Sample records for biospecimen-based assessment modalities

  1. TRWG developmental pathway for biospecimen-based assessment modalities

    Translational Research Working Group; Srivastava, Sudhir; Gray, Joe W.; Reid, Brian J.; Grad, Oren; Greenwood, Addison; Hawk, Ernest T.


    The Translational Research Working Group (TRWG) was created as a national initiative to evaluate the current status of NCI's investment in translational research and envision its future. The TRWG conceptualized translational research as a set of six developmental processes or pathways focused on various clinical goals. One of those pathways describes the development of biospecimen-based assays that utilize biomarkers for the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of response to cancer treatment. The biospecimen-based assessment modality (BM) pathway was conceived not as comprehensive description of the corresponding real-world processes, but rather as a tool designed to facilitate movement of a candidate assay through the translational process to the point where it can be handed off for definitive clinical testing. This paper introduces the pathway in the context of prior work and discusses key challenges associated with the biomarker development process in light of the pathway.

  2. Modality

    Klinge, Alex; Müller, Henrik Høeg

    Modality: Studies in Form and Function reflects the diversity of theoretical frameworks and the heterogeneity of linguistic phenomena under the general heading of modality. Researchers in the fields of logic, philosophy and linguistics have for many years been pondering the elusive nature of...... modality and grappled with ways of capturing it. The 11 studies included here cover the span from contributions that seek to clarify controversial theoretical constructs to studies which take an empirical approach to linguistic categories and cross-linguistic typological issues. The key concepts addressed...... are the structure of modal subcategories, subjective vs. objective modality, force dynamics, evidentiality, Spanish and English modal auxiliaries, modal uses of Italian tenses, linearization patterns in German verb chains, determinant TAM categories, modal polyfunctionality across languages and...

  3. Word spelling assessment using ICT: The effect of presentation modality

    Menelaos Sarris; Chris Panagiotakopoulos


    Up-to-date spelling process was assessed using typical spelling-to-dictation tasks, wherechildren’s performance was evaluated mainly in terms of spelling error scores. In the presentwork a simple graphical computer interface is reported, aiming to investigate the effects ofinput modality (e.g. visual and verbal) in word spelling. The software was constructed withthe view to measuring both spelling error and production time scores. The main purpose wasto not only to examine spelling strategies...

  4. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    Trubert, M.


    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  5. Radicular avulsion resulting from spinal injury: Assessment of diagnostic modalities

    The diagnostic utility of imaging techniques in injuries to the intramedullary and subarachnoid portions of the brachial plexus, with possibly complete avulsion of one or more nerve roots from the spinal cord and extramedullary meningocoele was compared in 18 patients studied by unenhanced computed tomography (CT), cervical myelography, myelographic CT (MCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Emphasis was placed on the lesions of the subarachnoid roots. CM was the only diagnostic modality to show avulsion of 18 nerve roots and their levels in 8 patients (100% = gold standard), and to verify 2 incomplete avulsions. MCT reliably revealed 8 of 18 (45%) and MRI 1 out of 18 (6%) avulsions. Myelography with MCT showed intact subarachnoid nerve roots in 10 additional patients. MRI and MCT (16 out of 16 = 100%) were superior to myelography (14/16 = 88%) for demonstrating 16 traumatic meningocoeles in 8 patients; follow-up MRI (6-24 months) showed no increase in their size. We recommend a subsequent CT to role out fracture to the spinal column; MRI should provide significant information concerning oedema or haemorrhage in the spinal cord. Myelography with segmental MCT is performed to differentiate pre- from post-ganglionic lesions, data which are essential for deciding whether exploration of the plexus or a motor substitution operation is indicated. (orig.)

  6. Acoustic Angiography: A New Imaging Modality for Assessing Microvasculature Architecture

    Ryan C. Gessner


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide the biomedical imaging community with details of a new high resolution contrast imaging approach referred to as “acoustic angiography.” Through the use of dual-frequency ultrasound transducer technology, images acquired with this approach possess both high resolution and a high contrast-to-tissue ratio, which enables the visualization of microvascular architecture without significant contribution from background tissues. Additionally, volumetric vessel-tissue integration can be visualized by using b-mode overlays acquired with the same probe. We present a brief technical overview of how the images are acquired, followed by several examples of images of both healthy and diseased tissue volumes. 3D images from alternate modalities often used in preclinical imaging, contrast-enhanced micro-CT and photoacoustics, are also included to provide a perspective on how acoustic angiography has qualitatively similar capabilities to these other techniques. These preliminary images provide visually compelling evidence to suggest that acoustic angiography may serve as a powerful new tool in preclinical and future clinical imaging.

  7. Imaging Modalities Relevant to Intracranial Pressure Assessment in Astronauts

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Kramer, Larry A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Polk, J. D.


    Learning Objectives of this slide presentation are: 1: To review the morphological changes in orbit structures caused by elevated Intracranial Pressure (ICP), and their imaging representation. 2: To learn about the similarities and differences between MRI and sonographic imaging of the eye and orbit. 3: To learn about the role of MRI and sonography in the noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure in aerospace medicine, and the added benefits from their combined interpretation.

  8. Modalities for the Assessment of Burn Wound Depth

    Devgan, Lara; Bhat, Satyanarayan; Aylward, S.; Spence, Robert J.


    Objective: Burn wound depth is a significant determinant of patient treatment and morbidity. While superficial partial-thickness burns generally heal by re-epithelialization with minimal scarring, deeper wounds can form hypertrophic or contracted scars, often requiring surgical excision and grafting to prevent a suboptimal result. In addition, without timely intervention, more superficial burn wounds can convert to deeper wounds. As such, the rapid and accurate assessment of burn wound depth ...

  9. Preoperative Assessment of Different Treatment Modalities in Bronchial Asthma Patients

    Kawther A. Azzam M.D. and **Sahar S. Khattab MD


    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture and medical therapies of bronchial asthma preoperatively. Sixty patients suffered from mild to moderate bronchial asthma and coming for elective operations were chozen from the outpatient clinic of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=20 each. Group I patients (drug group received oral theophylline and Salbutamol (ventolin inhaler according to the needs. Group II patients (drug +ear acupuncture group received same medical treatment as in group I and added ear acupuncture. Group III patients (drug + ear and body acupuncture group received same medical treatment as in group I and II and added ear and body acupuncture. Ventilatory function tests through spirometer and interleukin-13 estimation were performed before treatment and after two weeks of treatment. Improvement of subjective and objective parameters had occurred with significant decrease in the mean serum level of interleukin-13 and decrease in the mean number of using b-agonist puffs after two weeks of treatment in the three groups, with the best results being in group III than in group II and then in group I. Conclusion: Interleukin-13 estimation togheter with ventilatory function tests is a useful parameter for pre-operative assessment and evaluation of asthmatic patients. Also medication was significantly reduced when combined with acupuncture.

  10. Automated modal tracking and fatigue assessment of a wind turbine based on continuous dynamic monitoring

    Oliveira Gustavo


    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a dynamic monitoring system at a 2.0 MW onshore wind turbine. The system is composed by two components aiming at the structural integrity and fatigue assessment. The first component enables the continuous tracking of modal characteristics of the wind turbine (natural frequency values, modal damping ratios and mode shapes in order to detect abnormal deviations of these properties, which may be caused by the occurrence of structural damage. On the other hand, the second component allows the estimation of the remaining fatigue lifetime of the structure based on the analysis of the measured cycles of structural vibration.

  11. Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation

    Wisborg Torben


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly exposed to a mannequin or a standardized patient in two consecutive simulations for each team. In each hospital two teams were trained, with opposite order of simulation modality. Anonymous, written questionnaires were answered by the participants immediately after each simulation. The teams were interviewed as a focus group after the last simulation, reflecting on the difference between the two simulation modalities. Outcome measures were the participants' assessment of their own perceived educational outcome and comparison of the models, in addition to analysis of the interviews. Results Participants' assessed their educational outcome to be high, and unrelated to the order of appearance of patient model. There were no differences in assessment of realism and feeling of embarrassment. Focus groups revealed that the participants felt that the choice between educational modalities should be determined by the simulated case, with high interaction between team and patient being enhanced by a standardized patient. Conclusion Participants' assessment of the outcome of team training seems independent of the simulation modality when the educational goal is training communication, co-operation and leadership within the team.

  12. Imaging Modalities Relevant to Intracranial Pressure Assessment in Astronauts: A Case-Based Discussion

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Kramer, Larry A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Polk, J. D.


    Introduction: Intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation has been inferred or documented in a number of space crewmembers. Recent advances in noninvasive imaging technology offer new possibilities for ICP assessment. Most International Space Station (ISS) partner agencies have adopted a battery of occupational health monitoring tests including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre- and postflight, and high-resolution sonography of the orbital structures in all mission phases including during flight. We hypothesize that joint consideration of data from the two techniques has the potential to improve quality and continuity of crewmember monitoring and care. Methods: Specially designed MRI and sonographic protocols were used to image eyes and optic nerves (ON) including the meningeal sheaths. Specific crewmembers multi-modality imaging data were analyzed to identify points of mutual validation as well as unique features of complementary nature. Results and Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution sonography are both tomographic methods, however images obtained by the two modalities are based on different physical phenomena and use different acquisition principles. Consideration of the images acquired by these two modalities allows cross-validating findings related to the volume and fluid content of the ON subarachnoid space, shape of the globe, and other anatomical features of the orbit. Each of the imaging modalities also has unique advantages, making them complementary techniques.

  13. Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.

    Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S


    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

  14. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.


    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  15. Comparison of different computed tomography post-processing modalities in assessment of various middle ear disorders.

    Mehanna, Ahmed Mohamed; Baki, Fatthi Abdel; Eid, Mohamed; Negm, Magdy


    Several anatomic structures of the middle ear are not optimally depicted in the standard axial and coronal planes. Several 2D and 3D image-processing modalities are currently available for CT examinations in clinical radiology departments. Till now 3D reconstructions of the temporal bone have not been widely used yet, and attracted only academic interest. The aim of this study was to compare axial (source images), 2D and 3DCT post-processing modalities, and to evaluate the value of 3D reconstructed images/virtual endoscopy (VE) in assessment of various middle ear disorders for identification of the best modality/view for assessment of a particular middle ear structure or pathology. 40 patients with various middle ear disorders, planned for surgical intervention were included in prospective study. Multi-slice CT was performed for all patients. Scans were acquired in the axial plane. The axial source datasets were utilized for generation of 2D reformations and 3D reconstructed images. All studied images were divided into three categories: axial (source images), 2D reformations (MPR and sliding-thin-slab MIP) and 3D reconstruction (virtual endoscopy). The visibility of middle ear structures and pathologies with each modality were scored qualitatively using three-point scoring system in reference to operative findings. Stapes superstructure and footplate, incudostapedial joint, oval and round windows, tympanic segment of the facial nerve and tegmen were not optimally depicted in the axial plane. Sinus tympani and facial recess were best visualized with axial images or VE. 3D reconstruction/VE allowed good visualization of all parts of ossicular chain except stapes superstructure. Regarding pathologic changes, 2D reformations and 3D reconstructed images allowed better visualization of erosion of ossicles and tegmen. 3D reconstruction/VE did not allow detection of foci of otospongiosis. 2D reformations can be considered the mainstay in assessment of most middle ear

  16. Assessment of induction of secondary tumours due to various radiotherapy modalities

    One of the objectives of the European Sixth Framework integrated project MAESTRO is to perform an assessment of risk due to various radiotherapy modalities, regarding secondary tumour induction. Initially, the study will focus on cancer of the prostate and the present work represents the first step towards that goal. One of the intended tools, to be used in the assessment, is the Monte Carlo radiation transport code ORANGE. A validation of the ORANGE code's capability to tally dose on a grid superimposed on an existing MCNP geometry is given. Preliminary results on the dose distribution due to conventional radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer are discussed. Two mathematical models of the patient are proposed and the clinical relevance of the ADAM phantom is investigated. A problem in comparing average doses provided by commercial treatment planning systems and those calculated with Monte Carlo is noticed. The two proposed models are shown to receive a lower dose and average energy deposition than a 'real' patient. (authors)

  17. Comparison of balance assessment modalities in emergency department elders: a pilot cross-sectional observational study

    Karaman Rowan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than one-third of US adults 65 and over fall every year. These falls may cause serious injury including substantial long-term morbidity (due declines in activities of daily living and death. The emergency department (ED visit represents an opportunity for identifying high risk elders and potentially instituting falls-related interventions. The unique characteristic of the ED environment and patient population necessitate that risk-assessment modalities be validated in this specific setting. In order to better identify elders at risk of falls, we examined the relationship between patient-provided history of falling and two testing modalities (a balance plate system and the timed up-and-go [TUG] test in elder emergency department (ED patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of patients ≥ 60 years old being discharged from the ED. Patient history of falls in the past week, month, 6 months, and year was obtained. Balance plate center of pressure excursion (COP measurements and TUG testing times were recorded. COP was recorded under four conditions: normal stability eyes open (NSEO and closed (NSEC, and perturbed stability eyes open and closed. Correlation between TUG and COP scores was measured. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between patient-provided falls history and the two testing modalities. Proportions, likelihood ratios, and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curves for prediction of previous falls were reported. Results Fifty-three subjects were enrolled, 11% had fallen in the previous week and 42% in the previous year. There was no correlation between TUG and any balance plate measurements. In logistic regression, neither testing modality was associated with prior history of falls (p > 0.05 for all time periods. Balance plate NSEO and NSEC testing cutoffs could be identified which were 83% sensitive and had a negative likelihood ratio (LR- of 0

  18. The effect of radiographic imaging modalities and the observer's experience on postoperative maxillary cyst assessment

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC) diagnosis by panoramic radiographs versus computed tomography (CT) and by oral and maxillofacial radiologists versus non-specialists. Sixty-five maxillary sinuses with POMCs and 63 without any lesion were assessed using panoramic radiographs and CT images by five oral and maxillofacial radiologists and five non-specialists on a five-point scale. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to determine the differences in diagnostic accuracy between the two imaging modalities and between the two groups of observers. The intra-observer agreement was determined, too. The diagnostic accuracy of CT images was higher than that of panoramic radiographs in both groups of observers (p<0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of oral and maxillofacial radiologists for each method was higher than that of non-specialists (p<0.05). The use of CT improves the diagnosis of POMC, and radiological training and experience leads to more accurate evaluation.

  19. Assessment of the value of various tomography modalities for diagnostic evaluation of the female genital system

    The comprehensive survey explains the indications and the specific value of the modern tomographic modalities with respect to the various diagnostic issues. Numerous reproductions of CT, MRI, US scans illustrate the aspects discussed. (orig./CB)

  20. Philosophical Insight and Modal Cognition

    Gerken, Mikkel


    Modal rationalists uphold a strong constitutive relationship between a priori cognition and modal cognition. Since both a priori cognition and modal cognition have been taken to be characteristic of philosophical insights, I will critically assess an ambitious modal rationalism and an associated ambitious methodological rationalism. I begin by examining Kripkean cases of the necessary a posteriori in order to characterize the ambitious modal rationalism that will be the focus of my criticism....

  1. Ordinary Modalities

    Materna, Pavel

    - , - (2005), s. 57-70. ISSN 0024-5836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/04/2073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : logical modalities * empirical modalities * nomical necessity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Voxel-level reproducibility assessment of modality independent elastography in a pre-clinical murine model

    Flint, Katelyn M.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.


