Amit, Ido; Baker, David; Barker, Roger; Berger, Bonnie; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Biffi, Alessandra; Demichelis, Francesca; Doudna, Jennifer; Dowdy, Steven F.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Zhang, Tian
What will be the most important areas of research in biotech over the coming years? Which technologies will be most important to advance knowledge and applications in these areas? Nature Biotechnology reached out to a set of investigators working in research areas representative of the journal's ...
Those following the financial markets and the valuation of biotechnology companies recently might find themselves perplexed. Towards the end of 1999, during which the availability of capital for biotech initial public offerings and for private investment rounds seemingly withered, the markets suddenly turned around and gave the biotechnology industry its biggest bonanza ever. PMID:11165169
Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The objective of this project is to modify the FluorAbody plasmid previously developed by Sandia Biotech to include a binding site for biotin by introducing the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP)and a gold binding protein (GBP) into a loop of the red fluorescent protein (mRFP).
Hopkins, M.M.; Crane, P.A.; Nightingale, P.; Baden-Fuller, C.
This article explores how the UK's biotech firms have evolved in response to their financial environment. As investors' expectations about the potential of biotech have changed, funding options have opened up and closed down, leading firms to develop new business models and routes of technology development. After a favorable period, new constraints on stock market funding have forced UK biotech firms to compress their life cycles, constraining their ability to generate the late-stage drug can...
Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus
biotech firms in a relevant context we compare a Danish segment of biotech firms with a matching Swedish segment.From an overall assessment modern biotechnology, despite the three decades elapsed since the first genetic manipulation, is still in a stage of experimentation, learning how to turn its new...... segment of Drug Discovery Firms (DDFs), which almost exclusively are based on capabilities in biotech research. This delimitation gives the advantage of studying a homogenous segment of firms. At the same time, this segment of biotech research firms is an informative indicator of the ability of the Danish...... economy to perform in the transition towards knowledge and sciencebased competitiveness. That is so because DDFs to an unusual extent depend on the ability of their framework to perform as an innovation system, by which we refer to advantages growing out of interactions and complementarities between e...
Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three
The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the bio...
Chakraborty, Shamik; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Chiluwal, Amrit; Langer, David J; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Symons, Marc; Boockvar, John A
The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation. This article summarizes the current progress in brain tumor research as presented at 2015 The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit. PMID:26897014
Wiederrecht, Gregory J; Hill, Raymond G; Beer, Margaret S
The process involved in the identification and development of novel breakthrough medicines at big pharma has recently undergone significant changes, in part because of the extraordinary complexity that is associated with tackling diseases of high unmet need, and also because of the increasingly demanding requirements that have been placed on the pharmaceutical industry by investors and regulatory authorities. In addition, big pharma no longer have a monopoly on the tools and enabling technologies that are required to identify and discover new drugs, as many biotech companies now also have these capabilities. As a result, researchers at biotech companies are able to identify credible drug leads, as well as compounds that have the potential to become marketed medicinal products. This diversification of companies that are involved in drug discovery and development has in turn led to increased partnering interactions between the biotech sector and big pharma. This article examines how Merck and Co Inc, which has historically relied on a combination of internal scientific research and licensed products, has poised itself to become further engaged in partnering with biotech companies, as well as academic institutions, to increase the probability of success associated with identifying novel medicines to treat unmet medical needs--particularly in areas such as central nervous system disorders, obesity/metabolic diseases, atheroma and cancer, and also to cultivate its cardiovascular, respiratory, arthritis, bone, ophthalmology and infectious disease franchises. PMID:16871465
In Denmark, biotechnology and its physical product, the genetically modified organism, continues to be controversial, leading to widespread public scepticism. This paper explores the effect of such scepticism on part of the financial communication of one of Denmark's largest biotech companies......, Novozymes. Research indicates that besides accommodating a legal demand for the disclosure of company financial details, the annual report, in particular the letter to the shareholders or the CEO's letter, serves the purpose of marketing the company to its constituents (Bowman 1984; Bülow-Møller 2003......; Hyland 1998). This point is arguably of more importance to a biotech company which in its communication to the public may have to consider promoting an overly favourable and trustworthy image not only of its financial results, but also of the industry in which it is engaged, to ensure continuous...
... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S. exports to Australia, (2) introduce...
... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade.... biotechnology and life science firms and trade organizations. The mission will introduce mission participants to.... Commercial Setting U.S. biotech and life science firms often consider China the most important future...
Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A
The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the biotech industry differs from the pharmaceutical industry. The two industries' characteristics were measured and compared, along with various measures of firms' financial risk and sensitivity to government regulation. Data from firms' financial statements provided accounting-based measures and firms' stock returns applied to a multifactor asset pricing model provided financial market measures. The biotech industry was by far the most research-intensive industry in the US, averaging 38% R&D intensity (ratio of R&D spending to total firm assets) over the past 25 years, compared with an average of 25% for the pharmaceutical industry and 3% for all other industries. Biotech firms exhibited lower and more volatile profits and higher market-related and size-related risk, and they suffered more negative stock returns in response to threatened government price regulation. Biotech firms' financial risks increase their costs of capital and make them more sensitive to government regulations that affect their financial prospects. As biotech products grow to represent a larger share of new medicines, general stock market conditions and government regulations could have a greater impact on the level of innovation of new medicines. PMID:19799470
Full Text Available Modern biotechnology became possible because of the ability to clone genes and produce gene products barriers of species and sex. Potential entrepreneurs are getting interested in venturing into health care biotech industry, stimulated by the success story in information technology. Products of protein therapeutics, such as insulin, growth hormones, interferons, blood proteins, streptokinase and vaccines have received special attention. Pharmaceutical companies got into the field of diagnostics, a major thrust area being products of antigen/antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic kits. The ability to clone and sequence genes from a variety of organisms has culminated in the subject of genomics. High throughput screening of thousands of organic molecules against a battery of drug targets using robotic machinery is the current approach to come up with lead molecules. New drug delivery systems for slow, sustained and direct delivery to target tissues are under way. There is hope that hereditary and metabolic disorders may have a cure through replacements of defective genes by normal cloned genes and by blocking the expression of unwanted genes, respectively. This mega approach would call for the availability of DNA chips, a product of collaboration between molecular biologists and electronic engineers. The tendency now-a-days is for a marriage between biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Animal cloning, spearheaded by the birth of Dolly, has revolutionised cell biology and is of promise to generate animal bio-vectors to produce desired protein pharmaceuticals in milk. Stem cell research has assumed a lot of importance. In our country, reasonable competence has been built-up in the field of biotechnology. Around two dozen institutes carry out front-line research in medical biotechnology. Successful commercialisation of a few diagnostic kits and recombinant vaccines has provided an impetus and enthusiasm to exploit biotechnology in a big way
Boschma, Ron; Heimeriks, Gaston; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre
This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....
Ron Boschma; Gaston Heimeriks; Pierre-Alexandre Balland
This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientific relatedness with existing topics in those cities. We make use of the rise and fall of title words in scientific publications in biotech to identify major cognitive developments within the field....
López Silva, Christian
Amid the epidemiological transition that Mexico is currently experiencing, an adequate access to biotech medicines is becoming very important. However, these medicines also involve new challenges for the sanitary authorities, given their higher complexity in structure and function than conventional chemical drugs. Consequently, it has been necessary to update the Mexican legal framework, which has placed Mexico at the forefront in this sector. This article describes briefly what biotech drugs are, why it has been necessary to regulate them differently, the evolution of the regulatory framework in Mexico, and the general features of the new system. PMID:22367313
Song, Baohui; Marchant, Mary A.
China is a key player in global agricultural markets, and the number one importer of U.S. soybeans and cotton, whereby soybeans and cotton are two of the main biotech commodities commercialized in the United States. As of 2005, 87% of soybeans and 79% of cotton planted in the U.S. were biotech. Thus, changes in China's biotech policies may have a significant impact on U.S. biotech commodity exports to China. An understanding of the evolution of China's biotech regulations and factors that may...
Dawabi, Peter; Wessner, Martin
The background of this paper is an internal research project at the German National Research Center for Information Technology, Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, (GMD-IPSI) dealing with software engineering, computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) and practical biotech knowledge. The project goal is to develop a…
Chema, Kambua; Marks, Leonie A.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Bredahl, Maury E.
To date, most research in Europe and the United States has focused on eliciting consumer WTP for biotech foods without directly addressing strategies for marketing them. We use means-end theory to link consumers' knowledge about functional attributes, to their knowledge about consequences and core values, in order to gain insights into valued attributes for developing potential marketing strategies.
Since the early 80’s the forward steps in genetics and proteomics, have led a particular interest to biotech products, such as DNA and proteins. Although difficult, their large-scale production enabled the therapeutic use of this compounds. Proteins and DNA sequences can be very interesting therapeutic molecules owing to their high selectivity/affinity for the receptor or the specific site of action. Unfortunately, some issues still limit their pharmaceutical use, such as the susceptibilit...
Gaston Heimeriks; Ron Boschma
This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitive developments within this scientific field. Our analyses show that biotech is subject to a path- and place-dependent process of knowledge production. We observed a high degree of re-occurrences of...
van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan
This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.
German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the mar
Pisano, Gary P
In 1976, Genentech, the first biotechnology company, was founded by a young venture capitalist and a university professor to exploit recombinant DNA technology. Thirty years and more than 300 billion dollars in investments later, only a handful of biotech firms have matched Genentech's success or even shown a profit. No avalanche of new drugs has hit the market, and the long-awaited breakthrough in R&D productivity has yet to materialize. This disappointing performance raises a question: Can organizations motivated by the need to make profits and please shareholders successfully conduct basic scientific research as a core activity? The question has largely been ignored, despite intense debate over whether business's invasion of basic science-long the domain of universities and nonprofit research institutions- is limiting access to discoveries, thereby slowing advances in science. Biotech has not lived up to its promise, says the author, because its anatomy, which has worked well in other high-tech sectors, can't handle the fundamental challenges facing drug R&D: profound, persistent uncertainty and high risks rooted in the limited knowledge of human biology; the need for the diverse disciplines involved in drug discovery to work together in an integrated fashion; and barriers to learning, including tacit knowledge and murky intellectual property rights, which can slow the pace of scientific advance. A more suitable anatomy would include increased vertical integration; a smaller number of closer, longer collaborations; an emphasis by universities on sharing rather than patenting scientific discoveries; more cross-disciplinary academic research; and more federal and private funding for translational research, which bridges basic and applied science. With such modifications, science can be a business. PMID:17040044
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... current and accurate information concerning the securities of California Oil & Gas Corp. because it...
German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the market segment of platform technologies, characterized by incremental innovations. In recent years however, many companies have shifted their strategic focus on the market segment of therapeutics, cha...
Networks have a well-established importance in business. Here network analysis, grounded in socialnetwork theory, is used to analyse two international biotech business-to-business environments. Ofadditional value, the methodology employed is described for the beneﬁ t of academics and practitionersalike. Swedish and Australian biotech ﬁ rms are analysed through the examination of internet networks.Once gathered and analysed following the described methodology, several features of the networks ...
Van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan
This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attende...
