Owe, Katrine M.; Nystad, Wenche; Bø, Kari
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between regular exercise before and during pregnancy and excessive newborn birth weight. METHODS: Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 36,869 singleton pregnancies lasting at least 37 weeks were included. Information on regular exercise was based on answers from two questionnaires distributed in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided data on newborn birth weight. The main outcome me...
Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight (LBW among the live born neonates at the hospitals in Tehran from Sep 2005 till Sep 2006.Material & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Ten hospitals in Tehran were chosen randomly. During the period of study several days in a month were chosen randomly and all newborns born on those days were assessed. The studied characteristics included sex, gestational age, birth order, the interval to previous birth, existence of congenital anomalies, multiple pregnancy, maternal age, gravidity and parity number, history of maternal fertility (including previous LBW infants, infertility, abortion, history of recent pregnancy (including smoking, drug consumption, x-ray exposure, weight gain, vaginal bleeding, gestational illness, folate and iron consumption, gestational infection, chronic illness of the mother, maternal education and maternal job.Findings: We studied 514 (56.5% females and 391 (43.5% males. The LBW prevalence was 8.6% (78 newborns. There was significant statistical relationship between LBW and gestational age, the interval to previous birth, existence of congenital anomalies, multiple pregnancy, maternal age, history of maternal fertility (including previous LBW infants, infertility, abortion, history of recent pregnancy (including smoking, drug consumption, weight gain, vaginal bleeding, gestational illness, iron consumption, gestational infection, chronic illness of the mother and maternal education.Conclusion: Although our results regarding LBW prevalence and risk factors confirm the results of other studies, we recommend perspective studies to reconfirm the LBW risk factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.
Gholamali Fatahi Bayat; Azizollah Yousefi; Seyedeh Fatemeh Khatami; Gholamali Mamuri
Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more t...
Gholamali Fatahi Bayat
Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more than 6 hours oxygen and newborn infants with birth weight 1000-1200 g regardless of oxygen therapy, who survived until 4 weeks postnatal, were enrolled and followed. Patients underwent indirect ophthalmologic examination by two ophthalmologists between 4-8 weeks post partum. The newborn infants who had ROP were assigned to case group and those without ROP to control group, both groups were reexamined every 2-4 weeks or according to international classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP advice. Findings: Fifty newborn infants, 36 (72% in control group, 14 (28% in case group, were studied. Gestational age and birth weight of the patients with ROP were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of oxygen therapy, hyperoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia, hypocarbia and phototherapy are suggested as risk factors contributing to ROP. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the ROP frequency remains elevated among premature and very low birth weight infants. Infants at risk for ROP should have screening eye examinations and proper treatment.
Full Text Available Background: weight of the baby at birth is considered to be a major determinant of future health and survival of the child. It is one of the important factors which determine the readiness with which the newborn baby adjusts to its surrounding. Many maternal socio-biological factors influence birth weight. Objective: To determine maternal socio-biological factors influencing birth weight of newborn. Methodology: Hospital based cross- sectional study undertaken in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of Nehru hospital, Gorakhpur. The study period extended from July 2011 to August 2012. The study subject included recently delivered mothers and data was collected on semi-structured interview schedule to know various socio-biological variables such as mother’s age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval etc, influencing the low birth weight of newborn. Chi-Square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: The overall proportion of low birth weight baby came out to be 32.06%. Out of various socio-biological factors taken the factors which came out to be statistically significant were age of mother, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, SLI, education. The factors which were not statistically significant were father’s education, religion. Conclusions: It was concluded that teenage pregnancy, non-utilization of antenatal care practices, anaemia, illiteracy are unfavorable predictors of birth weight of newborn babies.
Ivorra Carmen; García-Vicent Consuelo; Chaves Felipe Javier; Monleón Daniel; Morales José Manuel; Lurbe Empar
Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a...
A K Choudhary
Full Text Available A community based cohort study on birth weight of newborns was conducted among pregnant women of an urban slum in Bhupal, India. The study was carried out to assess the magnitude of low birth weight (LBW and factors contributing it in an urban slum community. Socio-demographic and maternal characteristics were examined applying statistical techniques to find out the variables associated with the LBW. An additional schedule was used to collect information from mothers about their socio-demographic background, dietary intake and the rest during the pregnancy. Weight of newborns of mothers registered in the study and delivering at the district hospital was recorded. Mean birth weight of newborns of 290 registered mothers was 2.57 ± 0.36 g. One hundred and five newborns (36.2% had a birth weight lesser than 2500 g. Among different variables studied, statistically significant association was found in case of occupation, daily calorie intake and duration of day-time rest taken by pregnant women.
Simental-Mendía Luis E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR at birth, in at term newborns. Methods Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA and large-for-gestational age (LGA newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother’s health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables. Results A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%, 6 (27.3%, and 5 (6.9% with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03, whereas IR in 3 (23.1%, 8 (36.4%, and 10 (13.9% newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06. The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01 and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02; although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29 and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41. Conclusions Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of
Ndu, Ikenna K; Ibeziako, Stella N; Obidike, Egbuna O; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Edelu, Benedict O.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Asinobi, Isaac N; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D
Background The World Health Organisation has recommended the use of anthropometric measurements as birth weight surrogates. However, it has been found that cut-off points for these anthropometric measurements vary across nations and ethnic groups. Objectives To determine the predictive values of chest circumference (CC), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC) and their combinations for low birth weight (LBW) detection in Igbo newborns. Methods Live newborns of Igbo origin were recruited within ...
Seyedeh-Sarah Nazem-Sadati; Majid Mohammadizadeh; Ramin Iranpour
Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with bi...
Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul;
PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from 16 prospective cohorts of newborns on gestational age, birth weight, and systematic mortality follow-up through 28 days from 10 low- and middle-income countries. The studies included were conducted between 1983 and 2008. The analysis was conducted in 2014. Infants were...
Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and
Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Dejmek, Jan
Folate plays an important role in the genomic stability of human cells. In our studies of the impact of environmental pollution on human health, we have found that air pollution can affect pregnancy outcome. As it may be also affected by nutrition, we examined the effect of plasma folate levels of mothers and newborns on intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and birth weight (BW) in cohorts from Prague (N=319) and Teplice (N=444). The lower plasma levels (36.5 nmol/L) were observed in 28.4% of mothers in Prague, and in 15.7% of mothers in Teplice. The higher plasma levels were observed in 75.4% of newborns in Prague, and 73.2% of newborns in Teplice. When comparing maternal high versus low folate plasma levels and IUGR by logistic regression, the risk of IUGR was significantly decreased for European cohort (according to ethnicity) with gestation age >36 weeks [N=536, OR=0.44, P=0.026], and even more pronounced in the group of European smokers [N=157, OR=0.14, P=0.015]. Using multiple regression analysis, plasma folate levels of mothers and newborns significantly affected the birth weight of newborns of smoking mothers (Ppregnancy outcome, especially its potential to decrease the risk of IUGR in European population and lower birth weight in smoking European mothers. It would be warranted to study the effect of folate levels on pregnancy outcomes in the relationship to different environmental pollution and life styles of mothers. PMID:16099478
Full Text Available In a case control study the effects of literacy, socio-economic status and the fertility behavior of mothers were fully investigated in two groups. Out of 13123 babies born in 17 hospitals during almost 8 months in 1988-1989 in Tehran 730 had a low birth weight (less than 2500 gr. As a control group, 1460 births were randomly selected from normal weight births. Some basic findings are as follows: 1Mothers who become pregnant in either age group of “less than 20” or “35 and over” will eventually have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, and as a result, such babies will gave a higher probability mortality in the first week and first month of their lives. 2 Age at marriage is positively correlated with the level of education. 3 The number of children born alive is negatively correlated with the level of education of mothers. 4 The socio-economic status of the family has a significant impact upon child spacing, and that will affect the probability of having a low birth weight newborn, and finally, will increase the mortality rate of babies.
Full Text Available Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with birth weight 1000-1500 g were studied. They were divided into two groups: the "Prophylactic" group, in which phototherapy started within six hours after birth and continued for at least 96 hours, and the "Treatment" group, which received phototherapy when indicated according to birth weight and suspended when bilirubin level fell below 50% of bilirubin level for blood exchange. Mean value of daily transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB, duration of phototherapy, the need for blood exchange, and the highest TCB value in both groups were analyzed."nFindings: In the prophylactic group, the highest daily mean rate of TCB was 7.71±1.84 mg/dl, which happened on the third day. In the treatment group, it was 8.74±1.72 mg/dl on the fourth day after birth. The TCB values in prophylactic group were significantly less than those of the treatment group only on the fourth and fifth days after birth (P<0.001. Although the median duration of phototherapy in the treatment group was shorter than that of the prophylactic group (137.60±57.39 vs 168.71±88.01 hours, respectively, this difference was not statistically significant. Only one neonate needed blood exchange in the treatment group."nConclusion: The prophylactic phototherapy treatment for babies weighing 1000-1500 g significantly decreases bilirubin levels on the fourth and fifth days after birth but the clinical course of hyperbilirubinemia does not alter in LBW infant, as indicated by the non-significant change in the duration
Piyush B. Tailor
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is among the major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries.The earlier prevailing belief that chronic disease in adulthood are the consequences of adult lifestyle choices and exposures, has now also given room for thought to the concept that the process of atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that the fatty streaks are present in children as young as three year of age. In present study, infant and newborn baby, coming to S.S.G Hospital, Vadodara were taken in to study. Infants were divided in three groups. First group included new born between age of 1-5 days, second group an infant between age of 6-12 weeks and the third group infants suffering from low birth weight. Blood samples were collected from the vein of normal new born, age group of 6-12 weeks and from LBW babies. Samples from new born babies were collected within the 24 -36 hours of birth time. Serum Cholesterol was measured using PAP method, Triglyceride using GPO method and HDL-Cholesterol using PTA method, VLDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol was calculated by using Friedewald’s equation. Each and every baby has corresponding normal value according to its age. It cannot be comparable with other age group norm with adult. Lipid profile of the Indian population baby cannot be comparable with norms of the other country because there are many factor can change profile value, like dietary habit, living habit and condition, environment and atmosphere also. Baby suffering or come with SFD and LBW has higher chance of CHD in an adulthood compare to other normal child.