    Changes in tissue mechanical properties, measured non-invasively by elastography methods, have been shown to be an important diagnostic tool, particularly for cancer. Tissue elasticity information, tracked over the course of therapy, may be an important prognostic indicator of tumor response to treatment. While many elastography techniques exist, this work reports on the use of a novel form of elastography that uses image texture to reconstruct elastic property distributions in tissue (i.e., a modality independent elastography (MIE) method) within the context of a pre-clinical breast cancer system.1,2 The elasticity results have previously shown good correlation with independent mechanical testing.1 Furthermore, MIE has been successfully utilized to localize and characterize lesions in both phantom experiments and simulation experiments with clinical data.2,3 However, the reproducibility of this method has not been characterized in previous work. The goal of this study is to evaluate voxel-level reproducibility of MIE in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. Bland-Altman analysis of co-registered repeat MIE scans in this preliminary study showed a reproducibility index of 24.7% (scaled to a percent of maximum stiffness) at the voxel level. As opposed to many reports in the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) literature that speak to reproducibility measures of the bulk organ, these results establish MIE reproducibility at the voxel level; i.e., the reproducibility of locally-defined mechanical property measurements throughout the tumor volume.

  3. Assessment of rigid multi-modality image registration consistency using the multiple sub-volume registration (MSR) method

    Registration of different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, functional MRI (fMRI), positron (PET) and single photon (SPECT) emission tomography is used in many clinical applications. Determining the quality of any automatic registration procedure has been a challenging part because no gold standard is available to evaluate the registration. In this note we present a method, called the 'multiple sub-volume registration' (MSR) method, for assessing the consistency of a rigid registration. This is done by registering sub-images of one data set on the other data set, performing a crude non-rigid registration. By analysing the deviations (local deformations) of the sub-volume registrations from the full registration we get a measure of the consistency of the rigid registration. Registration of 15 data sets which include CT, MR and PET images for brain, head and neck, cervix, prostate and lung was performed utilizing a rigid body registration with normalized mutual information as the similarity measure. The resulting registrations were classified as good or bad by visual inspection. The resulting registrations were also classified using our MSR method. The results of our MSR method agree with the classification obtained from visual inspection for all cases (p < 0.02 based on ANOVA of the good and bad groups). The proposed method is independent of the registration algorithm and similarity measure. It can be used for multi-modality image data sets and different anatomic sites of the patient. (note)

  4. Implementation of a multi-modal mobile sensor system for surface and subsurface assessment of roadways

    Wang, Ming; Birken, Ralf; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar


    There are more than 4 million miles of roads and 600,000 bridges in the United States alone. On-going investments are required to maintain the physical and operational quality of these assets to ensure public's safety and prosperity of the economy. Planning efficient maintenance and repair (M&R) operations must be armed with a meticulous pavement inspection method that is non-disruptive, is affordable and requires minimum manual effort. The Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (VOTERS) project developed a technology able to cost- effectively monitor the condition of roadway systems to plan for the right repairs, in the right place, at the right time. VOTERS technology consists of an affordable, lightweight package of multi-modal sensor systems including acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, and GPS sensors. Vehicles outfitted with this technology would be capable of collecting information on a variety of pavement-related characteristics at both surface and subsurface levels as they are driven. By correlating the sensors' outputs with the positioning data collected in tight time synchronization, a GIS-based control center attaches a spatial component to all the sensors' measurements and delivers multiple ratings of the pavement every meter. These spatially indexed ratings are then leveraged by VOTERS decision making modules to plan the optimum M&R operations and predict the future budget needs. In 2014, VOTERS inspection results were validated by comparing them to the outputs of recent professionally done condition surveys of a local engineering firm for 300 miles of Massachusetts roads. Success of the VOTERS project portrays rapid, intelligent, and comprehensive evaluation of tomorrow's transportation infrastructure to increase public's safety, vitalize the economy, and deter catastrophic failures.

  5. Dynamic strain estimation for fatigue assessment of an offshore monopile wind turbine using filtering and modal expansion algorithms

    Maes, K.; Iliopoulos, A.; Weijtjens, W.; Devriendt, C.; Lombaert, G.


    Offshore wind turbines are exposed to continuous wind and wave excitation. The monitoring of high periodic strains at critical locations is important to assess the remaining lifetime of the structure. At some critical locations below the water level, direct measurements of the strains are not feasible. Response estimation techniques can then be used to estimate the strains from a limited set of response measurements and a system model. This paper compares a Kalman filtering algorithm, a joint input-state estimation algorithm, and a modal expansion algorithm, for the estimation of dynamic strains in the tower of an offshore monopile wind turbine. The algorithms make use of a model of the structure and a limited number of response measurements for the prediction of the strain responses. The strain signals obtained from the response estimation algorithms are compared to the actual measured strains in the tower.

  6. La Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) : une echelle comportementale d'evaluation et de revalidation pour des etats alteres de conscience.

    Chatelle, Camille; Schnakers, Caroline; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gosseries, Olivia; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey


    INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in detecting bedside signs of consciousness in non-communicative patients still lead to a high rate of misdiagnosis illustrating the need to employ standardized behavioral assessment scales. STATE OF ART: The Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) is a behavioral assessment scale of consciousness that assesses responses to multimodal sensory stimulation in disorders of consciousness. These stimulations can also be considered to have therape...

  7. Audiological assessment modalities in children with multiple handicaps and parents′ perception

    Noorain Alam


    Full Text Available Aim: Children with multiple disabilities have combination of various disabilities. Accurate hearing evaluation is difficult in this population. Audiologists, generally employ a test battery approach, which includes combining findings of parent impression with behavior observation audiometry (BOA as well as auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR findings. This study was carried out to find if there exists a correlation among various steps in the test battery for children with multiple handicaps as well as to find out, which disability is the most common among this population. Methodology: A total of 103 numbers of children with multiple handicaps were chosen at random who were referred to C U Shah Institute of Audiology and Speech Therapy for audiological assessment. The three steps involved in assessment that is parental impression, BOA and ABR findings were taken into account. The relationship was obtained using data analysis. Results: It was found that among children with multiple handicaps referred for audiological assessment, mental retardation was the most common (32.03%. Furthermore, it was found that there were more contradictory findings between parent impression and ABR (48% when compared with parent impression with BOA (38%. In between BOA and ABR contradictory findings were found in 41% of cases. Conclusion: There are wide contradictions among various steps involved in assessment of children with multiple handicaps. Implication: Audiologist should use a test battery approach to assess hearing ability of this population and audiologists should interpret findings carefully at each level.

  8. Audiological assessment modalities in children with multiple handicaps and parents′ perception

    Noorain Alam


    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Children with multiple disabilities have combination of various disabilities. Accurate hearing evaluation is difficult in this population. Audiologists generally employ a test battery approach, which includes combining findings of parent impression with behavioral observation audiometry (BOA as well as auditory brainstem response (ABR findings. Present study was done to find if there exists correlation among various steps in test battery for the children with multiple handicaps as well as to find out which disability is most common among this population. Materials and Methods: Total 103 numbers of children with multiple handicaps were chosen at random who were referred to CU Shah Institute of Audiology and Speech Therapy for audiological assessment. The three steps involved in assessment that is parental impression, BOA, and ABR findings were taken into account. The relationship was obtained using data analysis. Results: It was found that among children with multiple handicaps referred for audiological assessment, mental retardation (MR was the most common (32.03%. Also, it was found that there were more contradictory findings between parent impression and ABR (48% when compared with parent impression with BOA (38%. In between BOA and ABR, contradictory findings were found in 41% of cases. Conclusion: There are wide contradictions among various steps involved in assessment of children with multiple handicaps. Implication: Audiologist should use a test battery approach to assess hearing ability of this population and audiologists should interpret findings carefully at each level.

  9. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.


    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  10. Modal Similarity

    Vigo , Dr. Ronaldo


    Just as Boolean rules define Boolean categories, the Boolean operators define higher-order Boolean categories referred to as modal categories. We examine the similarity order between these categories and the standard category of logical identity (i.e. the modal category defined by the biconditional or equivalence operator). Our goal is 4-fold: first, to introduce a similarity measure for determining this similarity order; second, to show that such a measure is a good predictor of the similari...

  11. Assessment of an SP-100 bi-modal propulsion and power system

    Buksa, J. J.; Demuth, S.; Huber, T.


    The attractiveness of using the SP-100 space nuclear power system for both electric power production and direct thermal propulsion is discussed. A conceptual modification to the SP-100 generic flight system that uses its hot, primary coolant to directly heat hydrogen propellant is presented. An analytical model of the system and its orbital-mechanical behavior is presented and used to assess the benefits of a number of orbital transfer missions. Both a 500 kW and a 2.4 MW system are assessed. Preliminary results indicate that for LEO-to-GEO transfers, the SP-100 bimodal system offers a 100% increase in payload over conventional chemical-only propulsion systems with transfer times on the order of days.

  12. The effect of radiographic imaging modalities and the observer's experience on postoperative maxillary cyst assessment

    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC) diagnosis by panoramic radiographs versus computed tomography (CT) and by oral and maxillofacial radiologists versus non-specialists. Sixty-five maxillary sinuses with POMCs and 63 without any lesion were assessed using panoramic radiographs and CT images by five oral and maxillofacial radiologists and five non-specialists on a five-point scale. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to determine the differences in diagnostic accuracy between the two imaging modalities and between the two groups of observers. The intra-observer agreement was determined, too. The diagnostic accuracy of CT images was higher than that of panoramic radiographs in both groups of observers (p<0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of oral and maxillofacial radiologists for each method was higher than that of non-specialists (p<0.05). The use of CT improves the diagnosis of POMC, and radiological training and experience leads to more accurate evaluation.

  13. Towards a more sustainable transport indicator. Critical assessment of the modal split as an indicator for the EU Sustainability Strategy

    Within the Sustainability Strategy of the European Union (EU) indicator mechanisms have been specified to report on progress. With respect to environmental quality, six indicators have been agreed upon, two of them transport-related: modal split and volume of transport relative to the gross domestic product (GDP). The Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) has serious doubts whether these two indicators, and particularly the modal split, are appropriate yardsticks for measuring progress towards a more sustainable transport system in Europe. The title study has been carried out to evaluate the EU's modal split indicator and propose ways of improving the monitoring of sustainable transport trends in Europe

  14. Dynamic assessment of existing soft catenary systems using modal analysis to explore higher train velocities: a case study of a Norwegian contact line system

    Rønnquist, Anders; Nåvik, Petter


    Significant advances made on the rolling stock have considerably increased the possibility of higher speeds in existing railways. Thus, it is important to explore higher speeds and potential limiting factors of existing soft catenary systems. The present paper investigates procedures to assess the dynamic behaviour of these systems using response sampling and modal analysis. The assessment evaluates and quantifies dynamic response along the section. To verify the approach, a case study is conducted and the following assessment methods are used: lengthwise track correlation estimating dynamic predictability, power spectral density estimations before and after passage and short-time Fourier transforms and spectrograms. The combination provides detailed information on the dynamic behaviour. The first part introduces necessary considerations for suggested modal analysis. The second part describes an existing Norwegian section. The case study is conducted using a finite element model including a straight and a given section between Oslo-Trondheim, providing detailed evaluations and system limitation detections.

  15. Modal Indicators for Operational Modal Identification

    Zhang, L.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.


    Modal validation is of paramount importance for all two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms. However, due to a higher noise/signal ratio in operational/ambient modal analysis, being able to determine the right model order and to distinguish between structural modes and computational...... Realization Algorithm (ERA). The three identification algorithms are implemented from a unified point-of-view with the modal indicators. Numerical simulations are conducted on a two-story building structure and on an aircraft model and it is investigated how the modal indicators work to distinguish the...... modes become more significant than in traditional modal analysis. The two major modal indicators, i.e. Modal Confidence Factor (MCF) and Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAmC) are extended to two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms, together with a newly developed indicator, named as Modal...

  16. Modal Epistemology and Conceivability

    Philosophical argumentation often depends on modal facts, i.e. facts about what is possible, contingent, or necessary. For thought and cognition outside the domain of philosophy modal facts are also often decisive. It seems we have an easy access to modal facts, but how so? Through a presentation...... of the state-of-the-art in modal epistemology I wish to outline a research project based on conceivability that will try to explain how we come to know modal facts....

  17. Modal Functional (`Dialectica') Interpretation

    Hernest, Dan; Trifonov, Trifon


    We adapt our light Dialectica interpretation to usual and light modal formulas (with universal quantification on boolean and natural variables) and prove it sound for a non-standard modal arithmetic based on Goedel's T and classical S_4. The range of this light modal Dialectica is the usual (non-modal) classical Arithmetic in all finite types (with booleans); the propositional kernel of its domain is Boolean and not S_4. The `heavy' modal Dialectica interpretation is a new technique; it canno...

  18. Documentation for assessment of modal pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of "ordinary standard" bridges

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.


    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground-motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case for the central United States), or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case for San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure recently was developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records, such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of 'true' median structural responses. The adjective 'accurate' refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective 'efficient' refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. Herein, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing 'ordinary standard' bridges typical of reinforced-concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi span bridge, curved-bridge, and skew-bridge. As compared to benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Thus, the MPS procedure is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of 'ordinary standard' bridges.

  19. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.


    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  20. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of...... modal parameters of practical interest - including the mode shape scaling factor - with a high degree of accuracy. It is also argued that the operational technology offers the user a number of advantages over traditional modal testing. The operational modal technology allows the user to perform a modal...

  1. Experimental modal analysis

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system...

  2. A randomized assessment of three quality of life (QOL) questionnaires for prostate cancer patients undergoing different radiation treatment modalities

    Purpose: The goal of this prospective, randomized study was to assess and compare compliance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer to completing three different validated QOL instruments pre-treatment and six months later. Materials and Methods: Between April 2000 and April 2001, 124 patients were asked to fill out only one of three randomly selected QOL questionnaires (version A, B, C). Each addressed urinary and sexual function. One also addressed patients' physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well being. Study patients received External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) or Brachytherapy (BRACHY), according to departmental policy. Exclusion criteria included current/previous hormone therapy and prostatectomy. Patients were asked to return the questionnaire at their first treatment visit. The three tools were: A The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Prostate Patients (FACT-P), The Sexual Adjustments Questionnaire (SAQ), and The American Urological Association (AUA) Questionnaire. The Fact-P questionnaire elicits information about physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well being as they relate to prostate cancer. SAQ focuses on sexual function; the AUA on urinary symptoms. B SAQ and AUA only; identical to Version A, but does not address physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well-being. C The International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) Questionnaire, which addresses urinary symptoms and Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, which focuses on erectile function. Additionally, patients were asked to respond yes/no to four variables designed to evaluate these questionnaires: 1) ease of understanding, 2) too personal, 3)addresses concerns regarding urinary function and sexual potency and 4) willingness to complete questionnaire in six months. These variables were examined for any trends that may exist between the different questionnaires. Results: Fifteen (12%) of the 124 patients returned incomplete questionnaires

  3. Custodianship as an Ethical Framework for Biospecimen-Based Research

    Yassin, Rihab; Lockhart, Nicole; Riego, Mariana González del; Pitt, Karen; Thomas, Jeffrey W.; Weiss, Linda; Compton, Carolyn


    Human biological specimens (biospecimens) are increasingly important for research that aims to advance human health. Yet, despite significant proliferation in specimen-based research and discoveries during the past decade, researchremains challenged by the inequitable access to high quality biospecimens that are collected under rigorous ethical standards. This is primarily caused by the complex level of control and ownership exerted by the myriad of stakeholders involved in the biospecimen re...

  4. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems.