On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which
Every day Science moves little steps forward, contributing to the progress of our society. Sometimes, however, a single invention revolutionizes the world. Indeed, the invention of woodblock printing and development of industrial-scale printing-press in the 15. century have changed our society. 3D-printing is now boosting another revolution. The production of custom-made objects from a virtual model will trigger a rapid development of a more versatile, less expensive manufacturing sector for the on-demand market. The real revolution, however, is represented by 3D-printing in biomedicine. 3D-bioprinting represents the future of the Red-Biotech. This technology, indeed, will be able to build ex-novo organs using biocompatible materials and human cells; replace the allograft transplants, eliminating waiting lists that often make the difference between life and death; and provide more predictive, less expensive experimental models, replacing animal tests. The high innovation content of this technology, can make the difference between being obsolete and new
Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A
With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits. PMID:26039675
@@ 2008 was a year marked with changes and turns for biotech industry in China. 2008 began with tremendous promises riding on the waves of a history-making, exceptionally strong year in 2007. However, the biotech industry in China was not immune to the macroeconomic changes during 2008. This report will attempt to examine changes and new trends in biotech industry in China.
Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young
Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913. PMID:17402745
Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk
We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...... and economic performance as well as biotech-related policy variables. The inclusion of the latter allows us to shed new light on the question to what extent R&D-based cluster policies are able to impact on the formation of the German biotech network. Our results show that policy indicators such as the...... the German biotechnology network....
This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…
Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David
at the date of filing to demonstrate a credible – or to use the terminology of the EPO – a plausible industrial application. In the final section of the article we shall also discuss various policy considerations relevant for the biotech industry and briefly refer to corresponding developments in the US...
Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... securities of Advantage Capital Development Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...
... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621... and life science firms and trade organizations. In response to various inquiries, CS is clarifying...), interested U.S. biotechnology and life science firms and trade organizations which have not already...
Herwig, Christoph; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar F; Golabgir, Aydin; Rathore, Anurag S
In the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, global regulatory agencies have introduced the concepts of quality risk management and knowledge management (KM) as enablers for an enhanced pharmaceutical quality system. Although the concept of quality risk management has been well elucidated in the literature, the topic of KM has received relatively scant attention. In this paper we present an opinion on KM in the QbD paradigm as it relates to the manufacturing of biotech therapeutic products. Both academic and industrial viewpoints have been considered and key gaps have been elucidated. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need for the biotech industry to create efficient KM approaches if they wish to be successful in QbD implementation. PMID:25980924
Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated. PMID:21552000
Tegene, Abebayehu; Huffman, Wallace E; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.
Consumers' willingness to pay for food products decreases when the food label indicates that a food product is produced with the aid of modern biotechnology. This bulletin presents empirical evidence on consumers' willingness to pay for biotech foods based on the presence or absence of labels advising that the food was prepared with the aid of biotechnology. The authors designed and conducted an experimental auction to elicit consumers' willingness to pay for "genetically modified" (GM)-label...
Background: The companies involved for the purpose of improving their respective market standings and income executes mergers. It is interesting how this merger & acquisition phenomena continue to attract many organizations across different sectors of the business world. The mergers & acquisition culture around the globe provides an ideal scenario to investigate into the healthcare industry which comprises of pharmaceutical and biotech companies and the impact of the mergers on the firms inv...
Genet, Corine; Errabi, Khalid; Gauthier, Caroline
International audience Nanotechnologies are often presented as breakthrough innovations, where technology transfer and knowledge-bridging will play a pivotal role in the industrial dynamics. This article investigates the model of knowledge transfer in the nanotechnologies in depth, by comparing it with the models of two recently emerged technologies: biotech and microelectronics. Our results show that the nanotechnology transfer model is very different from that involved in biotechnology e...
Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young
Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633
Engel, Dirk; Mitze, Timo; Patuelli, Roberto; Reinkowski, Janina
in research clusters. We apply a Difference-in-Differences estimation technique in a generalized linear model framework, which allows us to control for different initial regional conditions in R&D activity of the biotech sector. Our econometric findings support the view that winners generally...... outperform non-winning participants during the treatment period, thus indicating that exclusive funding as well as the stimulating effect of being a “winner” have positive effects on R&D activity in the short-term. Apart from this direct winner effect, for the non-winning participants no beneficial indirect...
These are turbulent times. For Pharma and Biotech there is the potential of new inventions and discovery tempered by the fact that it now takes an average of 12 to 15 years and up to $1.7 billion for a drug to go from discovery to market. Despite all the time and money invested, only a handful of drugs are approved by the FDA each year. The arduous drug approval process reveals a central fact about the pharmaceutical industry: it's one of the most intensely regulated industries in the world. ...
Severino, P.; Andreani, T.; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, M. V.; Santana, M. H. A.; Silva, A. M.; Souto, E. B.
Roč. 81, 23 June (2014), s. 28-34. ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : lipid nanoparticles * double emulsion * hydrophilic biotech drugs Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014
Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.; Osseweijer, P.
Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of th...
Ezezika Obidimma C
Full Text Available Abstract The development of agricultural biotechnology humanitarian projects for food security in the last five years has been rapid in developing countries and is expected to rise sharply over the coming years. An extremely critical issue in these projects involves building trust with the community and farmers they aim to serve. For the first time, our social audit engagement with one of these initiatives, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa project, has revealed that a critical but unrecognized component of building trust with farmers involves publicly addressing the concerns surrounding stacked trait crops. As a result, we argue in this article that it is critical to actively anticipate the concerns that could be raised over trait stacking by incorporating them into global access plans of such initiatives early in order to facilitate adoption, provide the best value to the small-scale farmer and gain trust with the community whom these projects aim to serve. This perspective, based on an actual international social audit, should be of value to scientists, funders and partners involved in biotech development initiatives for food security.
Now in its third year, the Biotech Outsourcing Strategies (BOS) meeting organized by Bio2Business took place at the Søhuset Conference Centre in Hørsholm, Copenhagen. The focus of this year's event was the demanding and challenging area of chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC), and the meeting provided ample opportunity for lively discussion of the key issues surrounding this area. New for the 2010 conference, a biologics-focused lecture stream ran in parallel to the established small molecule stream. Both streams boasted a distinguished panel of keynote speakers who discussed all aspects of CMC from early stage scale-up through late stage clinical development. In addition to the keynote speakers, selected contract research organizations (CROs) gave short presentations on the solutions that they could provide to some of the challenges facing CMC. The meeting attracted more than 150 delegates from leading drug development companies and CRO service providers, and greatly facilitated the forging of new working relationships through pre-arranged one-to-one meetings. Moreover, exhibitions from event sponsors and considerable scheduled networking time over lunch and evening reception further enhanced the highly productive and interactive nature of the meeting. PMID:20716956
Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile
Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main
In this multiple-case study of 6 mid-level leaders working in biotech R&D--an archetype of a complex, uncertain, turbulent, and, multidisciplinary 21st-Century workplace--I explore the importance and interaction of mental complexity (MC), an aspect of adult development, and emotional intelligence (EI) for leadership effectiveness (LE). MC concerns the sophistication of the mindsets we use to construct stories for ourselves about the meaning of things. EI refers to one’s ability to manage one’...
Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles
in an industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....
Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles
industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....
Nina von Knorring; Mitzy Gafos; Motsei Ramokonupi; Ute Jentsch
Background Quality control (QC) and evaluation of HIV rapid test procedures are an important aspect of HIV prevention trials. We describe QC and performance of two rapid tests, Determine™ and Uni-Gold™ used in a microbicide clinical trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods/Results Internal QC of both HIV rapid tests was conducted at the trial site using a Uni-Gold control kit (Uni-Gold™Recombigen® HIV). Both assays produced the expected results for a total of 4637 QC tes...
Nina von Knorring
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quality control (QC and evaluation of HIV rapid test procedures are an important aspect of HIV prevention trials. We describe QC and performance of two rapid tests, Determine™ and Uni-Gold™ used in a microbicide clinical trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS/RESULTS: Internal QC of both HIV rapid tests was conducted at the trial site using a Uni-Gold control kit (Uni-Gold™Recombigen® HIV. Both assays produced the expected results for a total of 4637 QC tests. Study participants were tested for HIV at screening and, if enrolled, at regular time points throughout the study. Positive or discordant results were confirmed by a double HIV immunoassay testing strategy at a local laboratory. Overall, 15292 HIV rapid test were performed. Sensitivity and specificity of Determine was 98.95% (95% CI: 97.72-99.61 and 99.83% (95% CI: 99.70-99.91 respectively [positive predictive value (PPV 97.91% (95% CI: 96.38-98.92], for Uni-Gold it was 99.30% (95% CI: 98.21-99.81 and 99.96% (95% CI: 99.88-99.99 respectively [PPV 99.47% (95% CI: 98.46-99.89]. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a Uni-Gold control kit can be used for internal QC of both Uni-Gold and the HIV-1 component of the Determine rapid tests. Both rapid tests performed proficiently in the trial population.
Commercialization of biotech (GM) crops started in 1996. A significant increase of 9 million hectars was realized in 1996-2009. In the years 2010-2011, it was already 12 million hectars (8 percent of total crop area). 16.7 million farmers in 29 countries planted 160 million hectars of GM crops in...
Full Text Available Much research has been carried out on the accumulation and effective use of knowledge as a company-specific form of intellectual property. However, insufficient attention has been given to research focusing on the effects of micro-level knowledge absorption and its effective use. In this paper, we try to demonstrate what should be done in order to promote new biotech business from the perspective of each engineer’s knowledge, through a micro-level investigation focusing on the life science business section of one IT enterprise. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey of engineers, interviews of several engineers, and patent data analysis, we discuss the progress of the biotech business in an IT enterprise from the aspect of accumulation and circulation of knowledge in a core technology field, the IT business, and a technology field of new entry, the biotech business. This paper reports that the positive growth cycle of biotech business promotion in an IT enterprise, using Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd. as a case, attained by incorporating the latest biotech knowledge from junior engineers and utilizing IT knowledge from middle engineers leads to the recruiting of qualified students.Keywords: accumulation and circulation of the knowledge, biotech business, open innovation, patent data analysis, questionnaire survey
Klöpper, Christof; Haisch, Tina
Cet article traite de l’influence d’un secteur ou d’une industrie dans l’économie nationale et de la manière dont il/elle peut influencer des secteurs et des technologies connexes. L’exemple choisi est constitué par l’industrie pharmaceutique suisse. L’article suggère que cette industrie a façonné le développement et la distribution spatiale des secteurs qui lui étaient liés, tels que les biotechnologies (biotech) et les technologies médicales (medtech). Il est supposé que cette influence dif...
Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik
Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395
Jommi, Claudio; Paruzzolo, Silvia
This article has two objectives. It firstly provides a general framework for variables that influence R&D (Research and Development) localisation by pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The analysis of R&D localization includes both in-house R&D and contracted R&D. Following a systematic literature search, these variables were classified into four distinct categories: regulatory environment, institutional framework, national systems of innovation and local development and specialisation. The authors highlight that some of these factors directly depend on the action of public administrations (e.g., patent protection, price regulation, public investments in research, and incentives to private companies); others are indirectly influenced by public policies (e.g., GDP growth rate, infrastructures). This theoretical framework was used to analyse the Italian case-study. Pros and cons of the Italian context were investigated from the point of view of multinational pharmaceutical companies and the Italian Association of Biotech Companies. Interviews were chosen as the most appropriate data gathering technique given the exploratory nature of the study of the Italian context. The paper is divided into five parts. A brief introduction provides figures showing that Europe has been loosing positions compared with other Continents and the same has occurred in Italy compared with other EU countries. The second one illustrates the methodology. The third one is focused on variables affecting R&D localisation. In the fourth section the Italian case-study is discussed. Theoretical and empirical findings are summarised and discussed in the conclusions. PMID:16824641
The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe
Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...
groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide a...... highly influenced by attitudes expressed by societal groups, based on the notions of risk, fear and danger....