To determine the extent the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the care of Low Birth Weight (LBW) newborns are followed in Pakistani hospitals and analyze any difference in policy compliance between different hospitals. Study Design: Descriptive analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected from five tertiary care hospitals, one each from Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta, Karachi and Islamabad, from January to June 2012. Methodology: LBW newborns data derived from medical records was used. It was collected using a questionnaire, which encompassed the recent WHO recommendations for feeding of LBW. Twenty questionnaires were collected from each hospital. STATA 11.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Fifty seven LBW newborns (57%) were fed with mother's own milk, and 9 (9%) were fed on donor human milk. Forty four newborns (44%) were initiated breast feeding within the first hour after birth. Most of the babies not able to be breast fed were fed with intra gastric tube. Feeding practices varied markedly across hospitals, ranging from one hospital where all newborns were fed formula milk to one where all were fed breast milk. Conclusion: The WHO guidelines were only partially implemented, with significant differences between hospitals in level of implementation of recommended practices. Given the benefits expected from the application of the guidelines, efforts should be made for the establishment and promotion of a single national policy for LBW feeding that follows the WHO new guidelines and streamlines the LBW feeding practices across the country. (author)
González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria
Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth. PMID:26754660
Guzikowski, Wojciech; Pirogowicz, Iwona
Despite wide education, tobacco smoking while being pregnant is very important issue in perinatology. It is important problem because of life style of polish society, including pregnant women. Clinical observation of this issue is pointing on risk of occurring pathology in pregnancy, unfavorable consequences for neonate also many distant pathological effects among children. Purpose of this was getting an answer for question: whether in current social and economic situation there is connection between low birth mass and smoking tobacco during pregnancy. Under analysis were found births between 38th and 40th one hundred successive births (according to book of birth-room from 2860 labors in hospital in Opol, 2007) of mothers are smoking up to 10 cigarettes a day (group I), mothers smoking 11-20 cigarettes a day (group II) and mothers that are not smoking. This works affirms that smoking has negative influence on child birth mass. It is also displayed that higher the number of smoked cigarettes the higher percent of newborns with low birth mass and higher number o fetus with intrauterine growth retardation. Among mothers that are smoking the biggest group were young women (mean. 24, years) and multipara female (58%). PMID:19189515
Simó, Carles; Méndez, Salvador
The epidemiological paradox and 'healthy migrant effect' refer to the favourable health outcomes in unprivileged groups under unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. Weight at birth is associated with the epidemiological paradox. However, differences in fertility structure (mainly mother's age and first maternity) might be the cause of the difference in weight at birth between children of immigrant and non-immigrant mothers. This paper aims to analyse the impact of the epidemiologic paradox by distinguishing between the factors related to fertility structure, in addition to other socio-cultural factors. The importance of fertility structure as the cause of weight-at-birth differences of the newborns of immigrant and non-immigrant women, and between those of subgroups of immigrant mothers, is tested. Based on data from birth registries for the period 1998-2009, a variance analysis was performed for Spanish mothers and for those of five major immigrant subgroups living in the region of Valencia, Spain, which experienced significant migrant inflows within a short period of time. A Scheffé test between pairs of nationalities was carried out. Finally, linear regression models were built. The results suggest that the most relevant factors are those related to fertility structure, and that consequently the epidemiological paradox does not apply for immigrant mothers as a whole, although Bolivian immigrant offspring may be an exception. This unexpected result requires further research to test to what extent this is due to the special adaptation of multigenerational high-altitude populations in pregnancy. The factors associated with fertility structure must be controlled when trying to relate birth weight differences between ethnic groups to socioeconomic factors. PMID:24103469
Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V
The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.
Becker, AJ; Marchant, T
Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...
Anaemia is commonly found in Pakistan especially in pregnant women and children of low socio-economic classes. Malnutrition and anaemia in pregnancy is also associated with impaired foetal and infant health. The pregnant women (n=102) in their third trimester of pregnancy without any obstetrical complications were the subjects for this study and 53.9% of them were anaemic with haemoglobin levels less than 11 g/dl. They were treated with either iron alone (100 mg/day), supplemented with folic acid (10 mg/day) or with folic acid (10 mg/day), vitamin B12 (2μg/day) and vitamin C (140 mg/day) for 4 weeks. The biochemical parameters were repeated after 4 weeks of treatment and an improvement was observed when iron was supplemented with folic acid. The effect of malnutrition and anaemia of pregnant moment was assessed on the birth weights of their newborns in 124 women. The newborns were divided in to 3 groups i.e. Small for age ( 3.5 Kg). The dietary history indicated a low intake of energy, protein and iron in mothers of small infants. On the basis of biochemical parameters it was concluded that the mothers were malnourished and anaemic which was more evident in mothers of small infants. The role of malabsorption was studied in 42 children suffering from malnutrition and anaemia and they were divided into 5 groups, i.e. fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. (n=9), coeliac disease (n=17), lactose intolerance (n=5), PEM (n=5) and non-specific diarrhea (n=6) on the basis of history, clinical impression and biochemical findings. Xylose and lactose tolerance tests were performed after oral dose of xylose or lactose respectively. The various biochemical indices studied indicate that malabsorption plays an important role in malnutrition and anaemia. (abstract only)
Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.
Impact of demographic, genetic, and bioimpedance factors on gestational weight gain and birth weight in a Romanian population: A cross-sectional study in mothers and their newborns: the Monebo study (STROBE-compliant article).
Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Bănescu, Claudia; Meliţ, Lorena; Tripon, Florin; Iancu, Mihaela
The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW).We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I-141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II-168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group.The groups were evaluated regarding demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness, weight, height [H]), clinical, paraclinical, genetic (interleukin 6 [IL-6]: IL-6 -174G>C and IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphisms), and BIA parameters.We noticed that fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM), bone mass (BM), total body water (TBW), basal metabolism rate (BMR) and metabolic age (P G polymorphism was higher in the control group (P = 0.042).We observed that high GWG may be an important predictor factor for the afterward BW, being positively correlated with FM, TBW, BMR, metabolic age of the mothers, and negatively with the mother's smoking status. Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphism is a protector factor against obesity in mothers. All the variables considered explained 14.50% of the outcome variance. PMID:27399105
Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R
STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors. DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child. SETTING—The ...
Raquel de Souza MEZZAVILLA; Maria Helena HASSELMANN
ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence and low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study included 604 children with approximately 30 days of age who visited four primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil, for the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Children with a birth weight below 2.500 g were considered underweight. Information regarding physical intimate partner violence was obtained by the Portuguese ve...
Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.
Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92–0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤7.4cm for foot length; ≤30.4cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure
Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.
Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.
Special considerations are essential to ensure the safe transportation of premature and low birth weight infants. Both physical and physiologic issues must be considered in the proper positioning of these infants. This statement discusses current recommendations based on the latest research and provides guidelines for physicians who counsel parents of very small infants on the choice of the best car safety seats for their infants. PMID:8628626
Full Text Available Background: Almost 7.7 percent of all newborns weigh less than 2500 g in different countries. One of the most important reasons that lead to low birth weight, is maternal anemia during pregnancy. On the other hand, if maternal hemoglobin is too high, the prenatal outcome is not good. In this research we studied the relationship between maternal hematocrit (Hct and birth weight, as well as the risk of low birth weight (LBW. Methods: This is a cohort study on all pregnant women who used to come to Arash hospital to receive prenatal care (April 2003 - March 2004 and they also delivered there. Findings: If pregnant women have abnormal (higher or lower than normal Hct level in the first or third trimester, the mean birth weight will be lower and the risk of LBW higher. Maternal Hct level, maternal height, maternal weight and gestational age at delivery have relation to the risk of LBW. Conclusions: It seems that an unfavorable level of maternal Hct is associated with a decrease in newborn's weight and LBW. So, special attention to the level of maternal Hct during pregnancy and control of it can decrease LBW incidence.
Goshtasbi Nasab A
Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.
Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.
Raji Mathew Varghese
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error
Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kaakinen, Marika; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Objectives: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestatio...
Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias;
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...
Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study is a literature review to identify the effects of a very low birth weight newborn on family. This is an important instrument to clarify epidemiological issues and to suggest the directions for health policy efforts. Method: A three-step review was carried out using databases of journals indexed for Medline/Lilacs/Scielo/Cochrane published between 1966 and 2005 using specific criteria of inclusion. The first step selected 12 articles from 2,889 when searching for the keyword "very low birth weight infant"; the second step used the crossing of keyword "premature infant" with other pertinent keywords and terms resulting in 191 articles generating 7 more articles matching the criteria of inclusion. The third step was to analyze the references of articles in steps 1 and 2 (12 + 7 = 19, selecting 3 additional ones totalizing 22 selected articles. Result: Evidences in literature state that the families of very low birth weight newborns suffer potential negative effects on their operational dynamics, which is associated to the clinical seriousness, the age and the neuropsycomotor development of such children. It seems that the mother is the most affected member due to the situation imposed to the family, and the one who needs psychosocial support more frequently. Conclusion: The number of existing studies is still insufficient to clarify whether the effects on the family considering all their aspects are preponderantly positive or negative.Objetivo: este estudio es una revisión bibliográfica para intentar identificar los efectos que el recién nacido de peso muy bajo tiene en una familia. Este es un instrumento importante para aclarar los aspectos epidemiológicos y sugerir las directrices en los esfuerzos de políticas sanitaria. Método: se realizó una revisión en tres pasos empleando las bases de datos de las revistas indexadas en Medline/Lilacs/Scielo/Cochrane con fecha de publicación entre 1966 y 2005, utilizando
Höglund, G V; Iselius, E L; Knave, B G
The course and outcome of the pregnancies of the wives of 80 spray painters and 80 electronics workers were recorded from birth registers, hospital records, and a questionnaire. The two groups of men had previously been subjected to psychological, psychiatric, neurophysiological, and neurological tests. The variables recorded were occupational exposure to solvents; number of births, ectopic pregnancies, and miscarriages; weight, length, and malformations of the newborn children; duration of the pregnancies; birth complications; and neonatal hospital treatment. The mean length and weight of the children of spray painters at birth were slightly lower than those of the children of electronics workers. No differences were recorded for serious complications of pregnancy, malformations, or clinical course after birth. PMID:1571295
郭营瑾; 陈向韵; 崔志清
Objective To analyze the relationship between body weight index (BMI) during the different pregnant weeks and the birth weight of newborns. Methods One hundred pregnant women and newborns were selected. BMI in every month during the pregnancy period, birth weight and height were observed and recorded. Then the relationship between BMI of pregnant women and birth weight of newborns was analyzed using Peas,son correlation coefficient. Results The correlation between BMI of pregnancy from the fifth month to the ninth month and the birth weight of newborns had significantly statistical meaning, especially the correlation between BMI of the fifth, the sixth and the eighth months and the birth weight of newborns were more obvious, each showing a positive correlation. Conclusions The higher the BMI of pregnant women, the higher the birth weight of newborns. Therefore the pertinent diet guidance should be given to the pregnant women in the middle to late stages of pregnancy according to the pregnant women's BMI, in order to reduce the incidence of enormous infants and premature infants.%目的 分析孕妇不同孕周体重指数(BMI)与新生儿出生体重的关系.方法 选择孕妇及其新生儿100例,观察并记录妊娠期各个月份的BMI和新生儿出生时的体重与身高,用Pearson相关系数分析孕妇BMI与新生儿体重的关系.结果 妊娠5～9个月期间,孕妇BMI与新生儿出生体重的相关性有统计学意义,且以5,6,8个月时的BMI与新生儿出生体重的相关性更为显著,均呈正相关.结论 孕妇的BMI越大,所生新生儿体重也越大.应根据孕妇的BMI,在妊娠中、晚期给予有针对性的饮食指导,以减少巨大儿、难产儿的发生.
