Sample records for bitis gabonica rhinoceros

  1. Evolutionary analysis of novel serine proteases in the venom gland transcriptome of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are major components of viper venom and target various stages of the blood coagulation system in victims and prey. A better understanding of the diversity of serine proteases and other enzymes present in snake venom will help to understand how the complexity of snake venom has evolved and will aid the development of novel therapeutics for treating snake bites. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four serine protease-encoding genes from the venom gland transcriptome of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros were amplified and sequenced. Mass spectrometry suggests the four enzymes corresponding to these genes are present in the venom of B. g. rhinoceros. Two of the enzymes, rhinocerases 2 and 3 have substitutions to two of the serine protease catalytic triad residues and are thus unlikely to be catalytically active, though they may have evolved other toxic functions. The other two enzymes, rhinocerases 4 and 5, have classical serine protease catalytic triad residues and thus are likely to be catalytically active, however they have glycine rather than the more typical aspartic acid at the base of the primary specificity pocket (position 189. Based on a detailed analysis of these sequences we suggest that alternative splicing together with individual amino acid mutations may have been involved in their evolution. Changes within amino acid segments which were previously proposed to undergo accelerated change in venom serine proteases have also been observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides further insight into the diversity of serine protease isoforms present within snake venom and discusses their possible functions and how they may have evolved. These multiple serine protease isoforms with different substrate specificities may enhance the envenomation effects and help the snake to adapt to new habitats and diets. Our findings have potential for helping the future development of improved therapeutics for snake bites.

  2. Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a major neglected public health issue within poor communities living in the rural areas of several countries throughout the world. An estimated 2.5 million people are bitten by snakes each year and the cost and lack of efficacy of current anti-venom therapy, together with the lack of detailed knowledge about toxic components of venom and their modes of action, and the unavailability of treatments in rural areas mean that annually there are around 125,000 deaths worldwide. In order to develop cheaper and more effective therapeutics, the toxic components of snake venom and their modes of action need to be clearly understood. One particularly poorly understood component of snake venom is aminopeptidases. These are exo-metalloproteases, which, in mammals, are involved in important physiological functions such as the maintenance of blood pressure and brain function. Although aminopeptidase activities have been reported in some snake venoms, no detailed analysis of any individual snake venom aminopeptidases has been performed so far. As is the case for mammals, snake venom aminopeptidases may also play important roles in altering the physiological functions of victims during envenomation. In order to further understand this important group of snake venom enzymes we have isolated, functionally characterised and analysed the sequence-structure relationships of an aminopeptidase from the venom of the large, highly venomous West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and fractions with aminopeptidase activities were isolated. Fractions with aminopeptidase activities showed a pure protein with a molecular weight of 150 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the absence of calcium, this purified protein had broad aminopeptidase activities against acidic, basic and neutral amino acids but in the presence of calcium, it had only

  3. African adders: partial characterization of snake venoms from three Bitis species of medical importance and their neutralization by experimental equine antivenoms.

    Danielle Paixão-Cavalcante


    Full Text Available An alarming number of fatal accidents involving snakes are annually reported in Africa and most of the victims suffer from permanent local tissue damage and chronic disabilities. Envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus Bitis, Viperidae family, are common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The accidents are severe and the victims often have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective specific therapies. In this study we have biochemically characterized venoms from three different species of Bitis, i.e., Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis nasicornis, involved in the majority of the human accidents in Africa, and analyzed the in vitro neutralizing ability of two experimental antivenoms.The data indicate that all venoms presented phospholipase, hyaluronidase and fibrinogenolytic activities and cleaved efficiently the FRET substrate Abz-RPPGFSPFRQ-EDDnp and angiotensin I, generating angiotensin 1-7. Gelatinolytic activity was only observed in the venoms of B. arietans and B. nasicornis. The treatment of the venoms with protease inhibitors indicated that Bitis venoms possess metallo and serinoproteases enzymes, which may be involved in the different biological activities here evaluated. Experimental antivenoms produced against B. arietans venom or Bitis g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms cross-reacted with the venoms from the three species and blocked, in different degrees, all the enzymatic activities in which they were tested.These results suggest that the venoms of the three Bitis species, involved in accidents with humans in the Sub-Saharan Africa, contain a mixture of various enzymes that may act in the generation and development of some of the clinical manifestations of the envenomations. We also demonstrated that horse antivenoms produced against B. arietans or B. g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms can blocked some of the toxic activities of these venoms.

  4. Biti pastir mladih danas

    Attard, Fabio


    Autor razmišlja kao odgajatelj koji, slijedeći svoga učitelja don Bosca, u središte stavlja odgajanika kao osobu u potrazi za smislom. Svjestan da je čovjek Božje stvorenje koje Bog ljubi, autor slijedi don Boscovu metodu i želi biti blizu mladima. To znači potaknuti u njima volju za rastom, s odvažnošću gledati prema gore i život doživljavati kao dar. Stoga pastir mladih koji odgovara na Kristov poziv i djeluje po don Boscovoj metodi, nastoji slušati pripovijedanje mladih i njihove povijesti...

  5. Parasites of rhinoceros

    Kettnerová, Lucie


    This thesis is focuses on parasites of rhinoceros. Thesis is in form a literary review, and is focused of parasites both in captivity and wildness. The aim of mine work was to describe the different kinds of parasites, their morphology, life cycles, and especially diseases that cause to the rhinoceros. Rhinoceros are endangered species, some of them are on the verge of extinction therefore they are in order to be saved often moved to reservations or zoos. In the new environment, they meet ...

  6. Strukturelle erforschung von wortbedeutungen am beispiel des zeitwortes biti 'sein'

    Jože Toporišič


    Full Text Available Strukturell ist für mich eine solche Erforschung der Wortbedeutung, deren Befunde durch die Sprachstruktur selbst kontroliert und bestätigt werden und nicht etwa durch log(izistische oder sonstige Erwägen, die in die Sprache hineingetragen werden, statt in ihr enthalten zu sein. In diesem Sinne sei der WöSrterbuchartikel über das Zeitwort biti 'sein' im Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika I, Ljubljana 1970, einer formalen Kritik unterzogen.Hauptbefunde dieser Kritik sind folgende: Das Zeitwort biti sollte nur in 2, nicht in 5 Problemkreisen (der 6. ist das sog.Nestbehandelt werden.Unter I. tritt es in 3 gegenstandsbezogenen Grundbedeutungen auf, unter es reine Kopula (die aber aufgrund der Objektspräpositionen besondere Bedeutungen gewinnt.Unter I.werden unterschieden: 1. die Bedeutung des Vorhandenseins oder des Bestehens, 2. des sich Befindens, 3. des Stattfindens.Das kann mit folgenden Beispielen veranschaulicht werden: 1. ali je kak izhod 'gibt es da einen Ausgang', 2.hiša je na polju 'das Haus befindet sich auf dem Feld', 3. v Kamniku je bil semenj  'in Kamnik wurde Markttag abgehalten'. Gemeinsam haben diese Bedeutungen die Versetzungsmöglichkeit des Subjektsnominativs in inen Zustands­ genitiv, wennn biti negiert wird: 1.ali ni nobenega izhoda, 2. hiše ni sredi polja, 3.v Kamniku ni bilo semnja. Diese Ver­ setzung ist bei 2. in 3. unter gewissen Bedingungen unverbind­ lichs sredi polja ni hiša, ampak drevo (neben sredi polja ni hiše, ampak je drevo bzw. v Kamniku ni bil semenj, ampak raz­ stava (neben v Kamniku ni bilo semnja, ampak je bila razstava, was auf die syntaktische Attraktion in Bezug auf den Nominativ im zweiten Glied der Konjunktionsverbindung zurückzuführen ist. In Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika (ferner: SSKJ werden diese 3 Bedeutungen unpassend nur als 2 wiedergegeben, und zwar unter der Periphrase "materielles oder geistiges Vorhandensein in der Wirklichkeit" bzw."Vorhandensein in Raum und

  7. Biti bibliotekar

    Kaljanac, Maja


    Perspective of profession by senior library science student. Who is librarian and what are the tasks. Comparison with Divine commedy - Vergilius as Librarian and User as Dante. Principles of Librarianship.

  8. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns


    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species. PMID:15664314

  9. Kajian Kemampuan Menyebar Kumbang Tanduk (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) pada Musim Hujan di Kebun Rambutan PTPN III

    Anugrah, Ryan


    Ryan anugrah, Study of Spreading Ability of Oryctes rhinoceros beetle on Raining season at Kebun Rambutan PTPN III, with the conseling Ir. Marheni, MP and Ir. Fatimah Zahara. Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros is influenced by environment factor. Researched aimed to know the spreading ability of oryctes rhinoceros on raining season at kebun Rambutan PTPN III. This research was held in Afdeling VII, Kebun Rambutan PTPN III Tebing Tinggi, Since July to September 2011. The research using Linier reg...

  10. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya.

    Mutinda Matthew; Otiende Moses; Gakuya Francis; Kariuki Linus; Obanda Vincent; Ndeere David; Ndambiri Ephantus; Kariuki Edward; Lekolool Isaac; Soriguer Ramón C; Rossi Luca; Alasaad Samer


    Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as t...

  11. Anthropogenic Influences on Conservation Values of White Rhinoceros

    Ferreira, Sam M.; Botha, Judith M.; Emmett, Megan C.


    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 ...

  12. Castration of a Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis Minor

    V de Vos


    Full Text Available A black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor in the Addo Elephant National Park was castrated in order to prevent the possibility of an aotic inducing gene to be introduced into the Addo population. The classic castration technique was used. It was subsequently found that the rhino showed a drastic change in behaviour, and is at this stage predictably timid, which is not the case with his testis carrying compeers.

  13. Population densities of eastern black rhinoceros : unravelling the controls

    Ouma, B.O.


    Key words: black rhinoceros, browser, corticosterone, diet, density dependence, minerals, moisture, physiological stress, savanna, soil nutrients, woody cover.   Understanding the forces that cause variability in population sizes is a central theme in ecology. The limiting factor in populations of large mammals which are not controlled top‐down by predation is food, i.e., such populations are controlled by bottom‐up processes. However, there is little evidence of density dependence in la...

  14. Conjunctival habronemiasis in a square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Horowitz, Igal H; Dubielzig, Richard R; Botero-Anug, Ana-Maria; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Bowman, Dwight D; Rosenzweig, Ariella B; Frenkel, Shahar; Ofri, Ron


    A captive female square-lipped rhinoceros born in 1993 had been showing intermittent signs of bilateral conjunctivitis and conjunctival proliferation since 1998. Periodic improvement was noted, especially in winter, but overall the condition had deteriorated over the years. Treatment with various topical, intralesional, and systemic antibiotics and glucocorticosteroids was largely ineffective, as were repeated dewormings. No primary cause for these lesions was found in biopsies taken in 2000 and 2006, although a severe infiltrate of numerous eosinophils was observed in the latter. As the condition worsened, secondary corneal changes were noted, and eventually vision was lost due to proliferative conjunctival tissue. Aggressive resection of the proliferating tissue in 2013 restored vision and submitted biopsies yielded a diagnosis of severe allergic conjunctivitis, eosinophilic granuloma, and habronematid (Habronema or Draschia) larval infection. As no other rhinoceros in the herd was affected, including two calves born to the patient who were in close contact with their mother, it was concluded the presentation was most likely due to a hypersensitivity reaction to the dead or dying larvae. Fly repellent is now regularly applied around the eye of this rhinoceros, and a protective face mask has been fitted. Ongoing periodic relapses are treated with oral ivermectin, topical antibiotics, and steroids. PMID:25818990

  15. Investigation of acoustic sensors to detect coconut rhinoceros beetle in Guam

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, was accidentally introduced into Guam last year and now threatens the Island’s forests and tourist industry. These large insects can be detected easily with acoustic sensors, and procedures are being developed to incorporate acoustic technology int...

  16. An ambusher's arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans).

    Miller, Ashadee Kay; Maritz, Bryan; McKay, Shannon; Glaudas, Xavier; Alexander, Graham J


    Ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. Resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. However, unlike for visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. Field observations of puff adders (Bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and prey species led us to investigate chemical crypsis in this ambushing species. We trained dogs (Canis familiaris) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to test whether a canid and a herpestid predator could detect B. arietans using olfaction. We also tested for chemical crypsis in five species of active foraging snakes, predicted to be easily detectable. Dogs and meerkats unambiguously indicated active foraging species, but failed to correctly indicate puff adder, confirming that B. arietans employs chemical crypsis. This is the first demonstration of chemical crypsis anti-predatory behaviour, though the phenomenon may be widespread among ambushers, especially those that experience high mortality rates owing to predation. Our study provides additional evidence for the existence of an ongoing chemically mediated arms race between predator and prey species. PMID:26674950

  17. Histological Study of the Adrenal Gland of African White Rhinoceros

    Ke-mei Peng§*, Hui Song§, Hua-zhen Liu, Jian-bin Zhang1, Zhi-qiang Lu, Zhi-wei Liu and Yin-xue Liu


    Full Text Available The microstructures of adrenal gland of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum were observed by light microscopy. The results showed that the surface envelope of adrenal gland was covered with developed connective tissues whose average thickness was up to 210 μm. A large number of sinusoids were distributed between the neighboring cells. The zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex was thin and composed of columnar and cubic cells. The columnar cells were close to the edge and the cubic cells were found in the deep zone. The two kinds of cells were arranged in irregular groups. The thickness of zona fasiculata was about 3 times as much as that of zona glomerulosa, and the boundary was not obvious. Cells were arranged in irregular cords. Some small lipid droplets were in the shape of small vacuolation, and distributed in the cytoplasm. The cells of zona reticularis were adjacent to medulla with which they formed a jagged boundary. Cells were in network or in enclose acini. Medullae were darkly stained and clearly distinct from the cortex. Cells were large with elliptical nuclei whose nucleoli were significant. Cytoplasm was basophilic and stained to give blue violet appearance. A small amount of sympathetic ganglion cells were distributed in the medulla. The above results suggested that the adrenal gland structures of African white rhinoceros compared with other animals have similarities. . The rich sinusoids in capsule suggested that its blood supply was abundant, full of metabolism and endocrine activity.

  18. Biologi Hama Kumbang Penggerek Pucuk Kelapa Sawit (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Di Rumah Kassa

    Sejahtra, Ahmad


    Ahmad Sejahtra, "BIOLOGY SHOOT BORERS BEETLE PEST OF COCONUT PALM (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) AT KASSA HOUSE", Under supervised by Ms Marheni and Ms Fatima Zahara. This study aims to determine biological pest of oil palm bud weevil (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at home kassa. The experiment was conducted on people's plantations in PERUMNAS Simalingkar starting from September 2010 until April 2011. Research using observational methods for this resear...

  19. Radio transmitter implants in the horns of both the white and the black rhinoceros in the Kruger National Park

    D.J. Pienaar; A.J. Hall-Martin


    The procedure for implanting radio transmitters into the horns of white and black rhinoceroses is described. Mean transmitter life in the white rhinoceros was 13,9 months which is significantly longer than the 9,7 months in black rhinoceros. In the white rhinoceros a significant sex-related difference in transmitter life was found with the transmitters in males lasting a mean of 12,1 months compared to the 15,3 months in females.

  20. Radio transmitter implants in the horns of both the white and the black rhinoceros in the Kruger National Park

    D.J. Pienaar


    Full Text Available The procedure for implanting radio transmitters into the horns of white and black rhinoceroses is described. Mean transmitter life in the white rhinoceros was 13,9 months which is significantly longer than the 9,7 months in black rhinoceros. In the white rhinoceros a significant sex-related difference in transmitter life was found with the transmitters in males lasting a mean of 12,1 months compared to the 15,3 months in females.

  1. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.


    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age

  2. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

    Mutinda Matthew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. Findings In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Conclusions Our study highlights (i that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations.

  3. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya.

    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S


    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. PMID:24906113

  4. Songlike vocalizations from a Sumatran rhinoceros calf (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

    von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Reinhart, Paul


    Within the last ten years the Sumatran rhino population has dropped 50%, and only 200-300 individuals exist, with five in captivity. Their native habitat is dense tropical forest and they are solitary, therefore much of their behavior remains unknown. Sumatrans are the smallest living rhino, standing 0.9-1.5 m tall, and are covered in coarse, reddish-brown hair. The first Sumatran rhinoceros born in captivity in 112 years, and the first calf ever recorded, is 17 months old and weighs 448 kg. At the Cincinnati Zoo this male calf was recorded from 1-3 m, using two Statham radio microphones, and one TCD-D8 Sony DAT recorder (9 Hz-22 kHz). Analysis, including power spectrums, spectrographic functions, and cross correlations were performed using National Instrument's Polynesia. Preliminary analysis indicates that the calf's vocalizations are similar in structure to adult Sumatran vocalizations, although there are some distinctions. ``Eeps'' and ``whales'' that are found in adult repertoires are produced by the calf. However, signals from the calf are higher in frequency, and the calf does not vocalize as consistently as the adults. The calf has yet to produce a ``whistle blow,'' which is an adult vocalization that has a strong infrasonic component.

  5. Kepadatan Jumlah Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) Di Lapangan

    Harahap, Rudini


    Rudini Harahap "TOTAL BEETLE density rhinos (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) PLANTATION IN OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Field." With the commission supervising Mother Ir. Marheni, MP as chairman and Mr. Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS, as members.This research was carried out in the garden and the garden Rambutan Padang Huta PTPN III, North Sumatra from April to May 2010.The aim study is to investigate the density of O.rhinoceros in Immature (TBM) diareal using Mucuna and to determine the density of O.rh...

  6. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis capture, transportation and boma management by the Natal Parks Board

    R.R. Henwood


    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The procedure used by the Natal Parks Board in the capture of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis minor (Drummond, 1876 is outlined. It is emphasised that a successful capture operation requires careful planning and should not be attempted by the uninitiated or by parties who have little or no experience. Dosages of drugs are given, the darting and actual capture procedures highlighted, and aspects of transport and practical boma management are described.

  7. Genetika Populasi dan Strategi Konservasi Badak Jawa (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) (Population Genetics of Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) and It’s Conservation Strategy)

    U Mamat Rahmat


    Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) of which spread is limited in Indonesia and Vietnam is the rarest species among 5 species of rhino in the world. Without appropriate and long-term well organized management action, the population of javan rhino will be in extinction. This research studies about the usage potential of  javan rhino population genetics data in designing  javan rhino conservation program. The application of genetics study in conservation problem is based on the po...

  8. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Ferreira, Sam M; Botha, Judith M; Emmett, Megan C


    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos. PMID

  9. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Sam M Ferreira

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros (rhinos is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682 white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as

  10. Proposed conservation plan for the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in South Africa, the TBVC* states and Namibia

    P.M. Brooks


    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The conservation plan for the black rhinoceros presents specific aims and management guidelines for the conservation of the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in the Republic of South Africa, the TBVC states and Namibia. The adoption of this plan, and the application of the strategies described therein (managing existing populations, establishing new populations and aspects of captive breeding by the relevant conservation authorities should enhance the survival prospects of this species, both in the region and globally.