Faeh, Andrea Beata
The Court of Justice of the European Union (Court) delivered a preliminary ruling in 2011 in the case of Oliver Brüstle v Greenpeace on the interpretation of Article 6(2) of the Biotech Directive and thereby established an autonomous concept of the term ‘human embryo’. The Brüstle decision raises a...... autonomous interpretation of ‘human embryo’ and the flexibility allowed to the national courts needed further clarification. This clarification was recently given by the Court’s Grand Chamber in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General Patents where the Court concluded that a non......-fertilised human ovum, not capable of developing into a human being, is not a ‘human embryo’. Hence, ‘where a non-fertilised human ovum does not fulfil that condition [inherent capacity of developing into a human being], the mere fact that that organism commences a process of development is not sufficient for it...
王友同; 吴文俊; 李谦; 高美风
Biological technology is the topic height at the development of economy and technology in the 21st century all over the world . The authors based on the world biotech- drugs total development trend, summarized the biotech drugs research achievements in recent five years in China. The content includes: cytokine, protein and peptide drugs, fusion protein, cell-penetrating peptides, enzymes,gene therapy,stem cells,monoclonal antibodies,therapeutic vaccine,polysaccharide drugs,etc. It is found in the survey that the development of biotech drugs has a bright future in treating complicated diseases, protecting the human health, improving the life quality, and developing the biotech drugs industry, thank to the emerging of many creative biotech drug researches within our country. This paper provides the reference for establishing the relevant research plan, deciding the research project, setting development goals for enterprise research,and choosing professional development direction,and to biological pharmaceutical researchers.%生物技术是21世纪世界各国竞相发展的经济、技术的制高点,作者站在世界生物技术药物发展总趋势的高度上,具体而微地调查和总结了我国近5年来生物技术药物研究所取得的成果,内容包括:细胞因子、其它蛋白质和多肽药物、融合蛋白、穿膜肽、酶、基因治疗、干细胞、单克隆抗体、治疗性疫苗及多糖药物等.调查发现,在攻克人类顽疾、保障人民身体健康、提高生活质量和发展我国生物技术药物产业方面,由于国内成批有创见的研究成果持续涌现,发展前景一片光明.该文可为有关部门科研规划、确定研究项目、企业锁定发展目标及生物制药人员选择专业发展方向提供参考.
Lin, Fangyu; Wang, Shyh-Jen
To demonstrate the influence of the US Supreme Court's KSR case, our analysis has shown that the ratio of obvious ruling increased from 0.42 to 0.62 after this case, whereas the ratio of non-obvious ruling decreased from 0.47 to 0.28. Therefore, without the rigid application of a "teaching, suggestion or motivation" test, the trends of obvious and non-obvious CAFC rulings significantly increased and decreased, respectively. Based on this analysis, biotech inventors should contemplate the factors that have resulted in ruling of obviousness, which include claims that are too broad, the lack of secondary considerations, the reasonable expectation of success, and the reason or motivation to create a structure based on structural similarity. The presence of these factors most likely would result in the rejection of the claim during patent prosecution or the invalidation of the claim in patent litigation. Two immunotherapy and vaccine cases have applied these factors to overcome the obvious rejections. PMID:23899509
Efforts to change the genetic makeup of plants have been ongoing since the beginning of agriculture, thousands of years ago. Early plant improvements relied on simply cross-breeding cultivars with desired traits. Advancements in mutation breeding through chemicals and radiation ...
Over the past forty years, microgravity has inspired and enabled applications in a wide range of sectors including medicine, materials, computers, communications, and national defense. Trends show that demand for high-tech solutions is increasing in these sectors, solutions that require higher resolution, greater precision, novel materials, innovative processes, and more sophisticated tools. These are areas where microgravity can offer unique capabilities for innovation. The Emerging Space Office (ESO) has engaged in multiple studies over the past year that have found that microgravity RD is one of the most promising technology areas for contributing to economic growth and to NASAs mission. The focus of these studies was on terrestrial markets rather than NASA applications, applied research rather than basic research, and commercial rather than academic investigators. There have been more success stories than are generally appreciated and there are significant areas of promising future potential. Many of the problems that have limited commercial microgravity development in the past are being solved. Microgravity research and development (RD) requires iteration and learning, as rapidly as possible. New technologies enable high throughput and rapid data collection in increasingly small payloads. The International Space Station is in orbit and provides a laboratory that is available 247 at least until 2024. Frequent flights by commercial space providers to and from the ISS now enable the fast learning cycles needed by high-tech industries. Launch costs are decreasing and the ability to return payloads to Earth is increasing. New commercial space laboratories, such as those being developed by SpaceX and Bigelow Aerospace, are in the final stages of development and testing. This ecosystem for microgravity RD has never been available before. These are game-changer conditions for attracting high-tech industries to space for terrestrial, as well as NASA, applications. However, few know that these capabilities are available or how to use them. In aggregate, the potential value for new applications from microgravity RD over the next ten years could add billions of dollars per year in terrestrial applications to the future economy, create new jobs, and generate a wide range of public benefits in medical advances, while broadening the customer base for the emerging space industry.
La intervención del derecho penal en materia de bioseguridad: la criminalización de la actividad empresarial biotecnológica de liberación intencional en el ambiente con fines comerciales y de comercialización de productos biotech
Tanus Job e Meira, Bruno
[ES] El objetivo general del presente trabajo reside en analizar el sistema de control del riesgo biotecnológico relativo a las principales actividades por las cuales se utilizan las empresas biotech en el ámbito agroalimentario, es decir, las conductas de liberación en el ambiente con fines comerciales, así como la comercialización de “organismos modificados genéticamente” (OMGs) y sus derivados. Tales actividades son consideradas como las más importantes en el ámbito mercantil y, efectivame...
The research in the field of industrial biotechnology, especially regards bioproducts and bioprocesses, are aimed at developing innovative technologies that lead to obtaining compounds with the use of microorganisms, or seeking to enhance existing processes to increase yield, production and productivity, trying to ensure a higher degree of sustainability and reducing environmental impact. To pursue these goals is possible to intervene by adopting a “technologic” approach that includes the...
Biotechnology has been used in agriculture, food production and medicine since the dawn of our civilization. Biotechnology is a popular term for the generic technology of the 21st century. With the advancement in science and research, modern biotechnological inventions have brought a revolution in our lives. These inventions are protected under the Patent Law. The World Trade Organization’s TRIPS agreement sets down the minimum standards for intellectual property regulation for its member cou...
Xu, Zheng; David A. Hennessy; Moschini, GianCarlo
Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We study U.S. county corn yields 1964-2008, controlling for location effects, fertilization technologies and weather. We find ev...
Human genetic resources are increasingly considered as ordinary commercial goods, but their value and utility go beyond the simple and immediate private profit. In contrast to other biological resources, commercial use does not focus upon the material itself but rather upon the genetic information it contains. Information goods are then usually subject to intellectual property rights, but in the biological and life science domains, property rights can have a negative influence upon the proper allocation of several goods, including genetic material or goods that are related to it. This scenario reflects the facts of recent litigations in the United States and Europe. In particular, these lawsuits have revived the debate over private ownership and control over genes. Within this context, the objective of the paper is to discuss how to recast the traditional right to access to and use of biochemical and human genetic material currently considered as part of the market framework. Looking beyond the protection of traditional public goods, the paper emphasizes the debate around the progressive commodification of human genetic resources facilitated by an improper use of intellectual property rights. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate alternative instruments and new regulatory approaches to avoid the private appropriation of human genetic resources and other natural assets. PMID:25845208
The spirit of life science entrepreneurship is alive and well, with outstanding innovation hubs arising throughout the country and the world. Of note, many of these hubs flourish in close proximity to research universities. If universities are the engine for discovery, then startups are the vehicle for innovation. The creativity and drive of young researchers has the potential to explore novel or underserved applications and revolutionize industries. PMID:25360051
Augustine T Choko
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C, and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes.A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure, Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®.Consecutive adults (≥18y attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored or at 37°C (pre-incubated. Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year.Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3% were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold. Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6. There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00 for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months.Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes.
Choko, Augustine T.; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S.; Kumwenda, Moses K.; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D.; Webb, Emily L.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.
Objectives To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. Design A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Methods Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Results Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6–99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Conclusion Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes. PMID:27336161
Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David
New Research CollectionEuropean Intellectual Property Law. Edited by Jan Rosén, Stockholm University and former ATRIP President. This one volume collection thoroughly covers and systematically displays the three main areas of Intellectual Property (IP) Law - Patents, Trademarks and Copyright - wi...
Holm-Bergqvist, Linus; Ödmark, Victor
The interest in business models has lately increased, which could be traced back to the dot-com burst during the 2000s. There exists no general definition of business models. Howev-er, researchers all agree that business models are used to illustrate the design and architec-ture of the value creation process of companies. Today’s research of business models has mainly been focused on e-commerce. This thesis contributes to the research of business models by extending the research to focus on S...
Devi, Gitali; Zhou, Yuan; Zhong, Zhensheng; Toh, Desiree-Faye Kaixin; Chen, Gang
The diverse biological functions of RNA are determined by the complex structures of RNA stabilized by both secondary and tertiary interactions. An RNA triplex is an important tertiary structure motif that is found in many pseudoknots and other structured RNAs. A triplex structure usually forms through tertiary interactions in the major or minor groove of a Watson-Crick base-paired stem. A major-groove RNA triplex structure is stable in isolation by forming consecutive major-groove base triples such as U·A-U and C(+) ·G-C. Minor-groove RNA triplexes, e.g., A-minor motif triplexes, are found in almost all large structured RNAs. As double-stranded RNA stem regions are often involved in biologically important tertiary triplex structure formation and protein binding, the ability to sequence specifically target any desired RNA duplexes by triplex formation would have great potential for biomedical applications. Programmable chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been developed to form TFO·RNA2 and PNA·RNA2 triplexes, respectively, with enhanced binding affinity and sequence specificity at physiological conditions. Here, we (1) provide an overview of naturally occurring RNA triplexes, (2) summarize the experimental methods for studying triplexes, and (3) review the development of TFOs and triplex-forming PNAs for targeting an HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift-inducing RNA, a bacterial ribosomal A-site RNA, and a human microRNA hairpin precursor, and for inhibiting the RNA-protein interactions involving human RNA-dependent protein kinase and HIV-1 viral protein Rev. PMID:25146348
States across the country are all chasing what are becoming known as "new-age" technologies. These are technologies such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, bio-informatics and others. These technologies offer the potential for long-term economic growth and well-paid jobs to employees working in these sectors. As these technologies mature,…
Julie; Ingwersen; 钱民徵
基因,转基因,基因工程……与“基因”有关的这几个词,几乎成了上世纪末以来的热门词语。这似乎印证了“21世纪属于生物学世纪”这一著名预言。“genetically modified(GM)crops”也成了一个英语热门词汇。本文详细介绍了上世纪六、七十年代所谓绿色革命之父,诺贝尔奖获得者Norman Borlaug对(GM)crops这场新革命的观点。他的观点有两点值得我们关注: 1/为什么当今世界有人反对这场崭新意义的绿色革命?Borlaug的观点非常犀利: If we sit in Europe or North America and decide that because we don’t need that scientific approach for our food supply, therefore they can’t have it either, that is grossly (非常) unethical (不道德的). 2/凡是革命。那就必然会有风险:no agricultural advance is risk-free. Borlaug称,当年的绿色革命也同样遭受了人们的反对:Critics(批评家们)in the past accused the Green Revolution of popularizing (普及) chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation that jeopardized (危害) the environment in developing countries.】
Hansen, Anne Grethe
Modern biotechnology has been characterized by being surrounded by scientific and public debate and by interest conflicts. An early Danish debate and regulation has been criticized for inhibiting or retarding development and thus growth. Though much regulation and debate have been transferred to...