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne


    One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  5. Comparison of outcomes of bone scan, clinical judgement and other imaging modalities in the pre-operative assessment of mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity

    The squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity frequently involved mandible, necessitating surgical excision. To maximally preserve the mandible an accurate preoperative assessment is critical. In order to determine the relative accuracy of various investigative modalities, we compared clinical judgement, orthopantomography, computed tomography and bone scanning against decalcified mandibular histopathology as 'gold standard.' Thirty-three patients (18 males and 15 females, aged between 19 and 66 years with an average age of 53) with a previously untreated primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery at our Institute. In nineteen patients marginal, in 8 segmental and in 6 hemimandibulectomy was performed, based on clinical judgements. All patients had undergone pre-operative evaluation with orthopantomography, computed tomography and Tc-99m MDP bone scanning. Post-surgical histopathology revealed that 10 patients (30%) had positive evidence of mandibular involvement. Compared to histopathology the accuracy of clinical judgement, OPG, CT scan and bone scan were 64%, 73%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical judgement, orthopantomography, computed tomography and bone scan were 90 and 52%, 40 and 87%, 70 and 96% and 100 and 83% respectively. There was no false negative bone scan. The study concluded that judicious use of clinical judgement and bone scanning can guide the surgeon in making decisions regarding mandibular excision in majority of cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Negative bone scan virtually rules out mandibular invasion of the disease and more conservative surgery can be planned in these cases.(author)

  6. Coincidence and modality

    Kang, Li


    How should we understand de re modal features of objects, if there are such features? Any answer to the question is connected to how we should think about coincident objects, objects which occupy the same spatio-temporal region and share the same underlying matter. This thesis is mainly about the connections between de re modality and coincidence. My interest in the connections is twofold: First, how do theories of de re modality interact with theories about coincidence? Details of interactio...

  7. Modal testing the EOLE

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.


    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Enriched coalgebraic modal logic

    Wilkinson, Toby


    We formalise the notion of enriched coalgebraic modal logic, and determine conditions on the category V (over which we enrich), that allow an enriched logical connection to be extended to a framework for enriched coalgebraic modal logic. Our framework uses V-functors L: A ? A and T: X ? X, where L determines the modalities of the resulting modal logics, and T determines the coalgebras that provide the semantics. We introduce the V-category Mod(A, ?) of models for an L-algebra (A, ?), and ...

  9. Advances in Modal Logic

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume is...... the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability...

  10. Parametric modal transition systems

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Møller, M.H.; Srba, J.


    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the...... refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  11. Urdu/Hindi modals

    Rajesh, Bhatt; Bögel, Tina; Butt, Miriam; Hautli, Annette; Sulger, Sebastian


    In this paper we survey the various ways of expressing modality in Urdu/Hindi and show that Urdu/Hindi modals provide interesting insights on current discussions of the semantics of modality. There are very few dedicated modals in Urdu/Hindi: most of which has been arrived at constructionally via a combination of a certain kind of verb with a certain kind of embedded verb form and a certain kind of case. Among the range of constructions yielded by such combinations, there is evidence for a tw...

  12. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye


    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…




    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical background written in [1], we present the package programs software realized by the authors for modal parameters identification of this kind of structures. We also present the experimental montage used to identify the modal parameters. In the end of the paper it is presented an experiment for modal parameters assessment for a metallic structure statically indete

  14. Nondestructive Damage Assessment of Composite Structures Based on Wavelet Analysis of Modal Curvatures: State-of-the-Art Review and Description of Wavelet-Based Damage Assessment Benchmark

    Andrzej Katunin


    Full Text Available The application of composite structures as elements of machines and vehicles working under various operational conditions causes degradation and occurrence of damage. Considering that composites are often used for responsible elements, for example, parts of aircrafts and other vehicles, it is extremely important to maintain them properly and detect, localize, and identify the damage occurring during their operation in possible early stage of its development. From a great variety of nondestructive testing methods developed to date, the vibration-based methods seem to be ones of the least expensive and simultaneously effective with appropriate processing of measurement data. Over the last decades a great popularity of vibration-based structural testing has been gained by wavelet analysis due to its high sensitivity to a damage. This paper presents an overview of results of numerous researchers working in the area of vibration-based damage assessment supported by the wavelet analysis and the detailed description of the Wavelet-based Structural Damage Assessment (WavStructDamAs Benchmark, which summarizes the author’s 5-year research in this area. The benchmark covers example problems of damage identification in various composite structures with various damage types using numerous wavelet transforms and supporting tools. The benchmark is openly available and allows performing the analysis on the example problems as well as on its own problems using available analysis tools.

  15. Monitoring the Growth of an Orthotopic Tumour Xenograft Model: Multi-Modal Imaging Assessment with Benchtop MRI (1T), High-Field MRI (9.4T), Ultrasound and Bioluminescence

    Stuckey, Daniel J.; David, Anna L.; Pedley, R. Barbara; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Siow, Bernard; Walker-Samuel, Simon


    Background Research using orthotopic and transgenic models of cancer requires imaging methods to non-invasively quantify tumour burden. As the choice of appropriate imaging modality is wide-ranging, this study aimed to compare low-field (1T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a novel and relatively low-cost system, against established preclinical techniques: bioluminescence imaging (BLI), ultrasound imaging (US), and high-field (9.4T) MRI. Methods A model of colorectal metastasis to the liver was established in eight mice, which were imaged with each modality over four weeks post-implantation. Tumour burden was assessed from manually segmented regions. Results All four imaging systems provided sufficient contrast to detect tumours in all of the mice after two weeks. No significant difference was detected between tumour doubling times estimated by low-field MRI, ultrasound imaging or high-field MRI. A strong correlation was measured between high-field MRI estimates of tumour burden and all the other modalities (p < 0.001, Pearson). Conclusion These results suggest that both low-field MRI and ultrasound imaging are accurate modalities for characterising the growth of preclinical tumour models. PMID:27223614

  16. Treatment Modalities for Psychodermatological Diseases

    Mine Özmen


    Full Text Available Although psychodermatologic diseases are diagnosed very easily, their treatment often poses a great deal since they are often associated with psychological conflicts and psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and delusional disorders. Therefore dermatological treatment modalities might be insufficient for sychodermatologic diseases. Associations between dermatological and psychiatric diseases and their pathological basis need to be known very well for the treatment success. In case of treatment failure or insufficient treatment, the patient’s psychological assessment should be considered and psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, biofeedback and hypnosis may need to be added to treatment plan. Psychopharmacologic, psychotherapeutic and other treatment modalities for treatment of psychodermatological diseases that are associated with psychological conflicts and comorbid major psychiatric diseases are reviewed in this article.

  17. Generalized Modal Satisfiability

    Hemaspaandra, Edith; Schnoor, Henning; Schnoor, Ilka


    It is well known that modal satisfiability is PSPACE-complete (Ladner 1977). However, the complexity may decrease if we restrict the set of propositional operators used. Note that there exist an infinite number of propositional operators, since a propositional operator is simply a Boolean function. We completely classify the complexity of modal satisfiability for every finite set of propositional operators, i.e., in contrast to previous work, we classify an infinite number of problems. We sho...

  18. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy with BF2-chelated Tetraaryl-Azadipyrromethene agents: a multi-modality molecular imaging approach to therapeutic assessment.

    Byrne, A T


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.

  19. Conceptual structure within and between modalities

    Katia eDilkina


    Full Text Available Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multi-modal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1 to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2 to compare structures between modalities; and (3 to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly.Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities begs the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multi-faceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  20. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    Stern, Johannes


    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  1. Individuals, Worlds, and Modalities

    Svoboda, Vladimír

    Frankfurt a.M. : Ontos Verlag, 2003 - (Rott, H.; Horák, V.), s. 149-167 ISBN 3-937202-24-2. - (Studien zur Logik, Sprachphilosophie und Metaphysik. 4) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : modality * possible world semantics * intensional logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion


    Erlinda Puspita Sari


    Full Text Available Modal manusia dianggap sebagai salah satu faktor penentu produktivitas. Modal manusia merupakan dimensi kualitatif dari sumberdaya manusia, seperti keahlian dan keterampilan, yang akan memengaruhi kemampuan produktif manusia tersebut. Dimensi kualitatif tersebut diperoleh melalui pendidikan, pelatihan dan kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganaliss efek dari modal manusia terhadap tingkat produktivitas di provinsi-provinsi di Indonesia. Dalam penelitian ini, tingkat pendidikan diukur dengan beberapa indikator, yaitu; angka melek huruf dan angka partisipasi murni tingkat SD, SMP maupun SMA. Tingkat kesehatan diukur dengan angka kematian bayi. Data yang digunakan adalah data panel dari 25 provinsi di Indonesia selama perioede 1996-2010 yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan Model Panel Data Fixed Effect. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa modal manusia yang diukur dari tingkat pendidikan (APM dan tingkat kesehatan (AKB merupakan faktor yang berpengaruh dan signifikan untuk menjelaskan variasi produktivitas meskipun magnitude-nya lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan modal fisik. Hasil analisis juga menunjukkan bahwa variabel pendidikan memiliki magnitude yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan variabel kesehatan. Human capital is regarded as one of the determining factors of productivity. Human capital is qualitative dimension of human resource which includes skills and knowledge. These qualitative dimensions are internalized through education, training and health. This study aimed to analyze the effect of human capital on productivity level across provinces in Indonesia. In this study, the level of education was measured by literacy and school enrollment rate (in primary, secondary and high school. The level of health was measured by infant mortality rate. The study employed a panel data of 25 provinces in Indonesia during the period of 1996-2010. Using fixed effect method, the result showed that secondary school enrollment rate and infant mortality

  3. New Ultrasound Modalities in Rheumatology.

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Okano, Tadashi; Reginato, Anthony M; Cazenave, Tomas; Ventura-Rios, Lucio; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Pineda, Carlos


    Over the years, ultrasound (US) has accumulated important evidence supporting its relevant role for the assessment of inflammatory processes of different rheumatologic diseases, as well as in the follow-up in assessing the response to different therapeutic approaches. This has been possible because of the increase in training, competency, and knowledge, as well as the rapid progress in the US technologies.Currently, some US machines can be equipped by sophisticated software modalities (i.e., 3-dimensional US, elastosonography, automated cardiovascular software, and fusion imaging) that can augment US traditional role as a safe, fast, and easy-to-perform modality and giving it new life and increased relevance in rheumatology. In this article, we evaluated the US developments, from conventional B-mode to more sophisticated technologies, and their potential clinical impact in the field of rheumatology.Three-dimensional US can improve the accuracy of the assessment of bone erosions and the quantification of power Doppler because of its multiplanar view including coronal, axial and sagital view. Elastosonography is still looking for its role in rheumatology. Preliminary works induce us to consider it as a promise tool for the assessment of tendon pathology and skin of patients with connective tissue disorders. The automated method for the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness permits a rapid and accurate assessment. The preliminary published data showed that it is reliable, and valid compared to the traditional method; they also support the future of rheumatologists as the direct operators in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in daily practice. Fusion imaging increases the diagnostic power of US, displaying simultaneously in the monitor, the US image, and the corresponding computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging image. However, there are no sufficient data supporting its application in daily rheumatologic practice. PMID:26587854

  4. Modal Analysis of Exhaust System

    Myrén, Marcus; Olsson, Jörgen


    A modal analysis is performed on an exhaust system for cars. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are correlated between experimental and finite element models. MAC-values are calculated. Theories and guidelines for modal analyses of exhaust systems are discussed.

  5. Cyclic Crack Growth Testing of an A.O. Smith Multilayer Pressure Vessel with Modal Acoustic Emission Monitoring and Data Assessment

    Ziola, Steven M.


    Digital Wave Corp. (DWC) was retained by Jacobs ATOM at NASA Ames Research Center to perform cyclic pressure crack growth sensitivity testing on a multilayer pressure vessel instrumented with DWC's Modal Acoustic Emission (MAE) system, with captured wave analysis to be performed using DWCs WaveExplorerTM software, which has been used at Ames since 2001. The objectives were to document the ability to detect and characterize a known growing crack in such a vessel using only MAE, to establish the sensitivity of the equipment vs. crack size and / or relevance in a realistic field environment, and to obtain fracture toughness materials properties in follow up testing to enable accurate crack growth analysis. This report contains the results of the testing.

  6. The value of serial quantitative technetium-99 m methylene diphosphonate in assessment of the response of metastatic skeletal lesions to different types of treatment modalities

    The study included 95 patients having metastatic bone lesions, subjected to serial quantitative skeletal scintigraphy before and after treatment every 3 months for 6 months. To study the fate of metastatic bone lesions the effect of different treatment modalities, an objective index was used. This index was introduced in 1985 by Israel et al. (1), and was designated TF. A significant drop in TF ratio was observed 6 months following therapy in the groups who received combined localized radiotherapy together with systemic therapy and those who received half body irradiation. In contrast, a marked increase in TF ratio was observed in the patients who did not receive any specific treatment. The response of metastatic skeletal lesions was nearly similar whatever the site of involvement whether in the spine, flat or long bones except for an initial response in the long bones with drop of TF ratio after localized radiotherapy. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering

    Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz, E-mail: [AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow (Poland)


    Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.

  8. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    Wright, E. Alvey


    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  9. RF modal quantity gaging

    Vanleuven, K.


    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  10. Uncertainty of Modal Parameters Estimated by ARMA Models

    Jensen, Jakob Laigaard; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders

    In this paper the uncertainties of identified modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies and damping ratios are assessed. From the measured response of dynamic excited structures the modal parameters may be identified and provide important structural knowledge. However the uncertainty of the param...

  11. Assessment of the value of various tomography modalities for diagnostic evaluation of the female genital system; Stellenwert der Schnittbildverfahren bei der Abklaerung von Erkrankungen des weiblichen Genitaltrakts

    Keller, T.M.; Kubik-Huch, R.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The comprehensive survey explains the indications and the specific value of the modern tomographic modalities with respect to the various diagnostic issues. Numerous reproductions of CT, MRI, US scans illustrate the aspects discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Bildgebende Verfahren kommen bei der Abklaerung von Erkrankungen des weiblichen Urogenitaltrakts ergaenzend zu der klinischen Untersuchung zur Anwendung. Kongenitale Uterusanomalien werden primaer mit der HSG oder der Laparoskopie diagnostiziert. Zusaetzlich koennen der transvaginale US und in unklaren Faellen die MRT eingesetzt werden. Die Diagnose entzuendlicher Erkrankungen des weiblichen Genitaltrakts erfolgt in der Regel klinisch. Schnittbildverfahren werden bei therapieresistenten, komplizierten Faellen angewendet. Initial werden benigne Neoplasien des Uterus mit dem transvaginalen US abgeklaert. Eine Verdickung des Endometriums ist dabei ein unspezifischer Befund und kann auf eine Hyperplasie, Polypen oder ein Karzinom hinweisen. Klinisch vermutete Leiomyome lassen sich mittels US diagnostizieren, deren Groesse, Lokalisation und genauere Differenzierung von anderen Pathologien werden praeoperativ mit der MRT dargestellt. Die benignen Raumforderungen des Ovars sind meist physiologische Zysten. Die CT und MRT werden bei Bedarf vor allem zum Ausschluss eines Ovarialkarzinoms eingesetzt. Ein Zervixkarzinom wird mit transvaginalem US abgeklaert. Bei Tumoren ueber 2 cm Groesse werden ergaenzend Schnittbildverfahren, vor allem die der CT in dieser Fragestellung ueberlegene MRT, empfohlen. Die Diagnose eines Endometriumkarzinoms wird histologisch gestellt. Die MRT wird fuer die praeoperative Stadieneinteilung eingesetzt. Die Bildgebung hat bis heute keinen festen Stellenwert bei der Abklaerung des Ovarialkarzinoms. Ergaenzend zur klinischen Untersuchung koennen der transvaginale und abdominale US sowie zur Beurteilung der Tumorausdehnung die CT angewendet werden. Bei der Bildgebung beim Feten ist der US ist die

  12. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as...... supports the definition of a 3-valued modal logic for validating as well as refuting properties of systems. The construction is illustrated on a few examples, including the Ingemarsson-Tang-Wong key agreement protocol. © 2011 ACM....

  13. Evaluation of modal testing methods

    Chen, J.-C.


    Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.

  14. Hahn Sequence Space of Modals

    Balasubramanian, T.; Zion Chella Ruth, S.


    The history of modal intervals goes back to the very first publications on the topic of interval calculus. The modal interval analysis is used in Computer graphics and Computer Aided Design (CAD), namely, the computation of narrow bounds on Bezier and B-Spline curves. Since modal intervals are used in many fields, we introduce a new sequence space h(gI) called the Hahn sequence space of modal intervals. We have given some new definitions and theorems. Some inclusion relation and some topologi...

  15. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  16. Mimicry for all modalities.

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A


    Mimicry is a canonical example of adaptive signal design. In principle, what constitutes mimicry is independent of the taxonomic identity of the mimic, the ecological context in which it operates, and the sensory modality through which it is expressed. However, in practice the study of mimicry is inconsistent across research fields, with theoretical and empirical advances often failing to cross taxonomic and sensory divides. We propose a novel conceptual framework whereby mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result confers a selective benefit onto the mimic. Here, misidentification and/or deception are no longer formal requirements, and mimicry can evolve irrespective of the underlying proximate mechanisms. The centrality of receiver perception in this framework enables us to formally distinguish mimicry from perceptual exploitation and integrate mimicry and multicomponent signalling theory for the first time. In addition, it resolves inconsistencies in our understanding of the role of learning in mimicry evolution, and shows that imperfect mimicry is expected to be the norm. Mimicry remains a key model for understanding signal evolution and cognition, and we recommend the adoption of a unified approach to stimulate future interdisciplinary developments in this fascinating area of research. PMID:27117779

  17. Studi Tentang Kemunculan Modal Sosial

    Retno Widayani


    Full Text Available Naskah ini merupakan hasil penelitian tentang kemunculan modal sosial di masyarakat dengan mengambil studi kasus masyarakat RW 13 Kelurahan Subangjaya Kecamatan Cikole Kota Sukabumi. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga mendeskripsikan penyebab kemunculan modal sosial dan mendeskripsikan bagaimana modal sosial dapat berfungsi dalam mengatasi persoalan masyarakat yang tidak dipecahkan sepenuhnya oleh pemerintah. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian di lapangan dapat disimpulkan bahwa masyarakat RW 13 Kelurahan Subangjaya Kota Sukabumi telah memiliki semangat modal sosial yang cukup kuat dan telah ada secara alamiah sejak dulu dan telah turun temurun, sehingga sangat mudah untuk digerakkan. Kekuatan modal sosial di RW 13 lebih dipengaruhi oleh tingkat homogenitas masyakarat RW 13 yang masih kental. Selain itu, kepemimpinan juga berkorelasi positif terhadap kemunculan modal sisual di RW 13. Konsep keteladanan dalam eksistensi modal sosial hanya efektif jika diterapkan pada masyarakat dengan relasi primer di unit sosial yang kecil dan terbatas (primary social relation seperti di tingkat RW dan RT dan akan menemui kesulitan jika diterapkan pada komunitas yang lebih besar. Di sisi lain, kepemimpinan yang baik membawa efek negatif, di mana kualitas modal sosial masyakarat menjadi tergantung pada kualitas pemimpin dalam aksi kolektifnya

  18. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.


    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker...

  19. Assessment of ultrasound as a diagnostic modality for detecting potentially unstable cervical spine fractures in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury: A feasibility study

    Deepak Agrawal


    Full Text Available Background: Early cervical spine clearance is extremely important in unconscious trauma patients and may be difficult to achieve in emergency setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of standard portable ultrasound in detecting potentially unstable cervical spine injuries in severe traumatic brain injured (TBI patients during initial resuscitation. Materials and Methods: This retro-prospective pilot study carried out over 1-month period (June-July 2013 after approval from the institutional ethics committee. Initially, the technique of cervical ultrasound was standardized by the authors and tested on ten admitted patients of cervical spine injury. To assess feasibility in the emergency setting, three hemodynamically stable pediatric patients (≦18 years with isolated severe head injury (Glasgow coma scale ≤8 coming to emergency department underwent an ultrasound examination. Results: The best window for the cervical spine was through the anterior triangle using the linear array probe (6-13 MHz. In the ten patients with documented cervical spine injury, bilateral facet dislocation at C5-C6 was seen in 4 patients and at C6-C7 was seen in 3 patients. C5 burst fracture was present in one and cervical vertebra (C2 anterolisthesis was seen in one patient. Cervical ultrasound could easily detect fracture lines, canal compromise and ligamental injury in all cases. Ultrasound examination of the cervical spine was possible in the emergency setting, even in unstable patients and could be done without moving the neck. Conclusions: Cervical ultrasound may be a useful tool for detecting potentially unstable cervical spine injury in TBI patients, especially those who are hemodynamically unstable.


    Subur Wardoyo


    Full Text Available The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will also show how a visual picture, descriptive text, and dialogue could serve as teaching aids to shape a student’s character through classroom drills in such modality signifiers as modal auxiliaries, frequency adverbs, reporting frames, tenses etc. On the whole this essay relies heavily on Halliday’s Functional Grammar, von Wright’s Deontic Logic, and Hodge and Kress’s Semiotics while the topic of the picture, text and dialogue heavily centers on the mysterious Alhambra Citadel of Granada.   Keywords    :    Modality, degrees of modality, subjective and objective modality, kinds of truth, deontic logic.

  1. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    Xu, Jian


    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  2. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together with their...

  3. Complex rectal polyps: other treatment modalities required when offering a transanal endoscopic microsurgery service.

    Joyce, Myles R


    Complex rectal polyps may present a clinical challenge. The study aim was to assess different treatment modalities required in the management of patients referred for transanal endoscopic microsurgery.


    Subur Wardoyo


    The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will...

  5. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa [Division 8.5, BAM Fed. Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)


    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  6. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  7. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.


    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  8. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Bhavna Chawla


    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  9. Properties of Modal Quality Factors

    Geyi, Wen


    Spherical wave functions play an important role in the theoretical study of antenna. When they are used to investigate the stored energy outside the circumscribing sphere of the antenna, two different types of modal quality factors appear which exhibit some interesting properties. These properties can be easily demonstrated by numerical tabulations but have never proved rigorously and have remained unsolved for many years. An attempt is made in this paper to try to solve these longstanding problems. New properties and new power series expansions for the modal quality factors have been obtained, which essentially belong to the spherical Bessel functions and therefore are universally applicable.

  10. Linear contextual modal type theory

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  11. Treatment Modalities for Psychodermatological Diseases

    Mine Özmen; Şenol Turan


    Although psychodermatologic diseases are diagnosed very easily, their treatment often poses a great deal since they are often associated with psychological conflicts and psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and delusional disorders. Therefore dermatological treatment modalities might be insufficient for sychodermatologic diseases. Associations between dermatological and psychiatric diseases and their pathological basis need to be known very well for the treatment succes...

  12. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander


    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  13. A General Framework for Modal Deduction

    Frisch, Alan M.; Scherl, Richard B.


    A general method of automated modal logic theorem proving is discussed and illustrated. This method is based on the substitutional framework for the development of systems for hybrid reasoning. Sentences in modal logic are translated into a constraint logic in which the constraints represent the connections between worlds in the possible world semantics for modal logic. Deduction in the constraint logic is performed by a non-modal deductive system which has been systematically enhanced with special-purpose constraint processing mechanisms. The result is a modal logic theorem prover, whose soundness and completeness is an immediate consequence of the correctness of the non-modal deductive system and some general results on constraint deduction. The framework achieves significant generality in that it provides for the extension of a wide range of non-modal systems to corresponding modal systems and that can be done for a wide range of modal logics.

  14. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    McFee, Brian; Lanckriet, Gert


    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning t...

  15. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Gupta Noopur; Tandon Radhika


    Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few o...

  16. Prostate cancer: emerging pharmacotherapeutic modalities

    Pratap Shankar; Anoop Kumar Verma; Rakesh Kumar Dixit; Amod Kumar Sachan


    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the world due to factors like old age, family history, ethnicity, diet and some elements exposure, with lot of controversies regarding prevention of prostate cancer. Though the exact pathogenesis is not clear, epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between prostate cancer and hormone levels. In this review article we are focusing on the advances in different pharmacotherapeutic modalities i.e. Chemoprevention, Prostate-Specific Antigen, H...

  17. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández


    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change......, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load estimation depends on the degree of truncation of the modal space and on the accuracy of the modal parameter...

  18. To Teach Modal Logic: An Opinionated Survey

    Urtubey, Luis


    I aim to promote an alternative agenda for teaching modal logic chiefly inspired by the relationships between modal logic and philosophy. The guiding idea for this proposal is a reappraisal of the interest of modal logic in philosophy, which do not stem mainly from mathematical issues, but which is motivated by central problems of philosophy and language. I will point out some themes to start elaborating a guide for a more comprehensive approach to teach modal logic, and consider the contribu...

  19. Cross-modal links in spatial attention.

    Driver, J; Spence, C.


    A great deal is now known about the effects of spatial attention within individual sensory modalities, especially for vision and audition. However, there has been little previous study of possible cross-modal links in attention. Here, we review recent findings from our own experiments on this topic, which reveal extensive spatial links between the modalities. An irrelevant but salient event presented within touch, audition, or vision, can attract covert spatial attention in the other modaliti...

  20. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.


    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  1. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Bao, X. X., E-mail: [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)


    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  2. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Srba, Jiri


    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  3. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields

  4. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Aïssa-El-Bey Abdeldjalil


    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey


    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  6. Alternative Modal Basis Selection Procedures for Nonlinear Random Response Simulation

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizzi, Stephen A.


    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of the three reduced-order analyses are compared with the results of the computationally taxing simulation in the physical degrees of freedom. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.

  7. Conceivability and De Re Modal Knowledge: A reply to Roca-Royes

    In a recent paper, Roca-Royes argues that conceivability cannot be the whole story about our access to de re modal knowledge. Her claim is that conceivability-based epistemologies fails to comply with a principle any epistemology of de re modality must observe. I critically assess Roca...

  8. A comparative study of treatment modalities in female androgenetic alopecia

    Mansuri Uzzaif U.; Ravishankar Vaaruni; Parmar Kirti S.; Shah Bela J.


    Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) occurs in both men and women. It is characterized by progressive loss of hair from the scalp in a defined pattern. The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the efficacy of treatment modalities in female androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and assess the side effects, level of stress, associated family history and past history of any medical illness in these patients. Methods: 60 female patients between 18-50 years of age were randomly divided into 2 g...

  9. The foundations of cross-modal plasticity.

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong


    Cross-modal plasticity is a striking adaptive feature of the brain, whereby the loss of one sensory modality induces cortical reorganization that leads to enhanced sensory performance in remaining modalities. Much is known about the macroscopic modifications in the brain that underly cross-modal plasticity and the associated changes in sensory performance. In contrast there is relatively scant information about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this mechanism. We hypothesized that cross-modal plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system. As such, it should be found in organisms with brains that are substantially less complex than our own. Indeed, we discovered a cross-modal plasticity mechanism in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whose nervous system is composed of only 302 neurons. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, we were able to comprehensively study cross-modal plasticity from molecule through circuit to behavior. PMID:27195068

  10. On modal energy in civil structural control

    Miao PANG; Tie-jiong LOU; Ming ZHAO


    A new control strategy based on modal energy criterion is proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system in reducing structural earthquake responses. The modal control algorithm combining LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control algorithm is adopted in the discrete time-history analysis. The various modal energy forms are derived by definition of the generalized absolute displacement vector. A preliminary numerical study of the effectiveness of this control strategy is carried out on a 20-storey framed steel structural model. The controlled performance of the model is studied from the perspectives of both response and modal energy. Results show that the modal energy-based control strategy is very effective in reducing structural responses as well as in consuming a large amount of modal energy, while augmentation of additional generalized control force corresponding to the modes that contain little modal energy is unnecessary, as it does little help to improve the controlled structural performance.

  11. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    McFee, Brian


    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  12. Modal Calculus of Illocutionary Logic

    Schumann, Andrew


    The aim of illocutionary logic is to explain how context can affect the meaning of certain special kinds of performative utterances. Recall that performative utterances are understood as follows: a speaker performs the illocutionary act (e.g. act of assertion, of conjecture, of promise) with the illocutionary force (resp. assertion, conjecture, promise) named by an appropriate performative verb in the way of representing himself as performing that act. In the paper I proposed many-valued interpretation of illocutionary forces understood as modal operators. As a result, I built up a non-Archimedean valued logic for formalizing illocutionary acts. A formal many-valued approach to illocutionary logic was offered for the first time.

  13. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Gupta Noopur


    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  14. Diagnosing cardiac disease during pregnancy: imaging modalities.

    Ntusi, Ntobeko A; Samuels, Petronella; Moosa, Sulaiman; Mocumbi, Ana O


    Pregnant women with known or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD) often require cardiovascular imaging during pregnancy. The accepted maximum limit of ionising radiation exposure to the foetus during pregnancy is a cumulative dose of 5 rad. Concerns related to imaging modalities that involve ionising radiation include teratogenesis, mutagenesis and childhood malignancy. Importantly, no single imaging study approaches this cautionary dose of 5 rad (50 mSv or 50 mGy). Diagnostic imaging procedures that may be used in pregnancy include chest radiography, fluoroscopy, echocardiography, invasive angiography, cardiovascular computed tomography, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques. Echocardiography and CMR appear to be completely safe in pregnancy and are not associated with any adverse foetal effects, provided there are no general contra-indications to MR imaging. Concerns related to safety of imaging tests must be balanced against the importance of accurate diagnosis and thorough assessment of the pathological condition. Decisions about imaging in pregnancy are premised on understanding the physiology of pregnancy, understanding basic concepts of ionising radiation, the clinical manifestations of existent CVD in pregnancy and features of new CVD. The cardiologist/physician must understand the indications for and limitations of, and the potential harmful effects of each test during pregnancy. Current evidence suggests that a single cardiovascular radiological study during pregnancy is safe and should be undertaken at all times when clinically justified. In this article, the different imaging modalities are reviewed in terms of how they work, how safe they are and what their clinical utility in pregnancy is. Furthermore, the safety of contrast agents in pregnancy is also reviewed. PMID:27213857

  15. Resolving particle size modality in bi-modal iron oxide nanoparticle suspensions

    Particle size modality in bi-modal iron oxide suspensions was resolved by exploiting complex ac-susceptibility (ACS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and photon cross-correlation spectroscopy. To explain dynamic magnetic response of bi-modal suspensions, the Debye model was expanded to a linear superposition form allowing for the contribution of both particle fractions. This modified and adopted model is able to resolve the bi-modal particle size distributions. The SAXS curves of mono- and bi-modal suspensions were fitted well using a Monte Carlo simulation scheme, allowing the detection of bi-modal particle size distributions with high precision

  16. Modal Logics for Qualitative Possibility and Beliefs

    Boutilier, Craig


    Possibilistic logic has been proposed as a numerical formalism for reasoning with uncertainty. There has been interest in developing qualitative accounts of possibility, as well as an explanation of the relationship between possibility and modal logics. We present two modal logics that can be used to represent and reason with qualitative statements of possibility and necessity. Within this modal framework, we are able to identify interesting relationships between possibilistic logic, beliefs ...

  17. Modalne argumenty teistyczne (Modal Theistic Arguments

    Graham Oppy


    Full Text Available The aim of Oppy’s paper is to provide a general ground for rejecting all kinds of modal theistic arguments. The author claims that all such arguments are questionbegging – before proving the existence of God (defined as a being which exists in every possible world theistic modalist must assume it when choosing his account of logical space (no matter which modal theory it relies on: Lewis’ modal realism, ersatz modal realism, combinatorialism or fictionalism. Two concrete arguments, Plantinga’s ontological argument and Leftow’s cosmological argument, are examples given by Oppy – both have premises which justification must refer to a non-modal question “Does God actually exist?”, concerning the nature of logical space.Oppy rejects suggestion that problems with modal theistic arguments show that there is simply something wrong with our standard modal analyses in terms of possible worlds. According to Oppy, problems with higher-level judgments about the nature of logical space are problems with propositional attitudes, not with modality, andthey need an analysis distinct from the analysis of ground-level modal judgments.