Yugantara Ramesh Kadam
Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.
目的：探讨针对性体重管理干预对新生儿出生体重及分娩结局的影响。方法：选取2013年1月~2014年1月124例孕妇作为观察组，选取2012年12月~2013年12月128例孕妇作为对照组，对照组给予常规的定期产前检查、围产期保健及相关健康教育，观察组实施针对性体重管理干预，比较两组干预效果。结果：两组孕妇体重增长情况比较差异有统计学意义（P <0.05， P <0.01）；两组体重及巨大儿、低体重儿发生率比较差异有统计学意义（P <0.05）；观察组正常分娩率高于对照组（P <0.05），产后抑郁发生率低于对照组（P <0.05）。结论：针对性体重管理干预可有效控制孕妇及新生儿体重，减少并发症。%Objective:To investigate the effect of the targeted intervention on the birth weight of newborn and delivery outcome. Meth-ods:124 pregnant women(from January 2013 to January 2014)were selected as the observation group and other 128 pregnant women (from December 2012 to December 2013)were taken as the control group. The pregnant women in the control group were given regular prenatal examination,perinatal care and related health education and the pregnant women in the observation group were provided the targe-ted intervention on weight management,the intervention effect was compared between the two groups. Results:There was statistically signifi-cant difference in the comparison of the weight growth of the pregnant women between the two groups(P < 0. 05,P < 0. 01);the difference in the comparison of the incidence of huge weight and low birth weight of the infants was statistically significant(P < 0. 05);the normal delivery rate in the observation group was higher than the control group(P < 0. 05);the incidence of postpartum depression was lower in the observation group than the control group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:The targeted intervention on weight management can effectively con-trol the weight of pregnant
The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)
Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M;
, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Main Outcome and Measure: Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Results: Among the 30 487 newborns the mean birth weight...
Shrestha, I; Sunuwar, L; Bhandary, S; Sharma, P
Birth weight is an important determinant of infant's well being as low birth weight is known to increase the risk adult onset of diseases like type-2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Maternal weight gain is one of the most important independent predictors of infant birth weight. Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, USA has recommended that total weight gain of mothers should be according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the total weight gained by the pregnant women and the correlation between the weights gained by them with the birth weight of their infants. 98 women who delivered full term single baby at Patan hospital were included after taking their verbal consent. The details of the newborn and the history of the pregnant women were taken from the hospital records. The information about the family income, dietary habit, birth spacing and the type of work done by the pregnant women was obtained from the women themselves. The mean weight gain of the mothers was 9.48 (SD = 3.41) kilograms and the mean birth weight of the infants was found to be 2965.66 (SD = 364.37) grams. Multiple Liner Regression Models showed the effect of Gestational weight gain (GWG), Age and Parity on birth weight of the infant. Step-wise multiple regressions gave rise to models that showed effect of GWG and age on birth weight of the infants. This study concluded that gestational weight gain has positive linear relationship (correlation) with the birth weight of infants. PMID:21222408
Yugantara Ramesh Kadam; Anugya Mimansa; Pragati Vishnu Chavan; Alka Dilip Gore
Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), D...
Marta M. G. B. Mataloun
Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used in bronchopulmonary dysplasia prevention because of their antiinflammatory effects. Among their effects is a decrease in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, short- and long-term side effects have been detected in preterm newborns. PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of corticosteroids on bronchopulmonary dysplasia, length of stay, mortality, growth, as well as the adverse effects in very low birth weight newborns between 10 and 14 days of life and dependent on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Cohort study. All newborns with a birth weight under 1500 g, mechanical ventilation-dependent between 10 and 14 days of life, during the period January 2000 and June 2001 were included (n = 38. They were divided into 2 groups: Group I with corticosteroids (n = 16 and Group II without corticosteroids (n = 22. Dexamethasone administration: from the 10th day of life, d1 - d3, 0.3 mg/kg/d; d4 - d6, 0.2 mg/kg/d; d7 - d9, 0.1 mg/kg/d. Respiratory evolution, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (oxygen dependence at 28 days of life, growth pattern and the presence of adverse effects were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 6.5% (Group I and 30% (Group II, P = .07. A decrease in growth was detected in Group I compared with Group II (change in weight: Group I - 47 g/week, Group II - 85.5 g/week, P = .06; change in head circumference: Group I - 0.75 cm/week, Group II - 1 cm/week, P = .05. CONCLUSION: Use of corticosteroids in very low birth weight infants dependent on mechanical ventilation during the first 10 to 14 days of life did not affect the respiratory evolution and occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but the velocity of growth was reduced.Devido às suas ações anti-inflamatórias, os corticosteróides têm sido utilizados para prevenção de displasia broncopulmonar, sendo descrita, uma redução da incidência desta patologia. No entanto, efeitos adversos a curto e a longo prazo t
Full Text Available A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. The infants were divided into groups based on birth weight at 250-g intervals. Using weight means, somatic growth curves were constructed and adjusted to Count's model. Absolute (g/day and relative (g kg-1 day-1 velocity curves were obtained from a derivative of this model. The growth curve was characterized by weight loss during the 1st week (4-6 days ranging from 5.9 to 13.3% (the greater the percentage, the lower the birth weight, recovery of birth weight within 17 and 21 days, and increasingly higher rates of weight gain after the 3rd week. These rates were proportional to birth weight when expressed as g/day (the lowest and the highest birth weight neonates gained 15.9 and 30.1 g/day, respectively. However, if expressed as g kg-1 day-1, the rates were inversely proportional to birth weight (during the 3rd week, the lowest and the highest weight newborns gained 18.0 and 11.5 g kg-1 day-1, respectively. During the 12th week the rates were similar for all groups (7.5 to 10.2 g kg-1 day-1. The relative velocity accurately reflects weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age and, in the present study, it was inversely proportional to birth weight, with a peak during the 3rd week of life, and a homogeneous behavior during the 12th week for all weight groups.
Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;
Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...
Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...
Lee, Jin Kyoung; Jang, Hye Lim; Kang, Byung Ho; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Lim, Jae Woo; Bae, Chong-Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon
The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3(rd)-97(th)) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504
Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.
Song, G Y; Song, W W; Han, Y; Wang, D; Na, Q
The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the placenta-specific microRNA miR-517a in maternal serum and in placental tissue from low birth weight newborns and try to detect the effects of miR-517a expression on invasion potential of trophoblasts. Placental tissue and maternal serum were collected from both low birth weight newborns (n = 10) and normal birth weight newborns (n = 20). Expression of miR-517a was assessed in placenta and serum samples by real-time qRT-PCR. In addition, human trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells were transfected with a miR-517a 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide or a negative control RNA, and invasion was measured using transwell migration assays. Expression of miR-517a was significantly increased in placentas from low birth weight newborns (61.79 ± 23.06) in comparison with those of normal birth weight newborns (5.01 ± 1.97; P inhibited invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells (P inhibition of trophoblast invasion. PMID:24924231
Dunn, H G
The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as
Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.
Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad.Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P< 0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children.Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.
Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P<0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children. Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.
Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V
Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...
Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Akbar Derakhshan; Farhat Ahmadshah; Rana Amiri; Habiballah Esmaeli
Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all chil...
Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;
Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... GA, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age......, low birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....
Peso insuficiente ao nascer: estudo de fatores associados em duas coortes de recém-nascidos em Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo Insufficient birth weight: factors associated in two cohorts of newborns in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Veidson Marcelo Azenha
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores associados ao aumento das taxas de peso insuficiente (PI em duas coortes de recém-nascidos (RN vivos e de parto único de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, separadas por 15 anos (1978/79 e 1994. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 6.223 partos em 1978/79 e 2.522 em 1994, excluindo-se os RN de baixo peso. Associação entre PI e variáveis independentes (idade, trabalho, escolaridade e tabagismo maternos, abortos e natimortos prévios, número de filhos, situação conjugal, visitas de pré-natal, tipo de parto e hospital, categoria de internação, renda familiar, idade gestacional e sexo do RN foi analisada por cálculo da Odds Ratio (OR bruto e intervalo de confiança 95%, seguida de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Em 1978/79, na análise ajustada, idade materna OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated to the increase in insufficient birth weight (IBW rates in two population-based-cohorts of singletons born alive in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, separated by 15 years (1978/79 and 1994. METHODS: The first cohort (1978/79 comprised 6,223 newborns and the second (1994, 2,522, excluding low birth weight newborns. Independent variables association with IBW (maternal age, work, schooling and smoking; previous abortion, previous stillbirth, number of live births, maternal marital status, family income, occupation group, type of hospital, mode of insurance, number of antenatal visits, type of delivery; newborn gender and gestational age were analyzed. The Odds Ratio (OR was determined using a logistic regression model and 95% confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS: In 1978/79, maternal age <20 years (p=0.014, family income <5 minimum Brazilian wages (p=0.030, <4 antenatal visits (p=0.003, vaginal delivery (p<0.001, female newborn gender (p<0.001, maternal smoking (p<0.001 and preterm birth (p<0.001 were associated with IBW. In 1994, maternal work outside home (p=0.020, female newborn gender (p<0.001, maternal
Manikanta Reddy V; Senthil Kumar S; Sanjeeva Reddy N
Background: To access the birth weight of the newborn and term of the gestation in pregnancies complicated by isolated oligo and polyhydramnios. Methods: A Hospital based study has been conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai. All the singleton pregnancies diagnosed with Isolated Oligo and Polyhydramnios were enrolled in the study. All the subjects were followed up to their delivery. Birth weight and Term o...
Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Having a low birth weight (LBW baby can cause emotional, social and financial stress for the family. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional study, of 1-year duration, was conducted in department of gynecology and obstetrics GSL Medical College and General hospital. Universal sampling method was employed and every antenatal woman with the age of 15-19 years were registered in department of gynecology and obstetrics GSL Medical college and General hospital from June2013 to July 2014 were included as study participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 238 pregnant teenage subjects with in 34weeks of gestational age were included in the study. After the delivery of teenage pregnant subjects, babies with only live birth are included. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was performed to find the significant association among the teenage mothers, low birth weight of the babies and causes of low birth weight of the babies. P value 21 years in order to prevent risks that occur to mother and to newborn.
Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza Santos
Full Text Available Introduction: The nutritional care for teenage mothers had been studied as a factor that influences the course of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, especially in birth weight. Objective: Evaluate the effect of a prenatal intervention nutrition program, with early start of the nutritional care and individualized attendance on teenage mother newborns' weight. Methods: Not randomized study of intervention performed with 746 teenage mothers (14 to 19 years old, subdivided in historic control group (GI; n = 542 and intervention group (GII; n = 204. The dependent variable was the low birth weight (LBW. The independent variables assessed were: sociodemographic (mother age, skin color, instruction level and sanitation conditions, anthropometric (mother's height, pre-gestational nutritional study and adequacy of gestational weight gain, obstetric (gestational age in first prenatal consultation, number of pregnancies, childbirths and abortions, interdelivery and inter-gestational intervals, prenatal attendance (number of prenatal and nutritional attendance consultations and conditions of the newborn (birth weight and duration of the pregnancy. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: The average of maternal age at delivery was 17,5 years old (standard deviation 1,59. The percentage of LBW considerably reduced from 11,3% in GI to 2,9% in GII (p < 0,001. We observed in the multivariate model that the teenage mothers who have not received the intervention presented 3,5 more prevalence (GI, RP adjusted 3,5; 95% CI 1,49-8,44 to give birth to a low weight newborn. Conclusion: The participation of the teenage mother in the prenatal nutrition care program proposed here contributed to the reduction of the low weight of newborns.
Full Text Available In the first days after birth is common to see weight loss in puppies that should not exceed 10% of body weight at birth. The main causes of weight loss are urine and meconium issued followed by non-recovery of fluids expelled. The aims of the study were to check and outline growth curves in boxer breed during the first two week of life. In our study between 3th and 5th day after birth puppies retrieved the weight and got back a gain that leads to double in two weeks. We observed a mean weight loss of 11.26 g (2.27% between the first two days of life, subsequently they recovered the birth weight on day four. In our study puppies that regained the birth weight earlier were the puppies with higher weight at birth and were the heaviest at day 13.
Anisa M Durrani
Full Text Available Background: This study aimed (1 To record the nutrient intake of the respondents and compare the same with the available recommended dietary allowances (RDA. (2 To assess the correlation between maternal dietary intake and the weight of newborn. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety two pregnant women. Study Area: Five hospitals of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. Study Tool and Data Collection: Interview schedule was administered to record information regarding dietary intake and weight of newborn. The data collection was initiated in April 2009 and was completed in March′ 2010. Data Analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using version SPSS 17. Frequency distributions were calculated for all variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine the influence of the dietary intake on the birth weight of newborn. Results: Results revealed that the nutrient intake in all trimesters of pregnancy was lower as compared to RDA. There were significant correlations between the nutrient intake of the mothers and the weight of newborn in all trimesters of pregnancy (P=0.01. Conclusion: It was found that the dietary intake during all trimesters of pregnancy were significantly associated with the birth weight.
Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS
Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...
Varghese, Raji Mathew; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen; Varughese, Sara
Background Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. Methods All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were e...
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</B> The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. <B>Methods:</B> We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. <B>Results:</B> The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and >6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. <B>Conclusion:</B> The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.
Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.
Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...
Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;
To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...
The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)
Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani
Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitte...
Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani
Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who adm...
Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...
Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.
Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.
Comparação da mortalidade neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascimento, em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Comparison of neonatal mortality in very low birth weight newborns at maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte
Full Text Available Foi realizada a comparação das taxas de mortalidade neonatal em quatro maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A população estudada foi de recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário com dados informados pela mãe e o prontuário médico. Foram calculados, para cada instituição, as Razões Padronizadas de Mortalidade (RPM com o método direto e indireto, tendo como padrão a distribuição por peso do National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research. A amostra final apresentou 487 recém-nascidos. As padronizações pelo método direto e indireto mostraram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as instituições; as que apresentaram a maior quantidade de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos, foram aquelas que mostraram os menores valores de RPM. A menor razão de mortalidade por faixa de peso foi encontrada na faixa de peso entre 500 e 749g. Os resultados da RPM estão inversamente associados ao quantitativo populacional de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos. Os coeficientes de mortalidade mostraram taxas altas, principalmente nas faixas de peso mais elevados. Os resultados apontam para uma qualidade deficiente na atenção perinatal.This study was a comparison of neonatal mortality rates in four maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study population consisted of newborns with birth weight below 1,500g. The research instrument was a questionnaire with data reported by the mother and collected from the patient record. For each maternity hospital the standardized mortality ratio (SMR was calculated using the direct and indirect method, using the weight distribution of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research as the standard. The final sample consisted of 487 newborns. Standardizations by the direct and indirect method showed high mortality rates in all four institutions
Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....
Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.
Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda
OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873
Martens Guy; Van Hoorick Katrien; Vandermotte Valerie; Jacquemyn Yves
Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean sect...
Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E
Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...
Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha
OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...
Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;
To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.
侯宝玲; 林文杰; 刘丽; 马俊
目的 了解长治地区新生儿出生体重情况及影响因素,为孕期保健提供参考依据.方法 回顾性分析2007年1月至2011年12月本地区分娩的5 055名活产新生儿出生体重及性别、孕周、孕妇年龄、产次、孕妇生活地区(城乡),通过单因素分析和多因素Logistic回归分析进行统计处理,探讨影响出生体重的影响因素.结果 5055名新生儿平均出生体重为(3 128±675)g,低出生体重儿发生率为14.6％,巨大儿发生率为8.2％.经单因素x2检验,孕妇生活地区、孕周、孕母年龄是低出生体重儿和巨大儿的影响因素(x2值分别为223.807、34.120,2 211.570、68.941,92.199、18.745),产次与低体重儿发生有关(x2=54.822),性别与巨大儿发生有关(x2=34.503),差异均有统计学意义(P＜0.05).Logistic回归分析进行结果显示,早产(OR=37.147,95％ CI:30.094～45.853)、生活在农村(OR=0.390,95％ CI:0.310～0.492)孕母年龄(OR=0.864,95％CI:0.779～0.959)是低出生体重儿发生的危险因素,而男婴(OR=0.524,95％ CI:0.423～0.650)、生活在城市(OR=0.616,95％CI:0.501～0.758)、过期产(OR=4.175,95％CI:2.918～5.974)及孕母年龄偏大(OR=1.229,95％CI:1.104～1.368)是巨大儿发生的危险因素.结论 本地区新生儿平均出生体重低,巨大儿和低出生体重儿发生率高,城乡差异存在,因地制宜的提供科学的干预措施和孕产期保健服务、普及优生优育知识及适龄孕产,是控制出生体重在合理范围内的有效措施.%Objective To learn birth weight of newborn babies and its influencing factors to provide evidence for maternal healthcare.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted among 5 055 newborn babies from January 2007 to December 2007 to learn their birth weight,gender,pregnant week,maternal age,parity and living areas.Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to explore factors that influenced birth weight.Results For those 5 055 infants
Incidência e principais fatores associados à falha de extubação em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento < 1.250 gramas Incidence and main risk factors associated with extubation failure in newborns with birth weight < 1,250 grams
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de falha de extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros com peso de nascimento OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of extubation failure in preterm newborns with birth weight < 1,250 g extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure and to identify the main risk factors associated with the need for reintubation in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of eligible infants admitted and mechanically ventilated between July 2002 and June 2004 was performed. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 7 days after the first extubation attempt. RESULTS: Of the 52 patients included in the study, 13 died before the first extubation attempt. Of the remaining 39 patients, only nine failed extubation (23.1% Comparing the two groups (failure vs. successful, there was a statistically significant difference regarding birth weight, gestational age and 5-minute Apgar score. After logistic regression, only gestational age was significant. Other secondary outcomes showed significant difference between the groups: intracranial hemorrhage grade III and/or IV, patent ductus arteriosus and death. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of extubation failure in our population was similar to the rate reported in the literature. The main risk factor for extubation failure was prematurity (≤ 28 weeks. In this population of extreme preterm infants, implementation of strategies for early extubation, use of methylxanthines, prevention of patent ductus arteriosus, and use of different modes of assisted ventilation after extubation may improve the outcomes.
Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…
Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna
Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...
Rita C. Silveira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão crítica e atualizada sobre as lesões cerebrais isquêmicas no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso. FONTES DE DADOS: As referências foram obtidas através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionadas as mais representativas a critério dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A hemorragia com evolução para lesão isquêmica cerebral, a leucomalácia periventricular cística e a lesão difusa da substância branca cerebral são as lesões isquêmicas mais freqüentes em recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso. Todas são doenças de causas multifatoriais, em que podem estar envolvidos fatores vasculares, hemodinâmicos, inflamatórios e infecciosos. São doenças que podem causar seqüelas neuropsicomotoras importantes e levar à paralisia cerebral e/ou déficit cognitivo e comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico precoce e uma estratégia terapêutica adequada podem minimizar as seqüelas causadas por essas doenças. A prevenção da prematuridade é a principal medida preventiva a ser tomada.OBJECTIVE: To present a critical and up-to-date review of ischemic brain damage in premature, very low birth weight infants. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles were obtained by means of a search of the MEDLINE database, with those considered most representative by the authors being selected. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The most frequent ischemic injuries among preterm, very low birth weight neonates are hemorrhage progressing to with ischemic brain damage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia and diffuse lesions of the cerebral white matter. All of these conditions have multiple causative factors, which may include vascular, hemodynamic, inflammatory and infectious factors. These are disorders that can cause significant neuropsychomotor sequelae and lead to cerebral palsy and/or cognitive and behavioral deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and adequate management of the patient can minimize long-term problems caused
Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C;
size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies of...... limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...
Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.
van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I
Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...
Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.
杨延冬; 翟桂荣; 杨慧霞
increasing with maternal pre-pregnant BMI, and average birth body mass of the newborns in low body mass group was lower than other 3 groups,respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( P ＜ 0.05 ). The difference was not statistically significant ( P ＞ 0.05 ), when it was compared among the obese group, ideal weight group and over body mass group. (2)The body mass gain during pregnancy in women delivered normal birth weight newborn and delivered macrosomia for each group respectively were ( 13.5 ±4.5 ) and ( 17.1±5.4) kg for the ideal body mass group, ( 11.6 ± 4.9 ) and ( 15.3 ± 6.4 ) kg for the over body mass group, ( 10.3 ± 5.0) and ( 14.7 ±7.4) kg for the obese group. The difference was statistically significant in 3 groups (P ＜ 0.05 ). The difference of body mass gain during pregnancy in women delivered normal birth weight newborn and delivered macrosomia for low body mass group could not be compared statistically, because of only 1 case delivered macrosomia. (3)The gestational age of diagnosis in women who delivered normal birth weight newborn and macrosomia for the ideal body mass group respectively were ( 27.8 ± 5.8) and ( 29.8 ± 5.3 ) weeks, the difference was statistically significant ( P ＜0.05 ). The gestational age of diagnosis in gravidas who delivered normal birth weight newborn and macrosomia for the over body mass group respectively were ( 26.7 ± 6.8)and (30.2 ± 4.1 ) weeks, the difference was statistically significant ( P ＜ 0.05 ). The gestational age of diagnosis in women who delivered normal birth weight newborn for obese group was (26.2 ± 7.5 )weeks, less than that of pregnant women who delivered macrosomia [ ( 25.7 ± 9.3 ) weeks ], but the difference was not statistically significant (P ＞ 0.05 ). The difference of the diagnosed gestational age for low body mass group could not be compared statistically, because of only 1 case delivered macrosomia. (4)Tbe serum triglyceride (TG) levels of pregnant women who delivered
Dowding, V M
A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...
