Antistaphylococcal activity of pentamidine.
Libman, M D; Miller, M A; Richards, G. K.
1990-01-01
Pentamidine isethionate was bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguis, Micrococcus sp., and Candida albicans. S. aureus was inhibited by concentrations of 16 to 64 micrograms/ml and killed by 64 to greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. Staphylococcal killing was consistently greater in the presence of cations and was unaffected by methicillin resistance.
Alkanediamide-Linked Bisbenzamidines Are Promising Antiparasitic Agents.
Vanden Eynde, Jean J; Mayence, Annie; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Bacchi, Cyrus J; Yarlett, Nigel; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Huang, Tien L
2016-01-01
A series of 15 alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines and related analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro against two Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) subspecies: T.b. brucei and T.b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and two Plasmodium falciparum subspecies: a chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) and a chloroquine-resistant strain (K1). The in vitro cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast cells (L6). Seven compounds (5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15) showed high potency against both strains of T. brucei and P. falciparum with the inhibitory concentrations for 50% (IC50) in the nanomolar range (IC50 = 1-96 nM). None of the tested derivatives was significantly active against T. cruzi or L. donovani. Three of the more potent compounds (5, 6, 11) were evaluated in vivo in mice infected with the drug-sensitive (Lab 110 EATRO and KETRI 2002) or drug-resistant (KETRI 2538 and KETRI 1992) clinical isolates of T. brucei. Compounds 5 and 6 were highly effective in curing mice infected with the drug-sensitive strains, including a drug-resistant strain KETRI 2538, but were ineffective against KETRI 1992. Thermal melting of DNA and molecular modeling studies indicate AT-rich DNA sequences as possible binding sites for these compounds. Several of the tested compounds are suitable leads for the development of improved antiparasitic agents. PMID:27104545
Song, Jie; Baker, Nicola; Rothert, Monja; Henke, Björn; Jeacock, Laura; Horn, David; Beitz, Eric
2016-02-01
The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glycero)porin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis. PMID:26828608
Jie Song
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glyceroporin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis.
Nebulized Pentamidine-Induced Acute Renal Allograft Dysfunction
Siddhesh Prabhavalkar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a recognised complication of intravenous pentamidine therapy. A direct nephrotoxic effect leading to acute tubular necrosis has been postulated. We report a case of severe renal allograft dysfunction due to nebulised pentamidine. The patient presented with repeated episodes of AKI without obvious cause and acute tubular necrosis only on renal histology. Nebulised pentamidine was used monthly as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and administration preceded the creatinine rise on each occasion. Graft function stabilised following discontinuation of the drug. This is the first report of nebulized pentamidine-induced reversible nephrotoxicity in a kidney allograft. This diagnosis should be considered in a case of unexplained acute renal allograft dysfunction.
Pentamidine in Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in heart transplant recipients.
Diken, Adem Ilkay; Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Hanedan, Onur; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Ecevit, Ata Niyazi; Erol, Emir; Yalçınkaya, Adnan
2016-03-24
Despite advances in transplantation techniques and the quality of post-transplantation care, opportunistic infections remain an important cause of complications. Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic organism, represents an important cause of infections in heart transplantation patients. Almost 2% to 10% of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation have Pneumocystis pneumonia. Prophylaxis is essential after surgery. Various prophylaxis regimes had been defined in past and have different advantages. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has a key role in prophylaxis against P. jirovecii. Generally, although TMP/SMX is well tolerated, serious side effects have also been reported during its use. Pentamidine is an alternative prophylaxis agent when TMP/SMX cannot be tolerated by the patient. Structurally, pentamidine is an aromatic diamidine compound with antiprotozoal activity. Since it is not effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, it is frequently administered via the intravenous route. Pentamidine can alternatively be administered through inhalation at a monthly dose in heart transplant recipients. Although, the efficiency and safety of this drug is well studied in other types of solid organ transplantations, there are only few data about pentamidine usage in heart transplantation. We sought to evaluate evidence-based assessment of the use of pentamidine against P. jirovecii after heart transplantation. PMID:27011917
Evaluation of treatment with pentamidine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname
W.F. van der Meide; L.O.A. Sabajo; A.J. Jensema; I. Peekel; W.R. Faber; H.D.F.H. Schallig; R.F.M.L.A. Fat
2009-01-01
In Suriname, pentamidine isethionate (PI) is the only drug available for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Recently, local dermatologists have observed an increase in CL patients not responding adequately to the standard doses. In this study, patient compliance to PI treatment was asses
Domiciliary nebulized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
Green, S. T.; Nathwani, D.; Christie, P.R; Goldberg, D J; Kennedy, D. H.; Love, W C
1990-01-01
The viability of a programme for delivering aerosolized pentamidine within the patient's home setting for the secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has been explored with seven homosexual AIDS patients, the major objectives being the assessment of the safety and acceptability of the treatment and the discovery of the most suitable care setting (home, ward, outpatient clinic) for the administration of therapy. It is concluded that a domiciliary prophylaxis programme is ...
Acute, rapidly progressive renal failure with simultaneous use of amphotericin B and pentamidine.
Antoniskis, D.; Larsen, R.A.
1990-01-01
We report four cases of acute reversible renal failure in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who received both amphotericin B (for systemic mycoses) and pentamidine isethionate (for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). The concurrent use of amphotericin B with either inhaled pentamidine or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not cause significant renal impairment.
O'Doherty, M; Thomas, S.; Page, C.; Bradbeer, C; Nunan, T.; Bateman, N
1990-01-01
An estimate of the absolute pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate was obtained in nine patients with AIDS. Two nebuliser systems were compared, System 22 Mizer (Medic-Aid) and Respirgard II (Marquest), with 50 and 150 mg doses of pentamidine in a 3 ml solution driven by an air flow of 6 l/min with the patient in the sitting position. The 50 mg pentamidine dose was repeated with a 6 ml fill with both devices. The nebuliser cloud was labelled with technetium-99m human serum ...
Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A
2012-10-01
Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition. PMID:23950094
Cheung, T W; Matta, R; Neibart, E; Hammer, G; Chusid, E; Sacks, H S; Szabo, S; Rose, D
1993-01-01
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 96 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who received intramuscular pentamidine for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). These patients, all of whom had either a history of PCP or a CD4 lymphocyte count of drugs, neutropenic, or intolerant of aerosolized treatment. Intramuscular pentamidine was given monthly by the Z-track technique at a dosage of 300 mg (4 mg/kg if the patient weighed intramuscular pentamidine included two episodes of hypotension, three of sterile abscess, two of glucose intolerance, and one of asymptomatic hypoglycemia. The administration of intramuscular pentamidine by the Z-track technique for PCP prophylaxis appears to be highly effective and minimally toxic. PMID:8448314
Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan
2016-04-01
A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single BolivianLeishmania braziliensislesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for BolivianL. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days. PMID:26903605
Although aerosolized pentamidine (AP) has recently been approved for prophylaxis and is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of pneumocystis, pneumonia (PCP), factors important in the deposition of AP have not been described. Using radioaerosol techniques, deposition was measured in 22 patients receiving AP for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP. In all patients total and regional deposition of pentamidine, breathing pattern, pulmonary function (PFT), regional ventilation, and type of nebulizer were analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after inhalation to assess the relationship between pentamidine levels in BAL fluid and measured aerosol deposition. The nebulizers tested were the Marquest Respirgard II and the Cadema AeroTech II, both previously characterized in our laboratory. The aerosol particles consist of water droplets containing dissolved pentamidine and technetium 99m bound to albumin. Analysis of particles sampled during inhalation via cascade impaction confirmed a close relationship between radioactivity in the droplets and the concentration of pentamidine as measured by HPLC (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001; n = 18). Deposition was measured by capturing inhaled and exhaled particles on absolute filters and measuring radioactivity. This technique allows the determination of the deposition fraction (DF, the fraction of the amount inhaled that is deposited), which provides information on factors strictly related to the patient. To confirm the filter measurements, pentamidine deposition was also measured by gamma camera. The camera measurement was possible because each patient's thoracic attenuation of radioactivity was determined by a quantitative perfusion scan. Regional lung volume and ventilation were determined by xenon 133 equilibrium scan and washout
Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey Hwang; Yu, Chin
2016-08-19
The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models-the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex-and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. PMID:27297108
Balslev, U; Berild, D; Nielsen, T L
1992-01-01
A 27-year-old man, HIV-positive for 4 years, developed ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest during treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with intravenous pentamidine isethionate. The dosage was 4 mg/kg/day for 18 days. Nephrotoxicity occurred and raised serum potassium. The plasma...
This paper reviews the records and chest radiographs of 64 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Parenchymal abnormalities were present in 63 of 64 patients (98%). Pleural effusion (six of 64 patients [9%]), adenopathy (five of 64 [8%]), and cystic changes (five of 64 [8%]) were uncommon. Patients receiving prophylaxis with aerosol pentamidine (n = 23) and those with a history of prior P carinii pneumonia (n = 10) were more likely to have an upper-lobe predominance of involvement by P carinii pneumonia than were patients lacking these factors (n = 31). A failure of deposition and/or retention of the aerosol pentamidine in the former, and structural changes resulting from previous P carinii pneumonia in the latter, may be responsible
Serial use of pentamidine and miltefosine for treating Leishmania infantum-HIV coinfection.
Faucher, Jean-François; Morquin, David; Reynes, Jacques; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Le Moing, Vincent
2016-10-01
Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmb) may fail to heal Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the immunodeficient host. There are currently no guidelines on how to treat such patients and efficacy of miltefosine monotherapy seems limited in this indication. We present 2 cases of patients with VL and AIDS for which LAmb had to be interrupted (one because of toxicity, one because of treatment failure) and who were treated effectively with pentamidine followed by miltefosine. PMID:27353022
Aerosolized pentamidine: Effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of previous aerosolized pentamidine therapy on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. This was a retrospective study of fifty-two consecutive patients with P. carinii pneumonia and underlying infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had bronchoscopy. Twenty-one patients who were on aerosolized pentamidine therapy served as the study group. Thirty-one patients who had not received the drug served as the control group. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia was 62% for the study group and 100% for the control group (P less than 0.05). This lower yield was significant for the subset of patients having their first episode of P. carinii pneumonia. The yield of transbronchial biopsy was similar for both groups of patients (81% compared with 84%). The yield of bronchoscopy was not influenced by use of zidovudine. Review of lavage specimen slides suggested that there may be fewer organisms present in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. An atypical roentgenographic presentation of upper lobe predominant infiltrates was seen in 38% of the study patients and 7% of the control patients. In addition, pneumothoraces and cystic changes were also frequently seen in the study patients. Gallium scans, when done, were also atypical in the study group. Markers of the severity of disease, however, were similar in both groups. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients is lower in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. Unusual roentgenographic presentations and atypical gallium scans are also found in this setting
This study assesses the contribution of metabolism for the disposition of pentamidine in the rat. With the use of 14C-labelled compound, the excretion of radioactivity in urine and faeces has been studied in four rats during 44 days after a single intravenous injection of the drug. The urinary and faecal excretion of the radioactivity were of equal importance; 22±2% (mean±S.D.) and 25±4% being detected in urine and faeces, respectively. The activity organs and tissues at 44 days after drug administration was also measured and amounted to 21±5% of the administered dose. Using HPLC the proportion of metabolites in urine in relation to unchanged pentamidine increased with time after dose, being 76±15% (mean±S.D.) of the total excreted radioactivity on day 1 and 97±1% on day 6. HPLC - tandem mass spectrometry was used for identification of metabolites in urine obtained from four rats given unlabelled pentamidine. Using synthetic reference compounds and the selective MS/MS mode four oxidized metabolites of pentamidine were identified either by direct injection into the system or by analyses of extracted urine. Thus, a substantial part of pentamidine is excreted as metabolites in urine. (au) 14 refs
Mouli Chakraborty
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats.
Coelho Adriano C.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Pentamidine (PEN is an alternative compound to treat antimony-resistant leishmaniasis patients, which cellular target remains unclear. One approach to the identification of prospective targets is to identify genes able to mediate PEN resistance following overexpression. Starting from a genomic library of transfected parasites bearing a multicopy episomal cosmid vector containing wild-type Leishmania major DNA, we isolated one locus capable to render PEN resistance to wild type cells after DNA transfection. In order to map this Leishmania locus, cosmid insert was deleted by two successive sets of partial digestion with restriction enzymes, followed by transfection into wild type cells, overexpression, induction and functional tests in the presence of PEN. To determine the Leishmania gene related to PEN resistance, nucleotide sequencing experiments were done through insertion of the transposon Mariner element of Drosophila melanogaster (mosK into the deleted insert to work as primer island. Using general molecular techniques, we described here this method that permits a quickly identification of a functional gene facilitating nucleotide sequence experiments from large DNA fragments. Followed experiments revealed the presence of a P-Glycoprotein gene in this locus which role in Leishmania metabolism has now been analyzed.
... is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. ...
Pentamidine Isethionate Injection
... is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Your health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure the effectiveness and side effects of ...
Efficacy of a diarylheptanoid derivative against Leishmania amazonensis
Alves Luciana Vignólio
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The activity of several diarylheptanoid derivatives (curcuminoids was previously evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and among them the most active compound was the [1-(4-methoxy-phenyl-7-(3,4-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl-1,6-heptadien-3, 5-dione]. This derivative was chosen to be assayed in vivo in a treatment trial. For these experiments, the curcuminoid compound was used in a concentration equivalent to the IC50/24 h, obtained from the previous study. Balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously in the footpad with L. amazonensis infective promastigotes and 4 weeks after the inoculation, the animals were treated with different schemes, varying from 1 to 3 doses. In all the experiments, Pentamidine Isethionate was used as reference drug under the same experimental conditions. The results showed that one dose was not enough to heal the lesion, however, with 2 and 3 doses the efficiency of the assayed compound was clear. On the other hand, treatment with Pentamidine Isethionate using the three different schemes was not satisfactory when compared to the curcuminoid derivative.
Soklakov, Andrei N.
2013-01-01
Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.