  11. Southern dispersal and Palaeoecological implications of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis): review of the Iberian occurrences

    Álvarez-Lao, Diego J.; García, Nuria


    Cold-adapted large mammal populations spread southward during the coldest and driest phases of the Late Pleistocene reaching the Iberian Peninsula. Presence of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis) can be identified from 23 Iberian sites, which is compiled and analyzed herein, and the fossil specimens from seven of these sites are described here for first time. Morphological and biometrical analyses demonstrate that the Iberian woolly rhinoceros did not significantly differ from individuals of other European populations, but represent the westernmost part of a continuous Eurasian belt of distribution. The first presence of woolly rhino in the Iberian Peninsula has been identified during the late Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene. However, the highest abundance of this species is recorded during MIS 3 and 2. The latest Iberian occurrences can be dated around 20 ka BP. The presence of woolly rhinoceros in the Iberian Peninsula correlates with periods of extreme dry and cold climatic conditions documented in Iberian terrestrial and marine sediment sequences. From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the maximum southern spread of C. antiquitatis on the Iberian Peninsula was registered during the late Middle Pleistocene or early Late Pleistocene, reaching the latitude of Madrid (about 40°N). Subsequently, during MIS 3 and 2, all Iberian finds were restricted to the Northern regions of Iberia (Cantabrian area and Catalonia). The southern expansion of C. antiquitatis during the Late Pleistocene in the Iberian Peninsula reached similar latitudes to other Eurasian regions. The ecological composition of fossil assemblages with presence of woolly rhinoceros was statistically analyzed. Results show that temperate ungulate species are predominant at Iberian assemblages, resulting in a particular mixture of temperate and cold elements different of the typical Eurasian cold-adapted faunal associations. This particular situation suggests two possible

  12. Shift in black rhinoceros diet in the presence of elephant: evidence for competition?

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Kerley, Graham I H


    In African large herbivore assemblages, megaherbivores dominate the biomass and utilise the greatest share of available resources. Consequently, they are considered a separate trophic guild that structures the food niches of coexisting large herbivores. However, there exists little empirical evidence on how food resources are shared within this guild, and none for direct competition for food between megaherbivores. Using the histological analysis of faeces, we explore this phenomenon for African elephant Loxodonta africana and black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, where the accumulated impacts of elephant have reduced browse availability. Despite being unable to generalise beyond our study sites, our observations support the predictions of competition theory (as opposed to optimality theory) by showing (1) a clear seasonal separation in resource use between these megaherbivores that increased as resource availability declined, and (2) rhinoceros changed their selectivity in the absence of elephant (using an adjacent site) by expanding and shifting their diet along the grass-browse continuum, and in relation to availability. Although black rhinoceros are generally considered strict browsers, the most significant shift in diet occurred as rhinoceros increased their preferences for grasses in the presence of elephant. We speculate that the lack of specialised grazing adaptations may increase foraging costs in rhinoceros, through reduced harvest- and handling-efficiencies of grasses. In the short-term, this may be off-set by an enhanced tolerance for low quality food and by seasonally mobilising fat reserves; however, the long-term fitness consequences require further study. Our data suggest that managing elephant at high densities may compromise the foraging opportunities of coexisting browsers. This may be particularly important in small, fenced areas and overlapping preferred habitats where impacts intensify. PMID

  13. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    L. A. Taylor; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E; Clauss, M


    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a similar effect is evident in captive rhinoceros species. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of museum specimens of captive black (Diceros bicornis; browser), greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicorn...

  14. The Microbial Community in the Feces of the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) as Determined by Barcoded Pyrosequencing Analysis

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Li; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun


    As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which...

  15. Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis?

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren; Payne, Junaidi; Ramono, Widodo; Ellis, Susie; Yoganand, K.; Long, Barney; Dinerstein, Eric; Williams, A. Christy; Putra, Rudi H.; Gawi, Jamal; Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar; Burgess, Neil David


    The Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis formerly ranged across South-east Asia. Hunting and habitat loss have made it one of the rarest large mammals and the species faces extinction despite decades of conservation efforts. The number of individuals remaining is unk...... develop advanced reproductive techniques as a matter of urgency. Intensive census efforts are ongoing in Bukit Barisan Selatan but elsewhere similar efforts remain at the planning stage....

  16. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K


    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥30% motility with ≥2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed and cooled ≤4h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P>0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40×10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6×10(9); Ppost-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. PMID:26879096

  17. Habitat Suitability Modeling of Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) Ujung Kulon National Park

    U Mamat Rahmat; Yanto Santosa; Lilik Budi Prasetyo; Agus Priyono Kartono


    Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) is the rarest species among 5 species of rhinos in the world. Its distribution is currently limited only in Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP), Indonesia.  Due to the small population size and its limited distribution, it is listed as critically endangered species in the IUCN Redlist. The main objectives of this research were: 1) to identify the dominant habitat components that determine the presence of javan rhino in UKNP; 2) to analyze habitat...

  18. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Margarita Mulero-Pázmány

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a rhinoceros, (b people acting as poachers and (c to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle.

  19. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Stolper, Roel; van Essen, L D; Negro, Juan J; Sassen, Tyrell


    Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a) rhinoceros, (b) people acting as poachers and (c) to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle. PMID:24416177

  20. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    J.D. Skinner


    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  1. The microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis.

    Gaorui Bian

    Full Text Available As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were comprised largely of unclassified bacteria. The microbiota of one animal treated with drug therapy differed from those in other healthy animals, and was dominated by Aerococcus -related bacteria. The core microbiota in the healthy rhinoceros were dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, represented by the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae and Prevotellaceae families. The present work provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the complex microbial community of the rhinoceros; however, further studies are required to link the distinctive microbiota with their digestive role in the hindgut of the white rhinoceros.

  2. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    Takada, Kenta


    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  3. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: DowexTM OptiporeTM (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the DowexTM treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach

  4. Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) Utilization Distribution and Habitat Selection in Ujung Kulon National Park

    Yanto Santosa; U Mamat Rahmat; Lilik Budi Prasetyo; Agus Priyono Kartono


    Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest 1822) is one of world's rarest endangered species (IUCN 2008). Currently,  their distribution  is  limited  to Ujung Kulon National Park  (UKNP) of  Indonesia. Natural disasters, disease, poaching, encroachment, and competition are threats  facing Javan rhino's population, hence creating pockets of habitats outside  the UKNP was necessary and  should be based on  scientific  studies of  javan  rhino utilization distribution and habitat selection in ...

  5. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Yookyung Lee; Sooyeon Lim; Moon-Soo Rhee; Dong-Ho Chang; Byoung-Chan Kim


    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000.

  6. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan


    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  7. Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls.

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard


    Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller's sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity. PMID:26577089

  8. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.


    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  9. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    Kenta Takada


    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using ...

  10. How healthy are the rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park?

    LP Fatti


    Full Text Available Arising from a study conducted in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park by the author in the late nineties, a method is proposed for improving the estimate of the size of a wildlife population by combining data from current and past surveys. The method is based on a simple state space model which takes into account the (unknown birth rate in the population and all known losses (mortalities and relocations and gains (introductions in the population between successive surveys, as well as the errors in the survey estimates. The method is applied to the White- and Black Rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park and tentative conclusions are drawn on the health of these two populations.

  11. Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros

    Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan; Zainal Zahari Zainuddin; Wahap Marni; Abdul Hamid Ahmad; Laurentius N Ambu; Junaidi Payne


    Objective: To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Methods: Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was applied on to a Whatman FTA®blood card. Subsequent laboratory work was conducted to extract, amplify and sequence the DNA from the sample. Validation was done by sampling the hair follicles and blood samples from the rhinoceros and subjecting it to the same laboratory process. Results: BLAST search and constructed phylogenetic trees confirmed the blood meal samples were indeed from the rhino. Conclusions: This method could be used in the field application to noninvasively collect genetic samples. Collection of tabanids and other haematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes and ticks) and other blood-sucking parasites (e.g. leeches and worms) could also provide information on vector-borne diseases.

  12. Electron microscopy of a spiral-shaped bacterium in the blood and bone marrow of a rhinoceros iguana.

    Simpson, C F; Jacobson, E R; Harvey, J.W.


    Spiral shaped bacteria present in blood smears and bone marrow of a sick rhinoceros iguana were examined by light and electron microscopy. The organisms averaged 10 micron in length and had at least three spiral turns. The cell contained nuclear areas, vacuoles and ribosomes, except at the poles where there was a virtual absence of organelles. The bacterium was found by a cell membrane, cell wall and enveloping sheath. "Blebs" were present with regularity on the cell surface. About 14 flagell...

  13. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Yookyung Lee


    Full Text Available Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000.

  14. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    Kenta Takada


    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.

  15. A comparison of woody browse selection by hand-raised, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe

    G. Matipano


    Full Text Available Differences in woody browse selection between hand-raised (and subsequently released, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. were studied in Matusadona National Park between December 1999 and July 2000. Boma-adapted rhinoceros were animals that were subjected to hand-raising and were kept in bomas (enclosures over night. The feeding behaviour was different between the three rhinoceros groups. All rhinoceros groups utilised and selected for a few browse species in common, at different preference levels in the same habitat types according to season. Wild rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland in the wet season and in thicket in the dry season. Hand-raised rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland and boma-adated rhinos in thickets in both the wet and the early dry seasons. Hand-raised and bomaadapted rhinos changed their habitats less for browse selection than wild rhinos. This can be ascribed to a relative restriction of home range in the hand-raised group and a herding effect for the boma-adapted animals. These situations might have accounted for differences in seasonal browse selection by the rhinoceros groups.

  16. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte


    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990

  17. The impact of the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 on the population of Rhinoceros sondaicus in Ujung Kulon, with details of rhino observations from 1857 to 1949

    N.J.van. Strien


    Full Text Available A recent suggestion that the entire population of the Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park was annihilated by the effects of the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883 is investigated. Based on a review of contemporary reports, it is shown that people survived the waves and remained settled in one village until 1906 when it was evacuated during a plague of tigers. The first report of a rhinoceros in the peninsula of Ujung Kulon dates from 1857 and the animals were occasionally reported from the area afterwards. There is no indication from the available estimates and sightings that rhinos were exterminated in the area. Ujung Kulon has been a protected area since 1921. Rhino numbers ranged upwards to about 40 or 50 for most of the period until 1949. The population of Rhinoceros sondaicus is not a new founder population established after the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883.

  18. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    A. Olivier


    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  19. Applicability of the doubly labelled water method to the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata

    Masaki Shirai


    The doubly labelled water (DLW method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the metabolic rates of free-living animals. We validated the DLW method for measuring metabolic rates in five rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata compared with simultaneous measurements using the respirometric method. We calculated the CO2 production rate of four auklets (mean initial body mass: 552 g±36 s.d. injected with DLW, using the one- and two-pool models. The metabolic rate during the 24-h measurements in a respirometric chamber for resting auklets averaged 16.30±1.66 kJ h−1 (n = 4. The metabolic rates determined using the one- and two-pool models in the DLW method for the same period as the respirometric measurement averaged 16.61±2.13 kJ h−1 (n = 4 and 16.16±2.10 kJ h−1 (n = 4, respectively. The mean absolute percent error between the DLW and respirometric methods was 8.04% using the one-pool model and was slightly better than that with the two-pool model. The differences in value between the DLW and respirometric methods are probably due to oxygen isotope turnover, which eliminated only 10–14% of the initial enrichment excess.

  20. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E


    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  1. Research into the Application of the Sterile-Male Release Technique to the Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)

    The control of the Rhinoceros beetle, which causes considerable damage in palm and coconut plantations in the tropical regions of the world, meets with difficulties resulting from the habits of the insects. Chemical and biological control methods have not yet produced economically worthwhile results. It was therefore proposed, under the Joint Project established by the UN Special Fund and the South Pacific Commission for devising a method of controlling the main pest in this group, Oryctes rhinoceros, that the possibility be investigated of using against these coleoptera the technique of releasing males sterilized by radiation. Studies have been made involving the two most important species O. monoceros Ol. and O. rhinoceros L. The first stage was the development of a continuous breeding method, which had not hitherto been possible because of the large-scale slaughter arising from fungus attacks by Metarrhizium anisopliae Metsch. For the larvae the technique used involved first individual rearing, followed by group rearing tests with 100 or so insects in tanks. The average temperature in both cases was close to 30°C and the insects were fed on a mixture of rotten wood and leaf mould mixed with the faeces of domestic animals. The adults, fed on banana slices, are placed in troughs or tanks containing sieved-earth. It was thus possible to rear Oryctes in several successive cycles, avoiding the epizooic stage of Metarrhizium, with a multiplication rate from one generation to the next of close on 10, Tests on radiation sterilization procedures taking as variables the gamma-ray dose, the stage of the insect and the physiological state of the imago, showed that O. monoceros adults were sterilized by a single application of 4000 rad, with a slight reduction in their length of life. The same was true of O. rhinoceros, which however required a dose greater than 6000 rad to sterilize it. The mating urge and sexual vigour of the irradiated insects are, however, reduced

  2. Evaluation of Habitat Suitability for Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Orang National Park Using Geo-Spatial Tools

    Sarma, Pranjit Kumar; B. S. Mipun; Talukdar, Bibhab Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Basumatary, Ajit Kumar


    Orang National Park (Orang NP) is one of the important conservation areas in the Brahmaputra valley within North East India biogeographic zone covering an area of 78.8 km2. It is one of the prime habitats of one horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) in its distribution range in south Asia. Satellite imagery of November 2008 was used to evaluate the rhino habitat pattern in the park. A habitat suitability model for one horned rhino was prepared using primary and secondary sources. Result indicat...

  3. Enhancing captive Indian rhinoceros genetics via artificial insemination of cryopreserved sperm.

    Stoops, Monica A; Campbell, Mark K; DeChant, Christopher J; Hauser, Joe; Kottwitz, Jack; Pairan, Randal D; Shaffstall, Wendy; Volle, Kurt; Roth, Terri L


    The objective of this study was to design an artificial insemination (AI) protocol using cryopreserved spermatozoa to obtain pregnancies in captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis). Four methods developed varied by timing and approach, as follows; Method 1: females (n=2) were inseminated pre- and post-ovulation under general anesthesia, Method 2: females (n=2) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via endoscopy, Method 3: females (n=1) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via manual insertion of an insemination catheter, Method 4: females (n=2) were inseminated same as Method 3 with the addition of standing sedation. Semen deposition site varied as a result of changes in AI technology and experience. All females conceived following intrauterine AI using three methods. Four pregnancies (n=3 females) produced via Method 3 and 4 resulted in term births (n=2 male calves, n=2 female calves) at 481.8±12.8days post-AI. Unfortunately, two early pregnancy losses were documented in a fourth female conceiving via Method 2. Pregnancy rates were 0%, 22%, 17%, and 50% for Method 1-4, respectively. Method 3 and 4 rates improved to 29% and 67%, respectively when accounting for AI's conducted only on ovulatory estrous cycles. Spermatozoa (n=5 males) were cryopreserved 0.3-9.3 y prior to successful AI procedures. The lowest dose of frozen-thawed sperm resulting in conception was 500×10(6) motile sperm. Mean time from AI to ovulation in conceptive and non-conceptive cycles was 26±11.8h and 66±80.7h, respectively. PMID:27449405

  4. Flight behavior of the rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus during electrical nerve stimulation

    Neuronal stimulation is an intricate part of understanding insect flight behavior and control insect itself. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical pulses applied to the brain and basalar muscle of the rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus). To understand specific neuronal stimulation mechanisms, responses and flight behavior of the beetle, four electrodes were implanted into the two optic lobes, the brain's central complex and the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum. We demonstrated flight initiation, turning and cessation by stimulating the brain. The change undergone by the wing flapping in response to the electrical signal was analyzed from a sequence of images captured by a high-speed camera. Here, we provide evidence to distinguish the important differences between neuronal and muscular flight stimulations in beetles. We found that in the neural potential stimulation, both the hind wing and the elytron were suppressed. Interestingly, the beetle stopped flying whenever a stimulus potential was applied between the pronotum and one side of the optic lobe, or between the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum and the central complex. In-depth experimentation demonstrated the effective of neural stimulation over muscle stimulation for flight control. During electrical stimulation of the optic lobes, the beetle performed unstable flight, resulting in alternating left and right turns. By applying the electrical signal into both the optic lobes and the central complex of the brain, we could precisely control the direction of the beetle flight. This work provides an insight into insect flight behavior for future development of insect-micro air vehicle. (paper)

  5. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros

    Plotz, Roan D.; Grecian, W. James; Kerley, Graham I.H.; Linklater, Wayne L.


    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004–2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km2, 53 ±1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km2 ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  6. The sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros.

    Colin P Groves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. The Northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy. RESULTS: Dental morphology and cranial anatomy clearly diagnosed the southern and northern forms. The differentiation was well supported by dental metrics, cranial growth and craniometry, and corresponded with differences in post-cranial skeleton, external measurements and external features. No distinctive differences were found in the limited descriptions of their behavior and ecology. Fossil history indicated the antiquity of the genus, dating back at least to early Pliocene and evolution into a number of diagnosable forms. The fossil skulls examined fell outside the two extant forms in the craniometric analysis. Genetic divergence between the two forms was consistent across both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and indicated a separation of over a million years. CONCLUSIONS: On re-assessing the taxonomy of the two forms we find them to be morphologically and genetically distinct, warranting the recognition of the taxa formerly designated as subspecies; Ceratotherium simum simum the southern form and Ceratotherium simum cottoni the northern form, as two distinct species Ceratotherium simum and Ceratotherium cottoni respectively. The recognition of the northern form as a distinct species has profound implications for its conservation.

  7. The influence of dietary tannin supplementation on digestive performance in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Clauss, M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Behlert, O; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M


    Free-ranging browsers such as the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) consume a diet that contains tannins, whereas the diets offered to them in captivity consist mostly of items known to contain hardly any such secondary plant compounds. Tannins could have potentially beneficial effects, including the chelation of dietary iron (iron storage disease is a common problem in black rhinos). Here, we tested the acceptance, and the consequences on digestion variables, of a low-dose tannin supplementation in captive animals. Eight black rhinoceroses from three zoological institutions were used. Faecal output was quantified by total faecal collection. Diets fed were regular zoo diets supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins); overall tannin source intake increased at 5-15 g/kg dry matter (DM) in relation to regular zoo diets. Adaptation periods to the new diets were >2 months. Additional data were taken from one hitherto unpublished study. Data were compared to measurements in the same animals on their regular zoo diets. All animals accepted the new diets without hesitation. There was no influence of tannin supplementation on digestion coefficients of DM and its constituents, or faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids or lactate. Water intake did not increase during tannin supplementation. Should the inclusion of dietary tannin sources be an objective in the development of diets for captive rhinoceroses, moderate doses such as used in this study are unlikely to cause relevant depressions of digestive efficiency and will not interfere with bacterial fermentation in a relevant way. PMID:17988348

  8. The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

    Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A


    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

  9. Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum

    Anna Haw


    Full Text Available Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum. The effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. In this prospective intervention study 14 freeranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. Six minutes (min after the animals became recumbent, intravenous butorphanol was administered and oxygen insufflation was initiated. Previous boma trial results were used for comparison, using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. The initial immobilisation-induced hypoxaemia in free-ranging rhinoceroses (arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] 35.4 mmHg ± 6.6 mmHg was similar to that observed in bomaconfined rhinoceroses (PaO2 31 mmHg ± 6 mmHg, n = 8. Although the initial hypercapnia (PaCO2 63.0 mmHg ± 7.5 mmHg was not as severe as that in animals in the boma trial (79 mmHg ± 7 mmHg, the field-immobilised rhinoceroses were more acidaemic (pH 7.10 ± 0.14 at the beginning of the immobilisation compared with boma-immobilised rhinoceroses (pH 7.28 ± 0.04. Compared with pre-intervention values, butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improved the PaO2 (81.2 mmHg ± 23.7 mmHg, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (55.3 mmHg ± 5.2 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min, pH (7.17 ± 0.11, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min, heart rate (78 breaths/min ± 20 breaths/min, p < 0.001, 5 min vs 20 min and mean arterial blood pressure (105 mmHg ± 14 mmHg, p < 0.01, 5 min vs 20 min. Oxygen insufflation combined with a single intravenous dose of butorphanol improved oxygenation and reduced hypercapnia and acidaemia in immobilised free-ranging white rhinoceroses.