Drozdoff, Vladimir; Fairbairn, Daryl
Appropriate negotiation and drafting of license agreements are critical to successfully establishing and managing the expansive and complex relationships that are becoming more common between industry and universities. More often than not, the resulting licensing agreements become quite lengthy and complex, and the key principles become difficult to discern among all the details. This summary provides a short, nonexhaustive introduction to some of the essential components of these licenses with the intent of providing the non-licensing professional a better appreciation of some of the key commercial and legal terms from both an academic and company perspective, keeping in mind some of the considerations that particularly apply to biotechnology deals. PMID:25605752
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Vestergaard, Torben
features by analysing the coverage of the biotechnology debate in one of the largest Danish newspapers, Politiken, during the first 9 months of 2004. The aim of this analysis is to uncover how seemingly objective and ‘neutral' accounts of events and state of affairs can be used by journalists to...... significantly influence the attitudes of the readership. In the analysis, it is shown that the feature Judgement (of people) is virtually absent, whereas Appreciation (of things) is quite frequent, reflecting the fact that the perceived risk factor associated with biotechnology was paramount in the said period...
Branciard, Anne; Mangematin, Vincent
Working Paper European Biotechnology companies and public policy-makers face to a number of crucial problems related to the development of Biotechnology in Europe : European industrial competitiveness, the relative under-exploitation of the European science base in Biotechnology, poor technology transfer mechanisms and difficulties in starting 'spin-off' firms. The aim of this paper on innovation in genomics and biomedical related biotechnologies is to study the relative impact of the diff...
Patron, Nicola J
Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects. PMID:27284031
Lopez Villar, J.; Freese, B.; Holder, H.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Rodriguez, L.
The biotechnology industry has aggressively touted GM as a solution to hunger and the global food crisis. Their arguments have been accepted by many politicians. This Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) report looks behind the spin and exposes the reasons why GM crops cannot, and are unlikely to ever, contribute to poverty reduction, global food security or sustainable farming (authors' abstract)
Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcolm
In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project. We are exploring how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins. A DNA fragment encoding all or part of the guanylate monokinase (gmk) sequence is cloned into pSP73 and expressed in E. coli. A monoclonal antibody is made to gmk. The expression level of gmk is determined by SDS gel elctrophoresis, a Western blot, and an ELISA assay. Over four years, an increase in enrollment in the course from 9 to 34 students, the 85% of majors pursuing advanced degrees, and course evaluations all support the conclusion that involving students in research during undergraduate courses encourages them to pursue careers in science.
Si ces dernières années, l’idée de recréer des espèces disparues à partir de leur ADN fossile a enthousiasmé les amateurs de science-fiction, la réalisation de projets de cette nature est aujourd’hui considérée avec le plus grand sérieux par certains écologistes. Ainsi, pendant que l’on séquence de l’ADN de mammouth au Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle à Paris (Debruyne et al. 2003) ou de l’ADN d’ours des cavernes à Lyon (Orlando 2005), une équipe australienne lève plusieurs millions de do...
Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Labrincha, J. A.
The deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a very common problem due to the fact that this material has a high permeability which allows water and other aggressive media to enter, thus leading to corrosion problems. The use of sealers is a common way of contributing to concrete durability. However, the most common ones are based on organic polymers which have some degree of toxicity. The Regulation (EU) 305/2011 related to the Construction Products Regulation emphasize...
Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M
As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™. PMID:23462626
Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben
For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC. PMID:26257118
Insects represent the most abundant group of animals on earth, comprising about 800,000 described species, and approximately 10,000 of these species can be actually destructive for human activities. Pest control interventions, alternative to pesticides, are increasingly being implemented within the concept of Integrated Pest Management, involving the biological control to eradicate a pest from the area of interest. This concept has been recently extended also to those hemathoph...
The biotechnology industry has aggressively touted GM as a solution to hunger and the global food crisis. Their arguments have been accepted by many politicians. This Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) report looks behind the spin and exposes the reasons why GM crops cannot, and are unlikely to ever, contribute to poverty reduction, global food security or sustainable farming (authors' abstract)
Luukkonen, Terttu; Maunula, Mari
The paper reports an empirical study on the non-financial value-added provided by Venture Capital investors to their investee firms. This study will use a four-class grouping of the various non-financial value-adding capabilities provided by VC firms, namely, scouting, monitoring, signalling and value-adding services. The study examines biotechnology industry in Finland. Finland has a dual system with independent (partially ever-green) VC companies and public or semi-public VC organisations. ...
Biesebeke, Rob Te; Record, Erik
Yeast and filamentous fungi have been used for centuries in diverse biotechnological processes. Fungal fermentation technology is traditionally used in relation to food production, such as for bread, beer, cheese, sake and soy sauce. Last century, the industrial application of yeast and filamentous fungi expanded rapidly, with excellent examples such as purified enzymes and secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics), which are used in a wide range of food as well as non-food industries. Research on protein and/or metabolite secretion by fungal species has focused on identifying bottlenecks in (post-) transcriptional regulation of protein production, metabolic rerouting, morphology and the transit of proteins through the secretion pathway. In past years, genome sequencing of some fungi (e.g. Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger) has been completed. The available genome sequences have enabled identification of genes and functionally important regions of the genome. This has directed research to focus on a post-genomics era in which transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics methodologies will help to explore the scientific relevance and industrial application of fungal genome sequences. PMID:21558706
Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A
Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences. PMID:19049998
Full Text Available Organic farming prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs inasmuch as their genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. In actual fact, there is a conventional identity between GMOs and transgenic organisms, so that genetic modification methods such as somatic hybridization and mutagenesis are equalized to conventional breeding. A loophole in this system is represented by more or less innovative genetic engineering approaches under regulatory discussion, such as cisgenesis, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, and antisense technologies, that are redefining the concept of GMOs and might circumvent the requirements of the GMO legislation and, indirectly, of organic farming.
Die Arbeit untersucht den Einfluss der Genehmigung von Medikamenten durch die amerikanische Zulassungsbehörde FDA (Food and Drug Administration) auf den Aktienkurs der Antrag stellenden Aktiengesellschaft. Dabei werden Genehmigungen von wichtigen pharmazeutischen und biopharmazeutischen Medikamenten aus den Jahren 1985-2004 herangezogen. Als Ergebnis kann festgehalten werden, dass die Aktienmärkte die neue Information in einer effizienten Art und Weise einarbeiten. Die Existenz eines Marktes ...
Luca Lombardo; Samanta Zelasco
Organic farming prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) inasmuch as their genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. In actual fact, there is a conventional identity between GMOs and transgenic organisms, so that genetic modification methods such as somatic hybridization and mutagenesis are equalized to conventional breeding. A loophole in this system is represented by more or less innovative genetic engineering approaches under regulatory dis...
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distributio...
Triulzi, Giorgio; Scholz, Ramon; Pyka, Andreas
In the last two decades, University-Industry Relationships have played an outstanding role in shaping innovation activities in Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals. Despite the growing importance and the considerable scope of these relationships, there still is an intensive and open debate on their short and long term effects on the research system in life sciences. So far, the extensive literature on this topic has not been able to provide a widely accepted answer. This work introduces a new wa...
Liao, Wei-Ching; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie
Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO. PMID:23893064
Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A
There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations. PMID:18727951
Ezezika Obidimma C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration. Interviewees reported that establishing and maintaining trust among partners, researchers and the community in Burkina Faso greatly contributed to the success of the PPP. By addressing challenges to building trust and engaging in trust-building practices early on, improvements in the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs are likely.
Armando Calabrese; Domenico Campisi; Guendalina Capece; Roberta Costa; Francesca Di Pillo
Innovation activities are a critical factor in national and regional development. The innovative behaviour of companies is one of the main sources of competitiveness, business survival, economic growth and employment in a territory. It is therefore important to identify and understand the factors that determine innovation behaviour among enterprises. In line with this, the aim of this study is to analyse the relations between innovation‐related variables and the impact that they have on compa...
Wojtczyk, Martin; Panin, Giorgio; Röder, Thorsten; Lenz, Claus; Nair, Suraj; Heidemann, Rüdiger; Goudar, Chetan; Knoll, Alois
After utilizing robots for more than 30 years for classic industrial automation applications, service robots form a constantly increasing market, although the big breakthrough is still awaited. Our approach to service robots was driven by the idea of supporting lab personnel in a biotechnology laboratory. After initial development in Germany, a mobile robot platform extended with an industrial manipulator and the necessary sensors for indoor localization and object manipulation, has been shipped to Bayer HealthCare in Berkeley, CA, USA, a global player in the sector of biopharmaceutical products, located in the San Francisco bay area. The determined goal of the mobile manipulator is to support the off-shift staff to carry out completely autonomous or guided, remote controlled lab walkthroughs, which we implement utilizing a recent development of our computer vision group: OpenTL - an integrated framework for model-based visual tracking.
Most articles on garage biology and do-it-yourself (DIY) biology highlight its somewhat immaterial cultures or ideologies. The issues usually raised include: the ways in which do-it-yourself biology potentially democratizes science and fosters a citizen science, that its practitioners are a "creative proof of the hacker principle", that the field is an illustration of the open source movement, that concerns about control, security and safety need to be addressed. However, rather than focusing...
Chung, Thomas D Y
There has been increased concern that the current "blockbuster" model of drug discovery and development practiced by "Big Pharma" are unsustainable in terms of cost (> $1 billion/approved drug) and time to market (10 - 15 years). The recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A), shuttering of internal research programs, closure of "redundant" sites of operations, senior management turnover and continued workforce reductions among the top 10 major pharmaceutical companies reflect draconian responses to reduce costs. However, the resultant exodus of intellectual capital, loss in motivation and momentum, and exit from early stage discovery programs by pharmaceutical companies has contributed to an "innovation deficit". Disease advocacy groups, investment communities and the government are calling for new innovative business models to address this deficit. In particular they are looking towards academia and clinical trials centers to catalyze new innovations in translational research. Indeed over the last decade many academic institutions have launched drug discovery centers largely comprising high-throughput screening (HTS) to accelerate "translational" research. A major impetus for this "open innovation" effort has been the National Institutes of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" and Molecular Libraries Initiative/Program (MLI/MLP), which is in its last year, and will be transitioned into the National Center for the Advancement of Translational Sciences (NCATS). With the end of Roadmap funding, general reduction in Federal government funding and its recent sequestration, academic drug discovery centers are being challenged to become selfsustaining, adding financial value, while remaining aligned with the missions of their respective academic non-profit institutions. We describe herein, a brief history of our bi-coastal Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics (Prebys Center) at the Sanford|Burnham Medical Research Institute (SBMRI), the key components of its infrastructure, core competencies of its fully integrated drug discovery expertise, best practices adopted in our day-to-day operations, and finally some of our current funding and collaboration and/or strategic alliance models for pre-competitive drug discovery with other academic/clinical partners, other governmental agencies, and with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. PMID:24409951
Several barriers limit the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Critical scientific information is missing that makes the feasibility and the likelihood of success of vaccines against genital herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomonas uncertain: the immunity induced by natural infection is absent or imperfect which seriously limits the capacity to define the types of immune responses that an effective vaccine must induce. Reliable animal models are lacking and a number of crucial clinical questions are still unanswered about the goal of these vaccines and definition of endpoints for clinical trials. In the absence of a clear recognition of the need for vaccines against these diseases, there is no motivation for public or private research and industry to invest in the development of vaccines against STIs. The STI burden should be evaluated not only in terms of mortality and morbidity, but also in terms of economic and psycho-social impact. A global public-private consortium could mobilize the joint efforts of all stakeholders involved in the research, development and implementation of STI vaccines of the public and private sectors; ensure that sufficient resources are applied to R&D of vaccines against these STIs; and provide the pull-push forces that are necessary to overcome the barriers to develop safe and effective vaccines against these diseases. PMID:23994377
Genetically modified (GM) or transgenic crops, now more often called "Biotech crops" they are commercially cultivated since 1996. And also since 1996, the first year of commercialization of biotech crops, GM potatoes were cultivated in USA, Mexico, Canada and later in South Africa, China and India. The global area of approved biotech crops in 2006 was 102 million hectares and 22 countries grew biotech crops, 11 developing countries and 11 industrial countries. The Czech Republic is on of the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.