  18. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly


    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea. PMID:27416315

  19. Modalities for an Allegorical Conceptual Data Model

    Bartosz Zieliński


    Full Text Available Allegories are enriched categories generalizing a category of sets and binary relations. In this paper, we extend a new, recently-introduced conceptual data model based on allegories by adding support for modal operators and developing a modal interpretation of the model in any allegory satisfying certain additional (but natural axioms. The possibility of using different allegories allows us to transparently use alternative logical frameworks, such as fuzzy relations. Mathematically, our work demonstrates how to enrich with modal operators and to give a many world semantics to an abstract algebraic logic framework. We also give some examples of applications of the modal extension.

  20. Modal Analysis with the Mobile Modal Testing Unit

    Wilder, Andrew J.


    Recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has tested rocket engines with high pulse frequencies. This has resulted in the use of some of WSTF's existing thrust stands, which were designed for static loading, in tests with large dynamic forces. In order to ensure that the thrust stands can withstand the dynamic loading of high pulse frequency engines while still accurately reporting the test data, their vibrational modes must be characterized. If it is found that they have vibrational modes with frequencies near the pulsing frequency of the test, then they must be modified to withstand the dynamic forces from the pulsing rocket engines. To make this determination the Mobile Modal Testing Unit (MMTU), a system capable of determining the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of a structure, was used on the test stands at WSTF. Once the resonant frequency has been determined for a test stand, it can be compared to the pulse frequency of a test engine to determine whether or not that stand can avoid resonance and reliably test that engine. After analysis of test stand 406 at White Sands Test Facility, it was determined that natural frequencies for the structure are located around 75, 125, and 240 Hz, and thus should be avoided during testing.

  1. Occlusal Caries Depth Measurements Obtained by Five Different Imaging Modalities

    Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Hakan KURT; Kolsuz, Eray; ÖZTAŞ, Bengi; Tatar, İlkan; Çelik, Hakan Hamdi


    The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Eac...

  2. Congestion pricing of multi-modal transportation systems

    Dong-Joo Moon; Chang-Ho Park


    This paper deals with the pricing and investment decision problem of multi-modal transportation systems in which the congestion is a significant factor in the assessment of system costs. This study approaches this congestion pricing problem with a number of social welfare maximization problems, all of which have the identical structure except financial constraints. One welfare maximization problem examined in this study yields the pricing and investment decision, which can attain the first-be...

  3. Integrating new imaging modalities in breast cancer management

    Pouw, B.


    This thesis aimed to integrate new imaging modalities in breast cancer management. In Part 1 the focus was to assess the current status of radioactive seed localisation (RSL) in clinical practice. Both patients as well as physicians or surgeons rated the technique superior compared to the conventional techniques. It is our expectation that when legislation is simplified and standard protocols for this procedure are available the adaptation rate of this procedure will further increase since le...

  4. Modalities of hemodialysis: Quality improvement

    Ayman Karkar


    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD treatment had, over many years, improved the survival rate of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, standard or conventional HD prescription is far from being optimal in replacing the function of normal kidneys. Its unphysiologic clearance pattern and inability to remove all types and sizes of uremic toxins results in inter- and intra-dialysis complications and an unacceptably high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Efficiency of HD can be improved by increasing blood and dialysate flow rates, dialyzer size and surface area and duration and frequency of dialysis sessions. Home HD, where short daily or long slow nocturnal HD sessions can conveniently be performed, provides an excellent option for quality of life improvement and reduction in morbidity and mortality. Recent innovations in the specifications of HD machines and improvement in dialysis membranes characteristics and water treatment technology paved the way for achieving quality HD. These advancements have resulted in efficient implementation of adsorption, diffusion and/or convection principles using adsorption HD, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration (HDF and online HDF modalities in order to achieve optimum HD. Implementation of these innovations resulted in better quality care achievements in clinical practice and reduction in morbidity and mortality rates among HD patients.

  5. [Imaging modalities in psoriatic arthritis].

    Hermann, K-G A; Ohrndorf, S; Werner, S G; Finzel, S; Backhaus, M


    This review presents an overview of the range of imaging modalities used in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Conventional radiography is used to detect structural changes of the joints and tendon attachments. These changes occur late in the course of PsA hence conventional radiography contributes little to the early detection of PsA; however, the detection of periosteal proliferations on radiographs allows a relatively specific diagnosis of PsA. Skeletal scintigraphy and computed tomography are rarely used in PsA. Arthrosonography (ultrasound of the joints) is gaining increasing importance in the early identification of inflammatory soft tissue signs of PsA in the peripheral joints. Sonography enables early detection of synovitis and tenosynovitis as well as superficial erosions and also inflammatory processes of the tendon attachments. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable for identifying possible involvement of the axial skeleton. Moreover, it allows good visualization of periostitis and arthritis. High resolution microcomputed tomography is an interesting novel diagnostic tool which allows highly sensitive evaluation of the bone structure and can detect very tiny bone lesions where typical signs of PsA are omega-shaped erosions and small corona-like spikes. Another interesting new diagnostic technique is fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) with the Xiralite system which is highly sensitive for detecting inflammatory processes of the hands. PMID:24085530

  6. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri


    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  7. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    Brincker, Rune


    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though an...

  8. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    B Kadyan


    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery.

  9. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna


    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility...

  10. Gentzen System for Coalgebraic Cover Modalities

    Bílková, Marta; Palmigiano, A.; Venema, Y.

    Amsterdam : University of Amsterdam, 2009. [TACL 2009. Topology, Algebra and Categories in Logic. 07.07.2009-11.07.2009, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : modal logic * coalgebraic logic * Gentzen systems * cover modality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Methodological Constraints for Detecting the Modality Effect

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria; Jahn, Verena


    Introduction: The aim of our research was to investigate the modality effect in more detail by measuring it in a direct way. Two studies were conducted using the same subject and material. Method: Computer-based learning material was presented on several screens, each containing a short text and a picture. Modality was varied by presenting written…

  12. Modal analysis of electromechanical oscillations in electrical power systems; Analisis modal de oscilaciones electromecanicas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    The presence of electromechanical oscillations in any electrical power system is a typical characteristic of this kind of systems. Provided the damping associated with these oscillations lies above of a minimum specified value, the occurrence of these oscillations is not considered as a threat to the system operation. This paper focuses the attention on the application of modal analysis for assessing the dynamical behavior of a power system subjected to small disturbances for different operating conditions and transmission system topologies, as well. The reported results indicate, that modal analysis enables a straight identification of the causes that contribute negatively to the damping of the electromechanical modes. [Spanish] La presencia de oscilaciones electromecanicas en cualquier Sistema Electrico de Potencia (SEP) es una caracteristica propia de estos sistemas. Mientras el amortiguamiento asociado con este tipo de oscilaciones se encuentre dentro de los limites considerados como aceptables para la operacion continua de este tipo de sistemas, el surgimiento de estas no se considera una amenaza para la operacion segura del SEP. El presente articulo, centra su atencion en la aplicacion del analisis modal para evaluar el comportamiento dinamico de un SEP ante la ocurrencia de disturbios de magnitud pequena para diferentes topologias y condiciones de operacion. Los resultados reportados indican, que la aplicacion del analisis modal permite la identificacion directa de las causas que contribuyen en forma negativa al amortiguamiento asociado con los modos electromecanicos, asi como la ubicacion mas adecuada de controles que contribuyan a mejorar el amortiguamiento de los mismos.

  13. Modalities of Thinking: State and Trait Effects on Cross-Frequency Functional Independent Brain Networks.

    Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L


    Functional states of the brain are constituted by the temporally attuned activity of spatially distributed neural networks. Such networks can be identified by independent component analysis (ICA) applied to frequency-dependent source-localized EEG data. This methodology allows the identification of networks at high temporal resolution in frequency bands of established location-specific physiological functions. EEG measurements are sensitive to neural activity changes in cortical areas of modality-specific processing. We tested effects of modality-specific processing on functional brain networks. Phasic modality-specific processing was induced via tasks (state effects) and tonic processing was assessed via modality-specific person parameters (trait effects). Modality-specific person parameters and 64-channel EEG were obtained from 70 male, right-handed students. Person parameters were obtained using cognitive style questionnaires, cognitive tests, and thinking modality self-reports. EEG was recorded during four conditions: spatial visualization, object visualization, verbalization, and resting. Twelve cross-frequency networks were extracted from source-localized EEG across six frequency bands using ICA. RMANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and path modelling examined effects of tasks and person parameters on networks. Results identified distinct state- and trait-dependent functional networks. State-dependent networks were characterized by decreased, trait-dependent networks by increased alpha activity in sub-regions of modality-specific pathways. Pathways of competing modalities showed opposing alpha changes. State- and trait-dependent alpha were associated with inhibitory and automated processing, respectively. Antagonistic alpha modulations in areas of competing modalities likely prevent intruding effects of modality-irrelevant processing. Considerable research suggested alpha modulations related to modality-specific states and traits. This study identified the

  14. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    Cara, Javier


    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  15. It does belong together: Cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    Lionel eBrunel


    Full Text Available Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to provide explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted 2 experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b. However, a comparison of priming-effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning and thus leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences.

  16. Determination of rolling tyre modal parameters using Finite Element techniques and Operational Modal Analysis

    Palanivelu, Sakthivel; Narasimha Rao, K. V.; Ramarathnam, Krishna Kumar


    In order to address various noise generation mechanisms and noise propagation phenomena of a tyre, it is necessary to study the tyre dynamic behaviour in terms of modal parameters. This paper enumerates a novel method of finding the modal parameters of a rolling tyre using an Explicit Finite Element Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). ABAQUS Explicit, a commercial Finite Element (FE) software code has been used to simulate the experiment, a tyre rolling over a semi-circular straight and inclined cleat. The acceleration responses obtained from these simulations are used as input to the OMA. LMS test lab has been used for carrying out the Operational Modal Analysis. The modal results are compared with the published results of Kindt [22] and validated. Also, the modal results obtained from OMA are compared with FE modal results of stationary unloaded tyre, stationary loaded tyre and Steady State Transport rolling tyre.

  17. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.)

  18. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a 'whole-system' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role.

  19. Uncertainty law in ambient modal identification-Part I: Theory

    Au, Siu-Kui


    Ambient vibration test has gained increasing popularity in practice as it provides an economical means for modal identification without artificial loading. Since the signal-to-noise ratio cannot be directly controlled, the uncertainty associated with the identified modal parameters is a primary concern. From a scientific point of view, it is of interest to know on what factors the uncertainty depends and what the relationship is. For planning or specification purposes, it is desirable to have an assessment of the test configuration required to achieve a specified accuracy in the modal parameters. For example, what is the minimum data duration to achieve a 30% coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) in the damping ratio? To address these questions, this work investigates the leading order behavior of the ‘posterior uncertainties’ (i.e., given data) of the modal parameters in a Bayesian identification framework. In the context of well-separated modes, small damping and sufficient data, it is shown rigorously that, among other results, the posterior c.o.v. of the natural frequency and damping ratio are asymptotically equal to ( and 1/(2, respectively; where ζ is the damping ratio; Nc is the data length as a multiple of the natural period; Bf and Bζ are data length factors that depend only on the bandwidth utilized for identification, for which explicit expressions have been derived. As the Bayesian approach allows full use of information contained in the data, the results are fundamental characteristics of the ambient modal identification problem. This paper develops the main theory. The companion paper investigates the implication of the results and verification with field test data.

  20. What is the most accurate whole-body imaging modality for assessment of local and distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis. Imaging for recurrent colorectal cancer

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, CT and MRI as whole-body imaging modalities for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who have a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease, based on clinical findings or rise in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A meta-analysis was undertaken. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies on the accuracy of whole-body imaging for patients with suspected local and/or distant recurrence of their CRC. Additionally, studies had to have included at least 20 patients with CRC and 2 x 2 contingency tables had to be provided or derivable. Articles evaluating only local recurrence or liver metastasis were excluded. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed from the data on sensitivity and specificity of individual studies and pooled estimates of diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were calculated. To test for heterogeneity the Cochran Q test was used. Fourteen observational studies were included which evaluated PET, PET/CT, CT and/or MRI. Study results were available in 12 studies for PET, in 5 studies for CT, in 5 studies for PET/CT and in 1 study for MRI. AUCs for PET, PET/CT and CT were 0.94 (0.90-0.97), 0.94 (0.87-0.98) and 0.83 (0.72-0.90), respectively. In patient based analyses PET/CT had a higher diagnostic performance than PET with an AUC of 0.95 (0.89-0.97) for PET/CT vs 0.92 (0.86-0.96) for PET. Both whole-body PET and PET/CT are very accurate for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in CRC patients with a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease. CT has the lowest diagnostic performance. This difference is probably mainly due to the lower accuracy of CT for detection of extrahepatic metastases (including local recurrence). For clinical practice PET/CT might be the modality of choice when evaluating patients with a (high

  1. Some Aspects of Modality in Analytical Mechanics

    Butterfield, J


    I commemorate David Lewis by describing some of the modal involvements of analytical mechanics. I first review the elementary aspects of the Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Hamilton-Jacobi approaches. I then discuss two modal involvements; both are related to Lewis' work on modality, especially on counterfactuals. The first is the way Hamilton-Jacobi theory uses ensembles. The structure of this set of ensembles remains to be explored by philosophers. The second is the way the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches' variational principles state the law of motion by mentioning contralegal dynamical evolutions; again there are open philosophical questions.

  2. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.


    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers are...... unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  3. An introduction to physical therapy modalities.

    Chapman, Brenda L; Liebert, Rainer B; Lininger, Monica R; Groth, Jessica J


    Timely and appropriate rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries is the most effective way of restoring full function and decreasing the likelihood of recurrence of the same injury. Application of specific physical therapy modalities and therapeutic exercises is based on the stages of healing. A typical physical therapy protocol progresses sequentially through the following phases: pain control, restoring range of motion, restoring strength, neuromuscular retraining, and return to full activity. The commonly used modalities reviewed here include heat, cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, and electrical stimulation. In this article we provide a basic review of physical therapy modalities. PMID:18605388

  4. Vibration measurement and modal analysis for tunneller

    HUANG Min; WU Miao; WEI Ren-zhi


    In this paper, the method of vibration measurement and modal analysis for AM~50 Tunneller machine is presented. When the machine was used for cutting man-made coal bed and real coal bed, the vibration of the machine was measured and the results of signal analysis show that the vibration characteristics under the two kinds of working situations are similar. The modal model of the machine is established, and then, the intrinsic vibration characteristics of AM50 tunneller are investigated by means of the method of experimental modal analysis. The vibration response simulation under a set of loading spectra measured is carried out by force response simulation software.

  5. Modal coupling of single photons to a nanofibre

    Gaio, Michele; Castro-Lopez, Marta; Pisignano, Dario; Camposeo, Andrea; Sapienza, Riccardo


    Nanoscale quantum optics of individual light emitters placed in confined geometries is developing as an exciting new research field aiming at efficient manipulation of single-photons . This requires selective channelling of light into specific optical modes of nanophotonic structures. Hybrid photonic systems combining emitters with nanostructured media can yield this functionality albeit limited by the required nanometre-scale spatial and spectral coupling. Furthermore, assessing the coupling strength presents significant challenges and disentangling the different modal contribution is often impossible. Here, we show that momentum spectroscopy of individually addressed emitters, embedded in a nanofibre, can be used to quantify the modal coupling efficiency to the nanofibre modes. For free-standing polymer nanofibres doped with colloidal quantum dots, we report broadband coupling to the fundamental mode of up $\\beta_{01}=31\\pm2\\%$, in robust agreement with theoretical calculations. Electrospun soft-matter nano...