  10. Feasibility of sex-sorting sperm from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis).

    Behr, B; Rath, D; Mueller, P; Hildebrandt, T B; Goeritz, F; Braun, B C; Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P; Maxwell, W M C; Hermes, R


    The objective of these studies was to investigate the practicality of flow cytometric sex-sorting for spermatozoa from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis). In Experiment 1, four semen extenders were tested regarding their suitability for liquid preservation of spermatozoa before sorting. Dilution in MES-HEPES-based semen extender followed by incubation generated best sperm quality parameters (motility, viability, and acrosome integrity). In Experiment 2, the effect of staining method (15 degrees C for 4 to 6h during transport or 37 degrees C for 1 to 1.5h) on sort efficiency and sperm quality was investigated. Staining at 15 degrees C during transport resulted in a higher percentage of sperm samples showing a resolution of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations (60%) compared with that for staining at 37 degrees C after transport (33%) and resulted in superior sperm integrity after staining (43.8+/-11.3% vs. 19.6+/-12.1%). Sort rate was 300 to 700 cells/sec and sort purity, determined for one sorted sample, was 94% for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. In Experiment 3, the highly viscous component of rhinoceros seminal plasma, which complicates the process of sperm sorting, was examined by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results suggested a 250-kDa glycoprotein (most likely originating from the bulbourethral gland) to be responsible for the characteristic viscosity of ejaculates. In Experiment 4, viscosity of seminal plasma, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, was significantly decreased after addition of alpha-amylase or collagenase (0.5 and 3IU per 100 microL seminal plasma, respectively) by 28% and 21%, respectively, with no negative effect on sperm characteristics. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that rhinoceros spermatozoa can be successfully sorted into high-purity X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations. Furthermore, the successful liquefaction of viscous ejaculates

  11. Measurement and characterization of a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) at a wildlife park conservation center

    Wiseman, Susan M.

    Many animals, including the myopic rhinoceros, depend on hearing and smell for navigation and to interpret their environment. For them, the "soundscape" and "scentscape" are equivalent to our landscape. Noise damages humans physiologically, including reproductively, and likely damages other mammals. Rhinos vocalize sonically and infrasonically but audiograms are unavailable. Infrasonic noise tends to be chronic in urban areas, which frequently surround city zoos. Rhinos' biological and social management have been studied but little attention, if any, has been paid to their soundscapes. This project develops a standard by which such soundscapes may be measured, documented, and compared, so that once a wide range of rhino facilities have been similarly investigated, correlations could be sought between their sound metrics and the health and well-being of their animals. The interests of geographers overlap many disciplines, but the questions raised by, and the approaches of geographers frequently differ from those addressed by the original specialists, so a broader understanding of the soundscape and ways to record it may well add value to acoustic studies while simultaneously deepening geographic knowledge. This research asks: How can a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) be comprehensively measured and characterized? What does doing so inform about their environment of captivity? How can this method be employed to understand the contrasts of the soundscapes of captivity and natural habitats? To begin to answer these questions, the following goals are addressed: 1. To develop a series of procedures to comprehensively record, measure, analyze, and characterize a broadband white rhino soundscape; 2. To note their vocalizations, and to roughly estimate the bandwidth used by these particular animals; 3. By demonstrating that techniques and language not normally used in the discipline of Geography could broaden its scope and expand

  12. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    P. Konwar; M.K. Saikia; P.K. Saikia


    Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic). During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other shor...

  13. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    P. Konwar


    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  14. Applying COI gene for the authentication of the rhinoceros horn and its products%基于COI基因对犀角工艺品真伪的鉴别

    赵竹; 宋云; 许瑾; 何增磊; 李明福


    犀角及其制品在市场上价格昂贵,准确鉴定其真伪对于维护市场秩序,打击走私,保护珍稀濒危野生动物具有重要意义.采用磁珠法提取疑似犀角工艺品A和市售仿伪工艺品B的总DNA,并选用COI基因,进行扩增、测序,在NCBI中BLAST比对,并构建系统进化树,结果表明被检测的疑似犀角工艺品A的COI基因序列与非洲黑犀的同源性高达99%,聚为一类,而市售仿伪工艺品B与家牛同源性高达100%,因此该疑似犀角工艺品A应属于非洲黑犀,市售仿伪工艺品B属于家牛.本研究首次建立了应用COI基因鉴定犀角及其制品的分子生物学方法,有利于鉴别犀角及犀角制品的真伪.%The cost of the rhinoceros hom and its products is very expensive in the market. It' s very clear that the authenticity testing of the rhinoceros horn and its products will help to keep the market order, combat smug-gling and protect the rare and endangered wild animals. The magnetic bead method was used to extract the total DNA from the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn and the artificial products in the market,the COI gene was selected to be amplified and sequenced. its sequences were Blasted in GenBank,and then the phylogenetic tree was built. The results showed that the homology of the sequence of COI gene between the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn and Diceros bicornis is 99% , and the homology of the sequence of COI gene between the ox horn and the artificial products in the market is 100% . It suggested the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn should be from Diceros bicornis, and the artificial products in the market should be from Bos taunts. This research established a new molecular biology method which was accurately reliable and utility with the COI gene to identification the rhinoceros horn and its products firstly. It can be used for the authenticity testing of rhinoceros horn to prevent poaching or smuggling the rhinoceros horn and its

  15. Stable isotope ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) composition of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis horn suggests seasonal changes in the diet.

    Tiunov, Alexei V; Kirillova, Irina V


    The extinct woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis is a prominent member of the Mammuthus-Coelodonta faunal complex, but its biology is poorly known, partly because very few specimens with well-preserved soft tissues have been discovered to date. However, the permafrost-preserved horns of the woolly rhinoceros are recording structures which contain isotopic records of the diet, environmental conditions and physiological status of the animal during most of its life. In this study we report the first data on the pattern of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotopic composition along the nasal horn of woolly rhinoceros. We found systematic variations in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values associated with morphologically expressed transverse banding of the horn. The comparative analysis of isotopic variation in keratinous tissues of extant and extinct herbivores suggests that the oscillation in isotopic composition of the horn was induced by seasonal changes in the diet. Although the compiled evidence is in part contradictory, we suggest that more positive δ(13)C and δ(15)N values associated with dark-colored and less dense zones of the horn indicate a summer diet. More dense and light-colored zones of the horn have lower δ(13)C and δ(15)N values possibly indicating a larger proportion of woody and shrub vegetation in the winter diet. The validity of these conclusions has to be proven in further investigations, but our data underline the potential of isotopic analysis for studies on diet and habitat use by extinct members of Pleistocene fauna. PMID:20941761

  16. Extinction chronology of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis in the context of late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.


    Megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia (excluding Mediterranean islands) since the Last Interglacial claimed about 37% of species with body weights >44 kg. Here we review the dating evidence for the timings of these extinctions, which were staggered over tens of millennia. Moreover, individual species disappeared at different times in different geographical areas. For example, cave bear probably disappeared ca. 30.5-28.5 ka, at approximately the onset of GS-3 (beginning of 'LGM'), whereas cave lion survived until the Lateglacial ca 14 ka. Others survived into the Holocene: woolly mammoth until ca 10.7 ka in the New Siberian Islands and ca 4 ka on Wrangel Island, giant deer to at least 7.7 ka in western Siberia and European Russia. It is evident that climatic and vegetational changes had major impacts on species' ranges, and moreover the contrasting chronologies and geographical range contractions are consistent with environmental drivers relating to their differing ecologies. However, the possible role of humans in this process has still to be satisfactorily explored. We present a detailed review of the radiocarbon record and extinction chronology of an exclusively northern Eurasian species, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, an animal adapted to feeding on low-growing herbaceous vegetation and a dry climate with minimal snowfall. During the Last Glacial the overall (time-averaged) range of C. antiquitatis extended across most of northern Eurasia, but the species failed to reach North America. On the basis of 233 ultrafiltered AMS radiocarbon dates, together with 50 others which pass our auditing criteria, we reconstruct a detailed chronology for this species. C. antiquitatis was widespread over most of the time span covered by radiocarbon dating, but from ca 35 ka (calibrated) it apparently contracted towards the east, culminating in its probable extinction ca 14 ka, with the latest dates from north-eastern Siberia. It disappeared from Britain, at

  17. Rhinos in the Parks: An Island-Wide Survey of the Last Wild Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros.

    Wulan Pusparini

    Full Text Available In the 200 years since the Sumatran rhinoceros was first scientifically described (Fisher 1814, the range of the species has contracted from a broad region in Southeast Asia to three areas on the island of Sumatra and one in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Assessing population and spatial distribution of this very rare species is challenging because of their elusiveness and very low population number. Using an occupancy model with spatial dependency, we assessed the fraction of the total landscape occupied by Sumatran rhinos over a 30,345-km2 survey area and the effects of covariates in the areas where they are known to occur. In the Leuser Landscape (surveyed in 2007, the model averaging result of conditional occupancy estimate was ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.151(0.109 or 2,371.47 km2, and the model averaging result of replicated level detection probability p(SE[p] = 0.252(0.267; in Way Kambas National Park--2008: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.468(0.165 or 634.18 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.138(0.571; and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park--2010: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.322(0.049 or 819.67 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.365(0.42. In the Leuser Landscape, rhino occurrence was positively associated with primary dry land forest and rivers, and negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Way Kambas, occurrence was negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Bukit Barisan Selatan, occurrence was negatively associated with presence of primary dryland forest and rivers. Using the probabilities of site occupancy, we developed spatially explicit maps that can be used to outline intensive protection zones for in-situ conservation efforts, and provide a detailed assessment of conserving Sumatran rhinos in the wild. We summarize our core recommendation in four points: consolidate small population, strong protection, determine the percentage of breeding females, and recognize the cost of doing nothing. To reduce the probability of poaching, here we present only the randomized location of site level

  18. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    M.W. Khudhair


    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  19. Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Ball, R L; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R


    White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (≥21.0μg creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5°C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (Pelectroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI. PMID:25497423

  20. Surgical amputation of a digit and vacuum-assisted-closure (V.A.C.) management in a case of osteomyelitis and wound care in an eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli).

    Harrison, Tara M; Stanley, Bryden J; Sikarskie, James G; Bohart, George; Ames, N Kent; Tomlian, Janice; Marquardt, Mark; Marcum, Annabel; Kiupel, Matti; Sledge, Dodd; Agnew, Dalen


    A 14-yr-old female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) presented with progressive suppurative osteomyelitis in her left hind lateral toe. beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus sp. was isolated. The animal was treated with multiple systemic antibiotics, and topical wound cleansing. Repeated debridements and nail trimmings were performed for 5 mo prior to electing amputation. The toe was surgically amputated under general anesthesia between the first and second phalanges. Analgesia was diffused into the wound topically via a catheter and elastomeric pump. The open amputation site was covered with adherent drapes and a negative-pressure wound therapy device provided vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) for 72 hr. Three months later this animal developed a deep dermal ulcer on the lateral aspect of the right hind limb, at the level of the stifle. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. The wound was managed by initial daily lavage, followed by 1 mo of V.A.C. therapy, with 72 hr between dressing changes. Clinically, this therapy expedited the formation of healthy granulation tissue and overall healing was accelerated. The animal tolerated the machine and bandage changes well via operant conditioning. The use of negative-pressure wound therapy appeared to shorten time to resolution of slow-healing wounds in black rhinoceros. PMID:22946413

  1. A study on the behavior and colonization of translocated Greater One-horned Rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae during 90 days from their release at Manas National Park, Assam India

    Deba Kumar Dutta


    Full Text Available Under the Indian Rhino Vision 2020, 18 wild Greater One-horned Rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis were translocated from two rhino bearing areas, Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to Manas National Park within the state of Assam, from 2008 to 2012. Following the release, the rhinos were closely monitored through radio tracking and direct observation to record their colonization pattern and behavioral adaptation to the new environment. Out of the 18 rhinos released at Manas, 16 (89% rhinos dispersed in approximately the same direction from the release sites. The rhinos released from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary strayed more when compared to the rhinos from Kaziranga National Park. This paper describes the behavior patterns observed in Manas National Park, which may provide a useful alternative approach for future rhino translocation.

  2. Zakaj in kako biti družbeno odgovoren?

    Milan Simončič


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Modern society is critical more and more to social irresponsible actions. Organizations are aware of that fact, in the strategy of its operations want to include the implementation of socially responsibleprinciples. We are interested in how various authors perceive the concept of social responsibility of organizations, what they are benefits of socially responsible organization, how organizations implement its mission, including itsexternal stakeholders involvement and how that activities affects the diversity of cultural environments. Purpose: Study and summary a portion of the available references, in which the authors for different purposes research the social responsibility of organizations. We confronted and compareddifferent viewpoints. Method: We used the method of description (description of facts and method of compilation (summary of known results of scientific research. Results: The collected references are categorized by selected areas presented the classification of the authors, which address particular areas of social responsibility, the resources classified by years of posts and articles by scientific journals. Organization: Organizations will summarize the findings and use it as a starting point for further research, evaluation and eventual optimization of existing models of the concept of corporate social responsibility. Society: Findings will be used as a keystone for further research, society will be aware of the importance of implementing the principles of social responsibility, they will meet the challenges of coexistence with the social responsible organizations. Originality: Groups, which will use the results for further empirical research, are the wider society and organizations who want to improve their image and carry out socially responsible actions. Review of articles highlights various views, which in other articles did not found. Limitations/Future Research: Review of articles was limited to some journals and includes only some of the areas of importance for understanding the problems of deployment and implementation, and the motives for corporate social responsibility. Articles, order than 15 years,not included due to lack of interest in the present circumstances. In further research it would be welcome to increase the number of analyzed articles and take focus to some more specific areas (for instance: consider implementing social responsibility of specific organizations, such as nuclear power plants, chemical industry, evaluate possible further ethical dilemmas in health care, genetic research, cybernetics, etc.

  3. İlkokuma Yazma Öğretimi Sürecinde Bitişik Eğik Yazı Ve Dik Temel Harflerle Yapılan Eğitimin Öğretmen Görüşlerine Göre Karşılaştırılması A Comparison Of Cursive Italic Writing And Basic Vertical Letters While Teaching Basal Reading And Writing Based On Teachers’ Views



    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify teachers’ views with regard toteaching basal reading and writing with cursive italic writing and basicvertical letters. Action research that is one of the qualitative researchmethods was employed. The population of the study was consisted ofelementary 1st and 2nd graders’ teachers working in Denizli and itsdistricts. Using criterion sampling, 68 elementary teachers were askedfor their opinions. As for the data gathering instrument a survey ofopen-ended six questions developed by the researchers were used in thestudy. Open-coding method was used for data analysis. As a result ofthe analysis, it was seen that the teachers found teaching with basicvertical letters easier both in preparing students for reading and writingand in teaching writing. Furthermore, they argued that with basicvertical letters, students write more beautiful and legible. Most of theteachers participated in the study preferred basic vertical letters justbecause they found cursive italic writing more difficult in teaching basalreading and writing. A comprehensive training related to cursive italicwriting should be provided to teachers. Wider scale studies focusing onwhether teachers prefer cursive italic writing or basic vertical letters inteaching basal reading and writing. Bu araştırma ile öğretmenlerin ilkokuma yazma öğretimi sürecinde bitişik eğik yazı ve dik temel harflerle yapılan eğitim hakkındaki görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden olan durum çalışması deseni benimsenmiştir. Çalışmanın evreni Denizli il ve ilçelerindeki ilkokullarda görev yapan 1. ve 2. sınıf öğretmenlerinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada ölçüt örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 63 kişiden oluşan 1. ve 2. sınıf öğretmeninin görüşüne başvurulmuştur. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen kişisel bilgiler formu ve 6 açık u

  4. Environ: E00588 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00588 Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros sumatrensis horn Crude dru...g Tyrosine [CPD:C01536], Cystine [CPD:C01420], Thiolactic acid Rhinoceros bicornis [TAX:9805], Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros... sumatrensis, Rhinoceros [TAX:9808] Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros... sumatrensis horn Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00588 Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros sumatrensis horn ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: white rhinoceros [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available g ...


    LÉVAI, László; Veres, Szilvia; Bákonyi, Nóra; Gajdos, Éva


    Poznato je da zbog iznošenja i ispiranja kationa, intenzivno korištenje tla u poljoprivredi uzrokuje zakiseljavanje. Za popravak tla, uz vapno preporuća se i drvni pepeo. Svrha provedenog ispitivanja bila je testiranje potencijala drvnog pepela za povrat kationa u tlo bez porasta toksičnosti tla, te ispitivanje učinka biofertilizatora Phylazonita MC®. Kukuruz (Zea mays L.) i krastavci (Cucumis sativus L.) uzgajani su u hranjivoj otopini u kontroliranim uvjetima. Promjene sadržaja elemenata u ...

  7. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda


    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  8. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun


    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  9. Creating a Theatrical World: Scenic Design for Rhinoceros

    Zhao, Mingshuo


    Unlike painting and sculpting and other traditional artistic mediums, scenic design can help create the dramatic space or environment for story telling. This invented space can be regarded as an “installation” for a specific text with a clear cultural message. Some of them are plays, musicals, operas or interpretive movement and dances. The shape, the material, the color and the texture bring about a tangible identity defining the space where the story takes place.Theatre, as opposed to movie...

  10. Environ: E00336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00336 Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn Crude drug Tyrosine [CPD:C01...536], Cystine [CPD:C01420], Thiolactic acid Rhinoceros unicornis [TAX:9809], Rhinoceros sondaicus [TAX:10223...3] Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00336 Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn ...

  11. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    McCue, Marshall D


    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles. PMID:18657629

  12. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D


    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles. PMID:18613003

  13. Debljina je bolest – hrana može biti i lijek; provođenje pilot-projekta

    Dabo, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Đulija; Janković, Suzana; Benčević Striehl, Henrietta; GLIBOTIĆ KRESINA, HELENA; Dragaš Zubalj, Nataša


    Cilj: Analizom postojeće situacije na terenu, prehrambenih navika, stilova života, familijarne anamneze, te rezultatima posebnih ciljanih pregleda koji nisu u programu obveznih mjera, dati ocjenu stanja uhranjenosti učenika šestih razreda osnovne škole i predložiti interventne programe prevencije. Metode: Istraživanje prehrambenih navika i tjelesne aktivnosti provedeno je 2008. godine u sedam osnovnih škola grada Rijeke, na uzorku od 496 učenika u dobi od 12 godina. Poseban ciljani pregled...

  14. Tko želi biti medijski pismen? Metode medijskih istraživanja i njihova primjena na koncept “medijske pismenosti”

    Volčić, Zala


    Područje medijskih istraživanja bavi se pitanjima koja uključuju složeni proces konzumacije masovnih medija i njegov odnos s praksama stvaranja značenja u publici. Jedna od trajnih tema medijskih istraživanja jest pitanje moći masovnih medija, njihovih učinaka i uloge kao sredstava kulture. U nekim se pristupima masovne medije analizira tek kao propagandna sredstva s izravnim medijskim učincima. U istančanijim inačicama smatraju se snagom koja oblikuja svijest javnosti određivanjem što je vij...

  15. Polymorphisms of chemokine receptors and its ligand alleles influencing genetic suscepti-bity to HIV-1 infection in eight ethnic groups in Chinese mainland


    Limited genetic information is available concerning the polymorphisms of HIV-1 resistant genes in indigenous Chinese populations. The aim of this study is to identify the allelic frequencies of the chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in the Chinese mainland. Genomic DNA samples extracted from whole blood of 2318 subjects were analyzed by using PCR or PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays, and further confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Higher frequencies of mutant CCR2-64I (19.15%-28.79%) and SDF1-3'A (19.10%-29.86%) alleles were found in subjects of 8 ethnic groups in the Chi-nese mainland. In contrast, the △32 mutation in CCR5 gene occurs at a very low frequency (0.0016, n=1287) in Han population. A relatively high frequency of CCR5- wt/D32 heterozygotes was observed in Uygurian and Mongolian populations. No △32 mutation allele was detected in Ti-betan and other 4 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. There was no CCR5-m303 mutation in subjects of any ethnic group in the Chinese mainland. Our results suggest that the CCR5-△32 mutation is not a major resistant factor against HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Han, Tibetan and other ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. Whether higher frequen-cies of CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A alleles constitute major genetic resistant factors or not remains to be clarified.

  16. Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.