17年间,转基因作物在全球的种植面积逐渐扩大了100倍,截止2012年已经达到1.7亿公顷,产生了巨大的经济效益、社会效益和生态效益.我国转基因作物发展迅速,目前已有7种转基因植物获得生产应用安全证书,转基因棉花占全国棉花种植面积的80％.为保障转基因生物安全,我国已建立了完整的转基因生物安全管理体系,包括安全管理机构、政策、法规,转基因生物及其产品如环境安全评价、食品安全性评价及成份测定的技术标准.另一方面,我国转基因作物安全管理及安全评价体系仍然需要完善,本文针对现阶段存在的问题提出了改进及完善的建议.同时,本文分析了我国转基因作物舆情,列举了近来国内外所谓的转基因作物安全事件并揭示了事件的真实情况,提倡理性看待转基因作物的发展,为我国转基因研发与产业化营造积极的舆论氛围.%GM crops have been commercialized for 17 years all over the world,and brought great economic,social and ecological benefits to growers and the world.China has approved 7 GM crops for planting,among which Bt cotton accounts for 80％ of cotton planting area.In this article,we reviewed development and application of GM crop internationally and domestically.The policy on GM crops in China including regulations,guidelines,food and environmental safety assessment are also briefly introduced.Some existing problems and suggestions on China's biosafety management and regulator process are also described in this review.Finally,the authors advocate rational understanding of GM crops to create a positive atmosphere for public acceptance,which will benefit research,development and commercialization of GM crops in China.
(Asian) Life (in Asia) - Book reviews of Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (Ed.): Frameworks of Choice, Amsterdam, Amsterdam Press 2010 and Aihwa Ong & Nancy Chen: Asian Biotech, Durham & London, Duke University Press 2010
This article is concerned with the idea of societal 'spaciousness' and its relationship to individual and collective autonomy. These issues are analyzed in the context of the eviction of a self-managed social center of left-radical activists in Copenhagen and the protests and public debate that f...
Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?
Marincola Francesco M
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.
Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher
Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010, sipuleucel-T (Provenge(®)) was the first 'personalized' cancer vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer in a metastatic, non-symptomatic population of 30,000 men in the USA. Sipuleucel-T is prepared individually for each patient and infused in three sessions over a period of 1 month. However, in 2015, Dendreon, the owner of sipuleucel-T, filed for bankruptcy. This opinion paper reviews the probable reasons this innovative product failed to achieve commercial success. PubMed and internet searches were performed focused on pricing, reimbursement, and market access. We found that sipuleucel-T's FDA approval was delayed by 3 years, reportedly because of the vaccine's new mechanism of action. Sipuleucel-T was cleared by the European Medicines Agency 2 years later, but other national agencies were not approached. It was priced at $US93,000 for a course of treatment, and this high price combined with the company's late securement of reimbursement for the vaccine by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) resulted in another year's delay in accessing the market. Despite a positive recommendation by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, sipuleucel-T's complex administration, high price, and uncertainty about the reimbursement status deterred doctors from prescribing the product. Furthermore, the vaccine's supply was limited during the first year of launch due to limited manufacturing capacity. In addition, two oral metastatic prostate cancer drugs with similar survival benefits reached the US market 1 and 2 years after sipuleucel-T. Also, even though Dendreon's market capitalization topped $US7.5 billion following the FDA's approval of sipuleucel-T, this value degraded gradually until the firm's bankruptcy 5 years later. We conclude that the bankruptcy of Dendreon was largely due to the delay in securing FDA approval and CMS coverage, as well as the high cost that had to be incurred by providers up-front. Licensing sipuleucel-T to a pharmaceutical company more experienced in the market access pathway may have saved the company and the product. PMID:26403092
Annou, Mamane Malam; Thomsen, Michael R.; Hansen, James M.; Wailes, Eric J.; Cramer, Gail L.
Availability of new herbicide-resistant biotech rice varieties may affect traditional rice rotation practices to control red rice and enhance yields. This research evaluates the adoption of biotech rice and its effects on the current practice of crop rotation in the Mississippi River Delta region. The optimal utilization of biotech rice rotation is analyzed using a nonlinear mathematical programming model with mixed integers. Optimal rotation was found to be sensitive to the technology fee, r...
Barko, Tim; Sadler, Troy D.
The educational video game Mission Biotech provides a virtual experience for students in learning biotechnology materials and tools. This study explores the use of Mission Biotech and the associated curriculum by three high school teachers and their students. All three classes demonstrated gains on a curriculum-aligned test of science content.…
O. Škubna; H. Řezbová
The paper is aimed on the problematic of biotech crops planting (GM, transgenic crops). The main aim of this paper is to analyze the trends in the main biotech crops planting groups in the sense of their use for food and feed in the future. The selected groups of biotech crops analyzed in this article are soybeans, maize (corn), cotton and rapeseed (canola). The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of times series/ trend data - for predicting on next four years (20...
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for pigs, piglets, bovines, ovines, calves, equines, chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by Fermenta Biotech Ltd
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP
Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as a feed additive for pigs, piglets, bovines, ovines, calves, equines, chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by Fermenta Biotech Ltd
EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)
The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet fo...
Gericke, G.S.; Simonic, I.; Cloete, E.; Buckle, C. [Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)] [and others
Increased chromosomal breakage was found in 12 patients with DSM-IV Tourette syndrome (TS) as compared with 10 non-TS control individuals with respect to untreated, modified RPM1-, and BrdU treated lymphocyte cultures (P < 0.001 in each category). A hypothesis is proposed that a major TS gene is probably connected to genetic instability, and associated chromosomal marker sites may be indicative of the localization of secondary genes whose altered expression could be responsible for associated comorbid conditions. This concept implies that genes influencing higher brain functions may be situated at or near highly recombigenic areas allowing enhanced amplification, duplication and recombination following chromosomal strand breakage. Further studies on a larger sample size are required to confirm the findings relating to chromosomal breakage and to analyze the possible implications for a paradigmatic shift in linkage strategy for complex disorders by focusing on areas at or near unstable chromosomal marker sites. 32 refs., 1 tab.
At the turn of 21 th century, breakthroughs have been made continuously in the biology technology. That gives a great help to the quick emergence of biotech industry. Some tendencies can be seen in the industry: 1) Biotech has become the research focus in many countries. 2)Biotech industry has been the emphasis of international high-tech and economic competition.3) Biology economy is becoming a new economic growth point after Internet.4)Biology security has become the key of the state security. The emergence of biotech industry will accelerate the formation of the 4th economy upsurge and will have great effect on the world economy and the development of human society.
Eesti teadusfirmadest: biotehnoloogia ettevõtted Celecure AS, Protobios OÜ, Icosagen AS, Asper Biotech AS ja Solis BioDyne OÜ, geenitehnoloogia firma Genorama OÜ, keemiatehnoloogia ettevõte AS Cambrex Tallinn
Päärt, Villu, 1972-
Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 5. apr., lk. 2. Tartu teadlaste leiutatud ning Soome biotehnoloogiafirma FIT Biotech arendatavat vaktsiini katsetatakse Lõuna-Aafrika Vabariigis 60 surmaviirusega nakatunud inimese peal. Lisa: Eestlaste HIV-vaktsiini senine lugu
Friendly policies for overseas investors to invest in China＇s biofuel sector have influenced partnerships between domestic and foreign companies to develop the alternative to fossil fuel. For example, Green Biologics （GBL）, a British biotech company, has
Full Text Available | cell type=CD34+CD133+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) || antibody=anti-GABP-alpha || antibody manufacturer=Santa Cruz Biotech...nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/e
Maybeck, Vanessa; Bains, William
An analysis of 105 mergers among small UK biotech companies over a 10-year period shows that the improvement of shareholder positions, rather than product pipelines or business opportunities, is the main motivation for such transactions. PMID:17093475
Biotech companies increasingly seek certification for compliance with religious and dietary requirements in order to address new consumer markets. Technology plays a crucial role in such inspections alongside centuries old traditions and practices...
The Fourth Annual Southwest Virginia Life Science Forum on Monday, Oct. 4, will showcase New River Valley biotech companies' research and job opportunities, and be a resource for the ACC Interdisciplinary Forum for Discovery in Life Sciences.
Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....
Päärt, Villu, 1972-
Soome biotehnoloogiafirma FIT Biotech on loobumas kavast katsetada Eesti teadlaste leiutatud vaktsiini ka siinsete HIV-positiivsete katserühmal, sest Eestis on levinud maailmas üliharuldane HI-viiruse G-alatüüp
FELCONE, LINDA HULL
Some biotech companies are devoting sizeable resources to finding more mainstream forms of drug delivery, including oral, transdermal, inhaled, and ocular administration. P&T committees, watch closely: Easier dosing could bring broader acceptance.
Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as th...
Knowledge based industrial development takes place in Global Knowledge Hubs or superclusters characterized by a high concentration of innovative industrial actors interacting closely with advanced research institutions, venture capital and competent ownership. The extreme example of a global knowledge hub is the biotech and life science industry in Boston. The greater Boston area has a higher concentration of advanced universities, research labs and specialized biotech firms, than anywhere el...
Biotech grains hold great promise for both producers and consumers but a thorough understanding of the value chain will be vitally important in realizing that potential. Biotech grains with input traits not approved for all uses can pose a serious problem for the grain handling and processing industry as they move through the value chain. This problem occurs because there is no premium to cover added costs of segregation and handling input trait grains after harvest. In the case of Starlink t...
Shanghai Outdo Biotech Co.Ltd. (Outdo Biotech) is a leading company in human/animal Tissue Microarrays (TMA) and "Clinical-Type" Gene Chip (CTGC) in China. Our shareholders are Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd. & National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai, Shanghai Cancer institute and Eastern Liver and Bladder Hospital of Second Military Medical University. TMA is a mean of combining tens to hundreds of specimens of tissue, paraffin embedded or frozen, onto a single slide for analysis at once. Our constr...
Full Text Available The paper is aimed on the problematic of biotech crops planting (GM, transgenic crops. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the trends in the main biotech crops planting groups in the sense of their use for food and feed in the future. The selected groups of biotech crops analyzed in this article are soybeans, maize (corn, cotton and rapeseed (canola. The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of times series/ trend data - for predicting on next four years (2012-2015. The trends are able to determine the necessity of implementation the biotech crops planting into the agricultural systems everywhere (also in EU and it is without the questions if the impact are mainly positive or negative. The dependence of world agricultural commodity market on the biotech crops is undeniable and the prediction acknowledges that the importance is increasing. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.
Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri
In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery. PMID:19429502
Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus
Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directing...... instead the attention to the quality of their science, or the roles of boards, management, and collaborative networks etc. Using a unique comprehensive dataset on Danish and Swedish biotech start-ups in drug discovery this paper analyzes their research strategies. Adopting a Simonean point of departure we...... Shonhoovens classical argument that "strategy matters" is valid not only for the larger high-tech firms covered by her study, but also for small research-based start-ups operating at the very well springs of knowledge where science directly interacts with technologies. Even though a lot more research is...
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
. Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center in plant biology, this article argues that biology and biotech are symbionts. In order to be viable and productive, symbiosis needs to be carefully managed and given room for divergence within mutual dependence. This process does not take place as...... the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of circumventing the science-industry food chain and sequestering biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time...
