1. An Evaluation Taxonomy For Congestion Pricing

    H. Lo; Hickman, M.; Walstad, M.


    In this paper, the authors formulate an evaluation taxonomy to identify a broad range of factors that would be important for a comprehensive assessment of congestion pricing. The evaluation taxonomy consists of three dimensions: road pricing strategies, impacted groups and impacts. The paper also includes a literature review of previous research in road pricing, especially regarding modeling tools and methods for conducting evaluation.

  2. A Taxonomy of Systems of Corporate Governance

    Weimer, Jeroen; Pape, Joost C.


    This paper argues that debate on corporate governance in an international context is hampered by the lack of a coherent framework. A taxonomy of systems of corporate governance is proposed as a remedy. The taxonomy is based upon eight characteristics: the prevailing concept of the firm, the board sy

  3. A proposed taxonomy of contracts

    Mouzas, Stefanos; Furmston, Michael


    We propose a classification of contracts based on their real-life usage. Recognizing that there are a number of different and overlapping ways of classifying contracts, we can identify at least seven ways of doing this: 1) by the subject matter, 2) by the way the contract is made, 3) by the function of contracts, 4) by the time-horizon, 5) by the ability to re-negotiate terms, 6) by the involvement of consumers, 7) by the existence of mutual trust. The proposed taxonomy draws our attention to...

  4. Molecular phylogeny and shell microstructure of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al. 1968, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), in relation to other mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    Owada, M.; Hoeksema, B.W.


    Research on the evolution of the symbiosis between the boring mussel Fungiacava eilatensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its mushroom coral hosts (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), which requires phylogenetic reconstructions of both the Mytilidae and the Fungiidae, contributes to the understanding of the comple

  5. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.


    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  6. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B


    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs. PMID:27369168

  7. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.


    Joseba Ezeiza Ramos


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of cyberjournalistic documents by proposing a taxonomy to structure web-genre corpora. It takes into account the peculiarities of this field, the new genres, their hybridization and complexness. In this sense, the taxonomy presented in this paper does not match a single theoretical framework, but it tries to gather the guidelines of various works intended to study online journalism and its genres. This theoretical flexibility is needed to set up a proposal good enough to suit the current needs of the area. The paper also describes the main axes of the taxonomy, defines its communication unit and remarks the values and limitations of such a work. Its result is a highly structured and document-oriented database, a tool that will enable users to understand the current trends, to create new hybrids, and to detect the changes that happen within this field that is widening the horizons of the usage of language.

  9. Aspectos bioecológicos do mexilhao dourado Limnoperna Fortunei (bivalvia,mytilidae)(DUNKER, 1857)

    Silva, Debora Pestana da


    Experimentos laboratoriais e análises em campo foram feitos para elucidar alguns aspectos da biologia de Limnoperna fortunei (BIVALVIA:MYTILIDAE), um molusco invasor originário do sudoeste asiático que vem colonizando a América do Sul desde 1991. Em relação ao seu hábito filtrador, comparando-se dois tipos de alimento, foi verificado que a temperatura teve menos influência na taxa de filtração do que o tamanho da partícula filtrada. A temperatura só influenciou sobre os valores de filtração n...

  10. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    Lambe, Patrick


    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  11. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos


    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.


    Nickerson, Robert; Muntermann, Jan; Varshney, Upkar; Isaac, Henri


    International audience The complexity of the information systems field often lends itself to classification schemes, or taxonomies, which provide ways to understand the similarities and differences among objects under study. Developing a taxonomy, however, is a complex process that is often done in an ad hoc way. This research-in-progress paper uses the design science paradigm to develop a systematic method for taxonomy development in information systems. The method we propose uses an indi...

  13. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Akélé G.D.


    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  14. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae.

    Autum N Pairett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1 identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2 identify any additional light detection functions; and 3 test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.

  15. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    Afonso, C.L.; Kurath, Gael; 82 Additional Authors


    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  16. Is Bloom's Taxonomy Appropriate for Computer Science?

    Johnson, Colin G.; Fuller, Ursula


    Bloom's taxonomy attempts to provide a set of levels of cognitive engagement with material being learned. It is usually presented as a generic framework. In this paper we outline some studies which examine whether the taxonomy is appropriate for computing, and how its application in computing might differ from its application elsewhere. We place this in the context of ongoing debates concerning graduateness and attempts to benchmark the content of a computing degree.

  17. Taxonomie cloud služeb

    Staňková, Zuzana


    This thesis called "Taxonomy of cloud services" deals with description and categorization of services in the field of cloud computing. It aims to theoretically describe and approach this whole provisioning of ICT services model, to analyze the two leading providers of cloud services, and bring a new perspective on its taxonomy. The theoretical part defines the term cloud computing, its definition and a brief description of the history. Attention is paid to individual components, characteristi...

  18. Mobile learning: a meta-ethical taxonomy

    Farrow, Robert


    In this paper I discuss some of the ethical issues relating to the use of mobile technologies in education. I argue that the frames of reference used by educators and technologists fail to capture the nature, scope and impact of ethical issues in mobile learning. A taxonomy of ethical issues based on dominant positions in meta-ethical moral theory is proposed. Using categories from the Mobile Technologies in Lifelong Learning (MOTILL) project, I show how this taxonomy can be applied in suc...