    Clauss, M; Pellegrini, N; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Hummel, J; Flach, E J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M


    In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested. PMID:16901277

  17. Eavesdropping on coconut rhinoceros beetles, red palm weevils, Asian longhorned beetles, and other invasive travelers

    As global trade increases, invasive insects inflict increasing economic damage to agriculture and urban landscapes in the United States yearly, despite a sophisticated array of interception methods and quarantine programs designed to exclude their entry. Insects that are hidden inside soil, wood, or...

  18. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Rhinoceros Auklet Population Monitoring

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Partners from Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Puget Sound University designed and manage this cooperative monitoring effort under an SUP. Design and...

  19. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    Taylor, L.A.; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E.; Clauss, M.


    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a si

  20. Towards establishing a rhinoceros-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-y) assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Morar, D.; Schreuder, J.; Meny, M.; Kooten, P.J.; Tijhaar, E.; Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.


    Mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), with a diverse host range, extending from livestock to domestic and captive wild animals as well as free-ranging wildlife species. In South Africa, BTB is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Hluluwe iMfolozi National

  1. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae


    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  2. Quantification of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation.

    Clauss, M; Wittenbrink, M M; Castell, J C; Kienzle, E; Dierenfeld, E S; Flach, E J; Macgregor, S K; Hoppe, T; Hummel, J; Streich, W J; Hatt, J-M


    Free-ranging browsing herbivores ingest a range of secondary plant compounds, such as tannins, with their natural diet. As many of these substances have been shown to have antibacterial properties, it could be speculated that a lack of such compounds in captive zoo diets could favour the growth of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria. The effect of a supplementation of a conventional diet (N, consisting mainly of grass hay and/or lucerne hay and pelleted compound feeds) fed to eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) from three zoological institutions with either tannic acid (T), a source of hydrolysable tannins, or quebracho (Q), a source of condensed tannins, was investigated. The number of faecal colony forming units (CFU) of Enterobactericeae was determined by colony count of dilution series from fresh faeces applied to MacConkey agar plates. Tannins were added to the diets at approximately 5-15 g/kg dry matter, depending on the varying intake of roughage and compound feeds by the animals. There was no difference in the number of CFU between diets N (95.0 x 10(5) +/- 225.3 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) and T (164.3 x 10(5) +/- 225.1 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces); in contrast, diet Q led to a significant reduction in CFU (4.3 x 10(5) +/- 6.5 x 10(5)/g fresh faeces) compared with the other diets. These findings suggest that condensed tannins could have the potential to reduce the number of potentially pathogenic intestinal bacteria, and that the deliberate inclusion of tannin sources in the diets of captive wild animals should be further investigated. The fact that tannic acid, shown to have antibacterial effects in various in vitro studies, did not have an effect in this study, emphasizes that the relevance of tannin supplementation for intestinal health must be verified in vivo. PMID:18184377

  3. Unusual mortalities of the eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) due to clostridial enterotoxaemia in Ol Jogi Pyramid Sanctuary, Kenya

    Ndeereh, D.; Ouma, B.O.; Gaymer, J.; Mutinda, M.; Gakuya, F.


    Nine eastern black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis michaeli) developed clinical clostridial enterotoxaemia between May and July 2010 in the Pyramid Black Rhino Sanctuary within the Ol Jogi Conservancy, Laikipia, Kenya. The rhinos presented with a peracute syndrome characterised by severe abdominal pa

  4. Oral, nasal, and cutaneous eosinophilic granulomas in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): a lesion distinct from superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    Pessier, Allan P; Munson, Linda; Miller, R Eric


    Oral, nasal, and cutaneous lesions resembling eosinophilic granulomas (EGs) were observed in eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis). Oral lesions were observed in all affected animals and occurred most often behind the prehensile lip. The typical clinical history of affected animals included oral bleeding or epistaxis from multilobulated, fungating, proliferative masses with areas of ulceration. Histologically, lesions were characterized by prominent infiltrates of eosinophils and rare foci of collagen degeneration on a background of marked submucosal or dermal neovascularization. Mucosal or epidermal hyperplasia was also present sometimes in association with distinctive epithelial degenerative changes consistent with superficial necrolytic dermatopathy of black rhinoceroses. Lesions of EG and superficial necrolytic dermatopathy were interpreted as being concurrently manifested in these cases. EG lesions spontaneously resolved over periods of 30 days-7 mo and were recurrent in three animals. Lesions were responsive to treatment with corticosteroids or to local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Two animals treated with systemic corticosteroids died of disseminated fungal infections, emphasizing that corticosteroids should be used cautiously in black rhinoceroses. PMID:15193066

  5. After the End: Rebuilding Post-Imperial Societies/// Bitiş‟ten Sonrası: İmpatorluk Sonrası Toplumlarını Oluşturmak

    Dr. Thomas SMEDLEY


    Full Text Available This article examines the construction of two post-imperial societies comparatively by analyzing the leadership of a twentieth century Turk, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and a fifth century Christian, Augustine of Hippo. Both leaders offered credible alternative vision for their people. This article argues that both leaders provided feasible answers to a handful of basic questions that underlie any viable social order, using similar rhetorical strategies to powerfully reshape the hopes, dreams, and expectations of those they influenced.

  6. Rhinoceros feet step out of a rule-of-thumb: a wildlife imaging pioneering approach of synchronized computed tomography-digital radiography.

    Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Potier, Romain; Mulot, Baptiste; Maillot, Alexis; Etienne, Pascal; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa; Mews, Jurgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd


    Currently, radiography is the only imaging technique used to diagnose bone pathology in wild animals situated under "field conditions". Nevertheless, while chronic foot disease in captive mega-herbivores is widely reported, foot radiographic imaging is confronted with scarcity of studies. Numerous hindrances lead to such limited numbers and it became very clear that the traditional perspective on bone imaging in domestic animals based on extensive studies and elaborated statistical evaluations cannot be extrapolated to their non-domestic relatives. For these reasons, the authors initiated a multi-modality imaging study and established a pioneering approach of synchronized computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR), based on X-ray projections derived from three-dimensional CT reconstructed images. Whereas this approach can be applied in any clinical field, as a case of outstanding importance and great concern for zoological institutions, we selected foot bone pathologies in captive rhinoceroses to demonstrate the manifold applications of the method. Several advances were achieved, endowing the wildlife clinician with all-important tools: prototype DR exposure protocols and a modus operandi for foot positioning, advancing both traditional projections and, for the first-time, species-related radiographic views; assessment of radiographic diagnostic value for the whole foot and, in premiere, for each autopodial bone; together with additional insights into radiographic appearance of bone anatomy and pathology with a unique, simultaneous CT-DR correlation. Based on its main advantages in availing a wide range of keystone data in wildlife imaging from a limited number of examined subjects and combining advantages of CT as the golden standard method for bone diseases' diagnostic with DR's clinical feasibility under field conditions, synchronized CT-DR presents a new perspective on wildlife's health management. With this we hope to provide veterinary clinicians with concrete imaging techniques and substantial diagnostic tools, which facilitate straightforward attainment and interpretation of field radiography images taken worldwide. PMID:24963807

  7. Rhinoceros Feet Step Out of a Rule-of-Thumb: A Wildlife Imaging Pioneering Approach of Synchronized Computed Tomography-Digital Radiography

    Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Potier, Romain; Mulot, Baptiste; Maillot, Alexis; Etienne, Pascal; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa; Mews, Jurgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd


    Currently, radiography is the only imaging technique used to diagnose bone pathology in wild animals situated under “field conditions”. Nevertheless, while chronic foot disease in captive mega-herbivores is widely reported, foot radiographic imaging is confronted with scarcity of studies. Numerous hindrances lead to such limited numbers and it became very clear that the traditional perspective on bone imaging in domestic animals based on extensive studies and elaborated statistical evaluation...

  8. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray


    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  9. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    Nijhof, Ard M; Banie L. Penzhorn; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P.J.; Jongejan, Frans


    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov.

  10. “Ovo je trebalo biti smiješno – zašto se ne smijete!” – izvođenje povijesti i turističke šetnje u Budimpešti (Sažetak)

    Uzelac, Kristina; Nasar, Saifullah; Lacbawan jr., Macario B.


    Performativni obrat u društvenim znanostima obuhvatio je i studije o turizmu koji se u tom kontekstu promatra kao izvedbeni process. Dosadašnje studije ukazuju na određena ograničenja ovoga pristupa. Fundamentalna kritika dramaturškog pogleda jest da izvedbenost ne promatra kao niz pojavnih društvenih procesa. Na primjeru besplatnih turističkih šetnji (free walking tours) u Budimpešti, u članku se analizira turizam kao izvedbeni čin koji se realizira kombiniranjem dominantnih kulturnih kodova...

  11. Dejavniki in kriteriji psihofizičnih sposobnosti v selekcijskih postopkih na področju varstvoslovja : diplomsko delo visokošolskega strokovnega študija Varnost in policijsko delo

    Šekoranja, Simon


    V sedanjem času, ob hitrem življenjskem tempu, se vse manj zavedamo in pozabljamo, kako pomembna je dobra telesna pripravljenost. Biti »fit«, biti čil, oziroma biti v dobri telesni pripravljenosti je trend, moda in ne nazadnje nuja, saj je hiter način življenja vse prej kot zdrav za človeka. Biti čil pomeni, da človek svoje delovne in druge obveznosti opravlja z manjšim naporom – lažje, kar se navsezadnje v varstvoslovju od kandidatov in zaposlenih tudi pričakuje. Narava tovrstnega dela od za...

  12. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, Tom; Binladen, Jonas; Ho, Simon Y W; Campos, Paula F; Ratan, Aakrosh; Tomsho, Lynn P; da Fonseca, Rute R; Sher, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Tatanya V; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Roth, Terri L; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C


    reconstruction of the rhinoceros phylogeny. While the six species cluster into three strongly supported sister-pairings: (i) The black/white, (ii) the woolly/Sumatran, and (iii) the Javan/Indian, resolution of the higher-level relationships has no statistical support. The phylogenetic signal from individual...... Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses. In combination with the previously published mitochondrial genomes of the white (Ceratotherium simum) and Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis) rhinoceroses, this data set putatively enables...

  13. Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

    Wegge, P.; Shrestha, A.K.; Moe, S.R.


    Based on microhistological analyses of faecal material, we compared the early dry season diets of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, swamp deer Cervus duvauceli and hog deer Axis porcinus, which inhabit the same alluvial grassland habitat complex in lowland Nepal. Their diets were q

  14. The Boilerplate Rhino: Nature as Concocted, Nature as Found.

    Quammen, David


    Argues that media representations of the animal kingdom can be erroneous. Illustrates that point using Albrecht Durer's drawing of a rhinoceros in 1515 that depicted the animal in a suit of medieval armor. Recants the argument after learning that the depiction is a fairly accurate account of the Indian rhinoceros. (MDH)

  15. İlkokuma Yazma Öğretimi Sürecinde Bitişik Eğik Yazı Ve Dik Temel Harflerle Yapılan Eğitimin Öğretmen Görüşlerine Göre Karşılaştırılması
    A Comparison Of Cursive Italic Writing And Basic Vertical Letters While Teaching Basal Reading And Writing Based On Teachers’ Views



    This study aimed to identify teachers’ views with regard toteaching basal reading and writing with cursive italic writing and basicvertical letters. Action research that is one of the qualitative researchmethods was employed. The population of the study was consisted ofelementary 1st and 2nd graders’ teachers working in Denizli and itsdistricts. Using criterion sampling, 68 elementary teachers were askedfor their opinions. As for the data gathering instrument a survey ofopen-ended six questio...

  16. Navještaj evanđelja mladima danas

    Chávez Villanueva, Pascual


    U članku je riječ o evangelizaciji i navještaju evanđelja mladima danas. Da bi netko bio evangelizator, prvo mora biti pozvan i poslan. Za kršćane to znači i biti s Isusom, biti njegov učenik, a potom i apostol. Poput prvih učenika, i današnji apostoli pozvani su pokazivati Isusa onima koji ga žele vidjeti. Valja biti i hodati zajedno s mladima kako bi im se pomoglo da požele vidjeti Isusa i susretnu se s njim u zajednici njegovih učenika, Crkvi. Središnje mjesto u evangelizaciji pripada osob...

  17. POPs and stable isotopes in bird and forage fish tissues - Persistent organic pollutant levels in juvenile salmonids, forage fish and their avian predators from Puget Sound and the outer WA coast

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is examining contaminant loads of fish prey species of a resident marine bird (Rhinoceros Auklet) breeding in inland waters (Puget Sound) and in the...

  18. Rhinocerotidae from the Upper Miocene deposits of the Western Pannonian Basin (Hungary): implications for migration routes and biogeography

    Pandolfi, Luca; Gasparik, Mihály; Magyar, Imre


    Although the rhinoceros remains have high biochronological significance, they are poorly known or scarcely documented in the uppermost Miocene deposits of Europe. Several specimens collected from the Upper Miocene (around 7.0 Ma, Turolian) deposits of Kávás (Pannonian Basin, Western Hungary), previously determined as Rhinoceros sp., are revised and described in this paper. The postcranial remains of these specimens belong to "Dihoplus" megarhinus (de Christol) on the basis of the morphological and morphometric characters of humerus, radii, metacarpal and metatarsal elements. An overview of rhinoceros remains from several uppermost Miocene localities and the revision of the rhinoceros material from the Pannonian Basin suggest that "D." megarhinus spread during the latest Miocene from the Pannonian Basin towards Italy. The occurrences of this species in Western Hungary and Italy during the latest Miocene further imply that Rhinocerotini species were biogeographically segregated between Western, Southern and Central Europe.

  19. Status Kritis Dua Jenis Badak di Indonesia

    Haerudin R. Sadjudin


    Full Text Available There are five species of rhinoceros in the world, two types of African (Diceros bicornis and Ceratotherium simum and three species in Asia (Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis. Indonesia has two types, namely: the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822 and the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Fischer, 1814.Both types of rhino in Indonesia is not endemic wildlife, but it is a species relich; formerly spread is very wide, but now in addition to the steadily declining population is also more limited distribution. This happens because it is caused by the conversion of forests as a habitat for rhinos, plantations, settlements, and exploitation of space for various purposes. Hunting of two species of rhinoceros also has a long history, so that a distribution in some places have been lost; as well as the habitat that has been designated as a conservation area too, the population in the last 35 years continues to decline. Therefore both the rhino species has been categorized by the IUCN (International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as critical or threatened species (Critical Endangered Species, highly endangered species. Due to the critical status, then efforts were made to save him. But it seems these efforts have not maximized, because not all potential or the ability  multi-party support to carry out rescue from extinction.

  20. The aspects of using balance scorecard in business practice of companies operating in transitional conditions

    Hustič, Igor


    Podjetje, ki deluje v nenehno spreminjajočem se okolju (takšno je tudi tranzicijsko) in želi biti pri tem uspešno oz. konkurenčno, mora biti strateško usmerjeno. Opredeljeno strategijo mora prevesti v merljive cilje (gre za najbolj nazorno implementacijo uravnoteženega sistema kazalnikov v poslovno prakso) ter prilagoditi organizacijsko strukturo procesom in strategiji, ne pa obratno, informirati vse zaposlene na vseh ravneh o sprejeti strategiji, jemati strategijo kot kontinuiran proces, upr...

  1. Etički krisis kod Dostojevskog

    Senković, Željko


    U članku se razmatra nekoliko temeljnih pitanja kod Dostojevskog u kojima je uočljiv aporetički element. Tako, ovaj tragalac za smislom, govori o ljubavi (bar) dvosmjerno. Jednom je ona ključni element življenja po Riječi Krista, ali se prokazuje i kao egoistični impetus podčinjavanja i tiraniziranja Drugoga. Otkrivatelj kriza duše i duha istraživao je egzistencijalni pathos i kroz prijepore pokazivao da je biti čovjek i biti slobodan jedno te isto. Argumentira se protiv trivijalnih teza iz G...

  2. Boškovićev metodološki fenomenalizam

    Škarica, Dario


    U članku se pod metodološkim fenomenalizmom razumijeva načelo usredotočenosti prirodoznanstvenog istraživanja isključivo na fenomene kao jedine pretpostavke (premise) prirodoznanstvenih zaključaka i teorija. Pritom načela prema kojima ti zaključci bivaju izvedeni mogu biti umske ili empirijske naravi. Isto tako i sâm predmet prirodoznanstvene teorije može biti bilo puka fikcija bilo sáma zbilja. Bitno je samo to da premise iz kojih prirodoznanstvena teorija biva izvedena budu isključivo fenom...

  3. Pluralističko društvo i religije

    Volf, Miroslav


    Svijet je oduvijek bio vrlo religiozno mjesto i po svim izgledima nastavit će to biti u bližoj budućnosti. Ipak, to nije ono što su očekivale neke istaknute osobe europskoga moderniteta. U cijelome svijetu, pogled na život koji je sve prisutniji nije sekularni humanizam. Ako se prije pola stoljeća činilo da će sekularni humanizam biti val budućnosti, to je zato što su ga na mnogim mjestima nametnule autoritarne i totalitarne vlade — u Sovjetskome savezu, u istočnoeuropskim zemljama, u Kini i ...

  4. Prilog unapređenju rada i upravljanja u Vojnoj akademiji i na Univerzitetu odbrane / Contribution to work and management improvement in the Military Academy and the University of Defence / Повышение эффективности работы Военной академии и Университета обороны

    Marko D. Andrejić; Ivana M. Andrejić; Slaviša N. Arsić; Srđan D. Ljubojević


    Obimne i dinamične organizacione promene koje su u poslednjih nekoliko godina sprovođene u oblasti odbrane zahvatile su i oblasti visokog obrazovanja i naučnoistraživačkog rada vezanog za odbranu. Nastojao se formirati novi, integrisani naučni i obrazovni sistem, harmonizovan sa nacionalnim sistemom, koji će biti samoobnovljiv i delom samoodrživ, te kao takav biti koristan ne samo sistemu odbrane već i široj društvenoj zajednici. Da bi se operacionalizovala osnovna zamisao osnovan je Univerzi...

  5. Vloga vohunov pri razvoju sovjetske atomske bombe : diplomsko delo visokošolskega strokovnega študija Varnost in policijsko delo

    Križan, Petra


    Človek se je že od nekdaj zavedal, da je potrebno biti v koraku pred ostalimi, če želi biti uspešen in inovativen. Toda kako vedeti, da ni nasprotnik v razmišljanju, če ne celo v dejanjih že pred tabo? Za razblinjanje teh dvomov so tukaj nastopile osebe − vohuni, o katerih govori to diplomsko delo. Poskušala sem predstaviti pomembnost delovanja vohunov, še posebej pa sem se seveda osredotočila na njihov prispevek k razvoju sovjetske atomske bombe. Na samem začetku sem opisala pojme, ki so...


    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA


    Prema definiciji rana je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva, a s obzirom na tijek cijeljenja rane mogu biti akutne i kronične. Kronične rane su one koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane, a u najkraćem razdoblju od 6 tjedana. Kronične rane mogu biti tipične i atipične. u tipične rane ubrajaju se ishemijske rane, neuropatski ulkus, venski ulkus te dva posebna entiteta: dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. Kronične rane na po...

  7. Diferencijalna dijagnoza vertiga

    Demarin, Vida; TRKANJEC, ZLATKO; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Uremović, Melita


    Vertigo je iluzija kretanja, najčešće rotacijskog kretanja. Vertigo je među najčešćim simptomima koji dovode bolesnike liječniku, a sa starenjem učestalost vertiga se povećava. Vertigo može biti uzrokovan poremećajima unutarnjeg uha – periferni vertigo, centralnim poremećajima – centralni vertigo, sustavnim bolestima, a može biti i psihogeni. Najčešći uzroci vertiga su benigni paroksizmalni pozicioni vertigo, akutni vestibularni neuronitis, Méniéreova bolest, migrena, anksiozni poremećaji, ve...