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
. Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center in plant biology, this article argues that biology and biotech are "symbionts". In order to be viable and productive, symbiosis needs to be carefully managed and given room for divergence within mutual dependence. This process does not take place as...... the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of "circumventing" the science-industry food chain and "sequestering" biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time...
Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander
Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here “Biotech Feed” was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was als...
Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.;
Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund
convert coal fired power plants to biomass in order to sustain the role of these power plants. Their increasing use of imported wood pellets is criticized for increasing greenhouse gas emissions because of fast logging of years of forest growth. A Danish biotech company is developing enzymes for...
Pertry, I.; Nothegger, C.; Sweet, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Davies, H.; Iserentant, D.; Hull, R.; Mezzetti, B.; Messens, K.; Loose, De M.; Oliveira, de D.; Burssens, S.; Gheysen, G.; Tzotzos, G.
Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems t
@@ A new city is in the making on the eastern outskirts of Guangzhou.In lieu of the average citizen,the city will be home to thousands of biotech engineers or new energy researchers.It will be a green city.It will be a hi-tech city.It will be a city of the future.
Full Text Available Cruz Biotech || antibody vendorid=sc-197 || control=Control_50bp || control description=This data represents a control being compare...on=Immortal cells || control=Control_50bp || control description=This data represents a control being compare
Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu
Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…
Jones, Mark Peter
The author presents an historical account of scientific work conducted at a commercial biotech firm in San Diego called Hybritech. It tells of disruptions in research programs following the acquisition of the company by the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly in 1986. The story centers on responses to an organizational challenge that research managers…
Various indications that research and development efforts are escalating in developing countries indicate the slight shift of such countries from just being end markets to being developers. The aggregate adoption of biotech crops in developing countries is clearly approaching that in developed count...
Soome kontsern Vapo ostis ASi Tootsi Turvas enamusaktsiad. Soome ettevõte Fit Biotech ostis Tartu biotehnoloogiaettevõtte Quattromed ja Soome toiduainetetööstuse ettevõte Saarioinen Oy Eesti tütarfirma omandas üle 66-protsendilise osaluse valmistoidufirmas Meleco AS
This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate animal cloning as a single issue.
Tafur Segura, José Javier
Regional development could present different strategies: •Relocation of industry clusters •Foreign Direct Investment attraction •Innovation based on new business models The Regional Government of Madrid (3rd largest GDP in the EU) selected strategic industries to compete & innovate: •Travel & Transportation •Aerospace •Nanotech. & •Biotech. •ICTs. •Energy
This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....
Full Text Available riment type=PPARG ChIP-seq || strain=N/A || tissue=NA || chip antibody=anti-PPAR? antibody || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech...nologies http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/
D'Amore, Rosamaria; Iorio, Roberto
This paper analyses the relationship between institutional and geographic distance in scientific collaborations, evaluating the possible changes when a long period (sixteen years) is taken into consideration and discussing the use of some alternative measures of institutional distance. The main result, obtained by analysing the publications of the Italian biotech firms, is that international publications present an higher institutional distance than national papers, particularl...
Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo
The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information...
Rossum, van T.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Oost, van der J.
The biotech industry is continuously seeking for new or improved biocatalysts. The success of these efforts is often hampered by the lack of an efficient screening assay. Thus, to be able to extend the number of enzymes available for industrial applications, high-throughput screening and selection m
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...
markdownabstractAbstract Improving medicine and health is the ultimate purpose of biotechnological innovation, where basic science is used to develop new innovative diagnostics and therapeutics to significantly improve the lives of patients worldwide. Concurrently, for three stakeholder groups, the primary goal is to generate profitable business from biotechnological innovation. These stakeholders are ‘entrepreneurial’ biotech companies, venture capitalists and established pharmaceutical firm...
Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina
This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region locate...
Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kalra, Anup; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander
Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here "Biotech Feed" was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight. PMID:25269679
Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L
Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality. PMID:25764285
Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Elhottová, Dana
Praha: Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 2014. s. 157-158. ISBN 978-80-7080-887-0. [BioTech 2014 & 6 th Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition. 11.06.2014-14.06.2014, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CCACB * soil actinomycetes * depository Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2004
This edition of "TECHcitement" contains the following articles: (1) ATE Program Leads to Student Success; (2) Doing Whatever It Takes for Aquaculture; (3) The Bridge to Biotech; (4) Girls See What They Can Do With Technology at Camp; (5) Students Advancing Solutions to Business Problems; (6) CREATE Recreates Technical Education in California; (7)…
Chrudimský, Tomáš; Chroňáková, Alica; Petříčková, Kateřina; Petříček, Miroslav; Krištůfek, Václav
Praha : Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 2014. s. 102-103. ISBN 978-80-7080-887-0. [BioTech 2014 & 6 th Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition. 11.06.2014-14.06.2014, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : genome sequence * annotation * Streptomyces sp. W6 * annimycin antibiotic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
... Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236-37 (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On... Group Co., Ltd. Shanghai Henglijie Bio-Tech Co., Ltd. Shanghai Fenhe Biochemical Co., Ltd. Shanxi...
Talviste, Kaire, 1979-
Molekulaarbioloog Mart Ustavi tööst bioloogiliste ravimite väljatöötamisel. HIV1/AIDS vaktsiini väljatöötamisest FIT Biotech Oy Eesti filiaalis a-tel 2000-2011. M. Ustavi biotehnoloogia firma Icosagen Grupp tehnoloogilistest arendustest
Päärt, Villu, 1972-
Ülemaailmses HIV- andmebaasis on registreerimisel HI-viiruse alatüüp, mida on seni avastatud ainult Eestis. Mosaiik-HIV on segu peamiselt Aafrikas esinevast viiruse vormist ning Ukrainas levinud tüübist, selgub biotehnoloogiafirma FIT Biotech uuringust. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli tehnoloogiainstituudi direktor Mart Ustav
Making a case when biotechs market their products to their most cost-conscious customers — managed care organizations — is far different than what a traditional pharmaceutical company might do with HMO partners. It’s all about the science. Not the cost.
Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Nørregaard, J.;
The strategic research centre PolyNano aims at becoming the Danish competence centre for production-ready fabrication of polymer, nano-scale lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. In order to provide a competitive edge for Danish biotech companies launching LoC products by removal of the technology barrier...
Full Text Available nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea...IH3T3_MRTFB_LAT || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-B || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech
Gretton, Linda Burak
The current pharmaceutical industry, whose origins date from the early 20th century, and the biotechnology industry, which emerged in the 1980s both have foundations built on the modern scientific method and share a mission to develop new drugs for humans and animals. At the same time, they are also made distinct by size (small biotechs versus…
Full Text Available IH3T3_MRTFA_LAT || cell line=NIH3T3 fibroblasts || genotype=normal || chip antibody=MRTF-A || chip antibody vendor=Santa Cruz Biotech...nology http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ea
Pharmaceutical Economics begins with an investigation of the structure of the industry and its three main components: the research firms which produce innovative products; the generic drug industry and its expanding role; and the biotech industry, which is regarded as the future for pharmaceuticals. Further sections discuss topics including demand and incentives, pricing and regulation.
Lamb, Roberta; King, John Leslie; Kling, Rob
Examines sustained use and non-use of online services within organizations using an open-systems view that overcomes limitations of traditional approaches that led to over-estimates of use. Focuses on the informational environments of firms in three industries: law, real estate, and biotech/pharmaceuticals; and discusses insights from an intranets…
Golinelli, Stefano; Ruivenkamp, Guido
Do-it-yourself biology, or garage biology, is a set of practices through which lay people can practice biotechnology and thus also challenge the exclusive control exercised on biotech R&D by Big Bio. This article describes how garage biologists aim to radically transform biotechnological soci
Eesti biotehnoloogiafirma Icosagen hakkab koos Soome ettevõtte FIT Biotech Oy'ga välja töötama Ebola viiruse vastast vaktsiini, arendustöös osaleb professor Andres Meritsa juhtimisel ka Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudi rakendusviroloogia labor. Vestlusest Tartu Ülikooli biomeditsiinitehnoloogia professori Mart Ustaviga
Jõgi, Aime, 1958-
Eesti biotehnoloogiafirma Icosagen hakkab koos Soome ettevõtte FIT Biotech Oy'ga välja töötama Ebola viiruse vastast vaktsiini, arendustöös osaleb ka Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudi rakendusviroloogia labor
Kundu, Sumit; Roelfsema, Hein; Delft, Anne van
This paper analyzes the internationalization strategies of biotech firms in the Netherlands. We find that many of these firms are born internationals in the sense that from their inception they are actively engaged in international cooperation. However, we find that the nature of potential intellect
Cruz Hernández, Andrés; Campos Guillén, Juan
Physical methods for genetic transformation in plants. The most commonly applied methods in plant transformation include Agrobacterium infection and protoplast or microprojectile bombardment. A plant transformation system is a prerequisite for the development of a plant improvement program. The global area utilized for biotech crops increases every year.
Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra
The EU has a complicated regulatory framework, and this is slowing down the approval process of new genetically modified (GM) crops. Currently, labeling of GM organisms (GMOs) is mandatory in all Member States. However, the USA, in which GMO labeling is not mandatory, continues to lead the production of biotech crops, biopharmaceuticals, biomaterials, and bioenergy. PMID:25528967
Španová, A.; Rittich, B.; Horák, Daniel; Dráb, V.; Drbohlav, J.
Hydebarad : Osmania University, 2008. s. 17. [International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries /3./ & Convention of the Biotech Research Society India /5./. 06.11.2008-08.11.2008, Hyderabad] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : probiotic lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry
Weiss, Johanna V
The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students
Satraplatin [BMS 182751, BMY 45594, JM 216] belongs to a series of orally-active platinum compounds with anticancer activity. It was jointly originated by Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johnson Matthey and the Institute of Cancer Research in the UK; however, Johnson Matthey has since ceased involvement with drug development. Subsequently, the agent has been licensed to and is under development with GPC Biotech, Pharmion and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate satraplatin among patients with different tumour types, including prostate, breast, cervical and lung cancers. The compound is under regulatory review with the US FDA for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. NeoTherapeutics (now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) granted GPC Biotech an exclusive worldwide licence to develop and market satraplatin in October 2002. Under the terms of the agreement, GPC Biotech is fully funding development costs and commercialisation requirements for the drug. The deal also involves GPC Biotech paying a signing fee, milestone and royalty payments. Spectrum is a member of a joint development committee headed by GPC Biotech to govern development of satraplatin. Previously in October 2001, NeoOncoRx (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals) gained the rights to develop and market the compound worldwide. In December 2005, GPC Biotech and Pharmion Corporation entered into a co-development and license agreement for satraplatin. Under the agreement terms, Pharmion has exclusive commercialisation rights for Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, while GPC Biotech retains rights to North America and all other territories. Pharmion made an upfront payment of $US37.1 million to GPC Biotech, which included reimbursement for past clinical development costs plus funding for ongoing and certain clinical development activities to be jointly conducted by the companies. In addition, both parties will pursue a joint development plan for satraplatin in a variety of
Nunn, A J; Biryahwaho, B; Downing, R G; van der Groen, G; Ojwiya, A; Mulder, D W
Although the Western blot test is widely used to confirm HIV-1 serostatus, concerns over its additional cost have prompted review of the need for supplementary testing and the evaluation of alternative test algorithms. Serostatus tends to be confirmed with this additional test especially when tested individuals will be informed of their serostatus or when results will be used for research purposes. The confirmation procedure has been adopted as a means of securing suitably high levels of specificity and sensitivity. With the goal of exploring potential alternatives to Western blot confirmation, the authors describe the use of parallel testing with a competitive and an indirect enzyme immunoassay with and without supplementary Western blots. Sera were obtained from 7895 people in the rural population survey and tested with an algorithm based on the Recombigen HIV-1 EIA and Wellcozyme HIV-1 Recombinant; alternative algorithms were assessed on negative or confirmed positive sera. None of the 227 sera classified as negative by the 2 assays were positive by Western blot. Of the 192 identified ass positive by both assays, 4 were found to be seronegative with Western blot. The possibility of technical error does, however, exist for 3 of these latter cases. One of the alternative algorithms assessed classified all borderline or discordant assay results as negative with 100% specificity and 98.4% sensitivity. This particular algorithm costs only one-third the price of the conventional algorithm. These results therefore suggest that high specificity and sensitivity may be obtained without using Western blot and at a considerable reduction in cost. PMID:8397940
Full Text Available Abstract Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.