  19. A taxonomy of anatomical and pathological entities to support commenting on radiographs (preliminary clinical evaluation)

    It has been shown that radiographers have a lot to offer the patient by providing their expert opinion in a timely intervention; including the possibility of Radiographer Led Discharge. Some excellent paper based ‘commenting’ systems have been developed locally and the Society and College of Radiographers has issued national guidance with a pro-forma to support implementation. However, delivery and audit of the PCE service can be burdensome. There is also an ongoing training need linked in to annual reviews. This paper provides a brief introduction to the field of controlled vocabularies and ontologies in radiology and serves to identify their potential for PCE systems. The current work has constructed a prototype taxonomy and accompanying ontology (list of relationships) that enable the generation of radiographer comments using an electronic, fast, and structured web based interface. For example, in the current implementation any one of thousands of possible unique comments could be constructed by making just six selections from filtered lists of terms. The prototype taxonomy has been tested to refine and validate the concept. The resulting taxonomy and its evolution is described here. Finally, the taxonomy was trialled by 23 participants who generated structured PCE's after reviewing 27 cases on DICOM workstations. An analysis of agreement between participants and the ‘gold standard’ is presented. In conclusion, a taxonomy has been created that would provide for: a standardised framework for training staff and students, efficient and robust delivery of the service, and audit of individual practice

  20. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    Hlava, Marjorie


    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  1. Semisupervised Learning Taxonomy-Aware Catalog Integration

    D.Umavathi M.Sc1 , R.Tamil selvi M.Sc., M.Phil


    Full Text Available Data integration is the major important task for online commercial portals and commerce search engine based applications. The data integration task faced by online commercial portals and e-commerce search engines are the integration of products coming from multiple providers to their product catalogs. Categorization of products from the data provides into the master taxonomy and whereas make use of the data provider taxonomy information becomes major problem. Overcome this problem we classify the products based on their textual based classifier and taxonomy-aware step that adjusts the results of a textual based classifier to ensure that products that are close together in the provider taxonomy remain close in the master taxonomy. In taxonomy aware calibration step the base classifier derives the parameters value by tuning the values. Existing base classifier step, still it becomes major problem identify candidate products for labeling the products, to overcome these problem we proposed a Semi supervised learning techniques to incrementally retrain the base classifier with elements chosen during the taxonomy-aware calibration step. Proposed system it categorizes the product based on their parameters choosen from calibration. Semi supervised learning algorithm involves a large amount of unlabeled product data with only a small number of labeled product data. Semisupervised based active learning method identifies the candidate products for labeling. Proposed system finds the each candidate parameter ࢏ࣂ and then find the optimal parameter ࢽ such that the improve the accuracy on the validation set is maximized. An experimental result shows that the Semi supervised learning algorithm that are efficient and thus applicable to the large data sets that are typical on the web.

  2. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.


    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

  3. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  4. Karakteristik Fisika-Kimia Perairan Dan Struktur Komunitas Moluska (Bivalvia Dan Gastropoda) Di Pantai Cermin Sumatera Utara

    Siregar, Raissha Amanda


    RAISSHA AMANDA SIREGAR, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Aquatic and Community structures Many activities around Cermin Beach feared of mollusca (bivalvia and gastropoda) in Cermin Beach, North Sumatera. Under guided YUNASFI and ANI SURYANTI. can alter the water quality of Cermin Beach. Information and understanding of environmental change is indispensable in ecosystem monitoring efforts. This research aims to determine the status of the water quality seen on characteristics of chemic...

  5. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Wallace, Robert


    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  6. Taxonomy grounded aggregation of classifiers with different label sets

    SAHA, AMRITA; Indurthi, Sathish; Godbole, Shantanu; Rongali, Subendhu; Raykar, Vikas C.


    We describe the problem of aggregating the label predictions of diverse classifiers using a class taxonomy. Such a taxonomy may not have been available or referenced when the individual classifiers were designed and trained, yet mapping the output labels into the taxonomy is desirable to integrate the effort spent in training the constituent classifiers. A hierarchical taxonomy representing some domain knowledge may be different from, but partially mappable to, the label sets of the individua...

  7. Revisiting the Panko-Halverson Taxonomy of Spreadsheet Errors

    Panko, Raymond R.


    The purpose of this paper is to revisit the Panko-Halverson taxonomy of spreadsheet errors and suggest revisions. There are several reasons for doing so: First, the taxonomy has been widely used. Therefore, it should have scrutiny; Second, the taxonomy has not been widely available in its original form and most users refer to secondary sources. Consequently, they often equate the taxonomy with the simplified extracts used in particular experiments or field studies; Third, perhaps as a consequ...

  8. Developing a Computer Science-specific Learning Taxonomy

    Fuller, Ursula; Johnson, Colin G.; Ahoniemi, Tuukka; Cukierman, Diana; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Jackova, Jana; Lahtinen, Essi; Lewis, Tracy L.; McGee Thompson, Donna; Riesdel, Charles; Thompson, Errol


    Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain and the SOLO taxonomy are being increasingly widely used in the design and assessment of courses, but there are some drawbacks to their use in computer science. This paper reviews the literature on educational taxonomies and their use in computer science education, identifies some of the problems that arise, proposes a new taxonomy and discusses how this can be used in application-oriented courses such as programming.

  9. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Matsen Frederick A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  10. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang


    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.