    Pavlinjek, Miha


    V današnjem dinamičnem poslovnem okolju, je pomembno biti korak pred ostalimi. Biti boljši od konkurence, pomeni predvideti in izkoristiti priložnosti hitreje in v večjem obsegu kot ostali. Tukaj igrajo pomembno vlogo pridobljene informacije. Tako kot lahko stranke pridejo do različnih informacij o izdelkih različnih proizvajalcev, lahko podjetja pridobijoin izkoristijo informacije o potencialnih strankah, ter na podlagi njih zgradijo dolgoročno poslovno razmerje. Ponudbe izdekov je vedn...

  9. Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision finished cylinder liner surfaces

    Abdel-Aal, H A


    Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with the construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least as a concept, within human engineering. In this work, we probe load-bearing features of the ventral skin of snake surfaces. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (pythonidae) and Bittis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e. the Rk family of parameters). Therefore, we draw detailed comparison between the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas, the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight sever...

  10. Effect of child's cerebral palsy on the mother: a case control study in Ahvaz, Iran

    Borzoo Samira


    Full Text Available Kvalitet života porodica koje imaju dete obolelo od cerebralne paralize (CP može biti značajno izmenjen. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je da se ispita uticaj invaliditeta deteta na kvalitet života majke tako što su upoređivane majke dece sa cerebralnom paralizom i majke zdrave dece.

  11. Effect of child's cerebral palsy on the mother: a case control study in Ahvaz, Iran

    Borzoo Samira; Nickbakht Mansoureh; Jalalian Mehrdad


    Kvalitet života porodica koje imaju dete obolelo od cerebralne paralize (CP) može biti značajno izmenjen. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je da se ispita uticaj invaliditeta deteta na kvalitet života majke tako što su upoređivane majke dece sa cerebralnom paralizom i majke zdrave dece.

  12. Ainult üks õppekava korraga / Raivo Juurak

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-


    Tallinnas toimus osavõturohka õppekavakonverents. Tartu Ülikooli õppekava arenduskeskuse juhataja Ain Tõnisson ja BIT-i alternatiivse õppekava üks koostajaid Urve Läänemets püüdsid tõestada oma õppekava üldosa paremust


    Vicelja, Marina


    Trg Mljekarice i dvorište koje zatvaraju Užarska i Šporerova ulica primjeri su uspješnih interpolacija novog u staro gradsko tkivo. Pravilna revalorizacija povijesnih prostora riječkog Starog grada, njihove forme i njihova sadržaja, trebala bi biti osnova projekata i koncepcija obnove stare jezgre.


    Vrban, Sonja


    Upravljanje ljudskim resursima ključna je profesionalna pozicija, nezamjenjiva za svaku tvrtku koja želi biti, dugoročno, kvalitetno pozicionirana na tržištu. Zbog velike brzine napretka tehnologije uspjeh opstanka na tržištu može garantirati najvrjedniji resurs – onaj ljudski cjeloživotnim učenjem.

  15. Haridustee = Education / Tiiu-Liisa Rummo-Laes

    Rummo-Laes, Tiiu-Liisa


    Põhihariduses soolist eristumist ei ole märgata, murettekitavalt suur on poiste väljalangemine enne põhihariduse omandamist. Tütarlapsed ja noormehed üld- ja kutsehariduses, kesk- ja kõrghariduses. Noorte õppimine ja töötamine leibkonnatüübiti. Tabel, graafik, diagrammid

  16. Ortognatska kirurgija, funkcionalan ili estetski postupak

    Uglešić, Vedran; Jokić, Davor; Knežević, Predrag; Gašparović, Stojanka


    Ortognatski kirurški zahvati mogu biti funkcionalni i estetski. Prikazani su pacijenti te ortodontske i kirurške indikacije za kirurško liječenje. U prikazu su raspravljeni primjeri preoperativnog planiranja, tijeka liječenja, rezultata i komplikacija za plastiku brade, razvoj i pomicanje donje čeljusti, razvoj gornje čeljusti i bimaksilarne zahvate.

  17. 商代晚期黄河以北地区的犀牛和水牛——从甲骨文中的(令)和兕字谈起%The Rhinoceros and Water Buffalo on North Place of Huanghe River in Late Shang Dynasty——From Chinese Word "Si" of Inscriptions on Bones or Tortoise Shells of the Shang Dynasty to Talk About Them

    雷焕章; 葛人


    @@ 商代甲骨文中的(令),常被写定为兕或(凹豖),迄今为止,众多一流专家对它的解释是见仁见智.某些最常见的解释是:犀牛、牛一样的独角兕、兕属的牛、兕(没有解释)、让人垂涎的特殊猎物、中原地区的一种野生动物等等.本文试图就此问题再作探讨.




    Full Text Available We described the proximal epiphysis of a rhinoceros third metacarpus collected from the level XI of Grotta Romanelli. This level is chronologically referred to a time span between approximately 80 and 69 ka. Morphological and morphometric characters of the third metacarpus suggest that it belongs to Coelodonta antiquitatis. This is the earliest record of woolly rhino in Italy. 

  19. BIM Software Capability and Interoperability Analysis : An analytical approach toward structural usage of BIM software (S-BIM)

    A. Taher, Ali


    This study focused on the structuralanalysis of BIM models. Different commercial software (Autodesk products and Rhinoceros)are presented through modelling and analysis of different structures with varying complexity,section properties, geometry, and material. Beside the commercial software, differentarchitectural and different tools for structural analysis are evaluated (dynamo, grasshopper,add-on tool, direct link, indirect link via IFC).

  20. Comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.

    Teunissen, M J; Op den Camp, H J; Orpin, C G; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Vogels, G D


    Anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (Ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: African elephant (Loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and mara (Dolichotis patagonum). The anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a Neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to Piromyces spp. A defined medium is described which supported growth of all the isolates, and was used to examine growth characteristics of the different strains. For each fungus the lipid phosphate content was determined after growth on cellobiose and the resulting values were used to estimate fungal biomass after growth on solid substrates. The ability of isolates from ruminants and non-ruminants to digest both wheat straw and cellulose was comparable. More than 90% and 60%, respectively, of filter paper cellulose and wheat straw were digested by most strains within 60-78 h. Growth of two fungi, isolated from rumen fluid of a sheep (Neocallimastix strain N1) and from faeces of an Indian rhinoceros (Piromyces strain R1), on cellobiose was studied in detail. Fungal growth yields on cellobiose were 64.1 g (mol substrate)-1 for N1 and 34.2 g mol-1 for R1. The major fermentation products of both strains were formate, lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. PMID:1919514


    Mayer, Darko


    Godišnje obnovljive zalihe slatke vode na Zemlji iznose oko 45000 km3 . Pri današnjem stupnju razvitka ta količina dovoljna je za život 4,5 do 9 milijardi ljudi. S obzirom da se očekuje da će 2025. godine na našoj planeti živjeti preko 8,5 milijardi ljudi jasno je da će slijedeće stoljeće biti obilježeno problemom osiguranja dovoljnih količina čiste vode. Taj će problem biti posebno izražen u zemljama u razvoju i u velikim gradovima. U siromašnim zemljama aridnog i subaridnog područja nestaši...

  2. Poremećaji hranjenja i jedenja u ranoj dojenačkoj dobi, djetinjstvu i adolescenciji

    Vidović, Vesna


    Poremećaji hranjenja i jedenja čest su medicinski i psihološki problem u adolescenciji, a mogu se javiti u dojenačkoj dobi i ranom djetinjstvu. Uzroci nastanka poremećaja su složeni i nisu potpuno istraženi. Liječenje bi trebalo biti multidimenzionalno, budući da psihofarmaci i psihoterapija primijenjeni zajedno nisu dovoljno učinkoviti, a u najvećem broju slučajeva u liječenje moraju biti uključene obitelji. Poremećaji svojom ozbiljnošću, trajanjem i teškoćama u liječenju te posljedicama za ...


    Novak, Tamara


    Diplomska naloga obravnava zavlačevanje izvršbe s strani dolžnikov. Izvršba je namreč izredno pomemben del sodnega varstva, saj mora biti strankam zagotovljeno, da lahko svoje pravice uresničijo, ne le da so jim priznane. Izvršilni postopek mora zato biti učinkovit, hiter ter mora onemogočati zavlačevanje. V diplomski nalogi je tako predstavljeno, na kakšen način dolžniki v praksi zavlačujejo postopek izvršbe, prav tako je opisan tudi sistem izvršbe v Nemčiji ter predlogi, ki bi dolžnikom one...

  4. Dijalektika samoće

    Paz, Octavio


    Samoća - osjećaj i spoznaja da si sam, otuđen od svijeta i od sebe sama - nije isključivo meksička osobina. Svi se ljudi, u nekom trenutku života, osjećaju usamljenima. A oni to i jesu, živjeti znači biti odijeljen od onoga što smo bili da bismo se približili onome što ćemo biti u tajnovitoj budućnosti. Samoća je najdublja činjenica ljudskog postojanja. Čovjek je jedno biće koje zna da je samo i jedino koje traži drugo. Njegova priroda - ako se ta riječ može upotrijebiti u odnosu na čovjeka, ...

  5. Koncept razvoja službi logistike / Concept development of logistic services

    Marko D. Andrejić; Vlada S. Sokolović; Marjan A. Milenkov


    Da bi logističke službe, kao deo sistema odbrane, bile efikasne i efektivne moraju biti kvalitetno organizaciono-tehnološki isprojektovane i kvalitetno vođene. Moraju da imaju dugoročni koncept razvoja sa ugrađenim organizacionim aspektom, jasno izražena težišta i prioritete u funkcionisanju, a takođe i kvalitetno definisane pokazatelje uspešnosti. Neophodno je da prate promene u bližem i daljem okruženju. Takođe, svaki proces koji je u nadležnosti logističkih službi mora biti dobro isprojekt...


    Ambrož, Lidija


    Večkrat v življenju je vsak od nas že slišal, da je biti starš najtežja in najbolj odgovorna naloga. Biti ob tem še dober vzgojitelj, pa je včasih delo diplomata, prijatelja in še kaj od naštetih misli bi lahko opredelili. Vsak starš ima v sebi željo, da bi otroka vzgojil v zdravo, zadovoljno osebnost, kot radi rečemo: »da bi otrok bil lepo vzgojen«. Ker smo ljudje čuteča bitja in imamo radi svoje otroke, kakor so naši starši imeli radi nas. Ravno zadnja misel je ključna nit diplomske nal...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHI233 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available equence (All Frames) Frame A: kkkfinkpknrifvil**vkestnhqiqikkq*knnkik*kkkkkklqilqlqlqpqiii iii*nqi*qlingyqkkkhfqnvimkf*kreksyqfgnkk...tig*w*ck**ill* kykemyrcwllyasg*mrekkyllhpr**ticnlssfnwfnsss*ilylq*icfnl*kly *nnh*c*i*lvirigsklf*tki...fp*knkrnnsksskii*w***w***w***kinklinf knkikyfnliy*mfkk Frame C: kkiyk*TKKQDICYFIMSKRKHESSD...k*nili*yikclkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bit...i leqslmlnligy*nwlqvilnknlslkkqkkqfkelkdyivvvvvvvvvvviknk*inkf *k*nkif*fnilnv*k Frame B: kknl*inqktgyllfyne*kkariirfk*ksnek


    Škoro Petranović, Vedrana; Žaja, Orjena; Banjari, Ines


    Uvod: Anoreksija nervoza (AN) predstavlja trajan poremećaj odnosa prema hrani i izgledu vlastitog tijela koji dovodi do znatnog oštećenja tjelesnog zdravlja i psiho-emocionalnog funkcioniranja. Pridružene metaboličke komplikacije zbog fizioloških osobitosti razdoblja rasta i spolnog razvoja mogu biti potencijalno ireverzibilne, izvjesno i fatalne ukoliko su kasno prepoznate. Cilj: Istražiti vrijednosti antropometrijskih parametara, elektrolitska odstupanja te ispitati trajanje i broj hosp...


    Gaćina, Nikolina


    Prehrambena vlakana su komponente hrane koja blagotvorno djeluju na zdravlje čovjeka. Njihova proizvodnja se povećava jer se dodaju hrani koja ih uobičajeno ne sadrži da bi ona postala funkcionalna. Alternativne i jeftine sirovine za dobivanje prehrambenih vlakana mogu biti i nusproizvodi prerade nekih namirnica biljnog porijekla (jabuke, grožđe, citrusi i kim) koji zaostaju nakon njihove primarne obrane.

  10. Robustno optimalna monetarna politika sa skoro-racionalnim ocekivanjima

    Michael Woodford


    U radu se razmatra optimalna politika monetarne stabilizacije unutar dalekovidog modela kada centralna banka uvida da ocekivanja privatnog sektora ne moraju biti nužno konzistentna modelu, i želi da izabere politiku zadovoljavajucu u slucaju bilo kog uverenja dovoljno bliskog konzistentnosti modela. Utvrdeno je da je obavezivanje i dalje bitno za optimalnu politiku, da optimalni dugorocni inflacioni target nije pod uticajem stepena potencijalnih distorzija verovanja, i da je optimalna politik...


    Grbavac, Jacinta; GRBAVAC, Vitomir; Popović, Goran


    Korisnički info sustavi u organizacijama raznih vrsta i veličina transformiraju svoje računarske resurse iz pretežno centraliziranog u distribuirani komunikacijski sustav gotovo na svim razinama. Ova nova paradigma, u biti definira ulogu velikih kompjutora unutar velikih poslovnih asocijacija kao i njihovu integraciju na nacionalnoj razini. To je, zapravo kombinacija performansi, fleksibilnost i korisničko-prijateljski odnos s malim autonomnim korisnicima od osnovnih operacija/obrada do uslug...

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHJ523 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available evtkvdws ydeqsletvypaleernkerigdlfqeiikyvadnivkrckedmvlesfleatsnakivf rhnakangywnwsfenndlvitfksicnvsdnanfdfi...sdnanfnlklsf kinkx Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant...04.12.24 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bit...y vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AC117081_29( AC117081 |pid:non...VH (Link to library) VHJ523 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13591-1 VHJ523P (Link

  13. Analiza panoge in SWOT analiza na primeru podjetja Golte

    Kolar, Rebeka


    Za uspešnost podjetja je pomembno, da dobro poznamo svojo panogo, v kateri delujemo, dobro moramo poznati svojo konkurenco in biti vedno korak pred njo. Podrobno poznavanje panoge same pripomore k boljšemu in kvalitetnejšemu vrednotenju podjetja. SWOT analiza je pomembna za ugotavljanje konkurenčne prednosti podjetja in je ena najpogostejših in najpopularnejših analiz. Lahko jo izvajajo posamezniki ali skupina

  14. Posodobitev spletne trgovine in povezava z Microsoft Dynamics NAV



    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena posodobitev spletne trgovine slovenskega podjetja in vzpostavitev povezave med spletno trgovino in sistemom ERP Microsoft Dynamics NAV. Opisani so obstoječe stanje, povezava spletne trgovine in sistema ERP ter razlogi za posodobitev. Opravljena je podrobnejša analiza funkcionalnosti spletne trgovine, ki bi morale biti izboljšane ali dodane, kar je dodatno podkrepljeno z rezultati spletne ankete, katera se je izvedla med preteklimi kupci podjetja. Glavni ...

  15. Suvremene antropologijske teme: filozofijskoantropologijski podsjetnik suvremenoj socio-kulturnoj antropologiji

    Skledar, Nikola


    Opća je značajka suvremenih antropologijskih i etnologijskih istraživanja zanemarivanje teorijskoga i metodologijskog značenja i uloge filozofijske antropologije i njezine tradicije. Svako filozofijskoantropologijsko istraživanje polazi od izvjesnih filozofijskih pretpostavki i razumijevanja čovjeka, čovjekove biti, smisla čovjekova stvaralaštva, kulture, povijesti itd. I ta teorijska povezanost socio-kulturne antropologije s filozofijskom antropologijom ima metodologijske reperkusije...

  16. Toponimi, ktetici i etnici u Žićima svetih otaca

    Malić, Dragica


    Ovaj je prilog nastavak razmatranja vlastitih imena iz prethodnoga broja časopisa “Folia onomastica Croatica”, u kojem su prikazana osobna imena iz Žića svetih otaca. U navedenom su spomeniku znatno slabije zastupljena ostala vlastita imena. Među njima pretežu toponimi, a neki će od njih – vezano uz latinski predložak djela – najvjerojatnije biti jedine hrvatske potvrde.


    Kuhar, Jernej


    Kanalizacijski sistemi so medsebojno funkcionalno povezane naprave in objekti, ki so namenjeni za odvajanje in čiščenje odpadnih voda uporabnikov. Projektirani in zgrajeni morajo biti tako, da zagotavljajo optimalen odvod odpadne in padavinske vode ob minimalnih stroških izgradnje, vzdrževanja in obratovanja. V diplomskem delu smo opisali kanalizacijski sistem v Mestni občini Velenje in prikazali postopek izgradnje ločenega sistema kanalizacije Poslovno-stanovanjskega objekta Gorica.


    Stegu, Žiga


    V podjetju Gorenje d.d. uporabljajo v gospodinjskih aparatih magnetna stikala. Stikala so uporabljena za detekcijo odprtosti vrat hladilnikov. Pomembna so za pravilno delovanje aparata, zato mora biti življenjska doba stikal v skladu z zahtevami podjetja. Z uvedbo magnetnih stikal se je pojavil problem odpovedi zaradi neznanega vzroka. Do sedaj so preverjali vpliv vibracij, vendar samo na dveh stikalih hkrati. Namen in cilj diplomske naloge je avtomatizirana meritev življenjske dobe ve...


    Šućur, Zoran


    Na uzorku od 800 romskih roditelja1 `eljelo se istra`iti u kojoj je mjeri poimanje romskoga roditeljstva i odrastanja uvjetovano socioekonomskim ~imbenicima kao {to su dob, ukupan broj djece, obrazovanje i stambeni status. Roditeljstvo nije analizirano na razini cjelovitoga modela, nego na razini aspekata roditeljstva i odrastanja koji mogu biti ilustrativni za romsku populaciju (stavovi roditelja o tome kada njihova djeca trebaju stupiti u brak, po~eti zara|ivati, briga ...


    Peternel, Luka


    V prihodnje je premik robotov iz strukturiranih/nadzorovanih industrijskih in laboratorijskih okolij v človekov vsakdanjik neizogiben. Za uspešno vpeljavo robotov v naš vsakdanjik je treba rešiti dva osnovna problema, povezana z izvajanjem takih nalog. (1) Naloge, potrebe, orodja in okolje se razlikujejo med uporabniki. To zahteva pridobitev velike baze zelo specifičnih znanj, zato mora biti prenos znanja z uporabnika na robota enostaven, prilagodljiv in hiter. (2) Pri izvedbi ...

  1. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria

    Abdulrazaq G Habib


    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated ...


    Zorman, Natalija


    Zadnje čase strokovnjaki razvijajo raznovrstne multidimenzionalne modele vodenja, s katerimi si prizadevajo pripomoči k učinkovitejšemu vodenju človeškega kapitala organizacij, ki si želijo biti v koraku s časom. Eden izmed sodobno najbolj raziskovanih in veljavnih modelov vodenja enaindvajsetega stoletja, je celostni model vodenja (ang. Full Range Leadership Model - FRLM), kateri vsebuje integriran pregled komponent transakcijskega in transformacijskega vodenja, njegove meritve pa se izvajaj...


    Toker, Didem; Tozan, Hakan; Vayvay, Ozalp


    Odabir prikladnog proizvoda za portfolio farmaceutske kompanije u smislu strategije i dugoročne komercijalne vrijednosti je sofisticirana problematika bazirana na mnoštvu kriterija u farmaceutskoj ekonomiji. Ovaj rad donosi sustavnu metodu za licenciranje u farmaceutskoj industriji i predlaže „fuzzy“ AHP bazirani model odlučivanja za one koji u farmaceutskoj industriji donose odluke kako bi odredili potencijal raznih proizvoda koji bi mogli biti pogodni za njihov portfolio. Predloženi model j...