  6. Accuracy of results with NASTRAN modal synthesis

    Herting, D. N.


    A new method for component mode synthesis was developed for installation in NASTRAN level 17.5. Results obtained from the new method are presented, and these results are compared with existing modal synthesis methods.


    Zheng Min; Shen Fan; Chen Huaihai


    For some large-scale engineering structures in operating conditions, modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. This problem has received a considerable amount of attention in the past few years. It is well known that the cross-correlation function between the measured responses is a sum of complex exponential functions of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. So this paper presents a time-domain operating modal identification global scheme and a frequency-domain scheme from output-only by coupling the cross-correlation function with conventional modal parameter estimation. The outlined techniques are applied to an airplane model to estimate modal parameters from response-only data.

  8. On the Co-algebraic Cover Modality

    Bílková, Marta

    Prague : Filosofia, 2008. s. 14-15. [ Logica 2008. 16.06.2008-20.06.2008, Hejnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : modal logic * coalgebra * proof theory * axiomatization * distributive laws Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars


    The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency...... responses carry on the selected modal parameter subset is, in some sense, maximized. The approach is validated in the context of a simple 10-DOF mass-spring-damper system by computing the variance of a set of identified modal parameters in a Monte Carlo setting for a set of sensor configurations, whose......). It is shown that the widely used Effective Independence (EI) method, which uses the modal amplitudes as surrogates for the parameters of interest, provides sensor configurations yielding theoretical lower bound variances whose maxima are up to 30 % larger than those obtained by use of the max-min approach....

  10. First-order Logic: Modality and Intensionality

    Majkic, Zoran


    Contemporary use of the term 'intension' derives from the traditional logical Frege-Russell's doctrine that an idea (logic formula) has both an extension and an intension. From the Montague's point of view, the meaning of an idea can be considered as particular extensions in different possible worlds. In this paper we analyze the minimal intensional semantic enrichment of the syntax of the FOL language, by unification of different views: Tarskian extensional semantics of the FOL, modal interpretation of quantifiers, and a derivation of the Tarskian theory of truth from unified semantic theory based on a single meaning relation. We show that not all modal predicate logics are intensional, and that an equivalent modal Kripke's interpretation of logic quantifiers in FOL results in a particular pure extensional modal predicate logic (as is the standard Tarskian semantics of the FOL). This minimal intensional enrichment is obtained by adopting the theory of properties, relations and propositions (PRP) as the unive...

  11. Cross-Modality Semantic Integration of Sentence and Picture Memory

    Pezdek, Kathy


    This research attempts to determine whether integration of information occurs when the information is presented partly in the verbal modality and partly in the pictorial modality; in other words, does cross-modality integration occur? (Author/RK)

  12. Arab EFL Learners' Acquisition of Modals

    Saeed Aziz


    This paper investigates Arab EFL learners' acquisition of modal verbs. The study used a questionnaire, which comprises two versions, testing students' mastery of modals at the levels of both recognition and production. The questionnaire was distributed to 50 English major university students who had studied English for 12-14 years and who had scored 500 or more on the TOEFL. The findings of the study show that the overall performance of the subjects in the study was quite low. The study estab...

  13. Comparison of two dissimilar modal identification techniques

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Niedbal, Norbert; Klusowski, Erhard


    Recent laboratory results using a refined phase resonance method and the eigensystem realization algorithm on the same test structure are reported. These methods are dissimilar modal identification techniques suitable for future large spacecraft. The theory, application approach, and results obtained for each technique are summarized and compared. Although both methods worked well in this investigation, significant differences occurred in some identified mode shapes. Comparison of independently derived modal parameters provides the means for disclosing such discrepancies in flight projects.

  14. Modality and the semantics-pragmatics interface

    Papafragou, A.


    This thesis explores certain aspects of the structure of lexical semantics and its interaction with pragmatic processes of utterance comprehension, using as a case-study a sample of the English modal verbs. Contrary to previous polysemy-based accounts, I propose and defend a unitary semantic account of the English modals, and I give a relevance-theoretic explanation of the construction of their admissible (mainly, root and epistemic) contextual interpretations. Departing from p...

  15. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  16. Structural Damage Detection Based on Modal Parameters Using Continuous Ant Colony Optimization

    Aditi Majumdar; Bharadwaj Nanda; Dipak Kumar Maiti; Damodar Maity


    A method is presented to detect and quantify structural damages from changes in modal parameters (such as natural frequencies and mode shapes). An inverse problem is formulated to minimize the objective function, defined in terms of discrepancy between the vibration data identified by modal testing and those computed from analytical model, which then solved to locate and assess the structural damage using continuous ant colony optimization algorithm. The damage is formulated as stiffness redu...

  17. Gap Analysis of Natural Language Processing Systems with respect to Linguistic Modality

    Shukla, Vishal


    Modality is one of the important components of grammar in linguistics. It lets speaker to express attitude towards, or give assessment or potentiality of state of affairs. It implies different senses and thus has different perceptions as per the context. This paper presents an account showing the gap in the functionality of the current state of art Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems. The contextual nature of linguistic modality is studied. In this paper, the works and logical approache...

  18. Using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition as a Robust Technique to Harmonic Excitation in Operational Modal Analysis

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune


    The presence of harmonic components in the measured responses is unavoidable in many applications of Operational Modal Analysis. This is especially true when measuring on mechanical structures containing rotating or reciprocating parts. This paper describes a new method based on the popular...... Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for eliminating the influence of these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For various experiments, the quality of the method is assessed and compared to the results obtained using broadband stochastic excitation forces. Good...

  19. Modal Response of Trapezoidal Wing Structures Using Second Order Shape Sensitivities

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.


    The modal response of wing structures is very important for assessing their dynamic response including dynamic aeroelastic instabilities. Moreover, in a recent study an efficient structural optimization approach was developed using structural modes to represent the static aeroelastic wing response (both displacement and stress). In this paper, the modal response of general trapezoidal wing structures is approximated using shape sensitivities up to the 2nd order. Also different approaches of computing the derivatives are investigated.

  20. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens


    energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the...... plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a...

  1. Modal Parameters from a Wind Turbine Wing by Operational Modal Analysis

    Herlufsen, H.; Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune;


    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Ambient Modal Analysis has an increasing interest in mechanical engineering. Especially on big structures where the excitation and not less important the determination of the forces is most often a problem. In a structure like a wind turbine wing where the...... modes occur both close in frequency and bidirectional the Ambient excitation has big advantages. In this paper modal parameters are identified from the wing by operational modal analysis. For the parameter identification both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used. Advantages and...

  2. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola


    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  3. SOFIA telescope modal survey test and test-model correlation

    Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Guerra, Jorge; Lampater, Ulrich; Kärcher, Hans; Teufel, Stefan; Wagner, Jörg


    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) employs a 2.5-meter reflector telescope in a Boeing 747SP. The telescope is housed in an open cavity and will be subjected to aeroacoustic and inertial disturbances. The image stability goal for SOFIA is 0.2 arc-seconds (RMS). Throughout the development phase of the project, analytical models were employed to predict the image stability performance of the telescope, and to evaluate pointing performance improvement measures. These analyses clearly demonstrated that key aspects which determined performance were: 1) Disturbance environment and relevant load-paths 2) Telescope modal behavior 3) Sensor and actuator placement 4) Control algorithm design The SOFIA program is now entering an exciting phase in which the characteristics of the telescope and the cavity environment are being verified through ground and airborne testing. A modal survey test (MST) was conducted in early 2008 to quantify the telescope modal behavior. We will give a brief overview of analytical methods which have been employed to assess/improve the pointing stability performance of the SOFIA telescope. In this context, we will describe the motivation for the MST, and the pre-test analysis which determined the modes of interest and the required MST sensor/shaker placement. A summary will then be given of the FEM-test correlation effort, updated end-to-end simulation results, and actual data coming from telescope activation test flights.

  4. Alteration of modality of phraseological units under the influence of context

    Gukasova Margarita Vyacheslavovna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of phraseological units in the context of the review and the impact it has on the modality. Based on the understanding of phraseological units as a complex semantic structures, the main feature of which is not just to identify the object, but also to characterize it, to express the emotional and evaluative attitude, one could argue that they are already in the usage endowed with emotive-evaluative modality. Contextual modality is crucial in the characterization of linguistic phenomena data. Text as a complex linguistic work has a modality, since the information provided by the author in the text, is a product of its assessment activities and represents its main communicative intention. Information containing in itself is a kind of relation to the object characterized by, forming the concept of communicative context. Context, as a fundamental part of the text, creates a communicative space in which phraseological units are functioning. Consideration of phraseological units in close relationship with the context contributes to a more complete and efinite realization of their basic modal-evaluation function. Through its functioning in a communicative environment surrounded by elements in the context of the speech interaction often weakens, strengthens, or even completely changes the emotive-evaluative modality, inherent in the usage, and realizes the author’s intent, thereby creating a new modal relationships in the text.

  5. The concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Communicative Development Inventory in children with Down Syndrome for the assessment of expressive vocabulary in verbal and signed modalities.

    Deckers, S R J M; Van Zaalen, Y; Mens, E J M; Van Balkom, H; Verhoeven, L


    The expressive vocabulary of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally measured with parental reports, such as the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), given that standardized tests for assessing vocabulary levels may be too difficult for most young children with DS. The CDI provides important insight into the parents' perception of their child's vocabulary development. The CDI has proven to be a valid measurement of expressive vocabulary, spoken and gestural, in typical and atypical populations. The validity in children with DS is not well established and signed vocabulary is often not included. This longitudinal study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the CDI (N-CDI) in children with DS between 2;0 and 7;6 years old to assess spoken and signed vocabulary. N-CDI scores were assessed on strength of association with mental age, an expressive vocabulary test and spontaneous language analyses in a play setting with parents at T1 and T2 (1.5 years later), and a therapy setting with speech language pathologists at T1. The results of the present study show that the N-CDI is a valuable and valid measurement of expressive vocabulary in children with DS. Strengths and weaknesses of several assessment methods for expressive vocabulary are discussed. PMID:27268119

  6. The concurrent and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Communicative Development Inventory in children with Down Syndrome for the assessment of expressive vocabulary in verbal and signed modalities

    Deckers, S.R.J.M.; Zaalen, Y. van; Mens, E.J.M.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    The expressive vocabulary of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally measured with parental reports, such as the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), given that standardized tests for assessing vocabulary levels may be too difficult for most young children with DS. The CDI provides impor

  7. Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees.

    Nityananda, Vivek; Chittka, Lars


    Attentional demands can prevent humans and other animals from performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Some studies, however, show that tasks presented in different sensory modalities (e.g. visual and auditory) can be processed simultaneously. This suggests that, at least in these cases, attention might be modality-specific and divided differently between tasks when present in the same modality compared with different modalities. We investigated this possibility in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) using a biologically relevant experimental set-up where they had to simultaneously choose more rewarding flowers and avoid simulated predatory attacks by robotic 'spiders'. We found that when the tasks had to be performed using visual cues alone, bees failed to perform both tasks simultaneously. However, when highly rewarding flowers were indicated by olfactory cues and predators were indicated by visual cues, bees managed to perform both tasks successfully. Our results thus provide evidence for modality-specific attention in foraging bees and establish a novel framework for future studies of crossmodal attention in ecologically realistic settings. PMID:26587245

  8. Multiple-modality program for standoff detection of roadside hazards

    Williams, Kathryn; Middleton, Seth; Close, Ryan; Luke, Robert H.; Suri, Rajiv


    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is executing a program to assess the performance of a variety of sensor modalities for standoff detection of roadside explosive hazards. The program objective is to identify an optimal sensor or combination of fused sensors to incorporate with autonomous detection algorithms into a system of systems for use in future route clearance operations. This paper provides an overview of the program, including a description of the sensors under consideration, sensor test events, and ongoing data analysis.

  9. Second malignancy in relation to treatment modality of primary malignancy

    Second malignant tumors among long-term survivors are a sensitive indicator of successful oncologic treatment, particularly in this area of multimodal therapy. 11 patients of abdominopelvic primary malignancy were detected to have a second malignancy of different pathology, and at a different site. These patients were assessed regarding treatment modality of initial cancer and time gap between the first and second malignancy. Lack of proper cancer registries, illiteracy, and lack of resources lead to poor patient follow-up; therefore population based studies is not possible

  10. An Analysis of Modal Verbs in Language Teaching



    Through classifying modal verbs from the semantic aspect and the pragmatic aspect, this paper discusses difficulties that students may encounter in modal verb learning. It indicates that modal verbs have complicacy, and a deductive approach and inductive approach should intermingle as an appropriate method to improve students’ accuracy in use of modal verbs.

  11. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.;


    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need to be appl...... (SSI) algorithm. These are compared to other methods such as traditional Modal Analysis....

  12. The Modality-Match Effect in Recognition Memory

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Osborn, Katherine


    The modality-match effect in recognition refers to superior memory for words presented in the same modality at study and test. Prior research on this effect is ambiguous and inconsistent. The present study demonstrates that the modality-match effect is found when modality is rendered salient at either encoding or retrieval. Specifically, in…

  13. Use of Modal Synthesis for Composite Structures

    Musil Miloš


    Full Text Available A common occurrence in engineering practice is undesirable levels of vibration in the structures of machinery, which decrease their functionality, safety, reliability and service life. Current trends in the dynamic operation of machinery inherently generate such undesirable effects. That is to say, increasing the operational capacity of a machine (higher speeds, higher loads, more changes in operational regimes, etc... is financially counterproductive to any desired savings in the material/technological realization of such structures. One possible approach to modify the dynamic properties of the structure is through modal synthesis. This approach combines the modal properties of the real structure obtained through measurements with the modal properties of additional components obtained computationally. This approach is particularly effective if the computational model of the built structure is incorrect.

  14. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, π-, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only 60Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities

  15. Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian

    Marcin Grygiel


    Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and SerbianIn the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

  16. Nonoperative modalities to treat symptomatic cervical spondylosis.

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael


    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis.

  17. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina


    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  18. Operational modal analysis with non stationnary inputs

    Gouache, Thibault; MORLIER, Joseph; Michon, Guilhem; Coulange, Baptiste


    Operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques enable the use of in-situ and uncontrolled vibrations to be used to lead modal analysis of structures. In reality operational vibrations are a combination of numerous excitations sources that are much more complex than a random white noise or a harmonic. Numerous OMA techniques exist like SSI, NExT, FDD and BSS. All these methods are based on the fundamental hypothesis that the input or force applied to the structure to be analyzed is a stationary w...

  19. Processing resources and interplay among sensory modalities: an EEG investigation

    Porcu, Emanuele


    The primary aim of the present thesis was to investigate how the human brain handles and distributes limited processing resources among different sensory modalities. Two main hypothesis have been conventionally proposed: (1) common processing resources shared among sensory modalities (supra-modal attentional system) or (2) independent processing resources for each sensory modality. By means of four EEG experiments, we tested whether putative competitive interactions between sensory modalities...

  20. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.


    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  1. Experimental determination of modal parameters for rotors

    In the present paper an experimental method of determining modal parameters (eigenvalues and natural shapes of vibration) of rotor friction bearing systems is described. The method was applied at a simple rotor test stand (Laval shaft). It may possibly be used for larger turborotors, too, if a corresponding opportunity is given for excitation. (orig.)