Leandro Ourives Neves
2011-12-01
performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. METHODS: 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857. The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7% in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40% patients, especially arthralgia (20.3% in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1% or induration (10.8% at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. CONCLUSION: Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.
Peter Carr; Roger Lee
2009-01-01
Volatility derivatives are a class of derivative securities where the payoff explicitly depends on some measure of the volatility of an underlying asset. Prominent examples of these derivatives include variance swaps and VIX futures and options. We provide an overview of the current market for these derivatives. We also survey the early literature on the subject. Finally, we provide relatively simple proofs of some fundamental results related to variance swaps and volatility swaps.
Wigan, Duncan
2013-01-01
Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconﬁguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While ﬁscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...
Noller, Johannes
2012-01-01
We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...
Simon Gray and Joanna Place
2006-01-01
Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...
Pentamidine in Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in heart transplant recipients
Diken, Adem Ilkay; Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Hanedan, Onur; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Ecevit, Ata Niyazi; Erol, Emir; Yalçınkaya, Adnan
2016-01-01
Despite advances in transplantation techniques and the quality of post-transplantation care, opportunistic infections remain an important cause of complications. Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic organism, represents an important cause of infections in heart transplantation patients. Almost 2% to 10% of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation have Pneumocystis pneumonia. Prophylaxis is essential after surgery. Various prophylaxis regimes had been defined in past an...
Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Setenta e nove pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana, forma cutânea, foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo experimental (I, formado por 38 pessoas que receberam isotionato de pentamidina, 4mg/kg/dia, três aplicações, IM, durante uma semana, e o grupo controle (II, formado por 41 doentes tratados com N-metilglucamina, 20mgSbV/kg/dia por 20 dias, EV. Foram identificados, por técnica de anticorpos monoclonais, 21 isolados com predominância de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Encontrou-se cura clínica em 71,05% do grupo experimental e 73,17% do grupo controle (p=0,47. Alterações de ECG foram mais freqüentes utilizando antimonial pentavalente, com significância (pSeventy-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in this study. The experimental group (n = 38 was treated with pentamidine isothionate in a dose of 4mg/kg/day on alternate days, for one week. The control group (n = 41 was treated with N-methylglucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/kg/day for 20 days. Twenty-one isolates were identified using monoclonal antibody technique. We characterized Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, most frequently. There was a cure rate of 71.05% of the patients in the experimental group and 73.17% in the control group (p = 0.47.We found a statistical significance regarding frequency of ECG alterations between the experimental and control group (p<0.05. In our study pentamidine was as effective as antimonial for the treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis. It proved to be a safer drug considering heart toxicity. Moreover, it requires less time to complete the treatment.
Aïd, René
2015-01-01
Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.
Mohammad Hossein Sattari
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations, in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition $n-$derivations are derivations.
Svenstrup, Mikkel
This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....
Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.
Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji
2016-01-01
The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892
Ji-Huan He
2011-01-01
A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.
William J. McDonough
1993-01-01
Remarks on Derivatives: Practices and Principles, a report by the Global Derivatives Study Group of the Group of Thirty, presented at the Group of Thirty Meeting, Washington, D.C., September 27, 1993.
Rene M. Stulz
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the extent to which derivatives pose threats to firms and to the economy. After reviewing the derivatives markets and putting in perspective the various measures of the size of these markets, the paper shows who uses derivatives and why. The difficulties firms face in valuing derivatives portfolios are evaluated. Although academics pay much attention to no-arbitrage pricing results, the paper points out that there can be considerable subjectivity in the pricing of derivat...
Derivatives in emerging markets
Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer
2010-01-01
Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...
Generalized \\delta-Derivations
Kaygorodov, Ivan
2011-01-01
We defined generalized \\delta-derivations of algebra A as linear mapping \\chi associated with usual \\delta-derivation \\phi by the rule \\chi(xy)=\\delta(\\chi(x)y+x\\phi(y))=\\delta(\\phi(x)y+x\\chi(y)) for any x,y \\in A. We described generalized \\delta-derivations of prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In this cases we proved that generalized \\delta-derivation is a generalized derivation or \\delta...
Fractional Derivative and Integral
Aygören, Aysel
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...
Developing a derivatives generator
Mircea Petic
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article intends to highlight the particularities of the derivational morphology mechanisms that will help in lexical resources extension. Some computing approaches for derivational morphology are given for several languages, inclusively for Romanian. This paper deals with some preprocessing particularities, that are needed in the process of automatic generation. Then, generative mechanisms are presented in the form of derivational formal rules separately for prefixation and suffixation. The article ends with several approaches in automatic new generated words validation.
Lin, Shaowei
2014-01-01
The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...
The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)
Numerical Integration with Derivatives
Hu Cheng
2006-01-01
A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.
Ulrich Kirchner
2010-01-01
We present an approach to derivative exposure management based on subjective and implied probabilities. We suggest to maximize the valuation difference subject to risk constraints and propose a class of risk measures derived from the subjective distribution. We illustrate this process with specific examples for the two and three dimensional case. In these cases the optimization can be performed graphically.
Lokar, Matija
This paper describes several projects concerning the use of the DERIVE programming language for symbolic computation in Slovenia. The main topics discussed include preparing books and materials using DERIVE in Slovenian language, and a survey on the use of programs for symbolic computation by mathematics teachers in Slovenian secondary schools.…
Blumenstyk, Goldie
1994-01-01
Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)
Yusuke Osaki
2007-01-01
We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.
Dyppel, Katja Joo
2013-01-01
The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....
Brain derived neurotrophic factor
Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene
2014-01-01
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are...
American derivatives : a review
Aase, Knut K.
1997-01-01
The paper gives an overview over the theory of pricing and hedging financial derivatives that can be exercised at any time during a fixed time interval [0, T]. The analysis makes use of the theory of optimal stopping, and as such it constitutes an interesting application of probability theory to the theory of financial economics. In this paper we concentrate on the main principles involved only, which means, for example, that we abstract from derivatives where the underlying asset pays ou...
Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;
2016-01-01
Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives and...... structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....
A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author)
Brain derived neurotrophic factor
Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene
2014-01-01
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...
Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones
Altmann, Karl-Heinz
Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(;) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(;) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...... injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product R using Gorenstein at modules.......Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(;) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(;) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective and...
Kokholm, Thomas
financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives. With...... the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options on...
Asia Pacific energy derivatives
Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)
Metal derivatives of tetrazoles
Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.
Metal derivatives of tetrazoles
Gaponik, Pavel N; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Ivashkevich, Oleg A [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)
2006-06-30
Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.
Biotechnology and derived products
Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...
Learning, investments and derivatives
Soklakov, Andrei N.
2011-01-01
The recent crisis and the following flight to simplicity put most derivative businesses around the world under considerable pressure. We argue that the traditional modeling techniques must be extended to include product design. We propose a quantitative framework for creating products which meet the challenge of being optimal from the investors point of view while remaining relatively simple and transparent.
O. Emre Ergungor
2007-01-01
Until recently, homeowners had no way to protect the value of their homes against losses that could result from housing market downturns. With the derivatives contracts introduced by the CME last year, homeowners now have some means of protection, and new and better products are more likely to follow from them.
Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...