  4. Protective Activity Against Oxidative Stress of Plants Indigenous to Korea

    We have screened the cytoprotective effect against Ha, Oa, and γ-ray radiation induced oxidative stress from 32 Korean plants. Betula ermani var, saitoana (caulis, leaves), Rosa wichuraiana (caulis), Sorbus commixta (caulis), Weigela florida (leaves), Cirsium rhinoceros (whole plant), and Viburnum erosum (caulis) were found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a result, extracts of six plants reduced cell death of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells induced by Ha,Oa, treatment. In addition, these extracts protected cell death of V79-4 cells damaged by γ-ray radiation. In addition, these extracts scavenged ROS generated by radiation. Taken together, the results suggest that Betula ermani var. saitoana, Rosa wichuraiana, Sorbus commixta, Weigela florida, Cirsium rhinoceros, and Viburnum erosum protect V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by radiation through scavenging ROS

  5. Organizacija tehnološkog procesa remonta složenih tehničkih sistema u tehničkom remontnom zavodu u Čačku

    Vojkan M. Radonjić


    Full Text Available Složeni tehnički sistemi (STS od ostalih tehničkih sistema (TS razlikuju se po konstrukciji i nameni, koja može biti: zaštita ljudi, materijalnih bogatstava i teritorije. Ako želimo da STS budu ispravni i imaju zadovoljavajući nivo pouzdanosti i gotovosti,  sistem remonta mora biti u stanju da podrži zahteve koji proističu iz njihove specifičnosti. Sistem njihovog remonta mora biti programiran, a upravljanje njime zasnovano na konceptu QMS (Quality management system. Organizacija remonta STS za potrebe sistema odbrane Republike Srbije, u Tehničkom remontnom zavodu u Čačku (TRZ, primer je organizacije u koju je implementiran  procesni model sistema upravljanja kvalitetom (QMS. Ovaj članak opisuje proces remonta STS u TRZ sa njegovim procesnim sistemom upravljanja kvalitetom (QMS, koji je preduslov za efikasan i efektivan proces remonta. Proces remonta prikazan je na primeru remonta guseničnog borbenog vozila. 

  6. A Game of Horns: Transnational Flows of Rhino Horn

    Hübschle, A.


    A multi-sectorial regime of protection including international treaties, conservation and security measures, demand reduction campaigns and quasi-military interventions has been established to protect rhinos. Despite these efforts, the poaching of rhinos and trafficking of rhino horn continue unabated. This dissertation asks why the illegal market in rhinoceros horn is so resilient in spite of the myriad measures employed to disrupt it. A theoretical approach grounded in the sociology of mark...

  7. Osteopathology in the feet of rhinoceroses: lesion type and distribution.

    Regnault, Sophie; Hermes, Robert; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Hutchinson, John; Weller, Renate


    An estimated 1,170 white (Ceratotherium simum), black (Diceros bicornis), greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis), and Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinoceroses are kept in captivity worldwide, where they are a popular public attraction and serve important roles in education and conservation. Rhinoceroses in captivity are reportedly affected by a variety of foot conditions, including abscesses, nail cracking, and pododermatitis, but there are few studies reporting associated bony pathology in these species. This study aimed to describe osteopathology in rhinoceros feet and identify normal and abnormal osteologic features of rhinoceros feet. The metacarpal-tarsal and phalangeal bones from 81 feet (67 skeletal specimens and 14 cadaveric feet), derived from 27 rhinoceroses of various species, were evaluated in the study (1 black, 11 white, 2 greater one-horned, 3 Javan, 9 Sumatran, and 1 unknown). Bones were examined visually (skeletal specimens) or by computed tomography (cadaver specimens) for evidence of bony lesions. Of the 27 rhinoceroses examined, 22 showed some degree of bone pathology in at least one limb. Six broad categories of pathologic change were identified, with numbers in parentheses representing numbers of rhinoceroses with lesions in at least one limb/number of rhinoceroses examined: enthesopathy (20/27), osteoarthritis (15/27), pathologic bone remodeling (12/27), osteitis-osteomyelitis (3/27), fracture (3/8), and subluxation (3/8). The frequency of pathologic changes in fore- and hind limbs was not significantly different. Most (91%) enthesopathies were observed on the proximal phalanges of the digits, and osteoarthritis was most common in the distal interphalangeal joints of the medial and lateral digits (32 and 26%, respectively). In addition to the pathology described, all examined rhinoceroses also had multiple small surface lucencies in the distal limb bones as an apparently normal anatomic feature. This study is an important first

  8. A serological survey of brucellosis in wild ungulate species from five game parks in Zimbabwe

    Tatenda R. Motsi


    Full Text Available A retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies to Brucella spp. in free-ranging African wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in Zimbabwe. Samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in Zimbabwe. A total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (n=106, impala (Aepyceros melampus (n = 72, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis (n= 45 and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum (n = 47, were tested. The percentage of positive samples was 17.0% in buffalo (18/106; 95% CI: 9.72% – 24.1% and 1.4% in impala (1/72; 95% CI: 0% – 4.2%. No antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in the two rhinoceros species. The difference in the percentage of seropositive cases between buffalo and impala was significant (p< 0.05. Seropositivity to Brucella spp. was higher (19.1% in adult buffalo compared with juveniles and sub-adults younger than six years (5.9%. Further, seropositivity was marginally higher (20.4% in animals from wildlife-livestock interface areas than in those from non-interface areas (13.45%; OR = 1.45 although the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that brucellosis could be more widespread in buffalo and may circulate in this species independently in the absence of contact with cattle, whilst rhinoceros may be considered less susceptible to brucellosis. The role of the wildlife-livestock interface in the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife and livestock is probably overstated but needs to be explored further.

  9. Near real-time ultrahigh-resolution imaging from unmanned aerial vehicles for sustainable land use management and biodiversity conservation in semi-arid savanna under regional and global change (SAVMAP)

    Reinhard, Friedrich; Hauptfleisch, Morgan L.; Joost, Stéphane; SAVMAP, Consortium


    To prevent aggravation of existing poverty in semi-arid savannas, a comprehensive concept for the sustainable adaptive management and use of these ecosystems under unprecedented conditions is needed. SAVMAP is an innovative, trans-, and inter-disciplinary initiative whose goal is to develop a valuable monitoring tool for both sustainable land-use management and rare species conservation (black rhinoceros) in semi-arid savanna in Namibia. SAVMAP uses near real-time ultrahigh-resolution photogr...

  10. Intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I H; Raz, D; Shvartsman, E; Kass, P H


    The intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (Addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (Connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (Oryx dammah). The animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the Schirmer tear test I was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonometry was used to evaluate the intraocular pressure. The mean (sd) rate of tear production ranged from 17.6 (3.1) mm/minute in the rhinoceros to 28.8 (8.3) mm/minute in the addax. The intraocular pressure ranged from 8.0 (1.2) mmHg in the impala to 32.1 (10.4) mmHg in the rhinoceros. The rate of tear production in the addax and the intraocular pressure in the rhinoceros appear to be the highest values of these variables to have been reported in any species. PMID:12233828

  11. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia Rhino sanctuary

    The conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya involves the translocation of rhinoceros to protected sanctuaries, e.g. the recently enlarged 69 km2 sanctuary at Ngulia in Tsavo West National Park. As the black rhinoceros is known to be particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma brucei, there is a strong possibility that the stress of translocation will induce health problems that would not normally occur in resident populations. Similarly, the movement of animals born in tsetse-free areas to tsetse-infested areas may result in trypanosomiasis problems because of loss of immune protection in the absence of challenge in early life. Finally, there is some concern over the possibility of facilitating genetic exchange in T. brucei through the artificial movement of animals over long distances into novel environments. To aid in the development of prudent management practices, we initiated baseline studies on tsetse distribution and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia sanctuary. To date, we have completed a dry season survey of tsetse distribution over a 125 km2 area centred on the sanctuary and have characterized the nature of the trypanosomiasis challenge in different areas. Trypanosomiasis challenge at Ngulia involves a variety of Trypanosoma spp. Nevertheless, an unusual finding is the lack of diversity in Nannomonas parasites, with most belonging to the savannah group of T. congolense

  12. Advanced optical system simulation in a coupled CAD/optical analysis package

    Stevenson, Michael A.; Campillo, Chris J.; Jenkins, David G.


    Software packages capable of simulating complex optical systems have the power to shorten the design process for non-imaging illumination, projection display, and other imaging illumination systems, Breault Research Organization's Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) and Robert McNeel and Associates' Rhinoceros computer aided design software, together, allow complicated optical systems to be simulated and analyzed. Through the use of Rhinoceros, an optical system can be accurately modeled in a 3D design environment. ASAP is then used to assign optical properties to the Rhinoceros CAD model. After the optical system has been characterized, it can be analyzed and optimized, by way of features specific to the ASAP optical analysis engine. Using this simulation technique, an HID arc source manufactured by Ushio America, Inc. is accurately represented. 2D CCD images are gathered for the source's emitting-volume across its spectral bandwidth. The images are processed within ASAP, via the inverse Abel command, to produce a 3D emitting-volume. This emitting-volume is combined with an accurate model of the source geometry and its optical properties, to finalize a functioning virtual source model. The characterized source is then joined with a simulated optical system for detailed performance analysis: namely, a projection display system.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activities of reduced TiO2-x/BiOCl heterojunctions

    Fu, Rongrong; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Ma, Lu; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Qingyao; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun


    A key issue to design highly efficient photoelectrodes for hydrogen production is how to prohibit the rapid carrier recombination. In order to use the visible light and reduce the recombination of electrons and holes, reduced TiO2-x/BiOCl heterojunctions are successfully synthesized and the photoelectrodes are assembled in this work. The effects of various Bi/Ti molar ratios on the structural, morphological, optical, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of the resultant samples are investigated systematically. The TiO2-x nanoparticles contain Ti3+, Ti2+, and oxygen vacancies (Ov), while the BiOCl nanosheets exposed {001} facet. Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) results indicate that the existence of Ti3+, Ti2+ and Ov expand the light-response range. Linear scan voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicate that more efficient electron transportation is presented in the heterojunctions with the appropriate Bi/Ti molar ratio. Consequently, the reduced TiO2-x/BiOCl heterojunction with the most appropriate Bi/Ti molar ratio exhibits a high photocurrent density of 0.755 mA cm-2 with photoconversion efficiency up to 0.634%, 10.5 and 22.6 times larger than that of pure TiO2 and BiOCl. Furthermore, this heterojunction exhibit 48.38 and 12.54 times enhancement for the visible-light decomposition of rhodamine B compared with pure TiO2 and BiOCl.

  14. Obveščevalno vodena policijska dejavnost

    Dekleva, Sven


    Policijska dejavnost 21. stoletja je v svojevrstni krizi identitete in se vse težje spopada z izzivi. Prav zaradi tega številni strokovnjaki, da bi izboljšali učinkovitost tega področja, kontinuirano predlagajo nove pristope in rešitve, znanost pa raziskuje, vpeljuje in analizira. V prihodnosti se mora marsikaj spremeniti, spremembe pa ne smejo biti samo kozmetične ali marketinške narave. Pri sistemih razvitih držav je opazen odmik od tradicionalne militaristične ureditve, ki je temeljila pre...

  15. Obravnava pravljic v predšolskem obdobju v različnih medijih

    Lah, Mateja


    Z obravnavo pravljic uvajamo predšolske otroke v svet književnosti. S primernim izborom pravljic si otrok širi in bogati književni izbor ter se uči doživljati književno umetnost. Pozorni moramo biti na kvalitetno izbiro pravljic, na zrelost otroka, na njegovo sposobnost dojemanja in doživljanja ter na primeren način posredovanja pravljic. Poslušanje in pripovedovanje pravljic je za otroka dobra razvojna spodbuda, z njimi vplivamo na čustveni, miselni, domišljijski, izkustveni ter moralni razv...




    Danas razumijemo mnoge regulatorne putove u signalizaciji koja se odvija prije i poslije sinteze IgE i poznajemo učinke mnogobrojnih medijatora u alergijskog kaskadi, ali astma ipak i dalje ostaje klinički i znanstveni problem. Suvremena civilizacija zbunjuje imunološki sustav pa nastaje kompleksna interakcija između epigenetske regulacije, varijabilnih vanjskih čimbenika i različitih kombinacija parova utjecaja: gena, antigena i razdoblja života. Stoga će biti potrebno odgovoriti na pitanje ...


    Eder, Dejan


    Gradbena jama je začasen objekt, ki ga po končani gradnji zasujemo. Gradbena jama mora biti izkopana pravilno in kakovostno, v nasprotnem primeru se lahko sesuje oz. poškoduje, kar podaljša čas in poveča stroške gradenj. Ker pomeni izkop za določen objekt vedno poseg v zemljino v različnih globinah, je potrebno takšne izkope oz. gradbene jame ustrezno varovati pred porušitvijo. V geotehnični praksi se najpogosteje uporabljajo racionalne kombinacije podpornih konstrukcij s sistemskimi sidra...

  18. Bakterijska flora zdravoga mlađa azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) s naglaskom na otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale

    S. Wei, Lee; Musa, Najiah; Wee, Wendy


    Opisana je bakterijska flora te otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale bakterija izdvojenih iz mlađa slatkovodnoga azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) na mrijestilištu u Terengganu u Maleziji. Istraživanje je provedeno sa svrhom da se odredi bakterijska flora u uzorcima vode na ribogojilištu azijskoga lubina kao i otpornost izdvojenih bakterija na antibiotike i teške metale. Rezultati mogu biti od koristi za uzgajivače riba pri liječenju i provođenju preventivnih mjera. Bakterije su bile izd...


    Lešnik, Nataša


    Živimo v času nenehnih sprememb. Gospodarska kriza podjetjem otežuje prodajo njihovih izdelkov. Če se želijo podjetja obdržati na trgu in prodajati svoje izdelke, morajo biti naklonjena strankam in njihovim zahtevam. Podjetja morajo nenehno stremeti k novim izboljšavam in rešitvam informacijskih sistemov, da bodo lahko ostala konkurenčna na trgu. Rešitev CRM je orodje za upravljanje odnosov s strankami. Je sistem, ki povezuje vse tiste podatke in informacije, ki smo jih doslej imeli razd...


    Špenko, Romana


    Za upravljanje odnosov s strankami mnoga majhna podjetja v začetku ne uporabljajo temu namenjenih sistemov (CRM), temveč si pomagajo s standardnimi orodji, kot so npr. imenik, koledar in e-pošta. Sorazmerno z rastjo podjetja pa običajno raste tudi število strank, opravil in informacij, ki morajo biti pregledno zabeležene in posredovane. Pojavi se torej potreba po uvedbi CRM rešitve, v kateri bi bile integrirane vse funkcije upravljanja odnosov s strankami, od komunikacije po telefonu in e-poš...

  1. Od Ruhra do Bospora, europski gradovi kulture 2010. godine - Essen, Pečuh, Carigrad (Istanbul)

    Orosz, Éva; Stefán, Klára; Vati, Tamás


    Godina 2010. je u mnogim aspektima posebna godina, obzirom na promjene u izboru kriterija u prethodnom periodu, proširen krug mogućih kandidata za titulu grada kulture, pa je to i omogućilo da i Istanbul, grad koji praktički simbolizira cijelu Tursku, može biti među dobitnicima ovog priznanja. Iako sva tri ova grada zadovoljavaju ciljeve i očekivanja koja se traže od nositelja ove laskave titule europskog grada kulture, u nekoliko aspekata ima mjesta i kritici. Jedan od najvažnijih može se...


    Sturza Milić, Nataša


    Cilj rada bio je razmotriti odnos između motoričke kreativnosti (fluentnosti) i motoričkog iskustva djece predškolske dobi. Prema suvremenim teorijama kreativnosti, iskustvo i znanje imaju važnu ulogu u formiranju kritične razine motoričkog znanja (ponašanja) ispod koje očitovanje kreativnosti nije moguće. Nedovoljno stimulirane i nerazvijene motoričke vještine i znanja u ovoj dobi mogu biti uzrokom smanjene ili „uspavane“ motoričke kreativnosti. Motoričke sposobnosti i znanja (motoričkim tes...


    Andevski, Milica; Budić, Spomenka


    Nove konstruktivističke koncepcije na području didaktike stranog jezika zasnivaju se na osnovnim pretpostavkama moderne psihologije znanja. Pri tome se polazi od činjenice da se znanje konstruiše u zavisnosti od predznanja, opažanja, konteksta i afekata pojedinca. Sticanje znanja se odvija situativno, socijalno je uslovljeno i mora imati određeni smisao i značenje. Kada je reč o produktivnom posredovanju znanja, moramo biti svesni da poučavanje ne znači i učenje. Znanje, koje je stečeno pukim...


    Kristl, Klemen


    Današnje turbulentno poslovno okolje prinaša podjetjem neprestane izzive. Globalizacija in gospodarske ter politične razmere prisilijo podjetja k nenehnemu prilagajanju in iskanju izboljšav. Konkurenca narekuje vedno hujši ritem, zato morajo biti spremembe hitre in kar se da učinkovite. Poznamo veliko način izboljšanja poslovanja podjetja. V mojem diplomskem seminarju sem preučil prenovo poslovnih procesov. Način prenove poslovanja je več. Štirje najpomembnejši so: celovita prenova poslova...

  5. Rehabilitacija senzibiliteta. Filozofijska konstrukcija senzibilnog čovjeka

    Zagorac, Ivana


    Osnovna nakana teksta je ukazati na neke bitne momente u filozofijskom tematiziranju senzibiliteta. Unutar tog pokušaja se izdvaja razdoblje prosvjetiteljstva koje se pak oslanja na specifično čitanje kartezijanske misli kroz empirizam engleske provenijencije. Jean-Jacques Rousseau je prepoznat kao ključna figura ‘doba senzibiliteta’ te će njegova konstrukcija senzibilnog čovjeka biti posebno detaljno razmotrena. Zaključno se naslijeđe povijesnih, a posebno istaknuto Rousseauovih, čitanja sen...

  6. Važnost dokazivanja prisutnosti antibiotičkih ostataka u mlijeku

    Samaržija, Dubravka; Antunac, Neven


    Antibiotički ostatci najčešće su prisutne inhibitorne tvari u mlijeku koje nepovoljno djeluju na ljudsko zdravlje, tehnološka svojstva i kakvoću mlijeka i mliječnih proizvoda. Zbog zaštite potrošača i osiguranja proizvodnje visoko kvalitetnog mlijeka Europska unija (EU) je propisom 2377/ 90. utvrdila gornju dopuštenu granicu za antibiotičke ostatke u mlijeku. Premda ostatci antibiotika u mlijeku mogu biti posljedica liječenja od bilo koje bolesti, oni su kod muznih životinja najčešće prisutni...

  7. Rehabilitacija bolesnika s ozljedom kralježnične moždine

    Schnurrer-Luke-Vrbanić, Tea; MOSLAVAC, Saša; DŽIDIĆ, Ivan


    Ozljeda kralježnične moždine je kompleksna ozljeda s nizom posljedica koje je teško liječiti, a rehabilitacija osoba s ozljedom kralježnične moždine zahtjevna je. Posljedice ozljede za bolesnika, obitelj te užu i širu zajednicu mogu imati katastrofalan ishod s medicinske, ali i s društvene, emocionalne, psihološke i ekonomske strane, no specijaliziranim rehabilitacijskim pristupom multidisciplinarnog tima te praćenjem bolesnika u zajednici posljedice mogu biti ublažene. Cilj specijaliziranog ...


    Kolednik, Mojca


    Poslovanje podjetja mora biti zaradi možnosti nastopa kriz, vedno vnaprej načrtovano. Samo v tem primeru se lahko poslovodstvo pravilno odzove na krize, ki nastopijo. Kot sem omenila že v diplomski nalogi, je pomembno, da ima krizni manager tehnična znanja, pravilen komunikacijski pristop in konceptualna znanja. Pomembno za uspešen izhod iz krize, je dobro sodelovanje med kriznim managerjem in ostalimi člani tima. V diplomskem delu sem najprej predstavila pomen krize, kako jo sploh lahko...