    V. A. Antanevich; Y. F. Ikwas; А. A. Lobaty


    The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  3. On Lukasiewicz's Four-Valued Modal Logic

    Font, J.M.; Hájek, Petr


    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2002), s. 157-182. ISSN 0039-3215 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Lukasiewicz * four-valued logic * faithful translation * modal logic * many-valued logic * intensional logic * discrete epistemic algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;


    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  5. 20 Years of Modal and Mixed Specifications

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias; Wasowski, Andrzej


    Twenty years ago, modal and mixed specifications were proposed as abstract models of system behavior. In this paper, we explain the nature and utility of such specifications, relate them to other formalisms, showcase some of their established applications, and mention some existing tool support. We...

  6. Impact of Learning Modalities on Academic Success

    Fenouillet, Fabien; Kaplan, Jonathan


    This study is based on the analysis of academic results of 692 undergraduate and graduate students in two disciplines in a French university who attended their courses using one out of four possible learning modalities. Within the two disciplines, Art History and Educational Sciences, students chose between face-to-face learning (on campus),…

  7. Multi modal child-to-child interaction

    Fisker, Tine Basse

    In this presentation the interaction and relation of three boys is analyzed using multi modal analysis. The analysis clearly, and surprisingly demonstrates that the boys interact via different modes and that they are able to handle several interaction partners at the same time. They co-construct ...

  8. Stroke in Childhood and New Treatment Modalities

    Ozlem Herguner


    The risk factors for stroke in chidren are very different from those leading to stroke in adults. In recent years, several potential treatments for various specific stroke syndromes have been made. In this article, the risk factors and new treatment modalities for stroke in children and adolescents are reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000): 177-198

  9. Stroke in Childhood and New Treatment Modalities

    Hergüner, Özlem


    The risk factors for stroke in chidren are very different from those leading to stroke in adults. In recent years, several potential treatments for various specific stroke syndromes have been made. In this article, the risk factors and new treatment modalities for stroke in children and adolescents are reviewed.

  10. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlén, I.


    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriateof these has been selected. Although the co...


    Gilang Anies Saendy


    Full Text Available Dampak perkembangan globalisasi membutuhkan informasi lebih lanjut, terutama informasi tentang modal intelektual perusahaan. Tapi, dalam kondisi nyata informasi modal intelektual masih rendah, yakni sekitar 27-35%. Objek penelitian ini adalah perbankan yang terdapat dalam direktori Pasar Modal Indonesia (ICMD 2010-2013. Jumlah populasi adalah 36 perbankan dan 17 sampel dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis jalur. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak pengaruh antara pelaksanaan GCG untuk pengungkapan modal intelektual dan kinerja keuangan. Selain itu, ada pengaruh positif antara kinerja modal intelektual terhadap kinerja keuangan dan kinerja keuangan untuk pengungkapan modal intelektual. Selanjutnya, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak efek mediasi melalui kinerja keuangan perusahaan antara implementasi GCG dalam pengungkapan modal intelektual. Hasilnya juga mengatakan ada efek mediasi antara pelaksanaan GCG untuk pengungkapan modal intelektual pikir kinerja modal intelektual. The development due to the increase of globalization gives impact to the need of having more information. One of them is the need to have information on company’s intellectual capital. But, in real condition, intellectual capital information is still low. It is about 27-35%. The objects of this research are banks organized in Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD from 2010-2013. Total populations were 36 banks, and finally 17 samples were selected by using purposive sampling. The method used is path analysis. The results of this research show that there is no influence between GCG’s implementation on intellectual capital disclosure and financial performance. However, there are  positive influences of intellectual capital performance on the financial performance, and financial performance on the disclosure of intellectual capital. Besides, this research said that there is no effect of mediation through the company

  12. Direct identification of non-proportional modal damping matrix for lumped mass system using modal parameters

    Several damping materials have been employed to reduce the vibration of marine structures. In this paper, a new method of identifying system matrices for non-proportional damping structures using modal parameters is proposed. This method has two advantages. First, the mass and stiffness matrices do not need to be calculated using the FEM, so errors due to the inaccuracy of these matrices can be reduced. Second, various indirect methods can be used to identify modal parameters such as natural frequencies, modal damping ratios and mode shapes. Three case studies of lumped mass systems with non-proportional damping are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed method in this study

  13. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens


    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical...... energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the...... plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a...

  14. Automated Modal Parameter Estimation for Operational Modal Analysis of Large Systems

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Goursat, Maurice;


    In this paper the problems of doing automatic modal parameter extraction and how to account for large number of data to process are considered. Two different approaches for obtaining the modal parameters automatically using OMA are presented: The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique and...... and a correlation-driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) technique. Special attention is given to the problem of data reduction, where many sensors are available. Finally, the techniques are demonstrated on real data....

  15. Supervised Cross-Modal Factor Analysis for Multiple Modal Data Classification

    Wang, Jingbin


    In this paper we study the problem of learning from multiple modal data for purpose of document classification. In this problem, each document is composed two different modals of data, i.e., An image and a text. Cross-modal factor analysis (CFA) has been proposed to project the two different modals of data to a shared data space, so that the classification of a image or a text can be performed directly in this space. A disadvantage of CFA is that it has ignored the supervision information. In this paper, we improve CFA by incorporating the supervision information to represent and classify both image and text modals of documents. We project both image and text data to a shared data space by factor analysis, and then train a class label predictor in the shared space to use the class label information. The factor analysis parameter and the predictor parameter are learned jointly by solving one single objective function. With this objective function, we minimize the distance between the projections of image and text of the same document, and the classification error of the projection measured by hinge loss function. The objective function is optimized by an alternate optimization strategy in an iterative algorithm. Experiments in two different multiple modal document data sets show the advantage of the proposed algorithm over other CFA methods.

  16. Model Design of Piezoelectric Micromachined Modal Gyroscope

    Xiaojun Hu


    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel kind of solid-state microgyroscope, which is called piezoelectric micromachined modal gyroscope (PMMG. PMMG has large stiffness and robust resistance to shake and strike because there is no evident mass-spring component in its structure. This work focused on quantitative optimization of the gyroscope, which is still blank for such gyroscope. The modal analysis by the finite element method (FEM was firstly conducted. A set of quantitative indicators were developed to optimize the operation mode. By FEM, the harmonic analysis was conducted to find the way to efficiently actuate the operational mode needed. The optimal configuration of driving electrodes was obtained. At last, the Coriolis analysis was conducted to show the relation between angular velocity and differential output voltage by the Coriolis force under working condition. The results obtained in this paper provide theoretical basis for realizing this novel kind of micromachined gyroscope.

  17. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio


    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  18. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Zitzmann M


    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  19. Multipoint laser vibrometer for modal analysis.

    MacPherson, William N; Reeves, Mark; Towers, David P; Moore, Andrew J; Jones, Julian D C; Dale, Martin; Edwards, Craig


    Experimental modal analysis of multifrequency vibration requires a measurement system with appropriate temporal and spatial resolution to recover the mode shapes. To fully understand the vibration it is necessary to be able to measure not only the vibration amplitude but also the vibration phase. We describe a multipoint laser vibrometer that is capable of high spatial and temporal resolution with simultaneous measurement of 256 points along a line at up to 80 kHz. The multipoint vibrometer is demonstrated by recovering modal vibration data from a simple test object subject to transient excitation. A practical application is presented in which the vibrometer is used to measure vibration on a squealing rotating disk brake. PMID:17514265

  20. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney


    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  1. Gingival prosthesis: A treatment modality for recession

    Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili; Hemchand Surapaneni; Arunima Padmakumar Reshmarani


    Gingival recession caused due to periodontal disease disturbs patients because of sensitivity and esthetics. Gingival prosthesis may be fixed or removable and can be made from silicones, acrylics, composite resins or ceramics according to what is best suited for the case. The gingival veneer is esthetically appealing and easy to maintain. This case report describes the use of gingival veneer as a treatment modality for recession.

  2. Frequency modal analysis of supraglottal vocal tract

    Dedouch, K.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.

    Vol. 2. Southampton: The Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, 2000 - (Ferguson, N.; Wolfe, H.; Ferman, M.; Rizzi, S.), s. 863-874 ISBN 0-85432-721-5. [International conference on recent advances in structural dynamics /7./.. Southampton (GB), 24.07.2000-27.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV106/98/K019 Keywords : natural frequencies * modal analysis of acoustic spaces * biomechanics of human voice Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal


    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resol...

  4. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    Kadyan, B.; V Sabale; D Mane; V Satav; A Mulay; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.


    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A...

  5. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    Kadyan, B.; V Sabale; D Mane; V Satav; A Mulay; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.


    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Grou...

  6. Rules with parameters in modal logic I

    Jeřábek, Emil


    Roč. 166, č. 9 (2015), s. 881-933. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : modal logic * admissible rule * equational unification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014

  7. Response modalities and time-sharing performance

    Vidulich, Michael A.


    An experiment performed to investigate the role of resource competition and asymmetric transfer in dual-task performance is described. It is shown that there is an advantage to mixed manual/speech response modality configurations that cannot be accounted for by asymmetric transfer. The present results support the multiple resources approach to the application of speech technology. Once speech recognition achieves an acceptable level of operational reliability, speech controls can be used to reduce resource competition and improve performance in multitask environments.

  8. Teaching Modalities of Vocational High School Teachers

    Ekici, Gülay; Gazi Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate teaching modalities of vocational high school teachers. A survey was administered to 174 vocational high school teachers from different vocational high schools in Ankara. The survey instrument consisting of 30 likert-type items was used. Cronbach-Alpha for the whole scale was found to be 0.93. In the data analysis, frequency, arithmetical mean, standard division, t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient method and factory analysi...

  9. Comparing modalities and feedback for peripheral interaction

    Hausen, Doris; Wagner, Christine; Boring, Sebastian;


    When executing one task on a computer, we are frequently confronted with secondary tasks (e.g., controlling an audio player or changing the IM state) that require shifting our attention away from the actual task, thus increasing our cognitive load. Peripheral interaction aims at reducing that cog...... visual feedback. In a dual-task lab study we found that those additional modalities are fit for peripheral interaction. Also, feedback did not have a measurable influence, yet it assured participants in their actions....

  10. Survival by Dialysis Modality-Who Cares?

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M


    In light of the recent emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and quality of life for patients with kidney disease, we contend that the nephrology community should no longer fund, perform, or publish studies that compare survival by dialysis modality. These studies have become redundant; they are methodologically limited, unhelpful in practice, and therefore a waste of resources. More than two decades of these publications show similar survival between patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and those receiving thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis, with differences only for specific subgroups. In clinical practice, modality choice should be individualized with the aim of maximizing quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, and achieving patient-centered goals. Expected survival is often irrelevant to modality choice. Even for the younger and fitter home hemodialysis population, quality of life, not just duration of survival, is a major priority. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that patients with ESRD continue to experience poor quality of life because of high symptom burden, unsolved clinical problems, and unmet needs. Patients care more about how they will live instead of how long. It is our responsibility to align our research with their needs. Only by doing so can we meet the challenges of ESRD patient care in the coming decades. PMID:26912541

  11. Bi-Modal Methods: An Overview

    Olatunji K. A


    Full Text Available Various security challenges such as Boko Haram, theft, kidnapping, ISIL, abduction, and so on have been on a high rise as one of the major menace facing our society today. In order to overcome these challenges there is need for identification of the culprits to bring them to book. Uni-modal biometric is not enough to combat these security challenges because of its shortcomings which include- spoof attach, noise in the sensed data, inter class variation and so on. Combining two or more biometric features (bi-modal has been proved to provide better performance than uni-modal biometric approach for authentication and verification. This paper presents some literature on biometrics systems that can be employed in achieving a better accuracy in authentication and verification of biometric features. Different kind of fusion strategies to combine these characteristics, different available classifiers and fusion methodologies to achieve greater and accurate recognition performance were also discussed. It is hopeful that researchers in the area of biometrics will find this work very useful.

  12. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)


    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  13. Modal Analysis Using Co-Prime Arrays

    Pakrooh, Pooria; Scharf, Louis L.; Pezeshki, Ali


    Let a measurement consist of a linear combination of damped complex exponential modes, plus noise. The problem is to estimate the parameters of these modes, as in line spectrum estimation, vibration analysis, speech processing, system identification, and direction of arrival estimation. Our results differ from standard results of modal analysis to the extent that we consider sparse and co-prime samplings in space, or equivalently sparse and co-prime samplings in time. Our main result is a characterization of the orthogonal subspace. This is the subspace that is orthogonal to the signal subspace spanned by the columns of the generalized Vandermonde matrix of modes in sparse or co-prime arrays. This characterization is derived in a form that allows us to adapt modern methods of linear prediction and approximate least squares, such as iterative quadratic maximum likelihood (IQML), for estimating mode parameters. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modal estimation methods, and to compare the fidelity of modal estimation with sparse and co-prime arrays, versus SNR. Our calculations of Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bounds allow us to analyze the loss in performance sustained by sparse and co-prime arrays that are compressions of uniform linear arrays.

  14. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.


    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  15. Generating a lexicon of Scandinavian modals

    Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson


    Full Text Available Morphology and phonology can in many cases be used to figure out which words correspond to which in Scandinavian. For instance, it is rather easy to figure out which Norwegian personal pronoun corresponds to which in Danish, and even Icelandic or Faroese. However, when it comes to prepositions and modal verbs we cannot rely on morphology or phonology alone. For example, Norwegian and Danish måtte do not always have the same meaning, and similarly, Icelandic vilja is not used as the future modal as Norwegian and Danish ville is. Instead of relying on morphology or phonology, we can use parallel corpora. Unfortunately, there are not many parallel corpora that include all of the Scandinavian languages, and those that exist are maybe not large enough to give reliable results. Nevertheless, to get a picture of what it could look like, the Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, and English parts of a small treebank, The Sophie Treebank, were used to find out which modal verbs correspond to which in the various languages.

  16. Cross-Modal Subspace Learning via Pairwise Constraints.

    He, Ran; Zhang, Man; Wang, Liang; Ji, Ye; Yin, Qiyue


    In multimedia applications, the text and image components in a web document form a pairwise constraint that potentially indicates the same semantic concept. This paper studies cross-modal learning via the pairwise constraint and aims to find the common structure hidden in different modalities. We first propose a compound regularization framework to address the pairwise constraint, which can be used as a general platform for developing cross-modal algorithms. For unsupervised learning, we propose a multi-modal subspace clustering method to learn a common structure for different modalities. For supervised learning, to reduce the semantic gap and the outliers in pairwise constraints, we propose a cross-modal matching method based on compound ℓ21 regularization. Extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of joint text and image modeling with semantically induced pairwise constraints, and they show that the proposed cross-modal methods can further reduce the semantic gap between different modalities and improve the clustering/matching accuracy. PMID:26259218

  17. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    Asmussen, J. C.

    The thesis describes and develops the theoretical foundations of the Random Decrement technique, while giving several examples of modal analysis of large building constructions (bridges). The connection between modal parameters and Random Decrement functions is described theoretically. The effici...