Lee Ling Ling
Full Text Available New regional BioPharma Services hub offers larger operational space and advanced equipment to meet increasing clinical supply needs for Pharma and biotech customers. SINGAPORE, 18 November 2015 –To address the growing global demand for clinical services, Thermo Fisher Scientific, the world leader in serving science, today announced the official opening of its new state-of-the-art GMP1 facility. Having established its first clinical services facility in Singapore in 2001, the move to this newly built facility will meet the growing demand for clinical supply services in the region. The new site will provide both regional and global pharmaceutical and biotech companies with a one-stop service for clinical supplies − from GMP storage, local labeling, secondary packaging, comparator sourcing, handling and distribution of ambient and cold chain supplies to returns management.
Although the global area of biotech crops continues to climb for the tenth consecutive year at a sustainable double-digit growth rate, the acceptance of biotech products from agriculture in Europe is still low. There is a gap between science and perception. It is a strong belief that the public turning against science and against GM food has been encouraged by the negative activities of NGO groups. Scientists have to overcome the purely risk-based discussion, and the benefits of plant biotechnology have to be made literally visible. GM food should be available, the benefits should be tangible and the consumer should have fun with such novel food. The gap could be reduced if genetically modified plants and the products thereof were regulated in the same way as classical products. PMID:17522817
Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros
Full Text Available Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed at facilitating access to basic technology for agricultural-biotech product development, including public organisation cooperation networks, requests for special licences for humanitarian programmes and open access projects. These may be good short-and medium-term alternatives for carrying out biotechnological research in countries like Colombia.
From the point of macroscopical ecosystem,matching with the application of biotech the biology agrochemicals-especially focusing on the biology antisetics.pesticides and microorganism fertilizers which are used in farm crops and their seeding are developed.At the same time.combining with the construction of the large scale seeding cultivating center and the planning of the ecosystem farm,a natural organic pest-free agricultural environment is constructed.From the aspects of technology ,fund,knowledge and management,the competition capability of agriculture products is developed to the best.Besides the visible products such as biology agrochemicals ,microorganism fertilizers,seeding,farm corps,etc.,the "microorganism organism agriculture method" is configured to provide peasants with the usage system of biotech products,the blue print of "green agriculture"is gradually constructed ,the competiton capability is enhanced and finally,high rewards are out.
Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.
Havenaar, Matthias; Hiscocks, Peter
Strategic alliances in product development and marketing are crucial to the biotechnology industry. Many alliances, however, are terminated before the drug reaches the market. In this article we make the case that strategic alliances can fail because of how they are negotiated. Alliance contracts are often inflexible and do not allow for changes in market conditions. We propose a model for contract valuation that can assist biotech and/or pharma deal makers in negotiating alliances that have a higher chance of survival in uncertain market conditions. The model makes use of variable royalties and milestone payments. Because licensing is key to the biotech and/or pharma business model this article will be of interest not only to professionals in licensing, but to all professionals active in the industry. PMID:22484547
Industry and policy makers pursue the development of a biobased economy. The biobased economy emerged first as a promising segment of new biotech applications. But during the last years, the term evolved to cover a much larger concept. It currently has grown to a vision for a new industrial structure where all products, from energy carriers, plastics and food to high value additives and pharmaceuticals, are entirely based on organic matter, thereby annihilating any need for fossil fuels. ...
Buller, Richard S.; Storch, Gregory
We evaluated the artus RealArt Parvovirus B19 LC PCR reagent (artus biotech USA, San Francisco, Calif.) for real-time PCR detection of parvovirus B19 DNA by retesting 71 specimens previously submitted to our laboratory. The artus assay, which produces a quantitative result and provides an internal PCR control, appeared to be slightly more sensitive than our conventional qualitative PCR assay.
Ladics, Gregory S.; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena
In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects ...
Rousu, Matthew; Huffman, Wallace; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu
Food products containing genetically modified (GM) ingredients have entered the market over the past decade. The biotech industry and environmental groups have disseminating conflicting private information about GM foods. This paper develops a unique methodology for valuing independent third-party information in such a setting and applies this method to consumersï¾’ willingness to pay for food products that might be GM. Data are collected from real consumers in an auction market setting with ...
Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to offer higher incomes to biotech firms and farmers, and lower-priced and better quality food for consumers. However, the welfare effects of adoption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crop varieties are being affected not only by some countriesÂ’ strict regulations governing GM food production and consumption, but also by their choice of food trade policy instruments. Specifically, notwithstanding the ...
Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt;
Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and......-layed effect of DC vaccination after completion of the treatment. A prospective randomized phase-IIb or -III is needed to further evaluate the use of MelCancerVac® vaccine treatment in patients with progressive NSCLC....
Since Darwin, knowledge about biology has, for many, had a diminishing effect on ideas of identity and humanity's place in the world. In recent years biotechnology has raised further public concerns about 'playing God' and 'interfering with life.' School biology curricula however rarely open up the socio-scientific debate to allow students to explore such philosophical issues. This study aimed to identify connections biology students make between current accepted genetic knowledge, biotech...
Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo; Silva-Espino Eliseo; Márquez-Benavides Liliana; Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel
Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI) has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Lignin...
Onyango, Benjamin M.
This study examines consumer willingness to consume genetically modified food products with clearly stated benefits and risks. Results suggest that male; white, Southerners, and those with some college education are more likely to consume genetically modified fruits and vegetables. Trust in government, biotech industry, and medical professional on matters relating GM foods also have a positive impact on the willingness to consume GM foods; such trust allays fears associated with risks posed b...
A culture of co–creation is emerging in art, design, architecture (Armstrong and Stojmirovic, 2011), music, video, literature and other productive fields like manufacturing, urban agriculture and biotech. Many of the tools of production and distribution used by professionals are available to the broader public. Publics are becoming more and more productive (Jenkins, 1992; Arvidsson, 2011). The rise of these phenomena suggests that a new modality of value creation is affirming itself in the in...
Huffman, Wallace E
New experimental economic methods are described and used to assess consumers' willingness to pay for food products that might be made from new transgenic and intragenic genetically modified (GM) traits. Participants in auctions are randomly chosen adult consumers in major US metropolitan areas and not college students. Food labels are kept simple and focus on key attributes of experimental goods. Diverse private information from the agricultural biotech industry (largely Monsanto and Syngenta...
Sylvia R. M. Broeders; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C.J.; Nancy H C Roosens
Biotech crops are the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. The commercialisation of GMO is in many countries strictly regulated laying down the need for traceability and labelling. To comply with these legislations, detection methods are needed. To date, GM events have been developed by the introduction of a transgenic insert (i.e., promoter, coding sequence, terminator) into the plant genome and real-time PCR is the detection method of choice. However, new ty...
Eaker, Shannon; Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; van"t Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska
In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy (ISCT) provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Guidance is provided to help small academic or biotech researchers determine what questions can be addressed at the bench level in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production.
The EU governance of food safety and GM food and feed has gone through significant changes since the BSE crisis and food scares during the 1990s. This work focuses on one particular new feature; the role of stakeholders representing the food chain: biotech associations, farmer organizations, food and feed processors, consumer organizations and environmental NGOs. These stakeholders are not merely lobbyists exerting influence on EU institutions; they are knowledge producers with a certain expe...
Gao, Rong; 高溶
Introduction: The Genetically Modified (GM) food, which is one of the fruit of the modern biotechnology, is closely related to people's lives. GM food, specifically, GM crops, also known as biotech food, are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO), which use genetic engineering techniques to introduce, recombine and modify DNA. The safety of GM food still do not have final conclusion at present. Although GM food has been introduced into China for over 15 years, many of the surveys ...
Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros; Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo
Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed ...
Anderson, Kym; Pohl Nielsen, Chantal
The first generation of genetically modified crop varieties, currently most widespread in the maize and soybean sectors, sought to increase farmer profitability by improving agronomic traits. The next generation of biotech research is focusing also on breeding for attributes desired by consumers. Although not yet commercially available, a new variety of rice, known as ‘Golden Rice’, has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A. Thus in contrast with the current comme...
Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson
The first generation of genetically modified crop varieties, currently most widespread in the maize and soybean sectors, sought to increase farmer profitability by improving agronomic traits. The next generation of biotech research is focusing also on breeding for attributes desired by consumers. Although not yet commercially available, a new variety of rice, known as Â‘Golden RiceÂ’, has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A. Thus in contrast with the current com...
Ekanem, Enefiok P.; Muhammad, Safdar; Tegegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra P.
Although much has been written on consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods, not much is known about how or where consumers get the information for the decisions they make about genetically modified foods. This paper reports on the media used by consumers in acquiring information about biotech food and nutrition issues, and examines how much trust consumers put in selected information sources. The paper also discusses how socio-economic variables affect level of trust in selected s...
Akinbo, Olalekan; Hancock, James F.; Makinde, Diran
Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERAs). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for ERA include growth habit, ce...
Schneider, B.W. (Bernd)
Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, is considered to be a revolutionary biotechnology field beside red and green biotechnology. After red (medicine) and green (agriculture), white biotechnology is now gaining momentum. With numerous applications e.g. in biocatalysis and fermentation technology, white biotech companies are able to produce – often from biomass out of agricultural products - biobased chemicals (like vitamins, amino acids or enzymes for textile finishing ...
Biotechnology development relates to the quality and skills of human resources. During the Ninth Malaysian Plan 2006-2010, higher education institutions have produced more than 4000 graduates and in service training programs for human resource development and are providing more scholarships to serving officers to pursue post graduate degree in biotechnology. However, gaps still continue to exist between demand for and supply of biotechnology skills and there is an alarming shortage of biotech...
REQUIREMENTS FOR STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL MEDICAL PRODUCTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE AND DETECTION OF VIOLATIONS IN THE MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTIONS
Introduction. The rapid development of the pharmaceutical industry and the expansion of the range of biotech drugs require special conditions to ensure the quality, storage and transport through out the entire chain: manufacturer - distributor - pharmacy - hospital - the patient.We analyzed the current legislative frame work of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine and conducted a study to identify and analyze of typical violations in the medical and pharmaceutical inst...
Valeria Judice; Connie Vedovello
Scientific and technological infrastructure in the field of biotechnology covers many universities, research centers, interrogators, technological institutes, research funds, which carry out research and training. To assess the scope of their activities in Brazil authors used a database prepared by the research group of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). With its help the most important biotech sectors at both the national and international lev...
The Center for Meat Processing Technologies: 106 Trimming the Meeknees from Red Meat Marketing The Center for Value Added Seed Technology: 113 Taming Apomixis to Create New Wheat Hybrids 119 Research in Brief 124 Better Resistance Against Dwarf Smut 125 Taming Range Grasses to Create Better Turf Grass 126 Removing a Biotech Bottleneck The Center for Dairy Foods Technology: 128 Helping the Dairy Industry Gear Up for the next Century 1992 Index 133 New Publicati...