  9. Vrednote v šoli in v izobraževanju učiteljev:

    Polak, Alenka; Razdevšek-Pučko, Cveta


    Vsakršno znanje vsebuje tudi vrednote in stališča. V prispevku predstavljamo, kako zaznavajo študenti bodoči učitelji vrednote v šoli in v svojem izobraževanju. Iz raziskave veje zelo jasno sporočilo in sicer, da je potrebno biti odprt do različnih pristopov k učenju in poučevanju v razredih in programih izobraževanja učiteljev.


    Kotrulja, Lena; Milavić, Tina; Ožanić Bulić, Suzana; Šitum, Natalija; Bakija Konsuo, Ana; Muršić, Ivanka; Birkić Belanović, Ines; Dilenardo, Lidija


    Atopijski dermatitis (AD) je kronična, recidivirajuća upalna bolest kože. Neuspjeh u liječenju AD može biti izravno povezan s neprimjerenim pridržavanjem uputa o provođenju terapije kao posljedica nedostatka informacija o bolesti i osnovnim načelima liječenja. Nekoliko studija je utvrdilo da se uspješna strategija u liječenju AD zasniva na aktivnom uključenju bolesnika u provođenje skrbi kroz informiranje i edukaciju o bolesti. Cilj ovoga istraživanja bio je procijeniti poznavanje problematik...

  11. Informacijski sistem za podporo odločanju za mala podjetja z ekološko prehrano

    Peternel, Jasna


    Magistrsko delo se osredotoča na razvoj informacijskih sistemov za podporo odločanju za mala podjetja, ki se ukvarjajo z ekološko prehrano. Odločanje predstavlja ključno komponento uspešnosti podjetja, ki mora biti ustrezno podprto z informacijsko tehnologijo. Merjenje uspešnosti informacijskih sistemov (IS) postaja vse bolj pomembno. V magistrskem delu smo za merjenje uspešnosti sistema za podporo odločanju prilagodili posodobljen D&M model uspešnosti IS. Model uspešnosti IS za mala podjetja...

  12. Strategija razvoja ravnanja s kovinskimi odpadki

    Leskovar, Iris


    Okolje podjetja je vedno bolj nepredvidljivo, kar se je še posebej izkazalo v primerih predelovalcev kovinskih odpadkov (v nadaljevanju PKO). PKO morajo za doseganje finančne uspešnosti dobro poznati zunanje (ožje in širše) in notranje okolje podjetja, kar zahteva nenehno budnost vodilnih, kot tudi vseh ostalih zaposlenih, ki usmerjajo poslovanje in razvoj podjetja. Budnost pomeni biti pozoren na nove strateške priložnosti, ki jih lahko najdejo na prodajnih trgih in možnih dejavnostih podjetj...

  13. Ekonomski vidik konektiranja optičnih kablov



    Diplomsko delo prikazuje, ali bi bilo smiselno oziroma pod kakšnimi pogoji bi bilo smiselno odpreti samostojno podjetje, ki bi se ukvarjalo s proizvodnjo in prodajo povezovalnih optičnih kablov. Ker delo poskuša podati čim bolj realno in objektivno oceno, nam prikazuje, kolikšen bi moral biti osnovni kapital, kolikšna sredstva so potrebna za začetek in tekoče poslovanje podjetja. Pri tem so upoštevani najem poslovnega prostora, osnovna oprema prostora, strojna oprema, ki je potrebna za...


    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; ŠEŠERKO, ANA; DUVANČIĆ, TOMISLAV; Šitum, Mirna; Mihić, Josip


    Iako se intolerancija na histamin (Histamine Intolerance, HIT) ne javlja često, posljedice mogu biti teške. Intolerancija na hranu je nealergijska preosjetljivost na hranu koja ne uključuje imunološki sustav iako su simptomi slični onima kod alergijskih reakcija posredovanih IgE-om. Čini se da HIT nastaje oštećenjem aktivnosti diaminoksidaze (DAO) zbog gastrointestinalnih bolesti ili inhibicijom DAO, a u dijelu bolesnika dokazana je i genetska predispozicija. Unos hrane bogate histaminom te a...

  15. Frekvenčna regulacija radiofrekvenčne votline

    Menart, Jure


    To diplomsko delo opisuje načrtovanje, razvoj in uporabo sistema za frekvenčno regulacijo EMMA pospeševalniške radiofrekvenčne votline. Problem pri radiofrekvenčnih votlinah je, da se zaradi različnih zunanjih dejavnikov (sprememba temperature okolice, mehanski stres, ...) neprestano frekvenčno premikajo (angl. detuning). Posledica frekvenčnega premika votline je, da elektromagnetno polje v votlini ni optimalno za pospešitev delcev. Zaradi tega morajo biti radiofrekvenčne votline krmiljene...

  16. Konceptualno rješenje Vojnoga geoinformacijskog sustava Ministarstva obrane Republike Hrvatske

    Biljecki, Zvonko; Rapaić, Mladen; Tonković, Tomislav


    Projektom "Vojni geoinformacijski sustav - VoGIS" Ministarstvo obrane Republike Hrvatske započelo je izgradnju jedinstvenoga geoinformacijskog sustava za potrebe Ministarstva obrane i Oružanih snaga, koji je usklađen s hrvatskim i međunarodnim normama u području geoinformatike, te je u potpunosti konforman standardima NATO-a. Prema Idejnom projektu, cilj VoGIS-a je uspostava geoinformacijskog sustava koji će biti osnova za razvoj svih daljnjih aktivnosti u području vojnih prostornih informaci...

  17. Difuzni infantilni hepatalni hemangioendoteliom: prikaz bolesnika [Diffuse infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma: a case report

    Sjekavica, Ivica; Petrovečki, Marko; Šunjara, Vice; Pavlović, Maja; Štern Padovan, Ranka


    Vaskularni tumori najčešći su benigni tumori jetre, a među njima najčešći je infantilni hepatalni hemangioendoteliom (IHHE), koji dobro reagira na terapiju i ima nisku stopu mortaliteta. U rijetkim slučajevima IHHE mogu biti rezistentni na terapiju te svojom veličinom i volumenom krvnog protoka mogu dovesti do kardiorespiratorne dekompenzacije i smrti. U ovom radu prikazuje se tromjesečno muško dojenče koje je klinički obrađeno zbog učestalih respiracijskih infekcija, bronhoopstrukcija i tumo...

  18. Vizualizacija podatkov o projektnem vodenju

    Šolar, Miha


    Poslovna inteligenca, upravljanje poslovnih procesov in nadzorne plošče so orodja, s katerimi si organizacije pomagajo pri usklajevanju, nadzoru in optimizaciji izvajanja nalog. Gre za kontinuiran proces, v katerega morajo biti v organizaciji vključeni vsi  od zaposlenega, ki naloge izvaja in beleži, do nadrejenih na različnih nivojih, ki spremljajo izvedeno, določajo in optimizirajo predpise izvedbe, določajo strategijo organizacije ipd. Interna aplikacija za projektno vodenje trenutno ...


    Zabukovec, Marija


    Vsi govorimo, da živimo v družbi znanja, visoke tehnologije, nenehnega hitro razvijajočega napredka na praktično vseh področjih in kako se zavedamo pomena človeka ter še posebej znanja. Vendar pa pomen znanja za uspešnost delovanja podjetja in zaposlenih kot posameznikov ne sme biti zgolj črka na papirju, in sicer samo zato, ker je danes »moderno« pisati o tem, ampak je potreben resen pristop k celostnemu obvladovanju našega znanja, ki naj sledi tako trendom v okolju kot tistim, ki jih nakazu...


    Janič, Tina Jakopina


    Za obstoj podjetja na globalnem trgu mora le-to dosegati kakovost na vseh področjih poslovanja. Kakovost pa mora biti usmerjena na trg, saj jo določajo kupci. Za doseganje kakovosti si podjetja pomagajo s standardi kakovosti, med katerimi je tudi ISO 9001:2000. Namen diplomskega dela je predstaviti možnosti uvajanja standarda kakovosti ISO 9001:2000 v podjetje Energa d.o.o.. V nalogi sem predstavila podjetje, njegovo organizacijsko zgradbo ter glavne procese. Stanje podjetja sem primerjala z ...


    Poljanec, Suzana


    Wellness je svetovno turistično gibanje sodobnega časa. Pomeni kakovost življenja in vključuje sestavine zdravega načina življenja. V celovito ponudbo wellnessa morajo biti vključene vse štiri temeljne sestavine - zdrava prehrana, osebna sprostitev, telesne aktivnosti in duševne aktivnosti. V diplomski nalogi sem raziskovala sedanje stanje wellness ponudbe v hotelu Mitra na Ptuju. Glavne ugotovitve raziskave so: • wellness postaja iz dneva v dan vse bolj pomemben segment turizma, sa...


    Jurišić, Dubravko


    Ovim se posterom želi prikazati nekoliko aspekata rada radnog terapeuta. Sam proces počinje procjenom (GOTA, GMFM 66/88), pripremom za provođenje intervencije ( određivanje ciljeva, načina provođenja radne terapije, vrste pomagala i sredstava koja će biti potrebni u radu), intervencije ( senzorička integracija, trening svakodnevnih i instrumentalnih aktivnosti, rane intervencije, vibro akustička terapija i kreativne aktivnosti) i evaluacija ( daje nam informacije o uspješnosti intervencije i ...


    Jurišić, Dubravko; Popović Miočinović, Ljiljana


    Tridesetak posljednjih godina postoje brojna istraživanja o problemu radne terapije u jedinicima intenzivnog liječenja (JIL) djece. Radna terapija u JIL-u novorođenčadi jedan je od prvih koraka u njihovoj habilitaciji. U radu se raspravlja o brojnim aspektima radne terapije u procesu intenzivne skrbi djece najranije dobi. Radni terapeut u JIL-u mora biti educiran i imati znanja o svim područjima vezanim za JIL, tehnička znanja o opremi, procedurama, utjecaju okoline na malog bolesnika i sl. O...

  4. Reciklirana glinena opeka kao agregat za beton: pregled

    Kesegić, Ivana; Netinger, Ivanka; Bjegović, Dubravka


    Jedan od sve značajnijih problema današnjice jest nagomilavanje i zbrinjavanje građevinskog otpada, koji neprestanom urbanizacijom i industrijalizacijom poprima sve veće razmjere. Građevinski se otpad može reciklirati i upotrijebiti kao sirovina za novu primjenu. Reciklirana opeka dobivena iz srušenih zidanih konstrukcija može biti primijenjena kao agregat u proizvodnji novih betonskih mješavina. Kako bismo osigurali održivo gospodarenje građevinskim otpadom, nužno je predvidjeti njegova svoj...


    Dropulić, Marinela


    Najvrjedniji resursi koje poduzeće može imati su ljudski resursi, zbog toga bi svi aspekti vezani za njih trebali biti na vrhuncu važnosti. U ovom se radu analiziraju aspekti motivacije i stilova vođenja prema McGregorovoj Teoriji X i Teoriji Y. Za analizu samoga nastanka, stvaranja i shvaćanja Teorija X/Y sistematizirana je literatura i spoznaje, a metodom anketiranja (n=40) istražene su preferencije zaposlenika i stila vođenja zastupljenoga u znanstvenoj praksi na primjeru Instituta za polj...

  6. Kategorija brojivosti u hrvatskom jeziku

    Znika, Marija


    Kategorija brojivosti promatra se u ovome radu kao na leksičkom značenju imenica utemeljena kategorija. Leksičko značenje imenica može biti dvojako strukturirano: kao jedinično ili kao nejedinično. Temelji se na opreci jedno ≠ mnogo. Kategorija brojivosti ima svoj sadržaj i izraz. Sadržaj kategorije brojivosti čini obilježje [± brojivo] i njegove oznake [+ brojivo] i [- brojivo]. Imenica je brojiva ako je njezin sadržaj pojmljiv kao jediničnost kojoj u opreci stoji mnogost (stol, jabuka). Ime...


    Petrović, Željka


    Skup određenih elemenata definira kulturu stanovništva nekog mjesta otvarajući pojedincima mogućnost identifikacije samih sebe, a potom i naspram svih drugih. Ti elementi mogu biti kulturni, vjerski, jezični i drugo. Cilj ovog istraživanja je bila potraga za ključnim elementima identifikacije unutar svakodnevnog glazbenog izričaja na području Delnica. Tekst se temelji na terenskom istraživanju u Delnicama tijekom travnja 2004. godine.


    Buterin, Denis; Ribarić, Eda; Savić, Suzana


    Povijest bitcoina započela je 2008. godine objavom članka „Bitcoin: A Peer to-Peer Electronic Cash System“ pod pseudonimom Satoshi Nakamoto. Od tada do danas bitcoin je doživio značajne promjene obilježene naglim rastom i padom vrijednosti, praćene interesom javnosti. Bitcoin je sustav temeljen na složenim kriptografskim algoritmima, bez postojanja središnjeg autoriteta koji izdaje novac ili nadzire transakcije. Vode se rasprave može li bitcoin postati nova globalna valuta koja neće biti p...

  9. Identifikacija krivotvorenih lijekova za erektilnu disfunkciju iz ilegalnog lanca opskrbe

    Tomić, Siniša; MILČIĆ, NEVEN; Sokolić, Milenko; Ilić Martinac, Adrijana


    Pojava krivotvorenih lijekova u lancima opskrbe globalni je javnozdravstveni problem koji može imati ozbiljnih posljedica za pacijenta. Krivotvoreni lijekovi ne zadovoljavaju propisane standarde kakvoće te su u svrhu prijevare drugačije deklarirani u odnosu na njihov stvarni sastav i/ili podrijetlo. Mogu biti generički, ili inovativni, mogu sadržavati ispravne sastojke, ali pogrešno pakiranje, pogrešne sastojke, ne sadržavati djelatnu tvar ili ne sadržavati dovoljnu količinu djelatne tvari. U...

  10. Družbena odgovornost in varnost : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    Gostinčar, Lucija


    Družbena odgovornost pomeni, biti odgovoren za posledice dejanj, ki jih posameznik, organizacija ali katera druga institucija pusti na družbi ali okolju. Neodgovornost, želja po dobičku vodilnih ter kriza vrednot in izobilja so pripeljali do družbeno ekonomskih problemov s katerimi se soočamo danes. Po vsem svetu se pojavljajo protesti zoper nastali položaj, tudi v Sloveniji, razlike med revnimi in bogatimi so vse večje in naravni viri so izčrpani. Vsi ti problemi pa pomembno vplivajo na krim...

  11. Poljoprivreda – dionik kauzalnosti klimatskih promjena

    JUG, Danijel


    Uz uvažavanje posebnosti pojedinih znanstvenih disciplina, pristup problematici klimatskih promjena mora biti promotren na interdisciplinarnoj razini i postavljen kao imperativ svih budućih djelovanja. Tek svekolikost ljudske misli i djela, s namjerom točnoga definiranja oblika i razine okolišnoga utjecaja pojedinih gospodarskih djelatnosti, kao i ukazivanje na njih, može rezultirati postavljanjem preciznih ishodišnih točaka s jasno vidljivim ciljem – ublaženje i prilagodba klimatskim promjen...


    Vrdoljak Raguž, Ivona; Tolušić, Marijan


    Predmet istraživanja ovog rada postizanje je konkuretske prednosti u automobilskoj industriji implementacijom Porterovih generičkih poslovnih strategija. Postizanje konkurentske prednosti nužno je ukoliko poduzeće želi dugoročno opstati na tržištu. Za odabir konkurentske strategije važan je relativni položaj poduzeća u industriji jer takvo pozicioniranje određuje hoće li profitabilnost poduzeća biti iznad ili ispod prosjeka industrije. Poduzeće u odnosu na konkurente primjenom Porterovih gene...


    W. Fox, Michael


    Uzgajanje životinja za humane medicinske i ostale komercijalne/industrijske svrhe povećava se putem dvije nove biotehnologije. Jedna je genetski inženjering, što obuhvaća razdvajanje tuđih gena u embrije ciljane životinje radi stvaranja "transgenih" životinja ili brisanje određenih gena radi stvaranja "izuzetnih" genetski modificiranih životinja. Druga je kloniranje, što uključuje uzimanje stanica iz željenog tipa životinje, koje mogu biti transgenske ili "izuzetne", ili iz konvencionalno uzg...


    Jamniker, Andreja


    Za vsako kakovost, učinkovitost in uspešnost je pomembno, da so cilji podjetja usklajeni z njegovimi organizacijskimi vrednotami in z vrednotami njegovih ljudi. Te pa z vrednotami podjetja. Zato je razjasnjevanje vrednot pomemben korak na poti k izboljšanim dosežkom in uspešnosti. Zaposleni v organizaciji predstavljajo pomemben dejavnik za uspešnost delovanja. Vendar ni dovolj, da samo opravljajo svoje delo, biti morajo tudi učinkoviti. Na to pa vpliva veliko dejavnikov, ki predstavljajo ...

  15. Etika, filozofija rata i pitanje Europe: Max Scheler u kontekstu

    Gretić, Goran


    Autor tematizira Schelerovu filozofiju rata osvrćući se na njegovo djelo Genij rata. U kontekstu Njemačke zahvaćene Prvim svjetskim ratom, Scheler je polemizirao s različitim interpretacijama biti i naravi rata, osobito s onima gdje se rat svodi na ekonomske ili sociologijske uzroke, jer je kod jednoga “pravog” rata posrijedi samo duhovna pobuda ka povećanju vlasti. Rat je shvaćen kao dio ljudske naravi, ali ne kao puka borba za opstanak, nego kao borba za moć koja do kra...


    Mikolič, Katja


    Naslov magistrske naloge: »Slovenski managerji in vodenje podjetja v času gospodarske krize« V času gospodarske krize ni lahko biti vodja oz. manager podjetja, saj sodobna podjetniška praksa izkazuje zelo slaba stanja. Stanja kot so: upadanje prodaje, manjša kupna moč, krčenje proizvodnje in/ali storitev, slaba plačilna disciplina, odpuščanje delavcev, slabšanje ugleda podjetja, šibkejša vlaganja v investicije, vstopi mnogih novih konkurenčnih podjetij na naš trg itd. Kljub temu pa bi naj...

  17. Prijedlog standarda dentalne zrelosti

    Štefanac, Jadranka


    Budući da evaluacija dentalne zrelosti može biti jedan od važnih dijagnostičkih i terapijskih faktora u ortodonciji te dječjoj i preventivnoj stomatologiji, ukazala se potreba da se ustanovi standard i indeks dentalne zrelosti djece osnovno školskog uzrasta zagrebačke populacije. Uzorak je reprezentativan i sastoji se od 320 eugnatih ispitanika koji su svrstani u statističke razrede od 7 do 14 godina po 20 istogodišnjaika istog spola u svakom razredu. Dentalna zrelost određivala se na ortapa...


    Trtnik, Maja


    Uspeh podjetja je v veliki meri odvisen od njegove inovativnosti in sposobnosti vpeljave novih inovacij na trg. Inovacije so ponavljajoč se proces, ki nastanejo z vztrajnim razmišljanjem in trdim delom vseh, ki so vključeni v proces. Podjetja, ki želijo biti inovativna potrebujejo inovativnega managerja, čigar vloga je, da s svojimi sposobnostmi ustvarja nove ideje, da je komunikativen in, da posledično spodbuja ustvarjalnost in inovacije. Namen diplomskega dela je opredeliti delovanje ino...


    Nerat, Anja


    Način vodenja zaposlenih v podjetju je izjemnega pomena, saj bo le z dobro motiviranimi, zadovoljnimi zaposlenimi podjetje uspešno delovalo in bo hkrati inovativno ter dobro stoječe. Torej je najbolj pomemben pristop vodilnih, ki vpliva na to, da se izpolnijo zastavljeni cilji. V samem procesu vodenja je pomembna v prvi vrsti komunikacija, kjer se razvijajo ustvarjalne debate in odločitve, takoj za tem pa je pomembno tudi učenje oziroma posledično znanje. Vodje morajo biti zelo ustvarjalni, d...


