Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.
Arthur C Ouwehand; Merja Nermes; Maria Carmen Collado; Nina Rautonen; Seppo Salminen; Erika Isolauri
AIM: To investigate whether birch pollen allergy symptoms are linked with gut microbiota changes and whether probiotics have an effect on these. METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophi lus) NCFMTM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils.RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers 106 bacteria/g feces ( P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects,(76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose,while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%,reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group ( P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1%vs 95% ( P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5)( P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics ( P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms.
Rentzos, Georgios; Lundberg, Vanja; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Pullerits, Teet; Telemo, Esbjörn
Background Birch pollen allergic patients frequently experience gastrointestinal upset accompanied by a local allergic inflammation in the small intestine especially during the pollen season. However, it is not known if the GI pathology is connected to the subjective symptoms of the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune pathology of the duodenal mucosa and the serum IgE antibody profiles in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to their gastrointestinal symptoms...
Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.
In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis
Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...
Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.
A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10
Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al
Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.
Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald
As published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global warming is a reality and its impact is huge like the increase of extreme weather events, glacier recession, sea level rise and also effects on human health. Among them allergies to airborne pollen might increase or change in pattern due to the invasion of new allergic plants or due to different behavior of plants like earlier flowering. In this study we used the longest Swiss airborne pollen data set to examine the influence of the temperature increase on the time of flowering. In the case of Basel, where pollen data for 38 years are available, it was shown that due to a temperature increase the start of flowering in the case of birch occurred about 15 days earlier. Apart from a shift of the start of the flowering there is also a trend towards higher annual birch pollen quantities and an increase of the highest daily mean pollen concentrations. Due to global warming and because symptoms may appear earlier in the year people suffering from a pollen allergy might face a new unaccustomed situation.
Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina;
BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...
Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;
Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...
Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent
As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409
In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)
Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D.
Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specif...
Asero, R; Massironi, F; Velati, C
To determine why a significant proportion of birch pollen-sensitive patients do not have the oral allergy syndrome (OAS), possible predictive in vivo or in vitro tests for OAS were sought in a large retrospective and prospective follow-up study performed in 283 patients with clinical evidence of birch pollen hypersensitivity. OAS was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms and with higher birch-specific and total IgE levels; moreover, its onset was clearly related to duration of birch pollinosis. The prospective part of this study, performed in 63 patients without OAS, confirmed these findings and highlighted the very high negative predictive value of both skin prick tests with fresh foods and RAST with food allergens. This work suggests that about 15% of patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity are not prone to OAS and that their anti-birch IgE might be directed against determinants that do not crossreact with food allergens. PMID:8621846
Stephan Deifl; Christian Zwicker; Eva Vejvar; Claudia Kitzmüller; Gabriele Gadermaier; Birgit Nagl; Susanne Vrtala; Peter Briza; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Barbara Bohle
Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. T...
Kleine-Tebbe, J; Galleani, M; Jeep, S; Pilz, B; Baisch, A; Kunkel, G
Histamine release (HR) studies were performed in 40 birch pollen-allergic patients (positive case history, positive SPT, positive birch pollen-specific serum IgE: RAST > or = 3) with (n = 20, A) and without (n = 20, B) fruit hypersensitivity, and 10 nonatopic volunteers (C). Several fruit allergens were used and characterized by protein determination and immunoblot techniques. Dose-dependent HR (apple peel = apple pulp > peach = cherry) was demonstrated in both allergic groups, but to a higher extent in patients with fruit allergy (P < 0.01). Increased basophil sensitivity to birch pollen was found in the group with fruit allergy (P < 0.001). Strong correlations between the mediator response induced by several fruits indicate common allergens within the extracts. We conclude that fruit-related symptoms require not only high specific serum IgE, but a strong cellular sensitization to birch pollen allergens together with an increased cellular reactivity to fruit allergens. PMID:1283657
Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration
Background In 1993 extremely high levels of birch pollen were recorded in Stockholm, Sweden. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of aeroallergen exposure on the early immune response. Objective To assess the influence of exposure to birch pollen during pregnancy and early infancy, on the allergen-specific IgE- and IgG4-antibody (ab) response and development of atopic disease in children. Methods A total of 970 children with atopic heredity and born in ...
Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B.; Faustmann, S.; Kopp, S.; Wolkersdorfer, M.; Bohle, B
It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients w...
Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried
Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013-2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. PMID:25935611
Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013–2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. - Highlights: • The definition of the pollen season has an impact on the calculated symptom load. • Pollen season definitions based on percentages of total pollen are a practical solution. • The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. • Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable. - The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable
Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B
It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126
Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen
birch skin prick test weal diameter of > or =4 mm, a positive conjunctival provocation test result, and specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2, as well as with the presence of other allergies. Specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2 was 87.5% predictive for allergy development, whereas a negative conjunctival...... risk is any subject with target organ sensitivity, an elevated specific IgE level, and/or a skin prick test weal diameter of >4 mm....
B. G. Pummer
Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.
Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Štěpánková, Renata; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Wiedermann, U.
Herborn: Old Herborn University, 2009 - (Heidt, P.; Hanson, L.; Tlaskalová, H.; Rusch, V.), s. 11-19 ISBN 3-923022-33-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA ČR GA303/08/0367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free * microbiota * birch pollen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K
Background Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the ...
Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H;
There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America.......There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....
de Weger Letty A
Full Text Available Abstract Background For the development of forecasts for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms, it is essential to understand the relationship between grass pollen concentrations and the symptoms of grass pollen allergic patients. Objective The aim of this study was to delineate this relationship between seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms and grass pollen concentrations in the Netherlands. Methods Grass pollen allergic patients (n = 80  - 84  were enrolled into the study. They were asked to enter their seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms (runny nose, sneezing, blocked nose, post nasal drip, and eye symptoms daily on a scale from 0 to 3 to the study centre either by short message service (SMS or by internet from May-July 2007 and April-July 2008. Daily pollen counts were used to define the early and the late grass pollen season as the period 'before and during' respectively 'after' the first grass pollen peak (more than 150 pollen/m3. Results At similar grass pollen concentrations, the daily mean of the individual maximum symptom scores reported in the early season were higher as compared to that reported in the late season [differences of -0.41 (2007 and -0.30 (2008]. This difference could not be explained by medication use by the patients nor by co-sensitization to birch. Conclusions We conclude that seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms at similar grass pollen concentrations are more severe in the early flowering season as compared to those in the late flowering season. This finding is not only relevant for development of forecasts for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms but also for understanding symptom development and planning and analysis of clinical studies.
van't Westende Wendy PC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H
identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed......In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial......, whether the active agents from apples and potatoes were extremely labile allergens, plant lectins, or low molecular weight substances with a direct or indirect histamine release effect....
Gruzieva, O.; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J.; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M.
Abstract Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung‐function‐ and IgE‐tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO 2, PM 10, PM 2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure t...
Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises A; Casale, Thomas B;
grass pollen SLIT regimens have confirmed the efficacy and safety observed in the clinical trials. In the treatment of pollen-induced AR, pre- and co-seasonal SLIT regimens appear to be at least as effective and safe as perennial SLIT regimens, and are associated with lower costs and good compliance...... (i.e. pre-seasonal alone, co-seasonal alone or pre- and co-seasonal). Pre-and co-seasonal regimens are typically used for sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) and have economic and compliance advantages over perennial (year-round) regimens. However, these advantages must not come at the expensive...... formulation). Progress in SLIT has been made in defining the optimal dose of major allergen, the administration frequency (daily), the duration of pre-seasonal treatment (four months) and the number of treatment seasons (at least three). Post-marketing, "real-life" trials of pre- and co-seasonal birch or...
Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati
Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265
Pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that originate allergic processes. Knowledge of intradiurnal variation of the atmospheric pollen may be useful for the treatment and prevention of pollen allergies. Intradiurnal fluctuation of hourly pollen counts in 24 h are related to the daily rhythm of anther opening, and modified by various interacting factors. Flowering and pollen production of individual species are influenced by genetic, phenological, ecological, meteorological and climatic factors. Estimation of the intradiurnal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 7 years (2006-2012) permitted analysis of hourly variation of the pollen count of birch (Betula) and ash (Fraxinus) in 24 h, and evaluation of the impact of weather conditions and the concentration of gas air pollutants on the intradiurnal patterns of both taxa. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Consecutive phases during the day were defined as 1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total pollen. The analysis revealed that 50% of total daily pollen was noted at 14:00 for Betula and Fraxinus. The hourly distribution of birch pollen count skewed to the left and the majority of pollen of this taxon appears in the air in the first 12 hours of the day. However, for ash, the hourly distribution of pollen count skewed to the right. Statistically significant correlation was noted between the Betula and Fraxinus pollen concentration and the mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, air pressure, total radiation and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). PMID:23311785
Doušková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozáková, Hana
Kysucke Nove Mesto: Pamida International, 2010. s. 111-111. ISBN 978-80-970168-4-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Hufnagel, K.; Wild, C.; Winkler, B.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.
Vienna: Basic Science in Allergology, 2006, s. 28-28. [Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology /25./. Vienna (AT), 10.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : intestinal microflora * birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Alcázar, Purificación; García Mozo, Herminia; Trigo, María del Mar; Ruiz, Luis; González Minero, Francisco José; Hidalgo Fernández, Pablo José; Díaz de la Guardia, Consuelo; Galán, Carmen
Platanus is a major cause of pollen allergy in many Spanish cities. The present paper reports an analysis of Platanus pollen season throughout the Andalusia region (southern Spain), which has among the highest pollen counts and the highest incidence of Platanus-related allergies in Europe. The main aim was to analyze pollen season trends from 1992 to 2010 in Andalusia; models were also constructed to forecast the start of the season. Daily pollen counts were recorded using Hirst-t...
González Minero, Francisco José; Alcázar, Purificación; Grada Pozo, Herminia; Trigo, María del Mar; Ruiz, Luis; Hidalgo, Pablo; Díaz de la Guardia, Consuelo; Galán, Carmen
Platanus is a major cause of pollen allergy in many Spanish cities. The present paper reports an analysis of Platanus pollen season throughout the Andalusia region (southern Spain), which has among the highest pollen counts and the highest incidence of Platanus-related allergies in Europe. The main aim was to analyze pollen season trends from 1992 to 2010 in Andalusia; models were also constructed to forecast the start of the season. Daily pollen counts were recorded using Hirst-type volumetr...
Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.
Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphou...
Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, R.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Smith, M.; Sommer, J.; Hertel, Ole
pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in...... Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway
Scheifinger, Helfried; Belmonte, Jordina; Buters, Jeroen; Celenk, Sevcan; Damialis, Athanasios; Dechamp, Chantal; García-Mozo, Herminia; Gehrig, Regula; Grewling, Lukasz; Halley, John; Hogda, Kjell-Arild; Jäger, Siegfried; Karatzas, Kostas; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Koch, Elisabeth; Pauling, Andreas; Peel, Robert George; Sikoparija, Branko; Smith, Matt; Galán-Soldevilla, Carmen; Thibaudon, Michel; Vokou, Despina; de Weger, Letty
forecast systems. Over the last decades consistent monitoring efforts of various national networks have created a wealth of pollen concentration time series. These constitute a nearly untouched treasure, which is still to be exploited to investigate questions concerning pollen emission, transport and......The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications of...... aeropalynology in agriculture and the European Pollen Information System. Three data sources are directly related with aeropalynology: phenological observations, pollen counts and remote sensing of the vegetation activity. The main future challenge is the assimilation of these data streams into numerical pollen...
Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.
Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr
Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153
Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.