Derivative corrections from noncommutativity
We show that an infinite subset of the higher-derivative α' corrections to the DBI and Chern-Simons actions of ordinary commutative open-string theory can be determined using noncommutativity. Our predictions are compared to some lowest order α' corrections that have been computed explicitly by Wyllard (hep-th/0008125), and shown to agree. (author)
Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras
Park Choonkil
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.
Systems of integrable derivations
Vittoria Bonanzinga
1994-05-01
Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.
Illiquidity and derivative valuation
Horst, Ulrich; Naujokat, Felix
2010-01-01
In illiquid markets, option traders may have an incentive to increase their portfolio value by using their impact on the dynamics of the underlying. We provide a mathematical framework within which to value derivatives under market impact in a multi-player framework by introducing strategic interactions into the model of Almgren and Chriss (2001). Specifically, we consider a financial market model with several strategically interacting players that hold European contingent claims and whose tr...
Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors
ZHENG Meng-jie
2009-01-01
Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.
Credit derivatives and risk management
Michael S. Gibson
2007-01-01
The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...
Credit derivatives in emerging markets
Ranci??re, Romain
2002-01-01
Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, includin...
Chromophoric binaphtyl derivatives
Bříza, T.; Kejík, Z.; Vašek, P.; Králová, Jarmila; Martásek, P.; Císařová, I.; Král, V.
2005-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 17 (2005), s. 3661-3664. ISSN 1523-7060 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0933; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1193; GA ČR GA203/02/0420; GA ČR GA301/04/1315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : binaphthyl derivatives * chromophore * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.368, year: 2005
Mungan, Carl E.
2016-05-01
At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.
Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras
Dangui Yan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N, ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.
Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)
2015-03-31
One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but...... owners may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
2007-01-01
Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is...... to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his or her control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncetainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners may delegate a wide range of decision...... rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and...
POLISH MARKET OF FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES
Sobol, Iwona
2014-01-01
The market of financial derivatives is the biggest market in the world. The tremendous growth of this market in recent years is the result of the increase of financial risks caused by volatilities of interest rates, share prices and the adoption of floating exchange rates by most of the developed countries. The most effective way of hedging financial risks is using of derivatives. The derivatives are the instruments which are derived from more basic ones which are called underlying instrument...
Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine
Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.
R.J. Stroeker (Roel)
2002-01-01
textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their
Piroxicam derivatives THz classification
Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.
2016-02-01
In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.
Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives
Radioactive labelling of guanidine bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy-texaphyrin with 166Ho and 90Y is described. UV-VIS absorption spectrometry was used to describe porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour over a wide pH range. This technique also provided preliminary information about the complexation of holmium and yttrium with porphyrin and texaphyrin. The labelling yield of the macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal-to-ligand ratio and time of incubation. The optimum reaction conditions for the formation of radioactive complexes of porphyrin and texaphyrin were determined by thin layer chromatography combined with beta activity measurement. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was also examined. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4-) because radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 186Re and 188Re play an important role in the therapy of many tumorous diseases. The possibility of using the ReO4- anion directly for labeling without reduction to a lower oxidation state can simplify considerably the preparation of the radiotherapeutic pharmaceuticals. Neither UV-Vis spectrometry nor TLC gave evidence of any incorporation of the ReO4- anion into the porphyrin ring
S. S. Kadam
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.
S. S. Kadam
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.
Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M
2014-11-01
The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847
Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine
Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric
2014-01-01
Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...
Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings
Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac
2001-01-01
For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.
Derivatives Activity at Troubled Banks
Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.
1996-01-01
Derivatives have become an essential instrument for hedging risks, yet moral hazard can lead to their misuse by problem banks. Given that the absence of comprehensive data on bank derivatives activities prevents an accurate assessment of bank risk-taking, banks have an opportunity to take unmonitored second bets. Thus , troubled banks have the motive to increase risk, and derivatives provide the means to do so. The role of bank supervisors should be to limit the opportunity through more compr...
Alternative algebras admitting derivations with invertible values and invertible derivations
We prove an analogue of the Bergen-Herstein-Lanski theorem for alternative algebras: describe all alternative algebras that admit derivations with invertible values. We also prove an analogue of Moens' theorem for alternative algebras (a finite-dimensional alternative algebra over a field of characteristic zero is nilpotent if and only if it admits an invertible Leibniz derivation)
Diassociative algebras and their derivations
The paper concerns the derivations of diassociative algebras. We introduce one important class of diassociative algebras, give simple properties of the right and left multiplication operators in diassociative algebras. Then we describe the derivations of complex diassociative algebras in dimension two and three
Glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group
Present article is devoted to glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group. The results of studies of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of chlorine atom in linear and cyclic glycerin derivatives on thiocyanic group were considered. The composition, structure and purity of synthesized substances was defined by means of element analysis, molecular refraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography methods.
Derivative Market Competition: OTC Versus Organized Derivative Exchanges
Jens Nystedt
2004-01-01
Recent regulatory initiatives in the United States have again raised the issue of a 'level regulatory and supervisory playing field' and the degree of competition globally between over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives and organized derivative exchange (ODE) markets. This paper models some important aspects of how an ODE market interrelates with the OTC markets. It analyzes various ways in which an ODE market can respond to competition from the OTC markets and considers whether ODE markets would ...
Complex higher order derivative theories
In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.
Higher derivatives in gauge transformations
The mechanism of appearance of higher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Nether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in extended phase space. 15 refs
Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting
Spamann, Holger
2012-01-01
This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...
Conditional Expectation as Quantile Derivative
Dirk Tasche
2001-01-01
For a linear combination of random variables, fix some confidence level and consider the quantile of the combination at this level. We are interested in the partial derivatives of the quantile with respect to the weights of the random variables in the combination. It turns out that under suitable conditions on the joint distribution of the random variables the derivatives exist and coincide with the conditional expectations of the variables given that their combination just equals the quantil...
Unethical dilemmas in derivatives practice
Alqatawni, Tahsen
2013-01-01
The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...
Synthesis of new xanthene derivatives
Kotaskova, Michaela
2012-01-01
Xanthene dyes, including fluorescein, are a well-known class of fluorescent dyes, which have widespread applications in natural sciences. The synthesis of xanthene derivatives via acid catalyzed condensation of substituted phenols with phthalic anhydride, to afford the asymmetric derivatives, is well established. The high temperature, harsh reaction conditions and often low yields make this method less convenient. The synthesis of xanthene dyes by direct modification of the fluorophore moiety...
Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.
2014-01-01
Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential tech...
Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws
A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
Derivatives Markets for Home Prices
Robert J. Shiller
2008-01-01
The establishment recently of risk management vehicles for home prices is described. The potential value of such vehicles, once they become established, is seen in consideration of the inefficiency of the market for single family homes. Institutional changes that might derive from the establishment of these new markets are described. An important reason for these beginnings of real estate derivative markets is the advance in home price index construction methods, notably the repeat sales meth...
Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras
SU; Yucai(苏育才)
2003-01-01
A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.
Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives
Weberszpil, José
2015-01-01
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.
Variational approach and deformed derivatives
Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.
2016-05-01
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Noether current is worked out.
Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive
Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…
Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets
Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.