    Gugić, Zrinka


    Statistika pokazuje da od ukupnog broja trgovine ljudima u svijetu, otprilike 79% otpada na žene i djecu. Ta činjenica je potaknula Europsku Uniju da se uključi u rješavanje tog problema posebno u zemljama jugoistočne Azije. Seksualno iskorištavanje žena i djece u jugoistočnoj Aziji koje je također usko povezano sa seks turizmom, predstavlja veliki problem u današnjem svijetu. Povezujući definiciju seks turizma i trgovinu ljudima, ovaj rad želi pokazati vezu između seks turizma koji može biti...


    Jakelić, Diana


    Učinkovito poslovno odlučivanje i pravodobno donesena ispravna poslovna odluka rezultiraju uspješnim poslovanjem svakoga poslovnoga subjekta. Kako postaviti osnovu dobrog poslovnog odlučivanja, kako spriječiti propuste i kako svesti mogućnost donošenja pogrešne poslovne odluke na minimum? pitanja su koja se sama od sebe nameću svakome menadžeru. Danas se u modernome društvu posebna pozornost pridaje poslovnom procesu nazvanom kontroling. Ta skupina poslova može biti pozicionirana pri samom...


    Regvart, Luka


    Ker se naše potrebe po energiji nenehno povečujejo, je energetski primanjkljaj iz leta v leto večji. Posledica sta vse dražja energija in tudi naše življenje. Narava nam ponuja različne vire, ki so nam na dosegu rok, samo moramo jih znati uporabiti. Namen diplomske naloge je občutno zmanjšati stroške ogrevanja povprečne stanovanjske hiše z okolju prijaznim virom energije. Stanovanjski objekt mora biti grajen po najnovejših standardih, torej mora ustrezati pravilniku o toplotni prehodnosti ...

  3. Usporedna analiza interaktivnih mrežnih servisa

    Stančić, Hrvoje; Crnec, Dina; Mateljan, Stjepan; Salopek, Anita; Sanković, Dijana


    Činjenica da interaktivni mrežni servisi prožimaju sva područja današnjeg života potaknula je autore da analiziraju kolaborativne medije i njihov utjecaj na moderno informacijsko društvo. U radu su prikazani rezultati dobiveni metodom usporedne analize kolaborativnih medija. Interaktivnost je pritom smatrana jednim od najvažnijih kriterija za odabir mrežnih servisa koji će biti uključeni u istraživanje. Autori su analizirali glavne karakteristike odabranih servisa, klasificiral...


    Stanko, Leon


    Če želi biti podjetje, ki izdeluje spletne aplikacije konkurenčno, je nujno, da za implementacijo grafičnega uporabniškega vmesnika (GUI) porabi čim manj časa. Tako se lahko njegovi razvijalci bolj posvetijo implementaciji, testiranju poslovne logike in podatkovnemu sloju svojih aplikacij. Eden izmed načinov, kako čim hitreje razviti grafični uporabniški vmesnik, je, da uporabimo knjižnico Java PrimeFaces, ki omogoča gradnjo uporabniško bogatih in interaktivnih spletnih strani. V delu smo pri...

  5. Kasnoantički stambeni objekt iz Caske (Cissa) na otoku Pagu

    KURILIĆ, Anamarija


    U radu se obrađuje jedan manji rustikalno građen stambeni objekt istraživan 2008. godine tijekom arheoloških iskopavanja na kompleksnom antičkom lokalitetu u Uvali Caska (rimska Cissa) kod Novalje na otoku Pagu (Hrvatska). Istraživanja u ovom trenutku još nisu do kraja dovršena, ali je objekt prilično precizno definiran. Riječ je o manjoj četvrtastoj prostoriji od koje su otkrivena tri zida; sudeći prema perimetru koji su zidovi opasivali, prostorija je trebala biti velika najmanje 4 x 4 m. O...

  6. Razvoj i validacija hrvatskog upitnika školske klime za učenike

    Velki, Tena; Antunović, Ana


    Školska klima je važan čimbenik djetetova kognitivnog, socijalnog i emocionalnog razvoja. Zbog brojnih kulturalnih specifičnosti i specifičnosti školskog sustava za mjerenje školske klime neopravdano je koristiti instrumente razvijene u inozemstvu bez prilagodbe, te je cilj ovog istraživanja bio adaptirati i validirati upitnik koji će mjeriti školsku klimu iz učeničke perspektive te biti primjeren za korištenje u hrvatskim školama. Kao polazište uzet je American School Climate Survey Versi...


    Osterc, Miša


    Zadovoljstvo gostov je ključni element za uspešen razvoj in dolgoročen obstoj kateregakoli hotelskega podjetja, zato mora biti njihovo doseganje tudi glavni cilj vsakega hotela. Pri tem je potrebno upoštevati, da zagotavljanje zadovoljstva gostov zahteva dobro poznavanje želja in pričakovanj vsakega gosta, zato je merjenje, analiziranje in spremljanje zadovoljstva eden najpomembnejših izzivov pri pripravi strategije poslovanja vsakega hotela. To velja tudi za Hotel Bioterme Mala Nedelja,...

  8. Prekrški mladoletnih oseb

    Cmok, Katja


    Diplomsko delo obravnava prekrške mladoletnih oseb v Republiki Sloveniji. Mladoletniki so v kazenskem pravu in tudi v pravu o prekrških posebna kategorija storilcev, saj gre praviloma za nedozorele in še ne dovolj razvite osebnosti, na katere lahko zelo hitro vplivajo zunanje okoliščine. Zato so ravnanja, ki presegajo meje dopustnega, pri mladoletnikih pogosta in zelo raznolika. Takšno neprimerno oziroma nedopustno ravnanje mladoletnika pa terja s strani okolice reakcijo, ki mora biti usmerje...

  9. 3ds Studio Max –Animacija čestica s pFlow i Krakatoa

    Ludošan, Željka; Bernik, Andrija; Vusić, Damir


    Čestice su ključni element kod vizualnih efekata i animacije. Koriste se za simulaciju prirodnih pojava poput vatre, dima, vode, oblaka, lišća koje pada, ali i za apstraktne efekte poput magičnih pojava, traga svjetlećih točkica, neobičnih geometrijskih figura itd. Sustav čestica predstavlja upravljački kontejner koji sadrži funkcije koje obavljaju čestice i koje se obavljaju nad njima. Ti sustavi mogu doći u paketu s kompletnim 3d programom, mogu biti kao zaseban program ili kao plug-in. Nač...


    Šestanović, Slobodan; Barčot, Duško


    Za potrebe projektiranja obilaznice Omiša koja će dijelom biti temeljena na klizištu Mlija te za sigurna temeljenja obiteljskih kuća na toj padini, provedena su detaljna istraživanja, posebice inženjersko-geološko kartiranje, geofizička istraživanja, istraživačko bušenje i laboratorijska ispitivanja materijala koji klizi, U ovom radu prikazani su postignuti rezultati, a zbog brojnih oštećenja na prometnicama, zidovima i stambenim zgradama izvedenim na području Mlija i Borak, raspravljena je m...

  11. Laparoskopska operacija Spigelijeve hernije kroz jednu inciziju – pristup standardnim instrumentarijem

    Car Peterko, Ana; Kirac, Iva; Filipović Čugura, Jakša; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav


    Spigelijeva hernija je rijedak tip ventralne hernije. Uzrokovana je defektom u Spigelijevoj fasciji, a klinički se prezentira kao bolna i/ili palpabilna tvorba. Dijagnoza indicira kirurški zahvat zbog visokog rizika inkarceracije. Kirurški pristup može biti otvoren ili laparoskopski, a u oba slučaja kao metoda reparacije koristi se primarno zatvaranje defekta ili hernioplastika mrežicom, ovisno o veličini hernijskog otvora. Ovim radom predstavlja se slučaj 62-godišnje bolesnice s palpabilnom ...


    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna


    Reakcije na lijekove posredovane svjetlom mogu biti fototoksične i fotoalergijske. U ovom preglednom članku prikazane su fotoalergijske reakcije na lijekove koje nastaju interakcijom lijeka i ultraljubičastog svjetla uz sudjelovanje imunosnih mehanizama. Uz osvrt na fotobiologiju te najčešće lijekove koji sudjeluju u nastanku fotoalergijskih reakcija, prikazana je imunološkapodloga tih dermatoza, klinička slika, te dijagnostički i terapijski postupak. Poznavanje potencijalnih fotoalergena i p...


    Kovač, Matej


    V diplomski nalogi so podrobneje opisani stikalni aparati, kosovni preskusi in meritve, ki se na teh aparatih izvajajo. S temi preskusi se razkrivajo napake pri stikalnih aparatih in morajo biti narejeni tako, da je stikalna naprava brezhibna. Obravnavana je rekonstrukcija in delovanje 110 kV stikališča na območju HE Dravograd. Izvedeni so izračuni kratkih stikov s pomočjo katerih je dimenzionirana oprema to so ločilniki, odklopniki in zbiralke. Izračuni kratkih stikov so pokazali, da je izb...

  14. Prednosti in slabosti preoblikovanja s.p. v d.o.o.

    Tišma, Zoran


    Naloga lastnikov in vodilnih v podjetju je, da oblikuje bodočo predstavo o podjetju. Obstajati mora trajna želja po njegovi učinkovitosti, uspešnosti, poštenosti ter notranji in zunanji interes po trajnem obstoju in razvoju. Poslovanje je treba usmerjati, uravnavati in nadzirati, da lahko dosežemo zastavljene cilje, ki morajo biti skladni z vizijo in poslanstvom podjetja. Za uresničitev vizije, poslanstva in ciljev je treba sprejeti strateške odločitve, ki lahko pomembno vplivajo na poslo...


    Serušnik, Matej


    Različna glasba izzove pri ljudeh različne emocije in vizualne predstave. Mnogi ljudje si ob isti glasbi predstavljajo drugačne slike, drugačne zgodbe. V diplomski nalogi obravnavamo proces produkcije nizkoproračunskega avdiovizualnega izdelka – videospota. Zanima nas, katero opremo uporabiti, da bi kljub nizkim stroškom izdelali kvaliteten in konkurenčen izdelek. Skozi raziskavo spoznamo, na katere dejavnike moramo biti pozorni skozi proces, da je naš projekt čim manj finančno in časovno obr...


    Radej, Helena


    Kultura ima močan vpliv na mednarodno poslovanje, ima vedno večji vpliv na medkulturna pogajanja in velja za spremenljivko, ki ne sme biti zanemarjena. Kultura je celota, ki vključuje znanje, prepričanja, vrednote, moralo, zakone, običaje in je način skupnega življenja vsakega naroda. Poznavanje kulture je ključ, brez katerega podjetniki ne morejo odklepati vrat v mednarodno poslovnem okolju. V diplomski nalogi smo opredelili pojem kulture in predstavili njene značilnosti in sestavine. Op...

  17. Kulturna uvjetovanost poslovne komunikacije

    Špiljak, Višnja


    SAŽETAK: Poslovna kultura postaje globalna i sve uniformiranija. Na međunarodnom tržištu, koje kao svoj glavni komunikacijski instrument koristi poslovni engleski jezik, ta je kultura u osnovi biti anglosaksonska. Poslovne ili komunikacijske vještine potrebne akterima na međunarodnom tržištu također slijede globalni, uniformirani obrazac, u osnovi anglosaksonski. Tako će i njihovi pisani i usmeni oblici (pregovori, sastanci, prezentacije, poslovno dopisivanje…) slijediti zadane modele, koj...

  18. Radiološke manifestacije mišićno-koštanih komplikacija u bolesnika zaraženih HIV-om

    Višković, Klaudija; Župetić, Ivana; Mustapić, Matej; Miklić, Dina; Brnić, Zoran; Begovac, Josip


    Bolesnici s infekcijom virusom humane imunodeficijencije (HIV) podložni su različitim komplikacijama koje mogu zahvatiti mišićno-koštani sustav. Infekcija (celulitis, nekrotizirajući fascitis, piomiozitis, osteomijelitis, septički artritis) predstavljaju najčešćee komplikacije. Upalna stanja mogu biti uzrokovana samom HIV-infekcijom, ali i potaknuta prilagodbom imunološkog sustava. Mišićni simptomi mogu nastati zbog rabdomiolize, miozitisa ili nuspojava antiretrovirusnog liječenja (ARL). Non-...

  19. Alzheimerova bolest kao gerontološki javnozdravstveni problem

    Puljak, Ana; Perko, Goran; Mihok, Dijana; Radašević, Hrvoje; Tomek-Roksandić, Spomenka


    Svaki dvanaesti čovjek, stariji od 65 godina oboli od Alzheimerove bolesti, a 24% starijih od 75 godina ima neki oblik ove bolesti. U razvijenim zemljama svijeta, odnosno svim zemljama “starog stanovništva” (u koje se ubraja i Hrvatska), oko 50% starijih od 85 godina boluje od Alzheimera. Upravo ta dobna skupina najbrže je rastuća populacijska skupina! Sam po sebi nameće se zaključak koliki problem će uskoro biti ova bolest koja se s pravom nosi epitete “tinjajuće bombe” ...




    Cilj raziskave je bil oblikovati frekvenčno in polarizacijsko prilagodljivo anteno, ki temelji na diodah z spremenljivo kapacitivnostjo (varaktorji) na podlagi tankega filma feroelektričnega materiala. Antena mora biti frekvenčno in polarizacijsko nastavljiva, poleg tega pa mora pokrivati frekvenčni pas od 7,8 GHz do 8,3 GHz, da je primerna za satelitsko komunikacijo. Frekvenčno in polarizacijsko nastavljiva antena je zasnovana kot sistem, ki vsebuje dve anteni in napajalno mrežo. Napajalna m...


    Voda, David


    V diplomski nalogi je na kratko predstavljena »logistična podpora« delovanju skladiščno distribucijskega centra. To pomeni, da mora biti usklajen pretok informacij in blaga — od nabave blaga pri dobavitelju, preko prevzema, skladiščenja ter izdaje blaga, pa do oskrbe kupcev. V diplomski nalogi se bolj podrobno ukvarjam s »srednjim« delom te logistične poti — prevzem, skladiščenje in izdaja blaga. To so vse funkcije, ki se neposredno odvijajo v samem območju SDC-ja. Ves ta sistem ne s...

  2. Oblikovanje procesa izdelave plinske peči za termično obdelavo kovin

    Kumer, Matjaž


    V diplomskem delu bom predstavil proces izdelave plinske peči. Prikazal bom, kako poteka nabava materiala pri tako veliki konstrukciji, kako ta material določimo in ga naročimo. Prikazal bom načine kako material obdelujemo oz. ga predpripravimo. Povzel bom proizvodnjo posameznih delov peči, kako jih sestavljamo in na kaj moramo biti pri tem še posebej pozorni. Za lažjo predstavitev problema bom v nalogi uporabil „Value Stream Mapping“ metodo. Ta metoda se uporablja za analizo in oblikovanje p...

  3. Meje dopustnosti tajnih spletnih preiskav

    Häußler, Stefan


    Članek predstavlja nedavno sodbo nemškega Ustavnega sodišča, ki zadeva zakon o tajnih preiskavah računalnikov (t. i. »online« preiskave) s strani državnih oblasti, posebno v povezavi s terorizmom. Sodišče je menilo, da je tajno preiskovanje interneta in osebnih računalnikov v načelu dopustno, a je zakon razglasilo za protiustaven, saj ni prestal testa sorazmernosti. Glede na pomembnost podatkov, ki jih posameznik hrani na osebnem računalniku mora biti dostop do njih omejen na primere, v kater...




    Pod ovim naslovom taksator D. Ilijić u nastavcima u prva tri broja Šumarskoga lista iz 1895. god. daje odgovore na postavljeno pitanje, naglašavajući kako u svakom upravnom organizmu mora biti precizno određena sfera djelovanja pojedinih organa, sukladno njihovoj sposobnosti. Inače organizam prestaje pravilno obavljati svoje funkcije. To je razsulo i propast gospodarstva, kaže on, a posebice je to pogubno za cjelokupno gospodarstvo, jer ono „reprezentira veće glavnice“ i posljedice se tek kas...

  5. Daljinski nadzor i upravljanje industrijskim robotima temeljeni na upotrebi Android uređaja i Wi-Fi komunikacije

    Lutovac Banduka, Maja


    Sustavi upravljanja robotima su obično složeni sustavi čiji korisnici moraju biti dobro obučeni da ih koriste. Također, upravljanje procesima se uglavnom provodi u neposrednoj blizini robota ili pomoću žičane veze. Postoji potreba za rješenjem koje može osigurati udobno i intuitivno upravljanje robotima neovisno o mjestu korisnika, koje se lako koristi i istovremeno omogućuje praćenje kretanja robota. Android uređaji su moćni mobilni uređaji sa otvorenom arhitekturom i stalnom internetskom ve...


    Frešer, Petra


    Zdravstveno varstvo je eno izmed najpomembnejših področij socialne varnosti in ima velik pomen za vse skupine ljudi, ne zgolj za študente. K zdravstvenemu varstvu prištevamo tudi zdravstveno zavarovanje. Zdravstveno zavarovanje delimo na obvezno, za financiranje katerega se plačujejo prispevki, in prostovoljno, znotraj katerega je najpomembnejše dopolnilno, za katerega se plačujejo premije. Z obveznim zdravstvenim zavarovanjem, v katerega morajo biti vključene vse skupine ljudi določene z zak...

  7. Profesionalni skepticizam revizora i rizik prijevarnog financijskog izvještavanja

    Pretnar Abičić, Slivija


    Prijevarno financijsko izvještavanje odnosi se na namjerna pogrešna prikazivanja, značajne propuste ili objave u financijskim izvještajima sa ciljem obmane korisnika izvještaja. Učestalost prijevarnog izvještavanja je sve veća, te revizor tijekom revizije mora iskazivati skepticizam, odnosno imati ispitivački um, kritički pogled na revizijski dokaz i biti oprezan, a naročito kad razmatra i procjenjuje rizik prijevare, kako bi mogao pružiti razumno uvjerenje da izvještaji ne sadrže značajne po...

  8. Data migration from MySQL database to Percona Server and MariaDB

    Mihelič, Mitja


    Diplomsko delo obravnava tematiko o izvedbi migracije podatkov iz podatkovne zbirke MySQL na podatkovno zbirko MariaDB in Percona Server. Pri tem se osredotoča predvsem na posebnosti na katere je potrebno biti pozoren pri migraciji podatkov, na enakosti in razlike med omenjenimi bazami, kaj je treba popraviti v že narejenih aplikacijah, ki uporabljajo MySQL, s katerimi pastmi se bodo razvijalci srečevali pri migraciji in kakšna naj bi bila nemotena ter pravilno izvedena migracija podatkov. Pr...

  9. Organiziranost in vloga varnostne službe v integralnem varnostnem sistemu podjetja : diplomsko delo visokošolskega strokovnega študija Varnost in policijsko delo

    Krenker, Stojan


    Podjetje profesionalno organizira varnostno službo v integralnem varnostnem sistemu na podlagi dobro zastavljene varnostne politike. Odločitev vodstva je za katero varnostno službo se bodo odločili, slednja pa mora poskrbeti za fizično in tehnično varovanje. Vsi zaposleni morajo biti strokovno usposobljeni za delo, ki ga opravljajo. Način usposabljanja je na zunanjih institucijah, za določene potrebe pa se izvaja tudi interno strokovno usposabljanje. V svoj delokrog mora zagotoviti neprekinje...


    Dervarič, Mateja


    S pomočjo odgovorov, pridobljenih od izbranih športnih novinarjev, smo podkrepili oziroma ovrgli naša predvidevanja o tem, katere so bistvene značilnosti športnega novinarja ter kakšne so razlike med njim in novinarjem z drugega področja. Novinar se mora v vsakem trenutku zavedati svojih dolžnosti, biti mora pravičen in odkrit do javnosti in do svojih virov informacij. Imeti mora občutek za pripravo kvalitetnega novinarskega proizvoda in hkrati upoštevati tudi pravila novinarskega Kodeksa. Iz...