The structure factors deposited with PDB entry 3k78 show properties inconsistent with experimentally observed diffraction data, and without uncertainty represent calculated structure factors. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l. A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified
桦树花粉、大豆和苹果过敏原之间高免疫球蛋白E 相关性表明中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏患者很可能同时患有花粉-食物综合征%High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China
Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Zhi-xiang WANG; Xing-ai KONG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI; Michael D SPANGFORT
目的：研究中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏及花粉–食物过敏综合征。 创新点：国内首次研究花粉–食物过敏综合征，为中国北方地区此类患者的诊断和治疗提出了新思路。 方法：采集临床中过敏患者血清，检测桦树花粉及其主要过敏原特异性免疫球蛋白 E（IgE），同时检测大豆和苹果过敏原的特异性IgE，并评价其相关性。 结论：中国北方地区桦树花粉季节对此花粉过敏的患者有16.7%以上，主要是对桦树花粉第一组过敏原致敏。这些患者大多数同时对大豆和苹果的主要过敏原过敏，这种特异性IgE高相关性说明临床上存在花粉–食物过敏综合征。%Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pol en-food syndrome among Chinese al ergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 al ergic patients from the northern part of China and col ected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pol en extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple al ergen Mal d 1 and soy bean al ergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results:Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost al Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions:The prevalence of birch al ergy among patients visiting health care during pol en season can be as high as 16.7%in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch al ergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pol en al ergen Bet v 1 as wel as to the
Grass pollen allergens are a frequent cause of pollen allergy in Poland and other European countries. The research on aeroplankton conducted in Lublin since 2001 allows characterization of the course of grass pollen seasons and estimation of the effect of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative air humidity, precipitation and maximum wind velocity on the taxon's pollen concentration. The gravimetric method was used in the study. During the eight-year research period, the pollen season usua...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate pollen seasons of selected taxa with particular reference to allergic taxa such as birch (Betula sp., grasses (Poaceae, mugwort (Artemisia sp. in Cracow in 2003 and 2004 (project number 3 PO5D 034 24 funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary Burkard trap and personal Partrap FA 52 were compared. The volumetric method was used in the study. Average daily concentrations (pollen grains × m-3 were obtained by counting pollen grains every hour along 4 longitudinal transects and applying an appropriate conversion factor. Duration of the pollen season was determined using the 95% method. Variations in annual totals of pollen grains (birch and mugwort, in start dates (especially for grasses and in the season duration (birch and grasses were found. The comparison of pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary and personal traps at the same place showed non statistically significant correlation for all the studied taxa and statistically significant correlations for birch, mugwort and grasses (Spearman rank correlation. However, the statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using Burkard and Partrap carried by patients (Wilcoxon's test were noted. Very low concentrations of pollen grains measured indoor (work, flats and the influence of the local plants growing in separate place (courtyard of the Allergology Department on the pollen concentration were found.
Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract.First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells.Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses.Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis.
Wagner, Angelika; Schabussova, Irma; Drinic, Mirjana; Akgün, Johnnie; Loupal, Gerhard; Kundi, Michael; Joachim, Anja; Wiedermann, Ursula
Introduction Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA) could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP) allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract. Methods First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Results Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis. PMID
Full Text Available The airborne indoor pollen in a hospital of Badajoz (Spain was monitored over two years using a personal Burkard sampler. The air was sampled in four places indoors—one closed room and one open ward on each of the ground and the third floors—and one place outdoors at the entrance to the hospital. The results were compared with data from a continuous volumetric sampler. While 32 pollen types were identified, nearly 75% of the total counts were represented by just five of them. These were: Quercus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Olea, and Plantago. The average indoor concentration was 25.2 grains/m3, and the average indoor/outdoor ratio was 0.27. A strong seasonal pattern was found, with the highest levels in spring and winter, and the indoor concentrations were correlated with the outdoor one. Indoor air movement led to great homogeneity in the airborne pollen presence: the indoor results were not influenced by whether or not the room was isolated, the floor level, or the number of people in or transiting the site during sampling. The presence of ornamental vegetation in the area surrounding the building affected the indoor counts directly as sources of the pollen.
Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N; Svenson, Morten
for the clinical efficacy of SIT. In this study, fractionated serum samples from 14 SIT-treated birch pollen allergic individuals enabled determination of the inhibitory capacity of IgG4 alone versus non-IgG4 IgG. Allergen-binding activities of IgG and the IgG-mediated inhibition of allergen binding...... to autologous IgE were detected using 125I-labelled rBet v 1.2801, a recombinant variant of the major allergen of Betula verrucosa pollen. Results show that IgG4-depletion resulted in equivalent reductions in binding and blocking activities. In contrast, a significant but less than two-fold higher...
Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;
Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch (Bet...
Full Text Available Grass pollen allergens are a frequent cause of pollen allergy in Poland and other European countries. The research on aeroplankton conducted in Lublin since 2001 allows characterization of the course of grass pollen seasons and estimation of the effect of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative air humidity, precipitation and maximum wind velocity on the taxon's pollen concentration. The gravimetric method was used in the study. During the eight-year research period, the pollen season usually started in the first or second decade of May and, as a rule, it lasted till the end of August, and quite exceptionally, in 2002 and 2008 till mid-August. The mean length of the pollen season was 107 days. The highest grass pollen risk was observed in the 26th and 27th week. The highest annual counts reaching over 3600 pollen grains × cm-2 were noted in 2008, while in the other study years they ranged from 741 to 1909. The date of the pollen season onset and its course were highly dependent on weather conditions, which was confirmed by the statistical analysis. The greatest significant influence on the pollen season was exerted by maximum temperature, relative air humidity and the maximum wind.
Ziska, Lewis; Knowlton, Kim; Rogers, Christine; Dalan, Dan; Tierney, Nicole; Elder, Mary Ann; Filley, Warren; Shropshire, Jeanne; Ford, Linda B.; Hedberg, Curtis; Fleetwood, Pamela; Hovanky, Kim T.; Kavanaugh, Tony; Fulford, George; Vrtis, Rose F.
A fundamental aspect of climate change is the potential shifts in flowering phenology and pollen initiation associated with milder winters and warmer seasonal air temperature. Earlier floral anthesis has been suggested, in turn, to have a role in human disease by increasing time of exposure to pollen that causes allergic rhinitis and related asthma. However, earlier floral initiation does not necessarily alter the temporal duration of the pollen season, and, to date, no consistent continental...
Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.
Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera
Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...
Rojo, Jesús; Rivero, Rosario; Romero-Morte, Jorge; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa
Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations provides valuable information on plant phenology and is thus a useful tool in agriculture—for predicting harvests in crops such as the olive and for deciding when to apply phytosanitary treatments—as well as in medicine and the environmental sciences. Variations in airborne pollen concentrations, moreover, are indicators of changing plant life cycles. By modeling pollen time series, we can not only identify the variables influencing pollen levels but also predict future pollen concentrations. In this study, airborne pollen time series were modeled using a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOESS) smoothing (STL). The data series—daily Poaceae pollen concentrations over the period 2006-2014—was broken up into seasonal and residual (stochastic) components. The seasonal component was compared with data on Poaceae flowering phenology obtained by field sampling. Residuals were fitted to a model generated from daily temperature and rainfall values, and daily pollen concentrations, using partial least squares regression (PLSR). This method was then applied to predict daily pollen concentrations for 2014 (independent validation data) using results for the seasonal component of the time series and estimates of the residual component for the period 2006-2013. Correlation between predicted and observed values was r = 0.79 (correlation coefficient) for the pre-peak period (i.e., the period prior to the peak pollen concentration) and r = 0.63 for the post-peak period. Separate analysis of each of the components of the pollen data series enables the sources of variability to be identified more accurately than by analysis of the original non-decomposed data series, and for this reason, this procedure has proved to be a suitable technique for analyzing the main environmental factors influencing airborne pollen concentrations.
Perry E. Sheffield; Weinberger, Kate R.; Kazuhiko Ito; Matte, Thomas D.; Mathes, Robert W.; Robinson, Guy S.; Kinney, Patrick L.
The impact of pollen exposure on population allergic illness is poorly characterized. We explore the association of tree pollen and over-the-counter daily allergy medication sales in the New York City metropolitan area. Dates of peak tree pollen (maple, oak, and birch) concentrations were identified from 2003 to 2008. Daily allergy medication sales reported to the city health department were analyzed as a function of the same-day and lagged tree pollen peak indicators, adjusting for season, y...
Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela
The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.
Jana Ščevková; Jozef Dušička; Martin Hrubiško; Karol Mičieta
Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length) of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials ...
The dynamics of Poaceae pollen season, in particularly that of the Secale genus, in Szczecin (western Poland) 2004–2008 was analysed to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables, air pollution and the pollen count of the taxa studied. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 2.5, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 97.5, 99% of annual total), and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, the temporary diffe...
Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J
controlled clinical studies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the agreement between in- and post-seasonal ratings of seasonal symptoms, and to investigate whether the effect of SIT could be detected retrospectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five birch pollen-allergic patients were allocated to SIT or placebo...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and climate derived from pollen found in lake and ocean sediments. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....
Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H;
The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...
Physiological responses of 4-year-old potted saplings of an O3-tolerant clone of Betula pendula Roth to short-term ozone (O3) exposure (one growing season) were compared with those of 6-year-old open-soil-grown trees of the same clone fumigated with O3 for six growing seasons. In the 2001 growing season, both groups of plants were exposed to ambient (control) and 1.6x ambient (elevated) O3 concentration under similar microclimatic conditions in a free air O3 exposure facility. Growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible foliar injury, starch and nutrient concentrations, bud formation and differences in O3 responses between lower, middle and upper sections of the canopy were determined. The potted saplings were unaffected by elevated O3 concentration, whereas the open-soil-grown trees showed a 3-38% reduction in shoot growth, a 22% reduction in number of overwintering buds, a 26-65% decrease in autumnal net photosynthesis, 30% and 20-23% reductions in starch and nitrogen concentrations of senescing leaves, respectively, and disturbances in stomatal conductance. The greater O3 sensitivity of open-soil-grown trees compared with potted saplings was a result of senescence-related physiological factors. First, a lower net photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio in open-soil-grown trees at the end of the season promoted O3 uptake and decreased photosynthetic gain, leading to the onset of visible foliar injuries. Second, decreased carbohydrate reserves may have resulted in deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced formation of over-wintering buds. Finally, the leaf-level O3 load was higher for open-soil-grown trees than for potted saplings because of slower leaf senescence in the trees. Thus, O3 sensitivity in European white birch increases with increasing exposure time and tree size. PMID:12750053
Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus
(Betula verrucosa) (Bet v 1), the major allergen in birch pollen, to serum IgG and IgE, separately and in competition. Sera from six birch pollen-allergic patients were obtained before and after 5 years of SAV, and binding was assessed with 125I-Bet v 1. Before SAV, IgG bound more than eight times the...... amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post......-SAV IgG provided similar inhibition of Bet v 1 binding to IgE at equimolar levels, and cross inhibition studies between IgG and IgE showed low inter-individual differences. Following SAV, all sera reduced Bet v 1 binding to CD23(+) cells, correlating with reduced binding of Bet v 1 to IgE (P...
Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.;
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....
Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L
We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size. PMID:19554765
T. R. Duhl
Full Text Available A pollen model that simulates the timing and production of wind-dispersed allergenic pollen by terrestrial, temperate vegetation has been developed to quantify how pollen occurrence may be affected by climate change and to investigate how pollen can interact with anthropogenic pollutants to affect human health. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS model is driven by local meteorological conditions and is designed to be sensitive to climate shifts, as well as flexible with respect to the vegetation species and plant functional types (trees, grasses, etc. represented and the climate zones simulated. The initial focus for the model is the simulation of the pollen emission potential of important allergenic tree and grass species that typically flower between March–June in Southern California (S. CA, which is characterized by moderate Mediterranean and oceanic climate zones as well as regions of arid desert and arid steppe. Vegetation cover and species composition data are obtained from numerous datasets and a database of allergenic vegetation species, their pollen production potential and relative allergenicities has been developed. For the selected allergenic species and spring-early summer simulation period, temperature is the main driver controlling the timing of pollen release, while precipitation (and temperature, for some species controls the magnitude of pollen produced. The model provides species-specific pollen potential maps for each day of the simulation period; these are then used by a pollen transport model to simulate ambient pollen concentrations as described in a companion paper (Zhang et al., 2013a, which also presents model evaluation results for the S. CA model domain. The STaMPS model was also used to quantify the possible impact of climate change on pollen season under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario as simulated by the ECHAM5 global climate model. Current (1995–2004 and future (2045–2054
Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Maria Tietze; Magdalena Michońska
The content of Aesculus pollen in aeroplankton of Lublin, located in central-eastern Poland, was studied during the period 2001–2012. The volumetric method was used for the study. The following parameters were determined: start, end, and duration of the pollen season, days of maximum concentration, and total annual pollen counts. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the start of the pollen season and meteorological parameters. The study showed that during the period 2007–2012 the ...
Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;
Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch...... the amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post...
Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.
Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in subjects with...
... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.
Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia
This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons. PMID:24098067
邵洁; 罗海燕; A Purohit; G Pauli
70％以上桦树花粉过敏患者同时存在对某些植物源性食物过敏，即所谓的花粉相关的食物过敏(pollen related food allergy)。我们报道1例典型的桦树花粉过敏，随后发展成为对一些植物性食物过敏，并产生显著的临床症状，籍此阐明桦树花粉相关的食物过敏的临床和免疫学特征。
Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;
conducted as a clustered regimen and was performed in a specialist unit. Symptom scores from nose, eyes, and lungs, and use of oral and topical antihistamines, beta-2-agonists, and oral corticosteroids were recorded daily during the season of 2000. Sensitivity to allergen provocation in skin, conjunctiva...... oral antihistamines (P < 0.01). IT reduced specific conjunctival sensitivity (P < 0.05), skin prick test, and especially cutaneous late-phase response diameters (P < 0.00001), and increased general well-being on post-seasonal evaluation (P < 0.01). IT was safe, with side-effects at the same level as...
Full Text Available The content of Aesculus pollen in aeroplankton of Lublin, located in central-eastern Poland, was studied during the period 2001–2012. The volumetric method was used for the study. The following parameters were determined: start, end, and duration of the pollen season, days of maximum concentration, and total annual pollen counts. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the start of the pollen season and meteorological parameters. The study showed that during the period 2007–2012 the onset of the Aesculus pollen season occurred on average 4 days earlier than in the years 2001–2006. The total annual pollen counts were in the range of 53–271, with an average number of 117. The average pollen counts did not differ significantly in the first and second year of a 6-year period of the study. The analysis of the correlation coefficients showed that there were significant positive correlations only between the season start date and minimum temperature of the first decade of May. The highest Aesculus pollen concentration occurred between 6 and 22 May. The flowers of A. hippocastanum demonstrate an ambophilous pollination strategy due to partial insect and wind pollination.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.
Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael
Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418
Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.
Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk
Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.
Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to
Zhang, Rui; Duhl, Tiffany; Salam, Muhammad T; House, James M; Flagan, Richard C; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D; Guenther, Alex; Chung, Serena H; Lamb, Brian K; VanReken, Timothy M
Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen concentrations, and tends
Full Text Available Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the WRF/CMAQ air-quality modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs. The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS, which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 km and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to underestimate walnut and peak oak pollen
Imhof, Konrad; Probst, Elisabeth; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter
Summary Background: Alongside hazel, alder and birch pollen allergies, ash pollen allergy is a relevant cause of hay fever during spring in the European region. For some considerable time, ash pollen allergy was not routinely investigated and its clinical relevance may well have been underestimated, particularly since ash and birch tree pollination times are largely the same. Ash pollen extracts are not yet well standardized and diagnosis is therefore sometimes unreliable. Olive pollen, on th...
Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S
Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is
Kostova, Zhivka; Batsalova, Tsvetelina; Moten, Dzhemal; Teneva, Ivanka; Dzhambazov, Balik
CC-chemokines are important mediators of the allergic responses and regulate the cell trafficking. The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES, and to determine whether there are differences between ragweed-allergic subjects and healthy individuals out of the pollen season. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 24 subjects allergic to ragweed pollen and 12 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of chemokines/cytokines were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed significantly decreased concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL5/RANTES in the sera of ragweed-allergic patients compared to the healthy individuals (32.2 vs. 106.4 pg/ml, 89.5 vs. 135.7 pg/ml, 63.4 vs. 119.2 pg/ml and 11.2 vs. 18.1 ng/ml, respectively, p pollen allergy out of the season, to study the mechanisms for activation/inhibition of the subclinical allergic responses and for development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26862308
Full Text Available Characterization of the pollen allergens and identification of the main T-cell and B-cell epitopes is of crucial importance, since the clarification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms will allow long-term control of this type allergic diseases and development of safe immunotherapeutic medication. The objective of this study was to identify which pollen allergens are responsible for the T-cell activation in atopic patients with pollinosis and to determine whether the same allergens are responsible for the IgE-mediated reactions. Thirty-seven patients with pollinosis and thirteen non-allergic subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected out of the pollen season. T-cell responses (IFN-γ production towards different pollen allergens and levels of pollen specific IgE and IgG in the sera were measured by ELISA. The T-cell reactivity in most patients was directed towards the grass pollen B1, tree pollen I and autumn pollen B5. 70% of the allergic individuals responded to allergens from Lolium perenne, 84% to Dactylis glomerata, 11% to Phleum pratense, 65% to Betula pendula and 70% to Taxus baccata. Elevated serum levels of specific IgE in the allergic patients (p<0.01 were measured against the tree pollen I and autumn pollen, which include widespread deciduous trees (birch, willow, poplar and yew and Artemisia absinthium, respectively. Our results show that the T-cell reactivity and antibody responses may be directed towards different or the same allergens. In addition, we propose that short synthetic peptides, which contain overlapping T- and B-cell epitopes can be used for specific immunotherapy treatment if they lack antibody recognition domains.
of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis before SLIT. After SLIT, 33 patients had mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, none had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, seven had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and seven had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. The mean medication score decreased from 4.2±1.3 before to 2.4±2.0 after SLIT (P<0.01, representing a reduction of 42%. The response to treatment before SLIT was judged as poor by 70% of patients and very poor by 30%. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased after SLIT (P<0.01.Conclusion: In real life, most patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug treatment can achieve control of the condition with one season of treatment using 5-grass pollen tablets.Keywords: grass pollen, rhinitis, drug resistance, allergen immunotherapy, effectiveness, patient satisfaction
Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia
This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009–2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of...
Buters, Jeroen M.; Albertini, Roberto; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antunes, Celia M.; Berger, Uwe; Brandao, Rui M.; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Celenk, Sevcan; Galán, Carmen; Grewling, Lukazs; Kennedy, Roy; Prank, Marje; Rantio-Lehtimaki, Auli; Reese, Gerald; Sauliene, Ingrida
Background: Grass pollen is considered to be the most important outdoor aeroallergen in Europe. The grass ‘pollen count’ is usually used as a proxy for exposure. However, HIALINE has shown that the birch and olive pollen count is not always congruent with allergen concentrations. We therefore simultaneously measured daily exposure to grass pollen and the concentration of group 5 major allergens across eight countries in Europe during 2009– 2011. Method: Air...
Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor
Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants. PMID:19685827
Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen
The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....
Kokfelt, U.; Tiedemann, R.; Nuernberg, D.; Biebow, N.; Kozdon, R.; Lembke, L.; Kaiser, A.
Recent investigations in the Sea of Okhotsk reveal high resolution records of rapid past climatic and vegetation pattern changes within this marginal sea and the adjacent Amur river drainage basin. The watershed of the Amur undergoes exteme seasonal as well as longer term climatic changes. A humid SE-Asia monsoon regime in summer is contrasted by cold, dry continental climate of Siberia in wintertime. Thus this region is crucial for our understanding of complex changes and shifts of athmospheric systems in the subarctic Far East and western North Pacific region. Gravity core LV28-4-4 was recovered from the continental margin off NE Sakhalin. Our age model consists of 16 AMS radiocarbon control points from planktic foraminifera and benthic shell fragments fit together by ninth order polynomial regressions. According to this, sedimentation rates exceed 100cm/kyr. Thus to date our investigations gain a temporal resolution of 200-600 years between discrete samples. We use analysis of terrestrial pollen and freshwater algae as proxies for vegetation changes in the Amur catchment area and the adjacent Siberian hinterland. Within this 930 cm long sequence, four pollen zones were distinguished: Pollen zone I (12,600-11,800 years BP), which comprises the Younger Dryas event, was dominated by non-arboreale taxa such as grasses (gramineae) and sedges (cyperaceae). The following pollen zone II (11,800-8,500 years BP) was in general dominated by birch (Betula) and elder (Alnus). The rise of spruce-dominated taiga (Picea jezoensis and P. glehnii) is clearly seen to the end of this zone and shows the preboreal warming. The oldest part of the pollen zone II has distinctly high values of birch and spruce and very low values of gramineae and cyperaceae suggesting a period of intense warming. Pollenzone III (8,500-3,600 years BP) is dominated by darkneedled taiga components and increased oak (Quercus) values and reflects the Holocene climatic optimum. The latest pollen zone IV
Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Wolf, Hendrik; Schnitker, Jörg
Background Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) triggered by fruit and vegetables often occurs in patients with pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis because of cross-reactive epitopes in pollen and associated foods. This open observational study examined the effect of pollen-specific sublingual immunotherapy ([SLIT] B. U. Pangramin or SLITone involving birch/alder/hazel, grasses/rye, and/or mugwort) on OAS triggered by several foods in patients treated in standard practice. Very few studies have examine...
By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density
Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Čulig, Josip
In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of...
Full Text Available Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers. A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.
Katelaris, C; Baldo, B A; Howden, M E; Matthews, P A; Walls, R S
The possible allergenicity of an insect pollinated weed, Echium plantagineum, was investigated in a rural area of Australia. Sixty-one subjects with respiratory allergy were studies. Positive skin test reactions to defatted ammonium bicarbonate extract of pollen were found in over 60% of subjects, and positive RAST tests in a similar number. The question of crossreactivity between weed pollens is discussed. The pollen of E. plantagineum was shown to reach the atmosphere in significant amounts about 1 month before the peak grass pollinating period. Evidence that the pollen of E. plantagineum becomes airborne and elicits an IgE response suggests that further attention should be directed to weed pollens as potential allergens. PMID:7137518
Imoto, Yoshimasa; Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Takahiro; Ito, Yumi; Narita, Norihiko; Yamada, Takechiyo; Fujieda, Shigeharu
Measuring specific IgE can yield direct, accurate, and objective data. Nevertheless, clinical symptoms of allergy are often inconsistent with these data. Recently, the expression of CD203c, a surface marker of basophils, has been reported as capable of distinguishing allergic patients. This study compared specific IgE in serum and skin tests against antigen to assess CD203c as a biomarker correlated with allergic rhinitis (AR). We asked 3,453 subjects whether they experienced any AR related symptom. All subjects were assessed for six specific IgEs for common aeroallergens. Skin tests were also conducted for six aeroallergens. We observed the reactivity of peripheral basophil by measuring the levels of CD203c by Cryj1 stimulation using flow cytometry. Of the 3,453 participants, 1,987 (57.5%) possessed Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) specific IgE in their serum. Among those 1,987 JCP specific IgE positive participants, 552 (27.8%) had not experienced any allergic symptom during the JCP season. The levels of CD203c in the peripheral basophil by Cryj1 stimulation were significantly higher in SAR-JCP subjects than in non-SAR-JCP subjects (Cryj1 0.5 ng/ml: 2.25 ± 0.90% vs. 60.2 ± 27.4%, p < 0.01, Cryj1 50 ng/ml: 1.89 ± 0.90% vs. 68.0 ± 21.2%, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that the levels of CD203c in peripheral basophils by Cryj1 stimulation is a more objective and reliable marker that better reflects the allergic reaction by SAR-JCP in vivo than measuring specific IgE in serum or skin tests. PMID:26417444
... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...
Dehus, Oliver; Zimmer, Julia; Döring, Sascha; Führer, Frank; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Holzhauser, Thomas; Neske, Florian; Strecker, Daniel; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne
Birch (Betula) pollen is a major cause of allergy in northern and central Europe. The allergenic potency of products for diagnosis and therapy of birch pollen allergy is adjusted nearly exclusively to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Although every fifth patient is additionally sensitized to Bet v 4, both content and variability of this minor allergen in birch allergen products remain unclear due to a lack of simple and cost-effective quantitative methods. This study aimed to develop and in-house validate the first Bet v 4-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on a murine monoclonal antibody in combination with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum, the ELISA proved to be highly sensitive, with a lower limit of quantification of 30 pg/ml Bet v 4. After confirmation of satisfactory accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness, the ELISA was utilized to quantify Bet v 4 in 30 authorized birch allergen products. The allergen was detected in all samples tested, ranging from 0.2 to 4.4 μg/ml. No significant correlation of Bet v 4 was found with the respective amount of Bet v 1. In contrast to Bet v 1, also no correlation of Bet v 4 with total protein content or total allergenic activity could be observed. Thus, it seems presently unfeasible to base birch allergen product standardization additionally on Bet v 4. In light of these results, the continuous monitoring of Bet v 4 in birch allergen products with the presented ELISA will provide a basis for the understanding of the clinical relevance of minor allergens. PMID:25572690
Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.
Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.
Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006
Charpin, D; Caillaud, D
The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. PMID:24750956
Caffarra, Amelia; Zottele, Fabio; Gleeson, Emily; Donnelly, Alison
In order to predict the impact of future climate warming on trees it is important to quantify the effect climate has on their development. Our understanding of the phenological response to environmental drivers has given rise to various mathematical models of the annual growth cycle of plants. These models simulate the timing of phenophases by quantifying the relationship between development and its triggers, typically temperature. In addition, other environmental variables have an important role in determining the timing of budburst. For example, photoperiod has been shown to have a strong influence on phenological events of a number of tree species, including Betula pubescens (birch). A recently developed model for birch (DORMPHOT), which integrates the effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst, was applied to future temperature projections from a 19-member ensemble of regional climate simulations (on a 25 km grid) generated as part of the ENSEMBLES project, to simulate the timing of birch budburst in Ireland each year up to the end of the present century. Gridded temperature time series data from the climate simulations were used as input to the DORMPHOT model to simulate future budburst timing. The results showed an advancing trend in the timing of birch budburst over most regions in Ireland up to 2100. Interestingly, this trend appeared greater in the northeast of the country than in the southwest, where budburst is currently relatively early. These results could have implications for future forest planning, species distribution modeling, and the birch allergy season.
This PhD thesis demonstrated new techniques in phenological and pollen associated allergological research. Since cities provide an excellent means of assessing climate change impacts, we were able to simulate future plant development. Besides temperature, we demonstrated the importance of plant nutritional status on phenology. Tropical trees were found to be responsive to humidity. In addition, urbanisation has not only an impact on phenology, but also on the allergenicity of birch pollen.
D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G
Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336
Jensen, Mette Frisk
Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari
Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644
Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Host, A.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome of...... oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...
Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Hercog, Predrag; Čulig, Josip
The aim of the study was to determine the length of Poaceae pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentration, at three monitoring sites in inland Croatia during the 2003–2004 period. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. At all three monitoring sites considerably higher precipitation and lower average temperature in 2004 led to a marked decrease in...
Gretchen D. Jones
Full Text Available Pollinators feed on the pollen, nectar, and other plant exudates that are associated with flowers. As a result of this feeding activity, pollen becomes attached to them. Analysis of this pollen can reveal what they eat, their dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems, and their role in pollination. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover pollen. Two very easy techniques are described in detail that have been used to recover pollen from a variety of pollinators including beneficial and harmful insects, spiders, bats, and other pollinators. These techniques can be used to recover pollen from internal tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc., or both. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained about the pollinators, the foods they eat, the plants they pollinate, their migration routes and source zones.
Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.
Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.
Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; W. Zwolan; Wolski, T; T. Baj
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur) pollen grains are included in allergenic types. During a three-year study (2003-2005) conducted by using the gravimetric method at two trap sites in Lublin, daily concentrations, maximum concentrations and annual sums of pollen grains, as well as the length of pollen seasons of this species were compared. The pollen season of common cocklebur starts in the first or second decade of July and lasts until the third decade of September. The length of the pol...
Variaciones en la estacionalidad de polen y esporas fúngicas en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata (Argentina Seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere of Plata city (Argentina
Daniela S Nitiu
Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre variaciones estacionales de polen y esporas fúngicas en su conjunto en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata durante julio 2000 / junio 2001. El total de bioaerosoles fue de 201889.15 de los cuales el 15% correspondió a 54 tipos polínicos y el 85% a 79 tipos esporales. El Índice Polínico estuvo dado en un 74% por Polen Arbóreo (PA y en un 26% por Polen Herbáceo (PNA. La máxima concentración de PA tuvo lugar en septiembre con granos provenientes de Platanus y Fraxinus. El PNA presentó dos picos, el primero en diciembre procedente de Poaceae y el segundo en marzo debido a Ambrosia. Con respecto al componente fúngico, se identificaron esporas de Oomycota, Zygomycota, Myxomycota, Ascomycota y Basidiomycota. Estos bioaerosoles estuvieron presentes durante todo el año y en altas concentraciones siendo más abundantes en verano - otoño Las mitosporas de Hongos Imperfectos dominan la nube superando el 44% del total del Índice Esporal. El máximo aporte se registró en febrero dado por las esporas de Cladosporium. Se identificaron dos períodos estacionales en los cuales se hallan simultáneamente altas concentraciones de polen y esporas fúngicas. El primero se desarrolla en primavera y está integrado por Platanus, Fraxinus y Aspergillus / Penicillium y el segundo es estival e involucra a Ambrosia, Alternaria y Cladosporium.We present the first data on representativeness and seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores as a whole in the atmosphere of the city of La Plata during july 2000 / june 2001. Total was 201889.15 bioaerosols, 15% of which was contributed by 54 pollen types and 85% by 79 spore types. The Pollinic Index came from arboreal pollen (PA in 74% and herbaceous pollen (PNA in 26%. The PA maximum concentration took place in september due to Platanus and Fraxinus. The PNA presented two peaks, one in december due to Poaceae, and the other one in march from Ambrosia. In regard to the
Caballero, T; Martín-Esteban, M
Over the last three decades several authors have described the existence of an association between sensitivity to different pollens and sensitivity to diverse edible vegetables. An association between ragweed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to Cucurbitaceae vegetables (e.g., watermelon, melon, cucumber) and banana has been reported. Other authors have found a relationship between birch pollinosis and sensitization to hazelnut, apple, carrot, potato, kiwi and other vegetables. Additionally, several papers have shown the association between mugwort pollinosis and sensitization to celery, carrot, spices, nuts, mustard and Leguminoseae vegetables. Later, some studies showed association between grass pollinosis and sensitization to tomato, potato, green- pea, peanut, watermelon, melon, apple, orange and kiwi. Finally, an association between sensitization to plantain pollen and melon hypersensitivity was also described. The association between pollinosis and edible vegetable sensitization has been explained by the combination of different hypotheses, such as the following: 1) presence of lectins in edible vegetables; 2) existence of IgE to carbohydrates of the glycoproteins (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants); and, 3) existence of common allergens between pollens and edible vegetables. Up to now three allergens have been identified as responsible for cross-reactivity in these associations: profilin, a 14 kd protein that regulates actin; Bet v 1, the 18 kd birch pollen allergen; and a 60-69 kd allergen. It is important to study in depth these associated sensitizations and the common allergens responsible for them in order to improve diagnostic methods and treatment of these syndromes. PMID:9555613
Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.
The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed
Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip
In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566
Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.
Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur pollen grains are included in allergenic types. During a three-year study (2003-2005 conducted by using the gravimetric method at two trap sites in Lublin, daily concentrations, maximum concentrations and annual sums of pollen grains, as well as the length of pollen seasons of this species were compared. The pollen season of common cocklebur starts in the first or second decade of July and lasts until the third decade of September. The length of the pollen season is 70-80 days. The highest cocklebur pollen concentrations, amounting to 40-59 z·cm-2, occurred between 8 and 18 August. The maximum cocklebur pollen concentrations differed slightly in particular trap sites over the period of three years of study. A statistically significant correlation between the Xanthium strumarium pollen concentration and average temperature was demonstrated only in one year of study (2004.
Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Napiórkowska, Katarzyna; bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena Ż
Background Even 70% patients allergic to pollens of plants are developing undesirable symptoms after eating foods of the plant origin. It is most often a result of the cross-allergy between these allergens. The aim of the study was to compare the group of patients with pollinosis with patients with pollinosis and food allergy. Methods Fifty eight patients at the age above 16 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients included in the first group were birch allerg...
Pollen productivity and dispersal of ivy (Hedera helix) is discussed on the basis of a simple surface sample study in a situation that has been followed for about 30 yr. The pollen production of a special ivy plant was estimated for the flowering season of 1998. Hedera pollen dispersal was followed
Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health
Zimmerman, Howard E
The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction of dissolving metals in ammonia with aromatic compounds to produce 1,4-cyclohexadienes. Discovered by Arthur Birch in 1944, the reaction occupies 300 pages in Organic Reactions to describe its synthetic versatility. Thus, it is remarkable that the reaction mechanism has been so very controversial and only relatively recently has been firmly established. Perhaps this is not that surprising, since the reaction also has many unusual and esoteric mechanistic facets. Here, I provide a description of how I have applied ever-evolving levels of quantum mechanics and a novel experimental test to understand details of the mechanism and the origins of the selectivities observed in the Birch reduction. The reaction involves an initial radical anion resulting from introduction of an electron from the blue liquid ammonia solution of free electrons formed by the dissolution of Li or related metals. This radical anion is protonated by an alcohol and then further reduced to a carbanion. Finally, the carbanion is protonated using a second proton to afford a nonconjugated cyclohexadiene. The regiochemistry depends on substituents present. With 18 resonance structures in the case of anisole radical anion, prediction of the initial protonation site would seem difficult. Nevertheless, computational methods from Hückel theory through modern density functional calculations do correctly predict the site of protonation. An esoteric test established this mechanism experimentally. The nature of the carbanion also is of mechanistic interest, and the preponderance of the resonance structure shown was revealed from Hückel calculations involving variable bond orders. For the trianion from benzoic acid, parallel questions about structure are apparent, and have been answered. Some mechanistic questions are answered experimentally and some by modern computations. Recently, our mechanistic
Wahl, E. R.; Schoelzel, C.
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction from fossil pollen often attempts to take advantage of the rich taxonomic diversity in such data. Here, a taxonomically "reduced-space" reconstruction model is explored that would be parsimonious in introducing parameters needing to be estimated within a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling context. This work involves a refinement of the traditional pollen ratio method. This method is useful when one (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) in a region have a strong positive correlation with a climate variable of interest and another (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) have a strong negative correlation. When, e.g., counts of pollen taxa a and b (r >0) are combined with pollen types c and d (r binomial logistic generalized linear model (GLM). The GLM can readily model this relationship in the forward form, pollen = g(climate), which is more physically realistic than inverse models often used in paleoclimate reconstruction [climate = f(pollen)]. The specification of the model is: rnum Bin(n,p), where E(r|T) = p = exp(η)/[1+exp(η)], and η = α + β(T); r is the pollen ratio formed as above, rnum is the ratio numerator, n is the ratio denominator (i.e., the sum of pollen counts), the denominator-specific count is (n - rnum), and T is the temperature at each site corresponding to a specific value of r. Ecological and empirical screening identified the model (Spruce+Birch) / (Spruce+Birch+Oak+Hickory) for use in temperate eastern N. America. α and β were estimated using both "traditional" and Bayesian GLM algorithms (in R). Although it includes only four pollen types, the ratio model yields more explained variation ( 80%) in the pollen-temperature relationship of the study region than a 64-taxon modern analog technique (MAT). Thus, the new pollen ratio method represents an information-rich, reduced space data model that can be efficiently employed in a BHM framework. The ratio model can directly reconstruct past temperature by solving the GLM
During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province) countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978). There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.
... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions... (transferors) and Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for..., Birch Power Company, Sorenson Engineering, and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East,...
Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw−1 h−1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.
Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.
Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali
A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143
Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3 were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3 followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3, Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3 and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3. Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3 and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city.
Full Text Available Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%, with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%. Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.
Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping
Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. PMID:26742437
Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Sostar, Zvonimir
Employing the volumetric method by use of a Hirst sampler, a total of 71,286 pollen grains, as many as 94.20% of them allergenic, were recorded in the air samples from the city of Zagreb during the 2002 pollen season. Among identified pollen of 35 plant species/genera/families, 23 were allergenic: Taxus/Juniperus, Alnus sp., Fraxinus sp., Betula sp., Corylus sp., Poaceae, Urticaceae, Artemisia sp., Ambrosia sp., Carpinus sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae, Salix sp., Populus sp., Ulmus sp., Juglans sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fagus sp., Plantago sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp. and Abies sp. The pollen of these plants also cause the majority of pollinosis in Europe. Study results and the pollen calendar designed for the 2002 pollen season for the City of Zagreb provide useful data for allergologists to reach an accurate diagnosis. The calendar also provides timely information on airborne pollen types and air concentrations for individuals with pollen hypersensitivity, thus allowing them to adjust their daily activities so as to minimize their contact with allergens and improve their quality of life both at home and at work. PMID:12852741
Rafet Aslantaş; Lütfi Pirlak
This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C), +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, a...
Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER
In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.
Boral, Dola; Chatterjee, Soma; Bhattacharya, Kashinath
A continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in Berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of West Bengal, India. The aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of West Bengal. A total of 31 pollen types were identified of which Poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by Cyperaceae, Cassia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, etc. The seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to meteorological conditions were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Clinical investigations by skin prick test were carried out to detect allergenicity of pollen types. Eighteen common airborne pollen types induced positive responses of which pollen extracts of Saccharum officinarum (grass), Azadirachta indica, Cocos nucifera, Phoenix sylvestris, Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus citriodora showed strongest sensitising potential. This result is consistent with previous investigations in different parts of West Bengal. PMID:15236497
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of technique to estimate browse production and utilization. Developed a set of methods for estimating annual production and utilization of paper birch...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'birch'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...
Human granulocyte/pollen binding protein (GPBP), previously identified as serum transferrin, promoted prolonged firm adherence of neutraphils to Timothy grass pollen. Some characteristics of this adherence reaction are reported. GPBP-induced binding was time-, temperature- and concentration-dependent. Maximal adherence was observed by 2 h and was only slightly decreased at 18 h. The optimal temperature for adherence was 37 deg C. Concentrations og GPBP as low as 1.25 μg/ml gave significantly greater binding than the albumin or lactoferrin control. Eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes did not appear to participate in GPBP-induced pollen binding reactions at concentrations up to 300 μg/ml. In the presence of GPBP, neutrophils adhered to a range of grass, weed and tree pollens. These included timothy, meadow, false oat, rye, giant and short ragweed, plantain, silver birch and ash. GPBP did not facilitate the adherence of granulocytes to inert particles of similar size such as Sephadex beads and agarose. The adherence was Mg++- but not Ca++-dependent and was not inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor (OKT9). Transferrin/GPBP did not bind to either neutrophils or pollen grains. A Purified commercial transferrin reacted in all respects like GPBP in these pollen binding studies. These observations indicate that GPBP/transferrin-induced adherence of granulocytes to pollen grains is a hitherto unrecognized property of transferrin which appears unrelated to iron transport or the conventional transferrin receptor. (author)
Chiang Vincent L; Tiimonen Heidi; Mäkelä Riina; Vuosku Jaana; Saranpää Pekka; Laakso Tapio; Edesi Jaanika; Niemi Karoliina; Sutela Suvi; Koskimäki Janne; Suorsa Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto Riitta; Häggman Hely
Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch li...
Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...
Keynan, N; Tamir, R; Waisel, Y; Reshef, A; Spitz, E; Shomer-Ilan, A; Geller-Bernstein, C
Differences in IgE binding and skin responses to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia, and some immunochemical characteristics of this pollen were investigated. The incidence of positive SPT among atopic patients varied between 31.5% to the pollen extracts of P. vera and 24.6% to P. palaestina. The antigens are located on the exine of the grains as well as in their cytoplasm. Some of the antigens are common to all four species, whereas others seem to be specific. Cross-reactivity was found among the four species of Pistacia and between them and Schinus terebintifolious. Five conspicuous IgE-binding bands were observed in the immunoblots of the four examined species, the bands of 49, 57, 64, 68, and 79 kDa. The 36-37-kDa band of P. lentiscus and the 60- and 84-kDa bands of P. atlantica and P. vera were also noticeable. As the flowering seasons of Pistacia and Schinus do not overlap, the patients are exposed to such pollen for more than 4 months a year. Apparently, Pistacia pollen is a major source of allergy. PMID:9140524
Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari
Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127
Full Text Available This work presents the first aerobiological monitoring results for Fagales in the city of Timişoara (Romania using a volumetric spore-trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000 which is now the most commonly used aerobiologic measurement instrument in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of Fagales pollen occurrence in outdoor environment of Timişoara by measuring daily pollen concentrations. The concept of the atmospheric pollen season was used. Sampling was carried out during 8 years, starting in 2000 until 2007. Fagales allergenic pollen appear in the area of Timişoara only from the end of January to the end of May. The data showed that during the early spring the atmospheric pollen season for these allergenic species is highly variable. There were considerable variations in start date, atmospheric pollen season, peak concentration, date of peak. The concentration of airborne Fagales pollen in Timişoara and the correlations with some meteorological parameters have been examined. Daily pollen concentrations presented negative correlation with daily average relative humidity, and slightly positive with wind speed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Fagales pollen concentrations represent important values in the atmosphere of Timişoara, which means they may to cause pollinosis in its population. The best-represented pollen type through the entire period was Betula.
AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER
In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.
Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.
Švédsko: Taylor and Francis Group, 2006, s. 232-232. [Gnotobiology Symposium 2005. Tokio (JP), 20.06.2005-24.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free * tolerance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten;
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the...
Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders;
) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9–10 years and occasionally (50–150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show......The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens...... that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake...
Chiang Vincent L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.
Durham, S.R.; Nelson, H S; Nolte, H; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z.; Andersen, J S
Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...
Jun-Mei LIU; Hong ZHANG; Yan LI
The distribution of F-actin and microtubules was investigated in pollen and pollen tubes of Ginkgo biloba L. using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence and immunofluorescence labeling. A dense F-actin network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen. When Ginkgo pollen was germinating,F-actin mesh was found under the plasma membrane from which the pollen tube would emerge. After pollen germination, F-actin bundles were distributed axially in long pollen tubes of G. biloba. Thick F-actin bundles and network were found in the tip of the Ginkgo pollen tube, which is opposite to the results reported for the pollen tubes of some angiosperms and conifers. In addition, a few circular F-actin bundles were found in Ginkgo pollen tubes. Using immunofluorescence labeling, a dense microtubule network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen under confocal microscope. In the Ginkgo pollen tube, the microtubules were distributed along the longitudinal axis and extended to the tip. These results suggest that the cytoskeleton may have an essential role in the germination of Ginkgo pollen and tube growth.
LAN Shibo; LUO Xu; LUO Yuliang
With a combination of permanent and temporary sample plots,we investigated the growth conditions of natural poplar-birch forests.The forests were divided into four site classes,using statistical and analytical techniques in a quantitative model,in descending order where site class I was the best.On this basis,the growth of natural poplar-birch forests in the different site classes was studied.The growth processes of height and diameter at breast height were divided into three stages:a fast growing period,a stable growing period and a slow growing period.Results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the directive cultivation of natural poplar-birch forests.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Upper Birch Creek, Alaska possessed values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The upper Birch Creek and its immediate...
Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal M; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rapp, Joshua M
We recently introduced a model that predicts the degree to which a plant's lifetime seed production may be constrained by unpredictable shortfalls of pollen receipt ("pollen limitation"). Burd's comment in this issue criticized our analysis, first by arguing that the empirical literature documents much higher levels of pollen limitation than our model predicts and then suggesting that the apparent discrepancy stemmed from our (1) underestimating the costs of securing a fertilized ovule and (2) assuming too little unpredictability in whole-plant pollen receipt. We reply as follows. First, the empirical literature must be consulted carefully. Burd relies on pollen supplementation experiments performed on parts of plants or on whole plants but during only one reproductive season for polycarpic perennials; in both cases, resource reallocation often leads to gross overestimates of pollen limitation. We comprehensively review pollen limitation estimates that are free of these estimation problems and find strong agreement with our model predictions. Second, although cost estimates for different components of seed production are imprecise, errors are likely to be small relative to the >1,000-fold differences observed across plant species, the primary focus of our article. Finally, contrary to Burd's argument, pollen receipt by entire plants is much more predictable than that by individual flowers because the flower-to-flower variation "averages out" when summed across many flowers. Our model uses parameter values that are in broad agreement with the empirical record of modest plant-to-plant variation in pollen receipt and thus predicts the generally modest pollen limitation that is observed in nature. PMID:26913951
A study was conducted to examine the effects of increased winter temperatures and higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of downy birch and Norway spruce, both important tree species in the northern forests of Fennoscandia. In the winter of 1992, three-year old seedlings from 3 different latitudinal populations were kept in greenhouses at winter ambient temperatures, and at winter temperatures raised by 4 degrees C. In the spring, the plants were moved to open chambers pre-set at 350 and 650 μmol/mol CO2. The following year, the experiment was repeated with one-year old seedlings. It was shown that at elevated CO2 levels, the shoot elongation rates and biomass was increased. There was a positive influence of winter temperature on shoot and biomass growth in the southern birch population from Norway but a negative effect on plants from Icelandic populations. High winters for spruce ecotypes appeared to reduce shoot growth for the following season. The reduced growth and premature loss was due to a temporary negative carbon balance in needles during unusually warm winters. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs
Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard
We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.
Zyryanova, Olga A.; TERAZAWA, Minoru; KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Zyryanov, Vyacheslav I.
Four birch tree species (Betula costata, B. pendula, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens) are traditionally important resource species in Russia. In the article, we discuss their spatial and ecophysiological features, biochemical constituents of the living tissues of the birches such as the wood, outer and inner bark, twigs, leaves, buds, roots. The exudation, tapping periods and sap productivity, exudated birch sap and derived birch tar are also reviewed. We show numerous useful wooden, medicinal, ...
The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...
Marcotte, Dave E.
Seasonal pollen allergies affect approximately 1 in 5 school age children. Clinical research has established that these allergies result in large and consistent decrements in cognitive functioning, problem solving ability and speed, focus and energy. However, the impact of seasonal allergies on achievement in schools has received no attention at all from economists. Here, I use data on daily pollen counts merged with school district data to assess whether variation in the airborne pollen that...
Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun
The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.
Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan
This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.
Kulbaba, M W; Worley, A C
The arrangement, colour, shape and size of floral parts (collectively floral design) have evolved primarily to promote mating success via animal-mediated pollen transfer. Although numerous studies have examined variation in pollinator assemblages, relatively few have examined patterns of pollen removal and deposition in the presence of fluctuating pollinators and ineffective floral visitors; therefore, net pollen removal and deposition by entire visitor assemblages are unclear. We studied the timing (diurnal or nocturnal) and effects of floral traits on pollen removal and deposition under a dynamic visitor assemblage of Polemonium brandegeei. We quantified pollen grains remaining in anthers (pollen removal) and deposited on stigmas (pollen deposition) of plants visited during either the day (07:30-20:00 h) or night (20:30-07:30 h) in natural populations over two flowering seasons. Pollen removal and deposition occurred both diurnally and nocturnally during our study. Increased diurnal removal and deposition coincided with peak floral visitations in 2006. This increase in pollen removal and deposition may reflect increased visits by pollen consumers, effective hawkmoth pollinators and increased self-pollen deposition due to hot, dry weather. Nonlinear effects of style length significantly affected pollen removal, with less pollen remaining in flowers with intermediate style lengths. Pollen deposition was more complex, with herkogamy and anther height affecting deposition. Further, close proximity of stigmas and anthers increased the potential for sexual interference between pollen removal and deposition. Overall, flower visitations and pollen removal and deposition varied between years and populations, but sex organ placement consistently influenced the removal and deposition of pollen. PMID:24850527
Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.
Shahali, Y.; Pourpak, Z.; Moin, M.; Zare, A.; Majd, A.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.
Kofol Seliger, Andreja; Pirnat, Janez
The paper analyses woody plants growing in the vicinity of hospital buildings situated along Zalog Road, Korytko Street, Šlajmar Street, Bohorič Street and Njegoš Street in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Woody plants are an immediate potential source of allergenic pollen, affecting all park users such as patients, visitors and hospital employees. The most allergenic tree species in the park was found to be birch (Betula pendula Roth.), which accounts for 6.8% of all registered trees. The low allergenic...