Organometallic derivatives of sydnone imines
By the method of direct metallation of 3-cyclohexyl-N6-pivaloylsydnone imine by butyllithium solution in tetrahydrofuran at -78 deg C for 30 min. 4-lithium derivative of the relevant sydnone imine (1) was prepared. Compound 1 was characterized by the methods of elementary analysis, 1H NMR and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the compound prepared features extremely low nucleophilic properties and in terms of its chemical behavior it reminds lithium sydnones. Replacement of substituents in position 3 of the heterocycle and at exocyclic nitrogen atom affects but slightly the metallation process of sydnone imines and stability of lithium derivatives
Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics
Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M
2011-01-01
We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.
Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives
Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas
2014-01-01
netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...
Radiological protection optimization using derivatives
The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells
Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca
2013-01-01
The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.
Czech lexical database - Derivation Relations
Klímová, Jana
Geneve : Université de Geneve , 2005 - (Bouillon, P.; Kanzaki, K.), s. 119-123 [International Workshop on Generative Approaches to the Lexicon /3./. Geneve (CH), 19.05.2005-21.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA405/03/0086; GA ČR GA405/03/0913 Keywords : lexical database * derivation Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics
Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors
Favero, David
2016-01-01
We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.
Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid
Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125I. (author)
International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage
Sohnke M. Bartram; Brown, Gregory W.; Frank R. Fehle
2003-01-01
This paper presents international evidence on the use of financial derivatives for a sample of 7,292 non-financial firms from 48 countries including the United States. Across all countries, 59.8% of the firms use derivatives in general, while 43.6% use currency derivatives, 32.5% interest rate derivatives, and only 10.0% commodity price derivatives. Firmspecific factors associated with derivatives use are very similar across different countries. Some factors are associated only with specific ...
Cluster algebras and derived categories
Keller, Bernhard
2012-01-01
This is an introductory survey on cluster algebras and their (additive) categorification using derived categories of Ginzburg algebras. After a gentle introduction to cluster combinatorics, we review important examples of coordinate rings admitting a cluster algebra structure. We then present the general definition of a cluster algebra and describe the interplay between cluster variables, coefficients, c-vectors and g-vectors. We show how c-vectors appear in the study of quantum cluster algebras and their links to the quantum dilogarithm. We then present the framework of additive categorification of cluster algebras based on the notion of quiver with potential and on the derived category of the associated Ginzburg algebra. We show how the combinatorics introduced previously lift to the categorical level and how this leads to proofs, for cluster algebras associated with quivers, of some of Fomin-Zelevinsky's fundamental conjectures.
Derivatives in energy project finance
This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed
Berberine derivatives as antileishmanial drugs.
Vennerstrom, J L; Lovelace, J K; Waits, V B; Hanson, W L; Klayman, D L
1990-01-01
Berberine, a quaternary alkaloid, and several of its derivatives were tested for efficacy against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania braziliensis panamensis in golden hamsters. Tetrahydroberberine was less toxic and more potent than berberine against L. donovani but was not as potent as meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), a standard drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Only berberine and 8-cyanodihydroberberine showed significant activity (greater than 50% suppression of lesion size) again...
Functional linear regression with derivatives
Mas, André; Pumo, Besnik
2006-01-01
International audience We introduce a new model of linear regression for random functional inputs taking into account the first order derivative of the data. We propose an estimation method which comes down to solving a special linear inverse problem. Our procedure tackles the problem through a double and synchronized penalization. An asymptotic expansion of the mean square prevision error is given. The model and the method are applied to a benchmark dataset of spectrometric curves and com...
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives
Anna Kwiecień; Zbigniew Ciunik
2015-01-01
Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constitut...
Noether theorems and higher derivatives
Townsend, Paul K.
2016-01-01
A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time, the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of...
Phonological Derivation in Optimality Theory
Ellison, T M
1994-01-01
Optimality Theory is a constraint-based theory of phonology which allows constraints to be violated. Consequently, implementing the theory presents problems for declarative constraint-based processing frameworks. On the basis of two regularity assumptions, that candidate sets are regular and that constraints can be modelled by transducers, this paper presents and proves correct algorithms for computing the action of constraints, and hence deriving surface forms.
Phonological Derivation in Optimality Theory
Ellison, T Mark
1995-01-01
Optimality Theory is a constraint-based theory of phonology which allows constraints to be violated. Consequently, implementing the theory presents problems for declarative constraint-based processing frameworks. On the basis of two regularity assumptions, that candidate sets are regular and that constraints can be modelled by transducers, this paper presents and proves correct algorithms for computing the action of constraints, and hence deriving surface forms.
Unified derivation of evolution equations
Li, Hsiang-nan
1998-01-01
We derive the evolution equations of parton distribution functions appropriate in different kinematic regions in a unified and simple way using the resummation technique. They include the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for large momentum transfer $Q$, the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation for a small Bjorken variable $x$, and the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation which embodies the above two equations. The relation among these equations is explored, and p...
On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras
A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two
Synthese asymetrique glycidol et derives
ZERHOUNI, Anissa
2014-01-01
La steereochilie (derive du grec ,singnifiant solide ) se refere a la chimie en trois dimensions(1) puisque la plupart des molecules sont tridimensionnelles, la stereochimie s'insere de fait dans pratiquement toute la chimie dans l'evaluation de la pensée chimique ,le concept de la sereochimie est venu relativement tard , une grande paati de la chimie ,souvent excellente de 19éme siecle, l'ingnore .
Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators
Symon, K.R.
1997-09-12
In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.
Niels Grønbæk
2008-05-01
Let $\\mathfrak{A}$ be a Banach algebra and let be a Banach $\\mathfrak{A}$-bimodule. In studying $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathfrak{A},X)$ it is often useful to extend a given derivation $D:\\mathfrak{A}→ X$ to a Banach algebra $\\mathfrak{B}$ containing $\\mathfrak{A}$ as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators $b\\mapsto D(ba)-b.D(a), a\\in\\mathfrak{A}$ in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness is inherited to ideals.
SALAMCI, Emine; BAYRAM, Beyhan
2006-01-01
To achieve the synthesis of azasugar derivatives with the utilization of singlet oxygen, pyridine was used as the starting material. The reduction of pyridine followed by a singlet oxygen reaction afforded cyclic aza-endoperoxides (14 and 16). However, many attempts were made to convert the aza-endoperoxides to the corresponding di- and triacetates without success. However, the base-catalyzed rearrangement of 14 gave unprecedented rearrangement products 23 and 24.
Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species.
Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L
2009-03-01
Fractionation of dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Piper heterophyllum and P. aduncum afforded three prenylated hydroxybenzoic acids, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-13-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-14-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,15-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with the known compounds, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(E,E,E-11-formyl-3,7,15-trimethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid (arieianal), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the compounds as racemates. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds were tested against three strains of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid exhibited potent and selective activity against L. braziliensis (IC(50) 6.5 microg/ml), higher that pentamidine used as control. Moreover, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl- 2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid showed moderate antiplasmodial (IC(50) 3.2 microg/ml) and trypanocidal (16.5 microg/ml) activities, respectively. PMID:19361822
Derivatives Pricing in Incomplete Markets
Lappo, P.; Zuev, N.