Rahi, Esmat; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Mirkamandar, Ehsan; Haji Maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Rastegari, Azam
Background Addiction in pregnant women causes complications such as abortion, asphyxia and cerebral and physical problems. APGAR score assesses vital signs and birth weight and represents the physical and brain growth of newborns. In this study, the effects of opium addiction in mothers on birth weight and APGAR scores of neonates were discussed. Methods This study analytic, descriptive study was conducted on 49 pregnant women addicted to oral consumption of opium (0.5-0.8 grams daily) and 49...
Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel
Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P 0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283
Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.
Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Growth retardation and macrosomia are associated with increased fetal morbidity and mortality. We assessed the usefulness of sonographic measurement of abdominal subcuta-neous tissue thickness in estimating birth weight. Materials and Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness was measured sono-graphically in 300 fetuses between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation. The median time between sonographic examination and delivery was 11 days. The weight of newborns was measured immediately after delivery. Results: The mean soft tissue thickness was significantly higher in macrosomic than normal fetuses (12.0±1.4 mm versus 6.6±1.6 mm, respectively; P < 0.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness and birth weight (r = 0.86, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Sonographic examination of the fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness is useful for estimating birth weight.
Complete text of publication follows. Objective: In a report published in JAMA in 2004, Hujoel and colleagues indicated that maternal dental radiography during pregnancy may be associated with term low birth weight. Interestingly, they concluded that dental radiographies cause measurable radiation doses to the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and the radiation effects on this axis is the reason for term low birth weight. On the other hand, low birth weight is the second leading cause of infant death. In this paper the results obtained in a 2 year study conducted at a midwifery hospital in Rafsanjan, IR Iran are reported. Methods: Four hundred seventy-five singleton infants with gestational periods of 37-44 wk born between 2006 and 2007 at the Niknafs Teaching Hospital affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and clinical findings at birth including gestation age, sex of infant, birth order, season of birth, maternal age, and maternal education were collected from maternal and newborn hospital records and by interviews with parents. Maternal history of exposure to common sources of man-made ionizing and non-ionizing (exposure to radiations emitted by mobile phones, CRTs, cordless phones) radiation before and during pregnancy were carefully recorded. Results: Among the 475 infants who were studied, there were only 15 cases with a history of maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. The average newborn infants' birth weight in non-exposed and exposed (maternal dental radiography during pregnancy) groups were 3166.69±481.31 g and 3118.67±341.42 g respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: In this study, low birth weight was not associated with maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. These results are generally inconsistent with those reported by Hujoel and colleagues.
D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma
Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan
Fulda, Kimberly G; Kurian, Anita K; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Moerbe, Micky M
Background The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (
van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet
The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos
Edla S. da Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one examiner. Preterm newborns were matched to term at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA. RESULTS: The evolution of muscle tone in the preterm occurred gradually, following PCA, independent of birth weight. Preterm newborns had lower scores in all muscle tone indicators when compared to term at the first assessment. Differences were observed among preterm small for GA and adequate to GA for the indicator heel to ear (pOBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da idade gestacional (IG e do peso ao nascimento (PN na avaliação do tono muscular de recém nascidos (RN a termo e prematuros hígidos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal. O tono muscular de 42 RN prematuros e 47 termo foi quantificado e mensurado com goniômetro (instrumento para medir ângulos, respectivamente entre 7-14 dias de vida e 24-48 horas de vida. Os RN foram agrupados de acordo com IG e PN, sendo avaliados em intervalos fixos. RN prematuros foram comparados aos a termo na 40ª semana de idade concepcional (IC. RESULTADOS: A evolução do tono muscular nos RN prematuros ocorreu de forma gradual de acordo com IC e independente do PN. RN prematuros, na primeira avaliação apresentaram escores de tono muscular inferiores aos de RN a termo em todos os indicadores. Foram observadas diferenças entre RN prematuros pequenos e adequados para a IG em relação ao indicador calcanhar-orelha (p<0,001. O pareamento dos grupos na 40ª semana de IC mostra, exceto pela postura, diferença significativa entre os grupos (p< 0
Deswal B S
Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as â€˜casesâ€ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in â€˜controlâ€ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.
Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn
We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367
To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension
Esra Arun Özer; Özlem Sivaslı Gül; Gamze Men; Ekrem Talay; Sümer Sütçüoğlu; Ali Kanık; Ebru Türkoğlu; Zelal Kahramaner; Hese Coşar; Aydın Erdemir; Işın Yaprak
Pur po se: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative vascular disease which affects premature newborns and occurs during vessel development. The pathogenesis of ROP is complex and includes oxidative damage to the developing retina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ROP with serum vitamin A levels and clinical parameters in infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and birth weight of ≤1500 grams. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Newborns admitted to Newbor...
Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.
Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn
The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...
Keerti Swarnkar; Jayanta Vagha
Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW) infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). KMC essentially...
Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina
The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and
Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.
Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…
Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.
The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...
de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth
Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002
Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.
Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T;
between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....
TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah
Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...
Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose
Influência da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Effects of respiratory physiotherapy on the cardiopulmonary function of very low birth weight newborn infants
Carla Marques Nicolau
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de RNPT com peso de nascimento menor que 1500g, sendo verificados os valores de frequência cardíaca (FC, saturação de oxigênio (SatO2, frequência respiratória (FR e pressão arterial sistêmica (PA antes e após a fisioterapia respiratória e a aspiração endotraqueal. Os RNPT incluídos foram avaliados em sessões sequenciais entre o 3º-7º dias de vida por dois fisioterapeutas da unidade neonatal. Os valores de FC, SatO2 e PA foram coletados por monitorização eletrônica e a FR, por cronômetro. Na análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de ANOVA para medidas repetidas, sendo significante pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on cardiopulmonary function of ventilated preterm newborns infants (PTNB. METHODS: This prospective study included PTNB with birth weight lower than 1500g. Before and after respiratory physiotherapy and endotracheal suction, the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation (O2Sat, respiratory rate (RR and blood pressure (BP. The newborns were evaluated in consecutive sessions between the 3rd-7th day of life by two therapists in the neonatal unit. HR, O2Sat and BP data were collected by electronic monitoring and RR by a stopwatch. Results were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 PTNB, 57% females, with a mean birth weight of 1024g and a mean gestational age of 29.5 weeks. Only three PTNB had a 5th minute Apgar lower than 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the most prevalent disease (88%. In total, 252 physiotherapy sessions were applied to these 42 infants. HR, RR, O2Sat and BP remained within the physiological limits after procedures, including endotracheal suction. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures for physiotherapy
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....
proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the basic level of a community to solve this problem. Keywords: low birth weight, hospital, delivery, Nepal, fetal program, LBW, newborn, parity, pregnancy, preterm delivery
Servan-Mori, Edson; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Najera-Leon, Esmeralda; Darney, Blair G
This article examines the role of components of adequate antenatal care (ANC) in disparities in birth weight between indigenous and non-indigenous women in Mexico. We estimate the potential for added weight gain among indigenous infants if their mothers received timely, frequent ( ≥4 visits) and complete ANC (≥75% of recommended processes of care). We used population-based survey data (2012;N= 6612 women 12-49). We applied quantile regression to examine heterogeneity of the association between adequate ANC, indigenous ethnicity and birth weight across quantiles of the birth weight distribution. A greater proportion of indigenous women reported a low-birth weight infant (<2.5 kg) at last delivery (14 vs 8% among non-indigenous women). Coverage of adequate ANC (timely, frequent and complete care) is lower among indigenous (59%, CI:53;65) than non-indigenous (68%, CI:66;70) women. Indigenous ethnicity is associated with a lower birth weight across quantiles of the observed birth weight distribution: between 300 g in the 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 quantiles. Among indigenous women, greater newborn weight gains are achieved in the lowest quantiles if they have access to ≥75% of the content of ANC compared with those that did not have access: ∼180 and 260 g are gained in both quantiles 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. This means that the smallest indigenous newborns could potentially reach 2.36 kg (from 1.86 kg), close to the normal weight threshold. The frequency of ANC was positively associated with birth weight for all women but complete ANC appears to differentially affect indigenous women at the bottom of the birth weight distribution. The marginal gains obtained among indigenous newborns that received complete ANC compared with indigenous/non-indigenous newborns did not receive it, is particularly important in low-birth weight quantiles. Delivering basic processes of ANC may therefore have the potential to impact the highest risk women and help them to overcome the
Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information......% CI. RESULTS: Determinants of thymic size among normal birth weight infants were pathologic amniotic fluid (adjusted GMR for thymic index: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]) and male sex (GMR: 1.13 [1.06-1.22]). Among LBW infants, birth season (1.11 [1.01-1.22]), maternal body temperature (0.89 [0...
Anthropometry measurements, such as height and weight, have recently been used to predict poorer birth outcomes. However, the relationship between maternal height and birth outcomes remains unclear. We examined the effect of shorter maternal height on low birth weight (LBW) among 17,150 pairs of Japanese mothers and newborns. Data for this analysis were collected from newborns who were delivered at a large hospital in Japan. Maternal height was the exposure variable, and LBW and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were the outcome variables. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations. The shortest maternal height quartile (131.0–151.9 cm) was related to LBW (OR 1.91 [95% CI 1.64, 2.22]). The groups with the second (152.0–157.9 cm) and the third shortest maternal height quartiles (158.0–160.9 cm) were also related to LBW. A P trend with one quartile change also showed a significant relationship. The relationship between maternal height and NICU admission disappeared when the statistical model was adjusted for LBW. A newborn’s small size was one factor in the relationship between shorter maternal height and NICU admission. In developed countries, shorter mothers provide a useful prenatal target to anticipate and plan for LBW newborns and NICU admission. PMID:26955234
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…
Fatores de risco para a mortalidade de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Factores de riesgo para la mortalidad de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Risk factors for the mortality of very low birth weight newborns at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Jair Almeida Carneiro
newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from January 2007 to June 2010. Inborn infants weighing less than 1500g were eligible for the study. Maternal demographic variables, variables related to health conditions during pregnancy and delivery and variables related to newborn infants were collected. The association between variables was measured by chi-square test and Odds Ratio. Variables associated up to the level of 25% (p<0.25 in the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis by logistic regression, assuming a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: Data of 184 patients were analyzed, and 44 (23.9% of them died. The variables that remained statistically associated with death in very low birth weight infants after the multivariate analysis were: birth weight below 1000g (OR 7.29; 95%CI 3.19 - 16.63; p<0.001, Apgar Score at the 1st minute <7 (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.53 - 8.32, p=0.003, and report of less than four prenatal visits (OR 2.72; 95%CI 1.19 - 6.23, p=0.018. CONCLUSIONS: The results show gaps in prenatal care and the need for perinatal care improvement addressed to both mothers and infants.
Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, P. H.; Thomsen, T. B.
AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with...... birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, andmaternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to...
Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, P. H.; Thomsen, T. B.
AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with...... birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to...
Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;
Ab [beta = 0.002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development of...... thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...
Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.
M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J
Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...
Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner
Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...
Seonyeong Cho; Choongki Lee; Beomsoo Kim
There is growing concern that air pollution may impact the health of newborns. This study examines this issue by considering overtime variation generated by exogenous changes in the pollution level in Korea in early 2000, when some part of Korea experienced huge drop in air pollution. We matched the census of all births from 1998 to 2008 and air pollution data in mother¡¯s residence county level. For air pollutants, we considered carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, sulfur d...
Pedro Neves Tavares
Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.
Lund, Line Knutsen
In developed countries, an increasing number of children have survived after preterm birth during the latest decades. These children are surviving at the borders of viability and are at increased risk for a number of adverse outcomes. Few studies have followed low birth weight populations into adulthood. In this study, three groups of children born in the Trøndelag counties of Norway in 1986-88 have been followed up from birth to twenty years of age. Two groups born with low birth weight were...
Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita
The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...
Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the H...
Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)
Vatten Lars J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.
Carlos E. Pedreira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We present an updated birth weight-for-gestational-age portrait, based on nearly 8 million observations of an ethnic-mixed population. It comprises the first comprehensive charts with Brazilian data. This contribution intends to assist clinicians in classifying fetal growth, to provide a reference for investigations of predictors and to show the consequences of small and large patterns for gestational age delivery. Most of the reference data for assessing birth weight for gestational age deal with insufficient sample size, especially at low gestational age. Population-based studies with considerably large sample size refer to data collected more than 15 years ago. METHODS: We accomplished a population-based study on births in all the Brazilian states from 2003 to 2005. Results were based on 7,993,166 singletons. We constructed the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 90th, 95th and 97th smoothed percentiles curves and gender-specific tables from 22 to 43 completed weeks. RESULTS: The resulting tables and graphical representation provide a gender-specific reference to access the birth weights distribution according to the gestational age in the Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based reference constructed on a developing country data. These charts could provide an important tool to improve clinical assessment of growth in newborns.BACKGROUND E OBJETIVOS: Apresentamos um retrato atualizado de peso-por-idade-gestacional, baseado em quase 8 milhões de observações em uma população etnicamente misturada. Estas constituem as primeiras tabelas com dados brasileiros. Esta contribuição pretende dar assistência aos clínicos na classificação do crescimento fetal, e prover uma referência para pesquisas de prognósticos e consequências em partos com padrões pequenos e grandes para a idade gestacional. A maior parte dos dados de referência para estimar peso-por-idade-gestacional sofre de tamanho de
Premature birth and pregnancy to term, but with intrauterine growth restriction (often manifesting as birth small for gestational age, SGA, at term), both represent suboptimal environments for the developing infant brain and eyes. Very low birth weight (VLBW,The aims of this study, which is part of large interdisciplinary follow up study also including cognitive, psychiatric, paediatric and motor evaluation, as well as cerebral MRI, was threefold: to examine differences in visual functions be...
Evellyn Câmara Grilo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109. In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971. In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk.
Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;
The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...
Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C;
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.
Rabindra Nath Das
Full Text Available Objective: Epidemiological research often seeks to identify a causal relationship between the risk factors and the disease. Earlier researches suggest that mother age, her weight at last menstrual period, race, the number of physician visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, may affect on her neonate birth weight. Mechanisms of mother lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are intricately complicated. These mechanisms, however, can be easily interpreted through an appropriate mathematical relationship. The present study aims to identify the factors of mother's lifestyle characteristics which have statistical significant effects on her neonate birth weight based on statistical (or probabilistic modeling. Materials and Methods: The present study is based on the secondary data collected at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts during 1986. It was a routine data set. There was not any specific setting. Study subjects were 189 mothers, 59 of which had low birth weight babies and 130 of which had normal birth weight babies. Joint generalized linear log-normal statistical modeling of mean and variance is used. Results: The present analysis identifies that mother age (p= 0.063, her weight at last menstrual period (p= 0.019, race (p= 0.017, p= 022, smoking status (p= 0.014, history of premature labor (p= 0.008, history of hypertension (p= 0.031, 0.039 and presence of uterine irritability (p= 0.002 are statistically significant on her neonate birth weight. It has been detected that the variance of neonatal birth weight is non-constant, which invites the present study. Conclusion: Impacts of mother's lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are explained based on mathematical relationships. This analysis supports many earlier research findings. However, the present analysis also has identified many additional casual factors that have explained the mean and variance of neonatal birth weight, which was not reported by the
Chapman, Derek A.; Stampfel, Caroline C.; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Dodson, Kelley M.; Pandya, Arti; Lynch, Kathleen B.; Kirby, Russell S.
Purpose Early detection of hearing loss in all newborns and timely intervention are critical to children's cognitive, verbal, behavioral, and social development. The initiation of appropriate early intervention services before 6 months of age can prevent or reduce negative developmental consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess, using large, population-based registries, the effect of co-occurring birth defects (CBDs) on the timing and overall rate of hearing screening and diagnosis. Method The authors linked statewide data from newborn hearing screenings, a birth defects registry, and birth certificates to assess the timeliness of newborn hearing screening and diagnosis of hearing loss (HL) for infants with and without CBDs in 485 children with confirmed HL. Results Nearly one third (31.5%) of children with HL had 1 or more CBDs. The presence of CBDs prolonged the time of the initial infant hearing screening, which contributed to further delays in the subsequent diagnosis of HL. Conclusions Better coordination of HL assessment into treatment plans for children with CBDs may enable earlier diagnosis of HL and provide opportunities for intervention that will affect long-term developmental outcomes for these children. PMID:21940980
Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight (LBW has an important role in the mortality and morbidity of neonates and the incidence of LBW may vary across different environments. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and some related factors of LBW in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal study, all live births that were born in 5 maternity hospitals in Mazandaran province, north of Iran in 2011, were evaluated. Data including birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, living location, number of pregnancy and delivery, as well as multiple births were recorded in medical files. LBW neonates were compared with neonates whose birth weight was more than 2,500 gram (control group.Results: Out of 3792 infants, 2.9% (CI 95%: 2.3-3.3 were of low birth weight. Sixty percent of the infants in the LBW group and 8.3% in the control group were preterm, (p0.05.Conclusion: Results show that the incidence of LBW in Mazandaran was low and prevention of preterm labor, educational intervention programs for high risk can be effective in the prevention of low birth weight.
Manikanta Reddy V
Conclusion: Isolated Oligo and Polyhydramnios are associated with increased rate of Low Birth Weight (Very Low Birth Weight and Low Birth Weight neonates and Preterm deliveries. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 577-580
Full Text Available Background: In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. Objective: To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. Design: Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. Results: The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007. Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (p<0.001. Women delivering in private facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. Conclusions: In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.
Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.
Renata S. Leão
Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.
Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David;
(ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased......OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....... METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...
Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.
In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...
Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;
In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at bir...
This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by all monitors in the district of birth of each infant. Odds ratios of low birth weight (pollutant. The effects on low birth weight and prematurity were marginally stronger for exposures in the first trimester, and were not attenuated at all by adjustment for socioeconomic factors or the month of birth. Adjusted odds ratios of low birth weight were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.30] and 1.15 (CI, 1.07-1.24) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester; adjusted odds ratios of prematurity were 1.27 (CI, 1.16-1.39) and 1.18 (CI, 1.05-1.31) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester. Low gestational age accounted for the association between SO(2) and low birth weight. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10656859
Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;
diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...
Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack
Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...
Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez
Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.
Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.
Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M
The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time. PMID:25171131
Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.
This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774
Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping
Some trace elements are essential for newborns, their deficiency may cause abnormal biological functions, whereas excessive intakes due to environmental contamination may create adverse health effects. This study was conducted to measure the levels of selected trace elements in Chinese fish consumers by assessing their essentiality and toxicity via colostrum intake in newborns, and evaluated the effects of these trace elements on birth outcomes. Trace elements in umbilical cord serum and colostrum of the studied population were relatively high compared with other populations. The geometric means (GM) of estimated daily intake (EDI, mgday(-1)) of the trace elements were in the safe ranges for infant Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). When using total dietary intake (TDI, mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)), zinc (Zn) (0.880mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) and selenium (Se) (6.39×10(-3)mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) were above the Reference Doses (RfD), set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that Se was negatively correlated with birth outcomes. Our findings suggested that overloading of trace elements due to environmental contamination may contribute to negative birth outcomes. PMID:26803687
Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E.; Jesdale, Bill M.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel
Background: In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. Objective: We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Methods: Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in Californ...
Nutan Nalini; Atul Mukul
BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomal...
Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of...... the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor....
Francesca Bissolo; Carlo Alberto Forcellini; Stefania Spaggiari; Marcella Gaffuri; Giuseppe Pagano; Paolo Biban
Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocorti...
Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus
A1c values after 20th gestational week were collected. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the effect various predictors of birthweight in both entire cohort (n=501) and in a subset with available weight of sibling (n=139). Sibling weight was calculated as relative to expected weight...... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams. Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face. Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....
Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)
Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri
Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203
Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen
Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds. PMID:22005433
Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is closely related to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Management of LBW infants in developing countries remains limited, due to the low availability of incubators. The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method has been shown to be effective for newborns, especially LBW infants, in which skin-to-skin contact may be conducive for infants’ weight gain, thermoregulation, and heart rate stability.Objective To determine the prognostic factors for KMC success in LBW babies.Methods This cohort study included LBW infants at Dr. Kariadi General Government Hospital, Semarang, by a consecutive sampling method. Success of KMC was assessed by infant weight gain, as well as stabilization of temperature, heart rate, and respiration. Prognostic factors for KMC success that we assessed were birth weight, gestational age, KMC duration, age at KMC onset and maternal education level. Statistical analyses used were Chi-square and relative risk (RR tests.Results Of 40 LBW infants, 24 were successful in KMC. Birth weight ≥ 1500 grams (RR 0.4; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.73; P=0.001], gestational age ≥ 34 weeks (RR 0.94; 95%CI 0.46 to 1.89; P=1.00, KMC duration ≥ 65 minutes (RR 1.44; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.75; P= 0.215, high maternal education level (RR 1.25; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.04; P=0.408, and age at KMC onset >10 days (RR 2.69; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.32; P=0.003, were factors that related to the successful of KMC.Conclusion Age at KMC onset > 10 days was a prognostic factor for KMC success in low birth weight babies.