Bogawski, Paweł; Grewling, Łukasz; Nowak, Małgorzata; Smith, Matt; Jackowiak, Bogdan
A significant increase in summer temperatures has been observed for the period 1996-2011 in Poznań, Poland. The phenological response of four weed taxa, widely represented by anemophilous species ( Artemisia spp., Rumex spp. and Poaceae and Urticaceae species) to this recent climate warming has been analysed in Poznań by examining the variations in the course of airborne pollen seasons. Pollen data were collected by 7-day Hirst-type volumetric trap. Trends in pollen seasons were determined using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, whereas the relationships between meteorological and aerobiological data were established by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Significant trends in pollen data were detected. The duration of pollen seasons of all analysed taxa increased (from +2.0 days/year for Urticaceae to +3.8 days/year for Rumex), which can be attributed to a delay in pollen season end dates rather than earlier start dates. In addition, the intensity of Artemisia pollen seasons significantly decreased and correlates with mean July-September daily minimum temperatures ( r = -0.644, p weed pollen seasons in Poznań, i.e. longer duration and later end dates, might be caused by the recorded increase in summer temperature. This influence was the strongest in relation to Artemisia, which is the taxon that flowers latest in the year. The general lack of significant correlations between Rumex and Urticaceae pollen seasons and spring and/or summer temperature suggests that other factors, e.g. land use practices, could also be partially responsible for the observed shifts in pollen seasons.
Perez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galan, Carmen; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia
The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the influence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The average annual Pollen Index is 44,632 grains, where 70-90 percent is recorded during February-May. The pollen calendar includes 29 pollen types, in order of importance; Cupressaceae (23.3 percent of the total amount of pollen grains), Quercus (21.2 percent), and Poaceae and Olea (11.5 and 11.2 percent, respectively), are the main pollen producer taxa. From an allergological viewpoint, Toledo is a high-risk locality for the residents and tourist who visit the area, with a great number of days exceeding the allergy thresholds proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA). The types triggering most allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourists are Cupressaceae, Platanus, Olea, Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Allergic risk increases in 3 main periods: winter (January-March), with the main presence of the Cupressaceae type; spring, characterized by Poaceae, Olea, Platanus and Urticaceae pollen types; and, finally, late summer (August-September), characterized by Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae pollen type, which are the main cause of allergies during these months. PMID:20684492
Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu
Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.
Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.
Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.
Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.
To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in
Kim, Kyu Rang; Kim, Mijin; Choe, Ho-Seong; Han, Mae Ja; Lee, Hye-Rim; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Baek-Jo
Pollen is an important cause of respiratory allergic reactions. As individual sanitation has improved, allergy risk has increased, and this trend is expected to continue due to climate change. Atmospheric pollen concentration is highly influenced by weather conditions. Regression analysis and modeling of the relationships between airborne pollen concentrations and weather conditions were performed to analyze and forecast pollen conditions. Traditionally, daily pollen concentration has been estimated using regression models that describe the relationships between observed pollen concentrations and weather conditions. These models were able to forecast daily concentrations at the sites of observation, but lacked broader spatial applicability beyond those sites. To overcome this limitation, an integrated modeling scheme was developed that is designed to represent the underlying processes of pollen production and distribution. A maximum potential for airborne pollen is first determined using the Weibull probability density function. Then, daily pollen concentration is estimated using multiple regression models. Daily risk grade levels are determined based on the risk criteria used in Korea. The mean percentages of agreement between the observed and estimated levels were 81.4-88.2 % and 92.5-98.5 % for oak and Japanese hop pollens, respectively. The new models estimated daily pollen risk more accurately than the original statistical models because of the newly integrated biological response curves. Although they overestimated seasonal mean concentration, they did not simulate all of the peak concentrations. This issue would be resolved by adding more variables that affect the prevalence and internal maturity of pollens.
Pérez-Badía, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Morales, Celia; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán Soldevilla, Carmen; García Mozo, H.
The present work analyses the airborne pollen dynamic of the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), a World Heritage Site and an important tourist city receiving over 2 millions of visitors every year. The airborne pollen spectrum, the annual dynamics of the most important taxa, the infl uence of meteorological variables and the risk of suffering pollen allergy are analysed. Results of the present work are compared to those obtained by similar studies in nearby regions. The aver...
Full Text Available Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.
Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hiera...
Hagner, Marleena; Pasanen, Tiina; Lindqvist, Bengt; Lindqvist, Isa; Tiilikkala, Kari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Setala, Heikki
The use of birch tar oil (BTO) is a new innovation in plant and animal protection working against various weeds, harmful insects and rodents. Due to its novelty as a biocide/repellent/plant protection product, no comprehensive information on the effects of BTO on non-target soil organisms is available. In this study we examined the impact of BTO on non-target soil organisms (enchytraeids, nematodes and soil microbes) and plants using laboratory toxicity tests and field experiments. In additio...
Johanna Persson,; Olof Dahlman,; Ann-Christine Albertsson
Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan) isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes) were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch lengt...
Pollen of Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of NO2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) – both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe (0.11 ppm for NO2). Experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. The viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to NO2 decreased significantly when compared with the non-exposed. The polypeptide profiles of all the pollen samples showed bands between 15 and 70 kDa and the exposure to NO2 did not produce any detectable changes in these profiles. However, the immunodetection assays indicated higher IgE recognition by patient sera sensitized to the pollen extracts from all exposed samples in comparison to the non-exposed samples. The common reactive bands to the three pollen samples correspond to 58 and 17 kDa proteins. -- Highlights: • A synthetic atmosphere containing relatively low levels of the air pollutant NO2 was simulated. • Betulaceae pollen was in vitro exposed to low levels of atmospheric NO2 pollutant. • The fertility of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 decreased significantly. • The human allergenicity of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 increased. -- When the pollen of birch trees were exposed to low levels of air pollutant NO2, a decrease in the fertility, and an increase on the allergic reactivity, were observed
M. W. Borys; Ma F. Soria Alatorre; A. B. Salazar
The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé) and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston) was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width) of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season). The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selecti...
Aleksandra Kruczek; Małgorzata Puc
This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae) in Szczecin (2009) and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland) (2009–2010), and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and it...
Zink, Katrin; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Gentilini, Eros; Rotach, Mathias W.
One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: (1) plant inventories, (2) land use data in combination with annual pollen counts, and (3) ecological modeling. We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The ragweed pollen season of 2012 in France has been simulated with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-ART using each of the distribution maps in turn. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance. Overall, approach (2) resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year 2012. It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site. The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably.
Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Hercog, Predrag; Culig, Josip
The aim of the study was to determine the length of Poaceae pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentration, at three monitoring sites in inland Croatia during the 2003-2004 period. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. At all three monitoring sites considerably higher precipitation and lower average temperature in 2004 led to a marked decrease in the grass pollen concentration in the air at all three monitoring sites. The highest grass pollen concentrations were recorded in Ivanić Grad (typical rural area), considerably lower in Samobor (effect of forest vegetation), and lowest in Zagreb (urban area). The highest atmospheric Poaceae pollen concentrations in inland Croatia were generally recorded in May and June. The highest intradiurnal concentrations were recorded between 8.00 and 12.00 a.m. Results of this aeropalynologic study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Poaceae pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:16417180
Degaudenzi, M. E.; Arizmendi, C. M.
The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen tim...
Full Text Available he aim of the study was to compare the airborne concentrations of pollen produced by vernal flowering trees taxa (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae in the cities of Timisoara (Romania, Szeged (Hungary, Novi Sad (Serbia and Ljubljana (Slovenia during the years 20062008. Annual variations in the concentration of pollen in the atmosphere were analysed by the volumetric method. In these cities, the period with the greatest diversity of pollen types is spring. These trees are found in mixed forests and are used in urban landscaping and home gardens. Inter-annual differences can be seen in the seasonal behaviour of the pollen in Novi Sad, 2008 being the year in which the highest levels of airborne pollen were reached. During the 3-year period, pollen of the representatives of the family Betulaceae accounted for a significant proportion of total pollen, predominated by Betula pollen and a considerably lower proportion of Alnus, Carpinus and Corylus airpollen. Taxaceae/Cupressaceae pollen appears in the atmospheric pollen spectra of all localities in high concentrations. These pollen grains are the main source of allergens in springtime. Results of the study reveal important differences between the cities.
Jacek Piętka; Andrzej Grzywacz
Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland). The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition f...
Choi, Jeong Hee; Jang, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Won; Kim, Cheol Hong; Hyun, In Gyu
Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, chlorpheniramine, and dexamethasone. He had seasonal allergic rhinitis in autumn. Microscopic examination of the bee pollen revealed Japanese hop, chrysanthemum, ragweed, and dandelion pollens. Skin-prick with bee pollen extracts showed positive reactions at 0.1 mg/mL (A/H ratio > 3+). Serum specific IgE to ragweed was 25.2, chrysanthemum 20.6, and dandelion 11.4 kU/L; however, Japanese hop, honey-bee venom and yellow-jacket venom were negative (UniCAP®, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed serum specific IgE to bee-pollen extracts, and an ELISA inhibition assay for evaluation of cross-allergenicity of bee pollen and other weed pollens showed more than 90% of inhibition with chrysanthemum and dandelion and ~40% inhibition with ragweed at a concentration of 1 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblot analysis revealed 9 protein bands (11, 14, 17, 28, 34, 45, 52, 72, and 90 kDa) and strong IgE binding at 28-34 kDa, 45 and 52 kDa. In conclusion, healthcare providers should be aware of the potential risk of severe allergic reactions upon ingestion of bee pollen, especially in patients with pollen allergy. PMID:25749764
Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Yuuki; Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Matsuki, Hideaki
Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples) were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89) than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71), suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation), in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy. PMID:26110813
Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP is an important illness caused by the inhalation of airborne allergenic cedar pollens, which are dispersed in the early spring throughout the Japanese islands. However, associations between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of allergic symptoms are largely unknown, due to a lack of understanding regarding personal pollen exposures in relation to indoor and outdoor concentrations. This study aims to examine the relationships among indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne Japanese cedar pollen counts. We conducted a 4-year monitoring campaign to quantify indoor, outdoor, and personal airborne cedar pollen counts, where the personal passive settling sampler that has been previously validated against a volumetric sampler was used to count airborne pollen grains. A total of 256 sets of indoor, outdoor, and personal samples (768 samples were collected from 9 subjects. Medians of the seasonally-integrated indoor-to-outdoor, personal-to-outdoor, and personal-to-indoor ratios of airborne pollen counts measured for 9 subjects were 0.08, 0.10, and 1.19, respectively. A greater correlation was observed between the personal and indoor counts (r = 0.89 than between the personal and outdoor counts (r = 0.71, suggesting a potential inaccuracy in the use of outdoor counts as a basis for estimating personal exposures. The personal pollen counts differed substantially among the human subjects (49% geometric coefficient of variation, in part due to the variability in the indoor counts that have been found as major determinants of the personal pollen counts. The findings of this study highlight the need for pollen monitoring in proximity to human subjects to better understand the relationships between pollen exposures and the prevalence or severity of pollen allergy.
Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata
Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196
Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt;
In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local...
Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.
Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.
The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.
Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor
The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season. PMID:25376632
Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Fülöp, Andrea; Tusnády, Gábor
The paper examines the sensitivity of daily airborne Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen levels of a current pollen season not only on daily values of meteorological variables during this season but also on the past meteorological conditions. The results obtained from a 19-year data set including daily ragweed pollen counts and ten daily meteorological variables are evaluated with special focus on the interactions between the phyto-physiological processes and the meteorological elements. Instead of a Pearson correlation measuring the strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, a generalised correlation that measures every kind of relationship between random vectors was used. These latter correlations between arrays of daily values of the ten meteorological elements and the array of daily ragweed pollen concentrations during the current pollen season were calculated. For the current pollen season, the six most important variables are two temperature variables (mean and minimum temperatures), two humidity variables (dew point depression and rainfall) and two variables characterising the mixing of the air (wind speed and the height of the planetary boundary layer). The six most important meteorological variables before the current pollen season contain four temperature variables (mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and soil temperature) and two variables that characterise large-scale weather patterns (sea level pressure and the height of the planetary boundary layer). Key periods of the past meteorological variables before the current pollen season have been identified. The importance of this kind of analysis is that a knowledge of the past meteorological conditions may contribute to a better prediction of the upcoming pollen season.