Chukwuemeka Uchenna Ikedi; Michael I. Okoroh
Sustainable energy technologies have become very attractive and effective at the moment for use in the UK and other parts of the world as techniques for reducing carbon footprints in the building sectors. These include micro-wind turbines, photovoltaics, small hydro power generators and bio-tech systems. Besides building integrated solar electric generators otherwise referred to as building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which is aesthetically appealing and forms part of the applied buildin...
Mogens H. Claesson; Ayako W. Pedersen; Pia Kvistborg; Mai-Britt Zocca; Lotte Engell-Noerregaard; Anders Mellemgaard
Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac&174, Dandrit Biotech,Copenhagen,Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and celecoxib were used as adjuvants to the vaccines. The objective of the study was to evaluate specific T cell response in vitro by IFNg EliSpot. Secondary objectives were overall survival, response and qua...
Rosamaria D’Amore; Roberto Iorio
This paper analyses the relationship between institutional and geographic distance in scientific collaborations, evaluating the possible changes when a long period (sixteen years) is taken into consideration and discussing the use of some alternative measures of institutional distance. The main result, obtained by analysing the publications of the Italian biotech firms, is that international publications present an higher institutional distance than national papers, particularly in the early ...
As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is ...
Giovanni Garro Monge
In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC) has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with grea...
Evenson Robert E.
There are two mechanisms by which modern genetically modified organism (GMO) products can affect productivity in developing countries. The first is the Genes for Rent mechanism where a recipient country agrees with a GMO company to incorporate a GMO product (e.g., a Bt gene in cotton varieties) and pay a technology fee. The second is the Transgenic Breeding mechanism in which National Agricultural Research System (NARS) breeders use modern biotech methods marker-aided breeding, genetic maps, ...
Chaput, Benoit; Garrido, Ignacio; Eburdery, Harold; Grolleau, Jean Louis; Chavoin, Jean Pierre
Background: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been marketed for about 20 years and remains popular. The only real obstacle to NPWT is the cost; therefore, we designed an inexpensive NPWT connected to a wall vacuum. Here, we report the feasibility and safety of this product, which we call PROVACUUM (Z-Biotech, Saint-Avertin, France). Methods: As a first step, the constraints imposed on the manufacturer were equipment quality similar to that of commercial NPWT systems, with an average ...
Gallo, D; Yeh, E T; Moore, E S; Hanson, C V
Four licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for the measurement of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1, one from Organon Teknika Corp. (OTC), one from Cambridge Biotech Corp. (CBC), and two from Abbott Laboratories (the 1993 modification [Abb 93] and the 2.0 version licensed in 1995 [Abb 95]), were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in the detection of HTLV type 2 antibody, and the results were compared with those previously obtained with earlier kit versions. The...
Validation, Performance under Field Conditions, and Cost-Effectiveness of Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 and Determine HIV-1/2 Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Assays Using Sequential and Parallel Testing Algorithms in Tanzania▿
Mayhood, Meghan K.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Odhiambo, Christopher O.; Ndanu, Epimack; Thielman, Nathan M.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Shao, John F; Wells Pence, Brian; Crump, John A.
Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests support the effort to expand access to HIV testing and counseling services in remote, rural, and poor parts of the world. We validated the Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 (Trinity Biotech PLC, Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland) and Determine HIV-1/2 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) rapid tests in a reference laboratory using patient samples from Tanzania and evaluated the performance of the tests under field conditions in northern Tanzania. We us...
Malakar Jadupati; Ghosh Amitava; Basu Aalok; Nayak Amit Kumar
Nanotechnology is on its way to make a big impact in Biotech, Pharmaceutical and Medical diagnostics sciences. Nanotechnology holds a tremendous potential when it applied in the fields of drug delivery. In this review it has been discussed how nanotechnology can implemented to design formulations which can effectively carry drug molecule to the targeted cell organelles. Introduction of certain functional groups or addition of surface active agents may alter the characteristics of the carrier ...
Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Kreim, Olivier; Oezdemir-Zaech, Fatma; Vachon, Therese; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick
BACKGROUND: The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. METHODS: We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information ...
The main aim of this paper is to study innovative activity, as measured by patent indicators, in pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors in the Nordic Countries. The biotech sector in general and pharmaceutical in particular is one of the areas selected for strategic investments in every Nordic country. In terms of patents granted by country of inventors Denmark plays a leading role followed by Sweden, while patenting activity in Finland and Norway is lower. A concentration of patents tow...
Daniel Weinacker; Claudia Rabert; Zepeda, Andrea B.; Figueroa, Carolina A.; Adalberto Pessoa; Farías, Jorge G.
Since the 1970s, the establishment and development of the biotech industry has improved exponentially, allowing the commercial production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Nowadays, new recombinant protein production is considered a multibillion-dollar market, in which about 25% of commercial pharmaceuticals are biopharmaceuticals. But to achieve a competitive production process is not an easy task. Any production process has to be highly productive, efficient and economic. Despite that the perf...
Salazar-Ordonez, Melania; Rodriguez-Entrena, Macario
Applying gene technology in agricultural production, which results on the so-called genetically modified (GM) foods, is one of the most controversial scientific, political and social debates. In the EU, the underdevelopment of biotech crops is attributed to the social distrust in transgenic food. The potential consumers’ reactions towards Genetically Modified (GM) food influence the commercial feasibility and determine the economic agent decisions. This paper studies the underlying factors in...
Cantner, Uwe; Plotnikova, Tatiana
This paper deals with the topic of related R&D and innovation strategies of large firms. We ask what determines the diversity of a firm's product portfolio. More specifically, we try to explain large firms' expansion into new product markets driven by the characteristics of their technological knowledge. Empirically, we study firms in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries, using relevant data on product development and technological knowledge. We find a positive relationship between the d...
Clark, David; Klee, Harry; Dandekar, Abhaya
The acreage of agronomic crops (soybean, cotton, corn and canola) developed using recombinant DNA technology has expanded dramatically since their introduction in 1996, while the commercialization of biotech horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, nuts and ornamentals) has languished. This is not due to a lack of both current and potential traits that could be utilized in horticultural crops, as ongoing research is identifying a diverse array of applications. However, commercialization is st...
Rocha Dos Santos, Roseli; Lucht, Evelin
N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5 International audience The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of cultivar protection regulations in the availability of conventional seeds in Brazilian agriculture. The expansion of intellectual property rights has stimulated innovative research on breeding in Brazil, mainly on the biotech applications, but this may constitute a challenge to the adoption of policies aiming to preserve agrobiodiversity. The institutional apparatus tends to reward standar...
Wüstenhagen, Rolf; Teppo, Tarja
Venture Capital (VC) plays an important role in the commercialisation of innovation. Sectors like information and communication technologies and biotech account for two-thirds of all VC investments. Little attention has been paid to understanding how the venture capital market extends to new industries. Based on a survey of European energy technology VCs, we discuss the factors determining the emergence of a new market sector for VC investments. While there are sizeable investment poportun...
Ratcliffe, L T
Small biotech companies have been an important source of innovation, pipelines, and new products for the pharmaceutical industry, and are primarily financed by venture capital (VC). The significant changes happening within the VC industry have broad implications for these small companies. This includes a shift to financing later-stage programs with increasing interest in orphan or specialty indications. Nontraditional sources of capital and innovative risk-sharing structures can enable early-stage companies. PMID:21252935
Michael R. Darby; Lynne G. ZUCKER
Advance of science and its commercial applications are in a close, symbiotic relationship in the U.S. biotechnology industry. Comparing Japan and the U.S., the structure of the science appears broadly similar, but the organization of the biotechnology industry is quite dissimilar. In the U.S., some 77 percent of new biotechnology enterprises (NBEs) were dedicated new biotechnology firms (NBFs) started for this purpose while 88 percent of Japanese biotech firms in our data base were subunits o...
Bertoni, Fabio; Tykvová, Tereza
Although there seems to be consensus in the literature that venture capital investors increase the innovation output of their portfolio companies, there is little evidence about how investor type (governmental vs. private) and transaction structure (syndicated vs. non-syndicated) moderate this impact. Using a sample of 865 young biotech and pharmaceutical companies from seven European countries, we investigate which form of venture capital is most supportive of innovation. Our results suggest...
Brabcová, Jana; Zarevúcka, Marie; Mackova, M.
Praha : Institute of Chemical Technology, 2011 - (Spiwok, V.; Schreiberová, O.; Paulová, L.; Káš, J.). s. 70-70 ISBN 978-80-7080-782-8. [Biotech 2011 & Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition /5./. 15.06.2011-17.06.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lipases * microorganisms * substrate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Mayorca-Guiliani A; Erler JT
Alejandro Mayorca-Guiliani, Janine T Erler Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Exten...
The Empowered Antibody Therapies conference, held in Burlingame, CA, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of multispecific antibodies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on DVD-Igs from Abbott Laboratories, ImmTACs from Immunocore, 'Dock-and-Lock' technology from Immunomedics, the bispecific BiTE antibody blinatumomab from Micromet, and Triomabs from TRION Pharma and Fresenius Biotech. PMID:20878591
Bandyopadhyay S; Mahajan M; Mehta T; Singh AK; Parikh A; Gupta AK; Kalita P; Patel M; Mendiratta SK
Sanjay Bandyopadhyay, Mukesh Mahajan, Tulsi Mehta, Arun K Singh, Aashini Parikh, Ajit K Gupta, Pankaj Kalita, Mihir Patel, Sanjeev Kumar Mendiratta Zydus Research Centre, Biotech Division, Cadila Healthcare Ltd, The Zydus Group, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Abstract: ZRC-3197 has been developed indigenously by Cadila Healthcare Ltd as a biosimilar adalimumab of originator HUMIRA®. Biosimilarity has been demonstrated with a comprehensive set of state-of-the-art analytical techniques to chara...
Sanjay Bandyopadhyay, Mukesh Mahajan, Tulsi Mehta, Arun K Singh, Aashini Parikh, Ajit K Gupta, Pankaj Kalita, Mihir Patel, Sanjeev Kumar Mendiratta Zydus Research Centre, Biotech Division, Cadila Healthcare Ltd, The Zydus Group, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Abstract: ZRC-3197 has been developed indigenously by Cadila Healthcare Ltd as a biosimilar adalimumab of originator HUMIRA®. Biosimilarity has been demonstrated with a comprehensive set of state-of-the-art analytical techniques to c...
RODRÍGUEZ BATALLA, FIDEL
[EN] Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour within the environment of public sector research is considered to be of great interest, because this is what will determine the creation of new technology-based start-ups - often known as spin-offs - in universities, hospitals and other public research bodies. In the framework of the knowledge economy, and specifically in the life sciences sector, or "bioeconomy" (European Commission, 2012), the creation and development of a biotech company is conside...
Jahangir Yadollahi Fars; Zahra Kalatehaei
Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries. The majority of biotech companies are start-ups or small companies that have been working for several years yet are not profitable. Evidences showed that firms and researchers have problems in turning academic findings to commercial revenue and there is problem in commercialization process and choosing method of the exploitation academic opportunities or choosing proper commercialization strategy in this industry. In this stud...
Schlecht, Shannon M.; Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.
Genetically modified (GM) grains have increased in importance. Moving biotech grains from producers to processors is a challenge for the grain handling system that could involve increased segregations. The objective of this research is to determine how testing strategies affect the logistical costs of a grain pipeline when GM wheat is present. A logistical model was developed and simulated to analyze impacts of uncertainty in demand, receipts, test accuracy, rail deliveries, and transit time....