Full Text Available Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy BMI and socio-economic status in Northern Ghana.The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37-42 weeks. Mother's height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions.The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37% but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%. Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18-444 heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682- (-276 lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87-405 and 595g (95% CI 375-815 respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 -(-44 lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg.Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight
Premature birth and neonatal separation put parents through an intense emotional stress. Moreover, they are confronted to a newborn poorly equiped for social contacts. Adaptation potential is required from parents in the process of bonding to their premature infant. Maybe to compensate for their infant's interaction weaknesses, through initially hesitant, parents usually react by becoming more active with their preterm infant than with a full-term infant. However, in relation to poor family and emotional conditions, some parents'adap-tation potential is stretched beyond limits giving rise to mothering disorders. PMID:17093789
The paper investigates birth weight and its correlates in Kenya using nationally representative data collected by the government in the early 1990s. I find that immunization of the mother against tetanus during pregnancy is strongly associated with improvements in birth weight. Other factors significantly correlated with birth weight include age of the mother at first birth and birth orders of siblings. It is further found that birth weight is positively associated with mother's age at first ...
The aim of the study was to help to predict low birth weight infants by measuring placental diameter and thickness. A prospective study was conducted of 70 consecutive singleton pregnancies to evaluate placental diameter and thickness by ultrasonographic measurement at 36 weeks gestation. The individual data were fitted to a logistic regression analysis. A warning limit of a placental diameter of 18 cm and placental thickness of 2 cm at 36 weeks gestation were calculated to predict low birth weight infants. Ultrasonograhic placental diameter and thickness measurements appear to be of prognostic value in identifying the subsequent occurrence of fetal growth retardation. (author)
Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F
An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. PMID:27174826
Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn
The link between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes is of public health concern due to the relationship between poor pregnancy outcomes and the onset of childhood and adult diseases. As personal exposure measurements are difficult and expensive to obtain, proximate measures of air pollution exposure are traditionally used. We explored how different air pollution exposure metrics affect birth weight regression models. We examined the effect of maternal exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter pregnancy for 2000-2002 (n=350,754). County-level averages of air pollution concentrations were estimated for the entire pregnancy and each trimester. For a finer spatially resolved metric, we calculated exposure averages for women living within 20, 10, and 5 km of a monitor. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between exposure and birth weight, adjusting for standard covariates. In the county-level model, an interquartile increase in PM(10) and PM(2.5) during the entire gestational period reduced the birth weight by 5.3 g (95% CI: 3.3-7.4) and 4.6 g (95% CI: 2.3-6.8), respectively. This model also showed a reduction in birth weight for PM(10) (7.1 g, 95% CI: 1.0-13.2) and PM(2.5) (10.4 g, 95% CI: 6.4-14.4) during the third trimester. Proximity models for 20, 10, and 5 km distances showed results similar to the county-level models. County-level models assume that exposure is spatially homogeneous over a larger surface area than proximity models. Sensitivity analysis showed that at varying spatial resolutions, there is still a stable and negative association between air pollution and birth weight, despite North Carolina's consistent attainment of federal air quality standards. PMID:19773814
Cathrine Hoyo; Randy Jirtle; Joanne Kurtzberg; Francine Overcash; Nikki Henry; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R.; Wendy Demark-Wahnefried; Kimberly Fortner; Vidal, Adriana C.; Murtha, Amy P; Susan K Murphy
At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (...
Omolola O Ayoola
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an increasing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria remains common in pregnancy. We established a birth cohort in Nigeria to evaluate the early impact of maternal malaria on newborn blood pressure (BP. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, BP, blood films for malaria parasites and haematocrit were obtained in 436 mother-baby pairs. Women were grouped to distinguish between the timing of malaria parasitaemia as 'No Malaria', 'Malaria during pregnancy only' or 'Malaria at delivery', and parasite density as low (<1000 parasites/µl of blood and high (≥ 1000/µl. RESULTS: Prevalence of maternal malaria parasitaemia was 48%, associated with younger maternal age (p<0.001, being primigravid (p = 0.022, lower haematocrit (p = 0.028. High parasite density through pregnancy had the largest effect on mean birth indices so that weight, length, head and mid-upper arm circumferences were smaller by 300 g, 1.1 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively compared with 'No malaria' (all p ≤ 0.005. In babies of mothers who had 'malaria at delivery', their SBPs adjusted for other confounders were lower respectively by 4.3 and 5.7 mmHg/kg compared with 'malaria during pregnancy only' or 'none'. In contrast the mean newborn systolic (SBP and diastolic BPs (DBP adjusted for birth weight were higher by 1.7 and 1.4 mmHg/kg respectively in babies whose mothers had high compared with low parasitaemia. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, prenatal malarial exposure had a significant impact on fetal growth rates. Malaria at delivery was associated with the lowest newborn BPs while malaria through pregnancy, which may attenuate growth of the vascular network, generated higher newborn BPs adjusted for size. These neonatal findings have potential implications for cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa.
A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
BACKGROUND: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS: We...... investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations with...... death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality was...
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.
BACKGROUND:: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS......:: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years....... Associations with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS:: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...
Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobak, M.
Copenhagen : WHO, 2005 - (Theakston, F.), s. 14-27 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * pregnancy outcome * birth weight Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality
Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi
Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…
van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul
It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t
Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille;
Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...
Hu, Xiaobin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Yibin; Holford, Theodore; Lin, Shaobin; Leaderer, Brian; Qiu, Jie; Bassig, Bryan A.; Shi, Kunchong; Zhang, Yawei; Niu, Jianjun; Zhu, Yong; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Huan; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Jianqing; Xu, Shunqing; Jin, Yinlong
OBJECTIVE To measure serum levels of heavy metals in Chinese pregnant women and their newborns, and to evaluate the association of these metals with infant birth weight STUDY DESIGN We measured serum concentrations of lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), nickle (Ni), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in 81 mother-infant pairs using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of these heavy metals with infant birth weight. RESULTS Se, Pb, As, and Cd showed the highest detection rates (98.8%) in both the maternal and cord blood, followed by Tl, which was detected in 79.0% and 71.6% of the maternal and cord blood samples, respectively. Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected, with concentrations of 23.1 ng/g and 22.0 ng/g, respectively. No significant associations were observed between any heavy metals and birth weight. However, Tl in the maternal and cord blood was most notably inversely associated with birth weight. CONCLUSION Se intake was low in Chinese women and their newborns, whereas Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected. Tl was a unique pollution source in this population, and Tl levels were shown to have the largest effect on decreasing infant birth weight in this pilot study. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals—especially Tl and Pb—on birth outcomes in Chinese infants. PMID:25745747
Namiiro Flavia B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close
Rachel Gick Fan
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.
Seidman, D S; Laor, A.; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Mashiach, S; Danon, Y L
Objective--To study the effect of birth weight and body weight on blood pressure in late adolescence. Design--Analysis of data on weight, height, and blood pressure at age 17 of subjects from the Jerusalem perinatal study, according to their birth weight. Data for men and women were analysed separately. Setting--Jerusalem, Israel. Subjects--32,580 subjects (19,734 men and 12,846 women) born in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem during 1964-71 and subsequently drafted in to the army. MAIN ...
Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel
Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...
Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.
Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.
Jandeck, C; Kellner, U.; Kössel, H; Bartsch, M.; Versmold, H T; Foerster, M. H.
BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia ...
Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.
Amegah Adeladza K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results
Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max
Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353
The problems of maternal malnutrition, low birthweight, and infant mortality and morbidity were investigated in a prospective study (1981-85) involving 7586 pregnant women (3197 from urban areas and 4389 from rural areas) in India. The mothers were followed until their infants were 1 year of age. There were 6879 live births among these women and 208 still births (a rate of 29.3/1000 deliveries). The perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were 65.3/1000, 57.7/1000, and 94.5/1000, respectively. 90% of these deaths involved infants with a birthweight below 2000 grams. Overall, 39% of infants studied were classified as low birthweight (under 2500 grams). Factors associated with low birthweight included maternal age below 19 years or over 35 years, maternal weight below 40 kg, maternal height below 145 cm, weight gain during pregnancy of under 5 kg, an interpregnancy interval less than 24 months, hemoglobin less than 8 grams%, and maternal illiteracy. Moderate to severe morbidity (neonatalas phyxia) was found in 10% of the births in this series. Breastfeeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 77% of rural births and 13% of urban births; 30% of infants in both settings were given a bottle within the 1st week of life. 98% of rural mothers and 85% of urban mothers did not utilize available maternal-child health services in the postpartum period. Reducing the incidence of low birthweight births through primary health care interventions such as screening, food supplementation, adequate prenatal care, and correction of maternal nutritional deficiencies is the best strategy for improving infant survival in India. In the interim period, adequate health care must be made available to low birthweight infants and proper feeding practices should be promoted. PMID:3440594
M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq
Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.
D A Leon
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social cla...
Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen
To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835
Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.
Denise Cavalcante de Barros
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the performance of various anthropometric evaluation methods for adolescent pregnant women in the prediction of birth weight. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study including 826 adolescent pregnant women. In the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI classification, the recommendations of the World Health Organization were compared with that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Institute of Medicine (IOM of 1992 and 2006. The gestational weight gain adequacy was evaluated according to the classification of IOM of 1992, of 2006 and of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The newborns were classified as low birth weight (LBW or macrosomic. Multinomial logistic regression was used for statistical analysis and sensibility, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: The evaluation, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, showed the best prediction for LBW among pregnant women with low weight gain (specificity = 69.5%. The evaluation according to the IOM of 1992 showed the best prediction for macrosomia among pregnant women with high weight gain (specificity = 50.0%. The adequacy of weight gain according to the IOM of 1992 classification showed the best prediction for LBW (OR = 3.84; 95%CI 2.19 - 6.74, followed by the method of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.73 - 4.79, among pregnant women with low weight gain. Conclusion: It is recommended the adoption of the Brazilian Ministry of Health proposal, associated with BMI cut-offs specific for adolescents as an anthropometric assessment method for adolescent pregnant women.
Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan
Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006
Morris, Shaun; Choong, Karen
The improvement in survival in premature infants associated with the evolution of mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by an increase in ventilator induced lung injury. High frequency ventilation has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury and hence chronic lung disease in the very low birth weight infant. The evolution in understanding how to best use high frequency ventilation in this population has prompted us to ask whether similar strategies to optimiz...
Fetal and extrauterine life form a continuum during which human growth and development are affected by genetic, environmental, and social factors. Perinatal mortality is influenced by prenatal, maternal, and fetal conditions and by circumstances surrounding delivery. The majority of infants deaths and developmental disorders are due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight (LBW), as well as maternal complications of pregnancy and congenital malformations (chromoso...
K Jagadish Kumar
Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.