Yoshimasa Imoto; Takahiro Tokunaga; Yuri Matsumoto; Yuko Hamada; Mizuho Ono; Takechiyo Yamada; Yumi Ito; Tadao Arinami; Mitsuhiro Okano; Emiko Noguchi; Shigeharu Fujieda
Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) to the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (JC) pollen is an IgE-mediated type I allergy affecting nasal mucosa. However, the molecular events underlying its development remain unclear. We sought to identify SAR-associated altered gene expression in nasal epithelial cells during natural exposure to JC pollen. We recruited study participants in 2009 and 2010 and collected nasal epithelial cells between February and April, which is the period of natural pollen ...
M. W. Borys
Full Text Available The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K. Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season. The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selection; both groups of selections gave similar values of germination. The 45.83% of selections of the wild group gave from 88 to 90% of germinated pollen. The selections of cultivated group have been characterized by a wide range of pollen germination. The anther size - length and width - depended upon the selection. The plants of the cultivated group showed a larger size more frequently than those of the wild group. No correlation was found between pollen germination and anthers dimensions. The results were discussed in relation to productivity of fruits trees of the Mexican representatives included in the germplasm collection.
Cerović Radosav; Pajić Zorica; Filipović Milomir; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Radičević Sanja; Nikolić Dragan; Đorđević Milena
The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67); ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201); ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79), ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105), and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen g...
Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Much of the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) research on plants has concentrated on vegetative plant parts, and only a small fraction has dealt with the reproductive system. The present study analyzed pollen grains of 34 taxa germinated and grown under two levels of UV-B radiation (187 and 460 mW/m2) or no UV-B (control group). Visible radiation at 260 micromoles m-2s-1 was present in all treatments. Taxa included those with binucleate and trinucleate pollen types. We detected differences among species. A significant reduction in pollen germination occurred in only five species. Pollen tubes of 50% of the species showed significant reduction in length. Trinucleate pollen types were more likely to exhibit tube length reduction than the binucleate types. Proportionately more monocotyledonous species were sensitive to UV-B treatment than dicotyledonous species, and proportionately more wild species were sensitive than cultivated species and pollen collected from plants growing in the field were somewhat more sensitive than pollen collected from plants grown in the greenhouse. Species in which pollination occurred earlier in the season were more likely to be susceptible to UV-B radiation than those for which anthesis took place later in the season, suggesting a possible adaptation to UV-B radiation. (author)
van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten
Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.
Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.
Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu
A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947
Full Text Available Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr. Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland. The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition from other birch wood-decay fungi. As in vitro studies show (individual biotic effect determination, the fungi examined, occurring on birch trees in nature, are dominant species in relation to I. obliquus.
Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong
Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706
Full Text Available The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67; ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201; ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79, ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105, and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen germination in vitro and pollen tube growth dynamics in vivo showed different genotypic specificities with the tests applied. The obtained results were discussed in the context of reproductive biology of ZP maize lines and aimed to create the preconditions for successful management and direction of the process in practice - seed production in certain environmental conditions.
Full Text Available This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae in Szczecin (2009 and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland (2009–2010, and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and its onset was observed later; the maximum values of daily pollen deposition were lower. Pollen grains of most of the taxa studied appeared in the atmosphere of the city earlier than in the rural area, but in the rural area significantly higher values of daily deposition were recorded. The effect of weather conditions on pollen fall in Szczecin in 2009 was analysed. Statistically significant positive correlations with pollen deposition were found only with maximum, minimum, and mean air temperature, dew point and maximum wind speed, while a negative correlation was found with precipitation and – only for Rumex pollen grains – with air humidity and pressure.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The goal of the present paper was to assess the impact of current and future burden of the ambient temperature to pollen distributions in Skopje. METHODS. In the study we have evaluated a correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere of Skopje and maximum temperature, during the vegetation period of 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2009 as a current burden in context of climate change. For our analysis we have selected 9 representative of each phytoallergen group (trees, grasses, weeds. The concentration of pollen grains has been monitored by a Lanzoni volumetric pollen trap. The correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere and selected meteorological variable from weekly monitoring has been studied with the help of linear regression and correlation coefficients. RESULTS. The prevalence of the sensibilization of standard pollen allergens in Skopje during the some period shows increasing from 16,9% in 1996 to 19,8% in 2009. We detect differences in onset of flowering, maximum and end of the length of seasons for pollen. The pollen distributions and risk increases in 3 main periods: early spring, spring and summer which are the main cause of allergies during these seasons. The largest increase of air temperature due to climate change in Skopje is expected in the summer season. CONCLUSION. The impacts of climate change by increasing of the temperature in the next decades very likely will include impacts on pollen production and differences in current pollen season. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 35-40
Kostiainen, Katri; Kaakinen, Seija; Warsta, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil D; Sober, Jaak; Karnosky, David F; Saranpää, Pekka; Vapaavuori, Elina
We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) and ozone ([O(3)]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO(2) enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander, WI, where the saplings had been exposed to four treatments: control, elevated [CO(2)] (560 ppm), elevated [O(3)] (1.5 x ambient) and their combination for five growing seasons. Wood properties of both species were altered in response to exposure to the treatments. In aspen, elevated [CO(2)] decreased uronic acids (constituents of, e.g., hemicellulose) and tended to increase stem diameter. In response to elevated [O(3)] exposure, acid-soluble lignin concentration decreased and vessel lumen diameter tended to decrease. Elevated [O(3)] increased the concentration of acetone-soluble extractives in paper birch, but tended to decrease the concentration of these compounds in aspen. In paper birch, elevated [CO(2)] decreased and elevated [O(3)] increased starch concentration. The responses of wood properties to 5 years of fumigation differed from those previously reported after 3 years of fumigation. PMID:18316312
Hormaza Jose I; Risueño Maria C; Testillano Pilar S; Lora Jorge; Herrero Maria
Abstract Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this char...
So Hyun Park
Full Text Available <B>Purpose:</b> Aeroallergens are important causative factors of allergic diseases. Previous studies on aeroallergen sensitization rates investigated patients groups that had visited pediatric allergy clinics. In contrast, we investigated sensitization rates in a general population group of elementary school to teenage students in Incheon, Jeju, and Ulsan. <b>Methods:</B> After obtaining parental consent, skin-prick tests were performed on 5,094 students between March and June 2010. Elementary school students were tested for 18 common aeroallergens, whereas middle and high school students were tested for 25 allergens. The 25 allergens included <I>Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae</I>, pollen (birch, alder, oak, Japanese cedar, pine, willow, elm, maple, Bermuda grass, timothy grass, rye grass, orchard grass, meadow grass, vernal grass, mugwort, Japanese hop, fat hen, ragweed, and plantain, and mold (<I>Penicillatum, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Alternaria</I>. <b>Results:</b> The sensitization rates in descending order were 25.79% (<I>D. pteronyssinus</I> , 18.66% (<I>D. farinae</I> , 6.20% (mugwort, and 4.07% (willow in Incheon; 33.35% (<I>D. pteronyssinus</I> , 24.78% (<I>D. farinae</I>, 15.36% (Japanese cedar, and 7.33% (Alternaria in Jeju; and 32.79% (D. pteronyssinus, 30.27% (D. farinae, 10.13% (alder, and 8.68% (birch in Ulsan. The dust mite allergen showed the highest sensitization rate among the 3 regions. The sensitization rate of tree pollen was the highest in Ulsan, whereas that of Alternaria was the highest in Jeju. The ragweed sensitization rates were 0.99% in Incheon, 1.07% in Jeju, and 0.81% in Ulsan. <b>Conclusion:</b> The
... agent. Only a few studies have examined the effects of honey in people with seasonal allergies, and there is ... Improperly performed acupuncture can cause potentially serious ... such as bee pollen, honey, royal jelly, and propolis (a hive sealant made ...
The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables
Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Vautard, Robert; Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Zsolt Torma, Csaba; Giorgi, Filippo
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hay fever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In this online approach pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to the lack of information on ragweed density distribution, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Accordingly a cross validation is conducted and shows reasonable error and sensitivity of the calibration. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger and the model is better constrained. From these simulations health risks associated to common ragweed pollen
Ito, Kazuhiko; Weinberger, Kate R.; Guy S. Robinson; Sheffield, Perry E.; Lall, Ramona; Mathes, Robert; Ross, Zev; Kinney, Patrick L.; Thomas D Matte
Background Many types of tree pollen trigger seasonal allergic illness, but their population-level impacts on allergy and asthma morbidity are not well established, likely due to the paucity of long records of daily pollen data that allow analysis of multi-day effects. Our objective in this study was therefore to determine the impacts of individual spring tree pollen types on over-the-counter allergy medication sales and asthma emergency department (ED) visits. Methods Nine clinically-relevan...
Mahler, V; Diepgen, T L; Kubeta, O; Leakakos, T; Truscott, W; Schuler, G; Kraft, D; Valenta, R
Type I allergy to natural rubber latex can be an important health problem for latex-exposed individuals (e.g., health care workers, spina bifida children). Also beyond these risk groups, a high sensitization rate of varying and partly unknown clinical relevance has been reported. Atopy represents a risk factor for latex allergy and recent studies indicate that patients suffering from pollen allergies may have pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies which cross-react with latex allergens. In order to investigate whether sensitization to pollen allergens can have priming effects on the production of IgE antibodies against latex in vivo, a mouse model was established. Groups of 10 BALB/C mice were immunized with Al(OH)3-adsorbed pollen extracts from timothy grass, ragweed, mugwort, or birch. For control purposes, one additional group received adjuvant only and another group was not immunized. Half of the mice of each group were subsequently immunized with Al(OH)3-adsorbed latex glove extract, the other half with adjuvant only. Pollen and latex-specific IgE- and IgG1-antibody responses were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and statistically evaluated by analysis of variance. Antibody responses to cross-reactive antigens were investigated by immunoblotting. We found significantly increased IgE reactivities to latex after pollen sensitization and vice versa. Moreover, mice immunized with timothy grass pollen extract alone - without subsequent latex immunization - displayed IgE reactivity to latex. Cross-reactive antibodies were directed against pollen antigens of approximately 60 kDa molecular weight. Our results thus demonstrate a mutual boosting effect of pollen and latex sensitization in vivo which may be also operative in polysensitized plant allergic patients. PMID:10771489
Gretchen D. Jones
Full Text Available Analysis of the pollen associated with pollinators can reveal their role in pollination, the habitats and plants they visit, from where they migrated, what they eat, and dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover the pollen. Acetolysis can be used to recover pollen from internal insect tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc. or both. Acetolysis is the best technique for recovering pollen because any tissue is dissolved and lipids and debris are removed from the sample and the pollen grains. This makes the diagnostic characteristics of the pollen grains more visible so that accurate pollen identification can be made. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained.
Fall, Patricia L.
Surface soil samples from the forested Chuska Mountains to the arid steppe of the Chinle Valley, Northeastern Arizona, show close correlation between modern pollen rain and vegetation. In contrast, modern alluvium is dominated by Pinus pollen throughout the canyon; it reflects neither the surrounding floodplain nor plateau vegetation. Pollen in surface soils is deposited by wind; pollen grains in alluvium are deposited by a stream as sedimentary particles. Clay-size particles correlate significantly with Pinus, Quercus, and Populus pollen. These pollen types settle, as clay does, in slack water. Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthus, Artemisia, other Tubuliflorae, and indeterminate pollen types correlate with sand-size particles, and are deposited by more turbulent water. Fluctuating pollen frequencies in alluvial deposits are related to sedimentology and do not reflect the local or regional vegetation where the sediments were deposited. Alluvial pollen is unreliable for reconstruction of paleoenvironments.