2010-01-01
In the paper the one-period (B, S) - market model with two securities is considered. In the introduction a replicating portfolio for the derivative security is obtained when the securities are primitive. In the second part we consider the situation where the stock price could have more than two values. We build an approximation of such a market using a fictive (B, S*) - market where the stock price could take only two values. In the third part the numerical illustration of the approximation i...
Synthesis of oleanolic disaccharide derivatives
Shu Chen Pei; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Shan Qian; Li Hai; Yong Wu
2012-01-01
Oleanolic acid 1 exists widely in food,medicinal herbs and other plants and possesses many attractive biological activities.Recently,some oleanolic derivatives were reported to have interesting anti-tumor activities.Herein,using association principle of drug design,OA disaccharide 17 was designed and synthesized by coupling α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety,which has proved to be a unique sugar sequence with strongly antitumor activity,and modified OA with a nitrile at C-17.
Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;
2015-01-01
Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives
Anna Kwiecień
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives.
Kwiecień, Anna; Ciunik, Zbigniew
2015-01-01
Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure. PMID:26258772
Iron and iron derived radicals
We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Noether theorems and higher derivatives
Townsend, Paul K
2016-01-01
A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.
Fourth order spatial derivative gravity
Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.
2011-10-01
In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.
Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations
Knuth, Kevin H.
2004-01-01
The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.
Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions
Sheng Yong PAN
2016-01-01
Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.
Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives
María E. Hidalgo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.
Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization
Novotny, Antonio André
2013-01-01
The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...
Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres
Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.
1991-01-01
Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.
Radiation processing of polysaccharide derivatives
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethylstarch (CMS), carboxymethylchitin (CM-chitin) and carboxymethylchitosan (CM-chitosan) form gels when irradiated at paste-like condition. Bedsore prevention mat filled up CMC hydrogel crosslinked by irradiation at paste-like condition was practical applied as a health care products. It was found that CM-chitosan hydrogels have anti-microbial activity and effective as absorbents to remove metal ions. When crosslinked gel sheets of CM-chitin and CM-chitosan were immersed in copper (II) aqueous solution, absorption of Cu (II) were 161 mg/g and 172 mg/g, respectively. Radiation crosslinking of cellulose derivative such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, (HPMCP) kneaded with aqueous alkali solution and methanol was achieved with EB-irradiation at paste-like condition. The HPMCP gel absorbed organic solvents such as chloroform and pyridine. (author)
Iron and iron derived radicals
Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.
1987-04-01
We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Deena Al-Kadi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the notion of fq-derivation as a new derivation of G-algebra. For an endomorphism map f of any G-algebra X, we show that at least one fq-derivation of X exists. Moreover, for such a map, we show that a self-map dqf of X is fq-derivation of X if X is an associative medial G-algebra. For a medial G-algebra X, dqf is fq-derivation of X if dqf is an outside fq-derivation of X. Finally, we show that if f is the identity endomorphism of X then the composition of two fq-derivations of X is a fq-derivation. Moreover, we give a condition to get a commutative composition.
Synthesis of novel bioactive doxycycline derivatives
Usai, Igor
2008-01-01
Novel doxycycline derivatives were synthesized taking advantage of modern synthetic methods for diverse biological experiments. Neuartige Doxycyclin-Derivate wurden unter Zuhilfenahme moderner Synthesemethoden für verschiedene biologische Tests hergestellt.
The recent growth of financial derivative markets
Remolona, Eli M.
1992-01-01
This article examines the reasons for the phenomenal growth of financial derivative markets in recent years. The author shows how specific demand forces have largely determined the direction and speed of the derivatives' spread.
Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation
Tiberiu Socaciu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.
Hampejs, Michal
2007-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the use of commodity derivatives in the oil market. The thesis itself is divided into two main parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is mainly focusing on the description of commodity derivatives in the oil market and the explanation of the mechanism of most often used derivative contracts. The second and more practical part of the thesis examine the use of these derivatives and all benefits and risks associated with trading in commod...
Trading interest rate risk in derivatives markets
Monika Piazzesi; Martin Schneider; Juliane Begenau
2011-01-01
This paper studies banks' motives for trading in interest rate derivatives. It uses data from annual reports and regulatory filings to measure major market participants' derivatives portfolios, as well as their non-derivative exposure to interest rate risk. Risk exposures with and without derivatives are compared using a term structure model. While some banks use swaps to offset maturity mismatch on their balance sheet, others appear to increase their exposure to interest rate shocks by specu...
Policy Perspectives on OTC Derivatives Market Infrastructure
Darrell DUFFIE; Li, Ada; Lubke, Theo
2010-01-01
In the wake of the recent financial crisis, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives have been blamed for increasing systemic risk. Although OTC derivatives were not a central cause of the crisis, the complexity and limited transparency of the market reinforced the potential for excessive risk-taking, as regulators did not have a clear view into how OTC derivatives were being used. We discuss how the New York Fed and other regulators could improve weaknesses in the OTC derivatives market through st...
THE IMPACT OF DERIVATIVES ON MARKET FUNCTIONING
Assoc. Prof. Roxana Angela Calistru Ph. D, Assoc. Prof. Carmen Costuleanu Ph. D
2011-01-01
Derivatives were initially a response to the increased volatility of financial markets, but then the growth of financial derivatives has played a role in exacerbating shocks. Hence, implications of derivatives for the functioning of financial markets may differ between normal and crisis conditions. In normal market conditions, derivative markets perform a number of economic functions likely to help in discovery of future as well as current prices, to improve risk-sharing, to enhance the liqui...
Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives
Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto
2011-01-01
Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...
Adamantane Derivates of Tenocyclidine - Effective Radioprotective Agents
Adamantyl derivatives of phencyclidine (PCP) showed better radioprotective effects than PCP itself. We prepared known thienylphencyclidine (TCP) and three of its adamantyl derivatives (Ad-TCP) and tested them in cultured cells for their radioprotective effects. The results with cells show that the piperidine derivative of adamantyl-tenocyclidine (Ad-TCP (II)) has rather outstanding radioprotective properties. This derivative revealed significant radioprotection at all survival levels. (author)
Should Derivatives be Privileged in Bankruptcy?
Patrick Bolton; Martin Oehmke
2011-01-01
Derivative contracts, swaps, and repos enjoy "super-senior" status in bankruptcy: they are exempt from the automatic stay on debt and collateral collection that applies to virtually all other claims. We propose a simple corporate finance model to assess the effect of this exemption on firms' cost of borrowing and incentives to engage in swaps and derivatives transactions. Our model shows that while derivatives are value-enhancing risk management tools, super-seniority for derivatives can lead...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
The irony in the derivatives discounting
Henrard, Marc
2007-01-01
A simple and fundamental question in derivatives pricing is the way (contingent) cash-flows should be discounted. As cash can not be invested at Libor the curve is probably not the right discounting curve, even for Libor derivatives. The impact on derivative pricing of changing the discounting curve is discussed. The pricing formulas for vanilla products are revisited in the funding framework described.
Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi
Ahmed M. Elissawy
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.