Esra Arun Özer
Full Text Available Pur po se: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a proliferative vascular disease which affects premature newborns and occurs during vessel development. The pathogenesis of ROP is complex and includes oxidative damage to the developing retina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ROP with serum vitamin A levels and clinical parameters in infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and birth weight of ≤1500 grams. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Newborns admitted to Newborn Intensive Care Unit within the first 24 hours of life, with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks, birth weight ≤1500 grams, without any major congenital anomalies, inborn error of metabolism or prior history of blood/blood products transfusion were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, ROP (+ and ROP (-, according to the presence of ROP at any stage. Serum vitamin A levels and gender, type of delivery, birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization and oxygen supply, multiple gestation, preeclampsia, PDA, sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage of the groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. Re sults: The mean gestational age of these infants was 29.2±2.0 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1287±197 grams. ROP was diagnosed in 48% of infants and the mean serum vitamin A level was 0.56±0.45 μmol/L. In 44 cases (84%, vitamin A level was determined low (<0.7 μmol/L and was extremely low (<0.35 μmol/L in 17 cases (32.7%. There was no significant difference between the ROP (+ and ROP (- groups in terms of vitamin A levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of birth weight, gestational age, multiple gestation, duration of hospitalization and oxygen supply. Dis cus si on: Our results suggest that low birth weight, small gestational age, duration of hospitalization, oxygen exposure time and multiple gestation may increase the risk of ROP, while serum vitamin A level
Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study.Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight 4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals.Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02.Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.
Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;
We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....
Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine
Paola Manduca; Awny Naim; Simona Signoriello
This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents ...
Bremberg Sven; Arnoldsson Göran; Sellström Eva; Hjern Anders
Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used....
Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel
Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689
Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G
Low birth weight (LBWAcademic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315
Christopher W Kuzawa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 < or = BMI < 25), especially before 34 completed weeks of gestation, when obese...... women faced twice the risk. In the adjusted analysis, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PPROM and for induced preterm delivery in obese women were 1.5 [1.2, 1.9] and 1.2 [1.0, 1.6] respectively. When obesity-related diseases were accounted for, no excess risk of induced preterm...
R. Singh et al.
Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.
Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, M; Raymond, K;
decrease again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. CONCLUSION: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s......BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... and phase of the yearly cycles to change. RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer...
Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Full Text Available Background Candida colonization is a major risk factor for invasive candidiasis in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the rate, risk factors, and sources of colonization in low birth weight (LBW and very low birth weight (VLBW infants in an NICU. Patients and Methods All cases were classified in to 1 of 2 groups: LBW and VLBW. A questionnaire that collected demographic data was completed for each case. Swabs were obtained from the ear, umbilicus, and rectum, as well as catheters, tracheal tubes, and nasogastric tubes. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 102 cases were examined in this study. The mean weight of the infants was 1720 ± 474 gr (range 850 - 2500 gr. Positive Candida cultures were isolated in 19 (31.7% cases in the LBW group and 20 (47.6% cases in the VLBW group. In addition, 36 (35.3% cases showed signs of sepsis. The mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 1. The umbilicus and rectum were the most common sites for Candida colonization in both groups. The analysis also indicated that the duration of hospitalization, prolonged use of corticosteroids, central venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation were associated with candidiasis infection in VLBW infants while prolonged use of corticosteroids and central venous catheters were major risk factors associated with candidiasis infection in LBW infants. Conclusions These results show that maturity and birth weight are related to a decrease in the risk of developing a candidiasis infection.
Amit, Agrawal; Kumar, Aravind
Objective: Assessment of serum Zinc in LBW (Low Birth Weight) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates in relation to their maternal zinc level. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of central India between August 2011 to July 2012. Serum samples were collected from the eligible LBW (preterm & term IUGR) and term AGA healthy neonates and their mothers for zinc level estimation. Serum zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Newborn of mothers having any medical illness, on any medication, with anaemia (Hb 2.5kg) were categorized as control group. Mean serum zinc level was significantly low in LBW neonates (83.45±16.74 μg/dl) in comparison to term AGA newborns (93.74±19.95 μg/dl), (p-value <0.05). Similarly, zinc level was also low in mothers of LBW babies (67.02±15.99 μg/dl) in comparison to mothers of term AGA newborns (83.59±18.46 μg/dl), (p-value < 0.05). Low maternal zinc levels were significant correlated with lower serum zinc in LBW neonates (Pearson correlation value - 0.938). However, maternal zinc levels have shown no significant correlation with neonatal serum zinc levels in term AGA (0.029). Conclusion: LBW neonates and their mothers have significant zinc deficiency as compared to term AGA neonates and their mothers and this deficiency is correlated with zinc deficiency in mothers of these LBW neonates. PMID:25738050
Kwak, Jae Ryoung; Gwon, Myounghoon; Lee, Jang Hoon; Park, Moon Sung; Kim, Sung Hwan
Purpose It is to examine clinical manifestations, early biochemical indicators, and risk factors for non-oliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). Materials and Methods We collected clinical and biochemical data from 75 ELBWI admitted to Ajou University Hospital between Jan. 2008 and Jun. 2011 by reviewing medical records retrospectively. NOHK was defined as serum potassium ≥7 mmol/L during the first 72 hours of life with urine output ≥1 mL/kg/h. Results NOHK...
Mario Eugénio Tchamo; Marcos André Moura dos Santos; Marcelus Brito de Almeida; António Manuel Machado Prista e Silva; Carol Góis Leandro
ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years) were divided into four groups (low birth weight < 2.500 g, LBW, n = 49; insufficient birth weight ≥ 2.500 g and < 3.000 g, IBW, n = 27; normal birth weight ...
Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per;
Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers......, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin...
Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.
Ngwira, Alfred; Stanley, Christopher C.
Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than ...
Caro-Petrović V.; Petrović M.P.; Ilić Z.; Petrović M.M.; Milošević B.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Maksimović N.
The birth weight of lambs has an essential role in satisfying sheep production. Also reflected as primary factor later development of young organism. In the study included: gestation length, sire (two sires in each genotype during parenting), sex of lambs at birth, the birth weight of single lambs from well nourished mature ewes of the next genotypes: Miss (1), Wurttemberg (2) and Ile de France (3). The highest birth weight was obtained in genotype 3 with a...
Gallacher, J.; Gallacher, A
The relation of low birth weight to psychosocial stress in pregnancy was examined using a life events inventory and a state anxiety index. Two hundred and fifty women were randomly selected and interviewed three times during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. Twenty six were excluded. Of the remaining 224 women, nine miscarried, 195 had healthy term babies, and 20 gave birth to babies that were either premature or of low birth weight at term. Low birth weight and prematurity were significa...
Laurent, O; Wu, J.; Li, L.; Chung, J.; Bartell, S
Background: Exposure to air pollution is frequently associated with reductions in birth weight but results of available studies vary widely, possibly in part because of differences in air pollution metrics. Further insight is needed to identify the air pollution metrics most strongly and consistently associated with birth weight. Methods. We used a hospital-based obstetric database of more than 70,000 births to study the relationships between air pollution and the risk of low birth weight (LBW,
Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun; Li, Lianfa; Chung, Judith; Bartell, Scott
Background Exposure to air pollution is frequently associated with reductions in birth weight but results of available studies vary widely, possibly in part because of differences in air pollution metrics. Further insight is needed to identify the air pollution metrics most strongly and consistently associated with birth weight. Methods We used a hospital-based obstetric database of more than 70,000 births to study the relationships between air pollution and the risk of low birth weight (LBW,
Ghouse, Ghulam; Zaid, Muhammad
This study investigates the impact of different independent factors on birth weight of infant. The Demographic and Health Survey of Pakistan (PDHS) 2014 data are used for empirical analysis. Binomial Logit Regression is employed for analysis. The analysis revealed the significant relationship of birth weight with mother’s education; Mother’s working status, wealth index of family, gender of child, Place of residence, age of mother at first birth with birth weight of infant. The analysis also ...
An interpretive phenomenological study involving 17 Australian parents was undertaken to explore parents' experiences of breastfeeding very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants from birth to 12 months of age. Data were collected from 45 individual interviews held with both mothers and fathers, which were then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. From this study, the analysis identified the following themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breastmilk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. The discussion presented here presents the theme of the intention to breastfeed 'naturally'. This study found that all of the participant women decided to breastfeed well before the preterm birth, and despite the birth of a VLBW preterm infant continued to expect the breastfeeding experience to be normal regardless of the difference of the postpartum experience. It is without doubt that for these parents the pro-breastfeeding rhetoric is powerfully influential and thus successful in promoting breastfeeding. Furthermore, all participants expected breastfeeding to be 'natural' and satisfying. There is disparity between parents' expectations of breastfeeding 'naturally' and the commonplace reality of long-term breast expression and uncertain at-breast feeding outcomes. How the parents came to make the decision to breastfeed their unborn child -- including the situations and experiences that have influenced their decision making -- and how the preterm birth and the dominant cultures subsequently affected that decision will be discussed. The findings have implications for midwifery education and maternity care professionals who support parents making feeding decisions early in pregnancy and those striving to breastfeed preterm infants. PMID:18162451
Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities
Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.
Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.;
/week (95 % CI 19, 34) and 30 g/week (95 % CI 13, 46), respectively). The association between the GL and PPWR was most pronounced among pre-pregnant obese women, with an increase in weight retention of 1·3 (95 % CI 0·2, 2·8) kg from the lowest to highest GL quintile. The GL may play a role for excessive......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...... gestational weight gain and PPWR, which may be more pronounced among overweight and obese women....
In Malaysia, mutton (as chevon is called locally) is one of the main red meat consumed. The total mutton demand in 2007 was 20,000 mT. However, its output for the year was only 1750 mT, a mere 8.75% self-sufficiency. The demand is met by import of mutton and live animals, especially from Australia. However, with stimulus provided under the National Agricultural Policy and the recent introduction of the Boer goats with excellent body conformation, growth rate and carcass quality, the goat industry is rapidly developing. Many medium to large Boer goat farms are being established with purebred Boer goats and crosses imported from Australia and South African as breeding animals. Many of the farmers are new to the farming industry and have acquired knowledge and skills through short courses, publications, government extension workers, local and foreign stock suppliers, or hired consultants. To ensure the economic viability of the industry, good management systems, quality and cost-effective feed resources, and highly productive animals are essential. However, there is little information on the growth and reproductive performance of Boer goats in Malaysia. In addition, the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors influencing the traits of interest have yet to be evaluated. A project was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance of the Boer goats under intensive management system. This reports the preliminary results, focusing on the effects of year of birth, sex of kid and litter type on birth and weaning weights in one of the newly established Boer goat farms. The data is from 397 purebred Boer kids, offspring of 174 does and 16 bucks imported from Australia, in a medium sized (300-1000 heads), commercial farm. The kids were raised with their dams in group pens in raised, wooden sheds. They were fed fresh Napier grass, provided twice daily, supplemented with concentrated feed. The kids were weaned at about 90 d of age. The GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 was used to
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.
Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero
Introduction People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development. Methods We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2) locus (IGF2/H19) in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We stud...
Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was