Degaudenzi, M E
The most abundant biological particles in the atmosphere are pollen grains and spores. Self protection of pollen allergy is possible through the information of future pollen contents in the air. In spite of the importance of airborne pol len concentration forecasting, it has not been possible to predict the pollen concentrations with great accuracy, and about 25% of the daily pollen forecasts have resulted in failures. Previous analysis of the dynamic characteristics of atmospheric pollen time series indicate that the system can be described by a low dimensional chaotic map. We apply the wavelet transform to study the multifractal characteristics of an a irborne pollen time series. We find the persistence behaviour associated to low pollen concentration values and to the most rare events of highest pollen co ncentration values. The information and the correlation dimensions correspond to a chaotic system showing loss of information with time evolution.
Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.
Lin, Jung-Fu; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J
Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) were measured at pressures up to 73 gigapascals and at temperatures up to 1700 kelvin with nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The compressional-wave velocities (VP) and shear-wave velocities (VS) of hcp-Fe decreased significantly with increasing temperature under moderately high pressures. VP and VS under high pressures and temperatures thus cannot be fitted to a linear relation, Birch's law, which has been used to extrapolate measured sound velocities to densities of iron in Earth's interior. This result means that there are more light elements in Earth's core than have been inferred from linear extrapolation at room temperature. PMID:15976298
JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI
• Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...
Three beehive matrices, sampled in eighteen apiaries from West France, were analysed for the presence of lead (Pb). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey was the matrix the least contaminated by Pb (min = 0.004 μg g−1; max = 0.378 μg g−1; mean = 0.047 μg g−1; sd = 0.057). The contamination of bees (min = 0.001 μg g−1; max = 1.869 μg g−1; mean = 0.223 μg g−1; sd = 0.217) and pollen (min = 0.004 μg g−1; max = 0.798 μg g−1; mean = 0.240 μg g−1; sd = 0.200) showed similar levels and temporal variations but bees seemed to be more sensitive bringing out the peaks of Pb contamination. Apiaries in urban and hedgerow landscapes appeared more contaminated than apiaries in cultivated and island landscapes. Sampling period had a significant effect on Pb contamination with higher Pb concentrations determined in dry seasons. - Highlights: ► Bees, pollen and honey were analysed for the presence of lead. ► The contamination of bees and pollen showed similar levels. ► Honey was the least contaminated matrix. ► Apiaries in urban and hedgerow landscapes appeared more contaminated. ► Pb concentrations varied across the year and were higher in dry seasons. - The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination of 18 apiaries by lead through analyses on 3 different matrices, foraging bees, honey and pollen over 2 beekeeping seasons and in 4 different landscape contexts.
Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole
In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment. PMID:24037300
Full Text Available The co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores was estimated in Rzeszów in the years 2000-2002. The volumetric method was used in this aerobiological study. Six taxa of pollen grains and five types of fungal spores characterized by strong allergenicity and/or high concentrations in the air were analyzed. The time series of pollen grains and fungal spores were compared using PCA analysis. The periods of the greatest concentrations of tree pollen did not coincide with similar periods for herbaceous plants and fungal spores. From February to mid-March, Alnus pollen dominated in the air. The second period was characterized by Betula pollen. It occurred in April. Herbaceous pollen and fungal spores occurred in the air simultaneously (from mid May to the end of August, creating a risky situation for sensitized people. The periods of the highest concentrations of Epicoccum and Ganoderma fungal spores did not coincide with the same period for the examined plant taxa. In Rzeszów the probability of becoming exposed to very high concentrations of allergenic pollen and fungal spores at the same time was high, especially in July, when the highest concentrations of Poaceae, Alternaria and Cladosporium were noted. The hypersensitivity to only one plant or fungal allergen is rarely encountered. Under the present scenarios of global warming, pollen seasons of many taxa will be longer and sufferers will have year-long symptoms.
Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.
, less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen
Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana
Praha: Česká zemědělská univerzita Praha, eds. J. Nevoral a V. Rada, 2012. s. 12-12. ISBN 978-80-213-2271-4. [Sympozium Společnosti pro probiotika a prebiotika /7./. 28.03.2012, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germ-free mice * Bifidobacterium * probiotics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.
Praha: ČSSM, 2007, s. 92-92. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. Liberec (CZ), 02.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA AV ČR IAA500200710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mucosal tolerance Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School,...
Fölster-Holst R; Galecka J; Weißmantel S; Dickschat U; Rippke F; Bohnsack K; Werfel T.; Wichmann K; Buchner M; Schwarz T; Vogt A; Lademann J; Meinke MC
Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Depa...
Bodtger, U; Ejrnaes, A M; Hummelshoj, L;
The role of IgG4 during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is still controversial. The available studies present paramount differences in in vitro techniques, allergens, and clinical outcome parameters. By implementing a sensitive method, and pivotal clinical outcome parameters, we wanted to...
Full Text Available During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978. There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0.3 and 28.4%. Among the nectariferous plant pollen, the highest pollen frequency (above 50% have been stated for Brassicaceae (with Brassica napus, Prunus type, Trifolium repens, Anthriscus type, Salix, Aesculus, Rubus type, Tilia, Taraxacum type, Galeopsis and Heracleum type, among non-nectariferous plans: Poaceae, Papaver and Fragaria. On average, a particular honey contained 16 pollen types of nectariferous plants (range 7-26 and 7 of non-nectariferous (range 1-13. Among the examined samples, there were 11 specific honeys: 7 compatible with the Polish Standard - 4 samples of Brassica napus honeys, 2 Robinia pseudacacia, 1 Tilia, and 4 samples of honeys out of his this standard. There were 3 Galeopsis honeys and 1 honey from Phacelia. The remaining 14 samples were classified as multifloral honeys compatible with the Polish Standard. The woods and scrubs as well as meadows and pastures supplied main sources of honeybee flow in the examined area.
Doina Adina TODEA
Full Text Available Climate change is associated with atmospheric warming due to continuous increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration following the industrial revolution. The urban areas are more responsible for these changes. Europe for example has experienced a progressive warming +0.9°C for 1901-2005. Climate change is unequivocal and represents a possible threat for patients affected by allergic conditions because it is related with an increased distribution and concentration of pollen. Higher temperature, wet condition (especially thunderstorms, wind speed, transition of cold fronts, environmental changes (allergenic pollens arrived in new areas, are mechanisms which involve changes of production, dispersion and allergen content of pollen. Prolonged and more severe pollen seasons are leading to worsened asthma and allergies. The interaction of pollen with urban air pollutants could also lead to an increased effect of aero allergens on allergic patients, with a greater likelihood of the development of an allergic respiratory disease in sensitized subjects and exacerbation of symptomatic patients. Air pollution could induce damage to airways mucosa, thus promoting sensitization of the airways; also it could increase the expression of allergenic proteins (allergen contents of pollen produce by plants is increased by higher temperature and CO2 enriched atmosphere. By increasing pollen concentration or making the airways susceptible to allergens, the climate change and air pollution have a negative impact on human health.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of long-term phenological observations of silver birch (Betula pendula during the years 1991–2015 across the phenological network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI – Český hydrometeorologický ústav. The data assembled over this period were used for identification of timing of generative phenophases associated with pollen release into the air: inflorescence emergence 10%, beginning of flowering 10%, beginning of flowering 50%, beginning of flowering 100%, and end of flowering. The stations are situated at altitudes from 155 m (Doksany to 1102 m (Modrava. The average timing of beginning of flowering 10% was 8th April (Lednice = lowland station and 14th May (Modrava = mountain station; the average timing of beginning of flowering 50% was 12th April (Lednice and 20th May (Modrava; the average timing of beginning of flowering 100% was 18th April (Lednice and 22nd May (Modrava, and the average timing of end of flowering was 26th April (Lednice and 28th May (Modrava. The totals of effective temperatures above 5°C (TS5 and sums of daily precipitation were used as a bio-climatological criterion for assessment of the dependence of phenological phases on meteorological variables. The average sums of TS5 and the average sums of daily precipitation total were as follows: 61.0–80.8°C, 82.8–327.4 mm (inflorescence emergence; 105.2–106.4°C, 85.9–365.2 mm (beginning of flowering 10%; 124.8–130.8°C, 89.8–385.9 mm (beginning of flowering 50%; 144.7–158.6°C, 95.2–390.7 mm (beginning of flowering 100%; and 181.6–223.8°C, 104.7–427.4 mm (end of flowering. Synoptic situations occurring during interphase intervals were obtained – the most often found synoptic situations were B (stationary trough over Central Europe, Bp (east travelling trough, NEa (northeast anticyclonic situation, Sa (south anticyclonic situation and SWc2 (southwest cyclonic situation moving northeast to eastwards. The
Gussin, A E; McCormack, J H; Waung, L Y; Gluckin, D S
Pollen from 5 plant species (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill., Hermerocallis minor Mill., Galtonia condicans Decne., Camellia japonica L., and Lathyrus odoratus L.) representing 4 families germinated well in media containing trehalose as the sole carbon source. Data are presented indicating that pollen metabolized this disaccharide for germination and subsequent pollen-tube growth; the sugar was not merely an osmoregulator. An inhibitor of trehalase activity depressed germination in trehalose but not in sucrose. Phloridzin dihydrate, an inhibitor of glucose transport, depressed germination in both disaccharides. Biochemical tests demonstrated that a pollen extract was capable of hydrolyzing trehalose to its constituent glucose monomers. Heat inactivation experiments confirmed the presence of a distinct trehalase having a rigid specificity for its substrate. By this method, trehalase activity was completely distinguishable from the activities of other alpha- and beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases. Localization data indicated that the enzyme diffused from intact grains and was probably soluble. The presence of its substrate could not be demonstrated in pollen or in stigmatic or stylar tissues. PMID:5379538
Full Text Available The study of pollen morphology of some species of the genus Malus (Rosaceae was carried out. All investigated species are characterized by tricolpate pollen grains, but differ by their size and coloration.
Full Text Available Cationized birch xylan was prepared and its use as a papermaking chemical was evaluated. The focus was on studying the effects of cationized birch xylan on the wet and dry strength of fine paper. The results of the laboratory experiments show that the addition of 3 percent of cationized birch xylan to birch kraft pulp improved the initial wet strength of the web by 30 percent compared to base stock at a solids content of 55%. Furthermore, the tensile stiffness of the wet web increased by approximately a third and the dry tensile strength improved by 26%, while the dry elastic modulus was not changed. The improvements in the strength properties were clear when compared to the base stock, but not as high as achieved with conventionally used cationized starch. The difference between the xylan and starch is most likely due to the shorter polymer chain length of the cationized xylan.
Pollen morphology of 30 species of the family Acanthaceae belonging to 11 genera has been investigated using light and scanning electron microscope. Acanthaceae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-prolate to prolate rarely prolate-spheroidal or sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, generally tricolporate or heterocolporate rarely colpate or porate. Exine ornamentation varies from medium to coarse reticulate, or often lopho-reticulate with luminae perforated to baculate or scabrate. On the basis of apertural type, exine ornamentation and colpal membrane eight distinct pollen types have been recognized viz., Pollen type-I: Barleria cristata-type, Pollen type-II: Blepharis ciliaris-type, Pollen type-III: Hygrophila polysperma - type, Pollen type-IV: Justicia adhatoda-type, Pollen type-V:Lepidagathis incurva-type, Pollen type- VI: Peristrophe paniculata-type, Pollen type-VII: Ruellia patula-type and Pollen type-VIII: Strobilanthes atropurpureus - type. Within the family pollen diversity is significant enough for delimiting the tribes, subtribes and genera. (author)
Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.
Didier, Alain; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Worm, Margitta; Horak, Friedrich; Sussman, Gordon L
BACKGROUND: The 300IR (index of reactivity) 5-grass pollen tablet has favorable short-term and sustained clinical efficacy in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Here, we report maintenance of efficacy and safety over 2 years following treatment discontinuation...... medication score (DRMS). RESULTS: 633 patients with ARC were randomized to placebo (n = 219) or 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet, beginning 4 months (4 M, n = 207) or 2 months (2 M, n = 207) prior to the estimated start of the grass pollen season and continuing until season's end. During the first post...... season and continuing to season's end demonstrated efficacy across all variables during active treatment, and this effect was prolonged for up to 2 years post-treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00418379....
Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy
Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured
Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo
Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery. PMID:25442716