On $t$ -Derivations of BCI-Algebras
G. Muhiuddin; Abdullah M. Al-Roqi
2012-01-01
We introduce the notion of t-derivation of a BCI-algebra and investigate related properties. Moreover, we study t-derivations in a p-semisimple BCI-algebra and establish some results on t-derivations in a p-semisimple BCI-algebra.
CPHD filter derivation for extended targets
Orguner, Umut
2010-01-01
This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.
6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...
32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...
Derivations of relativistic force transformation equations
Redzic, Dragan; Davidovic, Dragomir; Redzic, Milan
2011-01-01
The correct general form of relativistic transformation equations for the three-vector force is derived without using four-vectors, via the relativistic Newton's second law. The four-vector approach to the problem is also presented. The derivations extend or rectify previous derivations.
Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi
Ahmed M. Elissawy; Mohamed El-Shazly; Ebada, Sherif S.; AbdelNasser B. Singab; Peter Proksch
2015-01-01
Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.
Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging
P. Pavlátka
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.
Clinical status of benzoporphyrin derivative
Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew
1996-01-01
Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.
Eburnamine derivatives and the brain.
Vas, Adám; Gulyás, Balázs
2005-11-01
The Apocynaceae plant family contains a great number of so called eburnamine-vincamine alkaloids. Quite a few of these alkaloids exert varied pharmacological activities on the cell multiplication, cardiovascular system, and brain functions. Many derivatives were also synthesized to find pharmacologically active compounds better characterized and safer to be administered than the natural plant alkaloids themselves. We concentrate on the eburnamine structures with cerebral activities in this review. Vincamine, vinburnine, vindeburnol, apovincaminate, and vinpocetine (cis-ethyl-apovincaminate) all share modulatory effects on brain circulation and neuronal homeostasis, bear antihypoxic and neuroprotective potencies to various degrees. The most eminent compound of this class of alkaloids is vinpocetine. Since its introduction to the market as a neuroprotective agent many non clinical and clinical studies proved vinpocetine's effects on calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase E1, on sodium, calcium channels, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and glutamate receptors as well as its clinical usefulness in the treatment of post-ischaemic stroke disease states and various disorders of cerebrovascular origin. Lately, positron emission tomography studies proved that vinpocetine has a rapid uptake in the primate and human brain with a heterogeneous distribution pattern (preference areas: thalamus, basal ganglia, and visual cortex) both after intravenous and oral administration. Vinpocetine exerts beneficial effects in cerebral glucose metabolism and regional cerebral blood flow in chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:16158388
Satellite-Derived Management Zones
Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent
2005-01-01
The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else
Die derivation der slowenischen substantive
]ože Toporišič
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Piotr Binkowski
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.
Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms
Ruben Heradio
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.
Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives
Kunikazu Moribe
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.
Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation, and Investment Decisions
Alan Morrison
2005-01-01
The credit derivatives market provides a liquid but opaque forum for secondary market trading of banking assets. I show that when entrepreneurs rely upon the certification value of bank debts to obtain cheap bond market insurance, the existance of a credit derivatives market may cause them to issue sub-investment grade bonds instead, and to engage in second-best behaviour. Credit derivatives can therefore cause disintermediation and thus reduce welfare. I argue that this effect can be most ef...
Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives
Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand
2009-07-01
New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.
What explains the growth in commodity derivatives ?
Basu, P.; Gavin, W.T.
2010-01-01
This article documents the massive increase in trading in commodity derivatives over the past decade—growth that far outstrips the growth in commodity production and the need for derivatives to hedge risk by commercial producers and users of commodities. During the past decade, many institutional portfolio managers added commodity derivatives as an asset class to their portfolios. This addition was part of a larger shift in portfolio strategy away from traditional equity invest...
Pricing rainfall derivatives at the CME
López Cabrera, Brenda; Odening, Martin; Ritter, Matthias
2013-01-01
Many business people such as farmers and financial investors are affected by indirect losses caused by scarce or abundant rainfall. Because of the high potential of insuring rainfall risk, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) began trading rainfall derivatives in 2011. Compared to temperature derivatives, however, pricing rainfall derivatives is more difficult. In this article, we propose to model rainfall indices via a flexible type of distribution, namely the normal-inverse Gaussian distri...
Clearing over-the-counter derivatives
Ed Nosal
2011-01-01
Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the over-the-counter derivatives market was not required to “clear” transactions. This changed with the signing of the new financial reform legislation, the Dodd–Frank Act on July 21, 2010. Going forward, most OTC derivatives will be cleared through a particular set of institutional arrangements: a regulated clearinghouse. This article provides an overview of how clearing works, the potential benefits of central clearing for OTC derivatives, and the opti...
Derivative markets in emerging economies: a survey
Atılgan, Yiğit; Atilgan, Yigit; Demirtaş, Özgür; Demirtas, Ozgur; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz
2015-01-01
We review the literature on derivatives in emerging markets. This young but booming literature appears to be concentrated on a few countries, but is quite rich in terms of subject coverage. We classify these topics based on the generally recognized functions of derivative markets and restrict the review to the set of top journals in finance and those that specialize on emerging markets or derivatives.
Derivatives: an insurer’s perspective.
De Castries, H.; Claveranne, B.
2010-01-01
The business model of insurance companies and their role in the economy and for policy holders make the use of derivatives key instruments to manage their risks. Insurers bear some specifi city compared to other markets’ participants in derivatives markets: their purpose is mostly hedging and, structurally, insurance companies do not take leveraged positions. Derivative instruments are a reality for an insurer like AXA as evidenced by fi gures and processes in place ; and Solvency II will mos...
Incomplete Derivative Markets and Portfolio Insurance
Charalambos Aliprantis; Brown, Donald J; J. Werner
1997-01-01
We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the asset span of incomplete derivative markets for insuring marketed portfolios. If the asset span is finite dimensional there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding if every marketed portfolio is insurable, moreover this algorithm computes the minimum cost insurance portfolio. In addition, we extend the Cox-Leland characterization of optimal portfolio insurance in complete derivative markets to asset spans of incomplete derivative m...
The Economics of Financial Derivative Instruments
Nwaobi, Godwin C
2008-01-01
The phenomenal growth of derivative markets across the globe indicates their impact on the global financial scene. As the securities markets continue to evolve, market participants, investors and regulators are looking at different way in which the risk management and hedging needs of investors may be effectively met through the derivative instruments. However, it is equally recognised that derivative markets present market participants and regulators with different and complex regulatory(c...
Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes
Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart
2011-07-01
We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.
Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action
Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin
2015-12-01
We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action
Dong, Xi
2015-01-01
We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.
Covariant derivative expansion of the heat kernel
Using the technique of labeled operators, compact explicit expressions are given for all traced heat kernel coefficients containing zero, two, four and six covariant derivatives, and for diagonal coefficients with zero, two and four derivatives. The results apply to boundaryless flat space-times and arbitrary non-Abelian scalar and gauge background fields. (orig.)
Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils
Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited
Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes
Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter
2001-01-01
The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....
Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.
Hoogendam, C.W.
1998-01-01
Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl
Derived Picard groups of selfinjective Nakayama algebras
Volkov, Yury; Zvonareva, Alexandra
2015-01-01
In our proceeding paper a generating set of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra was constructed combining some previous results for Brauer tree algebras and the technique of orbit categories developed there. In this paper we finish the computation of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra.
Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers
Lurie, Boris J.
1995-01-01
Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.
Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives
Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres
2012-01-01
We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.
Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone
Sanjay Gaikwad
2013-01-01
Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione ) i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II) complex is newly reported here
EVALUATION OF ULCEROGENICITY OF KETOPROFEN GLUCOPYRANOSIDE DERIVATIVES
Sahu Jagdish K.; Banerjee Lopamudrab
2010-01-01
Glucopyranoside Derivatives of Ketoprofen have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities. In vivo biological screening in mice and rats indicated that derivatives improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities with significantly reduced ulcerogenicity compared to the parent drug.
The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades
Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas
2015-01-01
Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop o
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
2010-01-01
..., you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of directors' responsibilities with respect to financial derivatives? (1) Your board of directors is responsible for effective... financial derivative, your board of directors must establish written policies and procedures...
Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone
Sanjay Gaikwad
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II complex is newly reported here
FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORLD MARKET COMMODITY DERIVATIVES
Oksana Mihajlovsky
2014-01-01
The fractal properties of some segments of the global commodity derivatives market have been investigated in the present article. The fractal nature of segments of oil and copper derivatives markets has been determined. The presence of speculative reference groups of investors on given segments has been substantiated.
5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...
28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.
2010-07-01
..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...
22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.
2010-04-01
... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...
17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...
12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...
Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives
Pankaj Kumar Arora
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.
Eulerian Derivation of the Coriolis Force
Kageyama, A; Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru
2006-01-01
In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose, but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.
Eulerian derivation of the Coriolis force
Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru
2006-02-01
In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
2010-04-01
... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear amber to dark brown liquid preparations or white to tan powders. (2) Chymosin preparation is...
Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance
Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath
2013-04-01
Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.
Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles
Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny
2015-06-01
This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.
Phytol-derived novel isoprenoid immunostimulants
Roshni Roy Chowdhury
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior in many respects to a number of commercial adjuvants.
Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury
Feifei YAN
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.
The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives
Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-03-01
A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.
Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing
Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc
2004-02-01
Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes a...... can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products in...
Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives
2008-01-01
A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.
Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions
李卫东; 魏道政
1992-01-01
In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES
WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen
1988-01-01
Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.
On derived groups of division rings II
Let D be a division ring with centre F and denote by D' the derived group (commutator subgroup) of D* = D - {0}. It is shown that if each element of D' is algebraic over F, then D is algebraic over F. It is also proved that each finite separable extension of F in D is of the form F(c) for some element c in the derived group D'. Using these results, it is shown that if each element of the derived group D' is of bounded degree over F, then D is finite dimensional over F. (author). 5 refs
[Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].
Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie
2015-09-20
Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983
Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells
An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.
Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.
Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale
2015-12-01
There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064
Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects
Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.
We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...
Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...
Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda
2013-08-01
We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.
Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.
Strang, Gilbert
1990-01-01
Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)
The cyclic oxygen-containing glycerin derivatives
The cyclic oxygen-containing glycerin derivatives and products of their chemical transformations attract attention as a potential biological active substances, inters for organic synthesis and find larger practical using in the different fields of industry, public health and agriculture
Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Sinha, Aninda
2013-01-01
We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena arXiv:1304.4926 have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.
Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives
Petersen, Søren Vermehren
The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES
Verma Anupam
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.
Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives
谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉
2002-01-01
Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphi-philicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around C.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.
Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives
谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉
2002-01-01
Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphiphilicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around 0.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.
MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS
Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...
Stereochemistry of a Rhododaurichromanic Acid Derivative.
Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Mándi, Attila; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji
2016-02-01
A rhododaurichromanic acid A derivative was synthesized from the naturally occurring daurichromenic acid in enantiomeric pure form. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by applying VCD, ECD and DFT calculations. PMID:27032199
Functional Determinants in Higher Derivative Lagrangian Theories
Di Criscienzo, Roberto
2009-01-01
Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed
MANAGING DAIRY PROFIT RISK USING WEATHER DERIVATIVES
Chen, Gang; Roberts, Matthew C.; Thraen, Cameron S.
2003-01-01
Weather conditions are a primary source of dairy production risk. Hot and humid weather induces heat stress, which reduces lactation. Heat abatement, such as ventilation, directly affects the temperature and humidity. Abatement can increase expected profit, but cannot eliminate the lost revenue caused by heat stress. Weather derivatives can reduce weather-induced profit risk and act as a substitute for abatement at the margin. We test the risk management value of weather derivatives in a util...
Derivation of Crustal Magnetic Anomalies from MAGSAT
YANAGISAWA, Masahisa
1984-01-01
This paper describes various characteristics of the magnetospheric field, induction field, and ionospheric field observed by MAGSAT (Magnetic Field Satellite) and the derivation of crustal magnetic anomalies free from disturbance fields. After eliminating the effect of the disturbance field, anomaly maps were derived for the Japanese area and for the Shatsky Rise area. The magnetic field observed by satellites consists of a core field, induction field, crustal field, ionospheric field, and ma...
Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics
With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading
An alternative to the flutter derivatives
Andersen, Michael Styrk; Brandt, Anders
A new simplified framework to study flutter and assess the full scale flutter wind speed is suggested. The flutter instability problem is reduced from a problem involving 8 flutter derivatives to only 4 coefficients. With this method it is possible to estimate the self-excited forces with increased...... precision by using stability diagrams. Furthermore, the physical transparency of the aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms is increased because the development in vertical and torsional damping and stiffness is analysed instead of flutter derivatives....
Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under aerobic conditions
无
2000-01-01
Hypocrellins are a novel type of photosensitizers. A series of new hypocrellin B (HB) derivatives have been synthesized to overcome their limitations, I.e. To improve their red absorption and amphiphilicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) is investigated in the presence of oxygen. The chemical structures of HB derivatives affect not only the generation efficiencies of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, but also quantum yields of singlet oxygen.
Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview
Hammoudeh, Shawkat; McAleer, Michael
2012-01-01
textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econometric, financial econometric and empirical finance methods have contributed significantly to the analysis of risk management, with an emphasis on financial derivatives, specifically conditional corr...
Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.
Intercepting Bacterial Indole Signaling with Flustramine Derivatives
Bunders, Cynthia A.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Ortiz, Minoshka; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian
2011-01-01
Indole signaling is one of the putative universal signaling networks in bacteria. We have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives for the inhibition of biofilm formation through modulation of the indole-signaling network in E. coli and S. aureus. We have found dFBr derivatives that are 10-1000 times more active than indole itself, demonstrating that the flustramine family of indolic natural products represent a privileged scaffold for the design of molecules to cont...
Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives
PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo
2009-01-01
In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.
Machian derivation of the Friedmann equation
Telkamp, Herman
2016-01-01
Despite all fundamental objections against Newtonian concepts in cosmology, the Friedmann equation derives from these in an astoundingly simple way, invoking both the shell theorem and conservation of energy in an infinite universe. However, in the presence of a gravitational horizon the application of the shell theorem fails. We derive the Friedmann equation in the presence of a gravitational horizon using Machian arguments and without using the shell theorem.
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Piotr Binkowski
2008-01-01
The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...