  18. MIND: modality independent neighbourhood descriptor for multi-modal deformable registration.

    Heinrich, Mattias P; Jenkinson, Mark; Bhushan, Manav; Matin, Tahreema; Gleeson, Fergus V; Brady, Sir Michael; Schnabel, Julia A


    Deformable registration of images obtained from different modalities remains a challenging task in medical image analysis. This paper addresses this important problem and proposes a modality independent neighbourhood descriptor (MIND) for both linear and deformable multi-modal registration. Based on the similarity of small image patches within one image, it aims to extract the distinctive structure in a local neighbourhood, which is preserved across modalities. The descriptor is based on the concept of image self-similarity, which has been introduced for non-local means filtering for image denoising. It is able to distinguish between different types of features such as corners, edges and homogeneously textured regions. MIND is robust to the most considerable differences between modalities: non-functional intensity relations, image noise and non-uniform bias fields. The multi-dimensional descriptor can be efficiently computed in a dense fashion across the whole image and provides point-wise local similarity across modalities based on the absolute or squared difference between descriptors, making it applicable for a wide range of transformation models and optimisation algorithms. We use the sum of squared differences of the MIND representations of the images as a similarity metric within a symmetric non-parametric Gauss-Newton registration framework. In principle, MIND would be applicable to the registration of arbitrary modalities. In this work, we apply and validate it for the registration of clinical 3D thoracic CT scans between inhale and exhale as well as the alignment of 3D CT and MRI scans. Experimental results show the advantages of MIND over state-of-the-art techniques such as conditional mutual information and entropy images, with respect to clinically annotated landmark locations. PMID:22722056

  19. Learning Sensory Modalities and Educational Characteristics of Greek Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic University Students

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Ekaterini; Zenakou, Elena; Kouvava, Sofia


    Introduction: Dyslexia has been shown to affect the learning ability of individuals who experience difficulties in processing written information and developing effective study skills. Method: In the present study we assessed the relationship between dyslexia, the learning sensory modalities and educational characteristics in 20 dyslexic and 40…

  20. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…




    The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

  2. Impaired cross-modal inhibition in Alzheimer disease.

    Alexander Drzezga


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful cognitive performance depends not only on the activation of specific neuronal networks but also on selective suppression of task-irrelevant modalities, i.e., deactivation of non-required cerebral regions. This ability to suppress the activation of specific brain regions has, to our knowledge, never been systematically evaluated in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD. The aim of the current study was to evaluate both cerebral activation and deactivation in (1 healthy volunteers, (2 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI who are at risk for AD, and (3 patients with moderate AD during active navigation, representing a cognitive task typically affected in AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were assessed with PET imaging during an active navigation task in a 3D virtual-reality environment. The task was based on visual cues exclusively; no auditory cues were provided. Age-matched groups of healthy individuals, patients with MCI, and patients with AD were examined. Specific differences in the activation patterns were observed in the three groups, with stronger activation of cerebellar portions and visual association cortex in controls and stronger activation of primary visual and frontal cortical areas in patients with MCI and AD. Highly significant bilateral decrease of rCBF in task-irrelevant auditory cortical regions was detected in healthy individuals during performance of the task. This rCBF decrease was interpreted as a cross-modal inhibitory effect. It was diminished in patients with MCI and completely absent in patients with AD. A regression analysis across all individuals revealed a clear positive relation between cognitive status (mini mental state examination score and the extent of auditory cortical deactivation. CONCLUSION: During active navigation, a high level of movement automation and an involvement of higher-order cerebral association functions were observed in healthy

  3. Lessons learned from modal testing of aerospace structures

    Hunt, David L.; Brillhart, Ralph D.


    The primary factors affecting the accuracy and the time required to perform modal tests on aerospace structures are discussed, and the lessons learned from modal tests performed over the past 15 yrs are examined. Case histories of modal testing on aerospace structures are reviewed, including the Galileo satellite and the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor and test stand. Currently recommended approaches to the modal testing are addressed.

  4. Image and Dose Simulation in Support of New Imaging Modalities

    This report summarizes the highlights of the research performed under the 2-year NEER grant from the Department of Energy. The primary outcome of the work was a new Monte Carlo code, MCMIS-DS, for Monte Carlo for Mammography Image Simulation including Differential Sampling. The code was written to generate simulated images and dose distributions from two different new digital x-ray imaging modalities, namely, synchrotron imaging (SI) and a slot geometry digital mammography system called Fisher Senoscan. A differential sampling scheme was added to the code to generate multiple images that included variations in the parameters of the measurement system and the object in a single execution of the code. The code is to serve multiple purposes; (1) to answer questions regarding the contribution of scattered photons to images, (2) for use in design optimization studies, and (3) to do up to second-order perturbation studies to assess the effects of design parameter variations and/or physical parameters of the object (the breast) without having to re-run the code for each set of varied parameters. The accuracy and fidelity of the code were validated by a large variety of benchmark studies using published data and also using experimental results from mammography phantoms on both imaging modalities

  5. The Perception of English Modals among Arab Language Learners

    Mahmoud Al-Qudah


    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the acquisition of English modality among Arab learners of English as a foreign language. Specifically, the study limits itself to the perception of modal verbs as a means of expressing modality. The productive use of modal verbs were analyzed by examining written texts made by 26 fourth-year students majoring in Applied English at the University of Jordan. Moreover, the meaning and function of modal verbs were investigated by asking the subjects to explicitly determine them in given sentences. The subjects were also asked to translate these sentences into their native language in an attempt to investigate the effect of the native language on the perception of modality. The study concludes that there is a gap in the use of English modal verbs as a way of expressing modality. It was found that the differences between Arabic and English modality seems to play an integral role in the misperception of English modality among Arab learners. Other factors, like teaching methods, seem to widen the gap.Keywords: modality, modal verbs, Arabic, translation

  6. The modal age at death and the shifting mortality hypothesis

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir


    The modal age at death is used to study the shifting mortality scenario experienced by low mortality countries. The relations of the life table functions at the modal age are analyzed using mortality models. In the models the modal age increases over time, but there is an asymptotic approximation...

  7. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong


    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. PMID:27241617

  8. Structural Damage Detection Based on Modal Parameters Using Continuous Ant Colony Optimization

    Aditi Majumdar


    Full Text Available A method is presented to detect and quantify structural damages from changes in modal parameters (such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. An inverse problem is formulated to minimize the objective function, defined in terms of discrepancy between the vibration data identified by modal testing and those computed from analytical model, which then solved to locate and assess the structural damage using continuous ant colony optimization algorithm. The damage is formulated as stiffness reduction factor. The study indicates potentiality of the developed code to solve a wide range of inverse identification problems.

  9. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Andrew M Rosen


    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  10. Shoulder distention arthrography as a treatment modality

    18 patients with painful stiff shoulder joint were underwent shoulder distension arthrography as a treatment modality, followed by physical therapy. Range of motion of shoulder joint was evaluated at 1 week and 4 weeks after arthrography. The results were as follows; 1. Arthrographic findings were decreased volume of joint cavity, obliteration of axillary recess, small subscapularis bursa, serrated capsular margin and non-filling of biceps tendon sheath. In 3 cases, rotator cuff tear was found. 2. Range of motion of shoulder joint was improved after distension arthrography. 3. In 3 patients have rotator cuff tear, range of motion was not improved

  11. Modal series solution for an epidemic model

    Acedo, L.; González-Parra, Gilberto; Arenas, Abraham J.


    In this article, we generalize a recently proposed method to obtain an exact general solution for the classical Susceptible, Infected, Recovered and Susceptible (SIRS) epidemic mathematical model. This generalization is based upon the nonlinear coupling of two frequencies in an infinite modal series solution. It is shown that these series provide a nonstandard approach in order to obtain an accurate analytical solution for the classical SIRS epidemic model. Numerical results of the SIRS epidemic model for real and complex frequencies are included in order to test the validity and reliability of the method. This method could be applied to a wide class of models in physics, chemistry or engineering.

  12. [Infection therapeutic modalities in human papillomavirus].

    Carrillo Pacheco, Adia; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino; Hernández Quijano, Tomás; Zárate, Arturo


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genital it can infect any mucous of the body and to cause cancer of the uterine cervix. Until recently specific treatments did not exist on this infection, for what had to destroy or to remove the injured tissue by diverse procedures, what could have obstetric repercussions in young women. Recently some surgical modalities and topical drugs have arisen, as well as of systemic employment that allow to arrive to the lesions difficult to approach, and have demonstrated good effectiveness to cure the infection for HPV, for what an analysis of the medical treatment of this infection type is made. PMID:23427640

  13. Diagnostic Approach in Impotence and Imaging Modalities

    Medih Celiktas


    Full Text Available Penile erection results from a complex interplay between central nerveus system and local factors. Several aspects of these interactions have been the subject of many reviews. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT monitoring is the best single non-invasive examination to differentiate organic from psychogenic impotence. Angiography and pharmaco-cevernosometry are accepted as gold standard modalities in the assesment of vasculojenic impotence. Recently color Doppler sonography made the detection of vessels easier and the correction of the Doppler angle more accurate, resulting in more rapid and accurate acquisition of data. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 208-211

  14. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.


    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than −40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, micro...

  15. Comparison of damage identification algorithms on experimental modal data from a bridge

    Jauregui, D.V.; Farrar, C.R.


    Over the past 25 years detecting damage in a structure from changes in dynamic parameters has received a considerable amount of attention from the aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering communities. The general idea is that changes in the structure`s physical properties (i.e., stiffness, mass, and/or damping) will, in turn, alter the dynamic characteristics (i.e., resonant frequencies, modal damping, and mode shapes) of the structure. Properties such as the flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and mode shape curvature, which are obtained from modal parameters, have shown promise for localizing structural damage. In this paper, several different techniques for damage assessment are demonstrated and compared using experimental modal data from an undamaged and damaged bridge.

  16. Alternative Modal Basis Selection Procedures For Reduced-Order Nonlinear Random Response Simulation

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizi, Stephen A.


    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of a computationally taxing full-order analysis in physical degrees of freedom are taken as the benchmark for comparison with the results from the three reduced-order analyses. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.


    Satia Nur Maharani


    Full Text Available Globalisasi semakin memperpendek jarak dan waktu. Kemampuannya mampu  merubah wajah planet bumi menjadi” just a small village “ melalui peningkatan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Perubahan tersebut bertransformasi pula pada  sistem ekonomi. Modal berdiri sendiri tanpa identitas dan siapa saja berhak untuk berinvestasi tanpa batas melalui sebuah mekanisme antar negara dan benua. Salah satu lintasan modal untuk meraih keuntungan adalah melalui mekanisme pasar modal. Pasar modal manakah yang diminati oleh arus modal masuk adalah pasar modal yang mampu memberikan jamuan terbaik berupa keuntungan yang tinggi dengan resiko yang optimal. Maka untuk mencapai pelayan yang maksimal bagi masyarakat pemodal , pasar modal harus efisien dan berdaya saing global. Maka keterbukaan informasi, peningkatan teknologi, efisiensi biaya penegakan hukum, partisipasi masyarakat dan pemerintah, inovasi produk mutlak untuk dievaluasi dan ditingkatkan

  18. Economic evaluation of bone stimulation modalities: A systematic review of the literature

    Button Melissa


    Full Text Available Various bone stimulation modalities are commonly used in treatment of fresh fractures and nonunions; however, the effectiveness and efficiency of these modalities remain uncertain. A systematic review of trials evaluating the clinical and economical outcomes of ultrasounds, electrical stimulation, and extracorporeal sound waves on fracture healing was conducted. We searched four electronic databases for economic evaluations that assessed bone stimulation modalities using ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation, or extracorporeal shock waves. In addition, we searched the references and related articles of eligible studies, and a content expert was contacted. Information on the clinical and economical outcomes of patients was independently extracted by reviewers. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria; therefore, very limited research was found on the cost associated with treatments and the corresponding outcomes. The data available focus primarily on the efficacy of newly introduced treatment methods for bone growth, but failed to incorporate the costs of implementing such treatments. One economic analysis was identified that assessed different treatment paths using ultrasound. A total cost savings of 24-40% per patient occurred when ultrasound was used for fresh fractures and nonunions (grade C recommendation. The results suggest that the ultrasound is a viable alternative for bone stimulation; however, the impacts of the other modalities are left unknown due to the lack of research available. Methodological limitations leave the overall economic and clinical impact of these modalities uncertain. Large, prospective, randomized controlled trials that include cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to further define the clinical effectiveness and financial burden associated with bone stimulation modalities.

  19. Epistemic modals and context: Experimental data

    Joshua Knobe


    Full Text Available Recently, a number of theorists (MacFarlane (2003, 2011, Egan, Hawthorne & Weatherson (2005, Egan (2007, Stephenson (2007a,b have argued that an adequate semantics and pragmatics for epistemic modals calls for some technical notion of relativist truth and/or relativist content. Much of this work has relied on an empirical thesis about speaker judgments, namely that competent speakers tend to judge a present-tense bare epistemic possibility claim true only if the prejacent is compatible with their information. Relativists have in particular appealed to judgments elicited in so-called eavesdropping and retraction cases to support this empirical thesis. But opposing theorists have denied the judgments, and at present there is no consensus in the literature about how the speaker judgments in fact pattern. Consequently there is little agreement on what exactly a semantics and pragmatics for epistemic modals should predict about the pattern of judgments in these cases. Further theorizing requires greater clarity on the data to be explained. To clarify the data, we subjected eavesdropping and retraction cases to experimental evaluation. Our data provide evidence against the claim that competent speakers tend to judge a present-tense bare epistemic possibility claim true only if the prejacent is compatible with their information. Theories designed to predict this result are accordingly undermined. BibTeX info

  20. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlen, I.


    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriate of these has been selected. Although the comparison is based on measurements on a LM 19 m blade, the recommendations given are believed to be valid for other wind turbine blades as well. The reliability of the selected experimental analysis has been quantified by estimating the unsystematic variations in the experimental findings. Satisfactory results have been obtained for natural frequencies, damping characteristics and for the dominating deflection direction of the investigated mode shapes. For the secondary deflection directions, the observed experimental uncertainty may be considerable - especially for the torsional deflection. The experimental analysis of the LM 19 m blade has been compared with results from a state-of-the-art FE-modeling of the same blade. For some of the higher modes substantial discrepancies between the natural frequencies originating from the FE-modeling and the modal analysis, respectively, are observed. In general the qualitative features of measured and computed modes shapes are in good agreement. However, for the secondary deflection directions, substantial deviations in the absolute values may occur (when normalizing with respect to the primary deflection direction). Finally, suggestions of potential future improvements of the experimental procedure are discussed. (au)

  1. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  2. Modal and non-modal stability of two-dimensional Taylor–Green vortices

    The linear stability of the two-dimensional Taylor–Green vortices at moderate Reynolds number Re = 2500 is studied by modal and non-modal stability analysis. The properties of modal stability depend on the symmetry type of the disturbances. The stability of penetrating disturbances depends weakly on the axial wavenumber, while non-penetrating disturbances are subjected to the elliptic instability which depends crucially on the wavenumber. The features of transient growth are revealed by non-modal stability analysis. Its mechanism for small optimization time is the stretching near the hyperbolic stagnation points; it does not depend strongly on the symmetry type and the wavenumber. For large optimization time, however, the transient growth is controlled by the strain field around the elliptic stagnation points as the amplified state is similar to unstable modes of elliptic instability. The optimization time at which the properties of the transient growth change is smaller than that of a vortex pair studied by Donnadieu et al (2009 Phys. Fluids 21 094102). (papers)

  3. Does the Modality Effect Exist? And if so, Which Modality Effect?

    Reinwein, Joachim


    The modality effect is a central issue in multimedia learning [see Mayer (Cambridge University Press, 2005a), for a review]. Sweller's Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), for example, presumes that an illustrated text is better understood when presented visually rather than orally. The predictive power of CLT lies in how it links in to Baddeley's (1986)…

  4. English Modal Verbs in Modal Verb Phrase Structures and Lexical Associations of Modality in ‘Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale’

    Nataša Gajšt


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a corpus-based analysis of English modal verbs and semi-modals in modal verb phrase structures as well as lexical association of modality in ‘standard terms and conditions of sale’, which are legally binding documents in the domain of commerce and whose purpose is to govern the obligations and rights of sellers and buyers in the transaction of goods for payment. Our research has established that the most frequent modal verbs in these documents are shall, will, may, must and can, and that the most common modal verb phrase structures in are ‘modal+infinitive’ and ‘modal+be+past participle’. We found 718 different lexical verbs that indicate actions, states and conditions associated with commercial transactions. These results correspond with the definition of these documents. Our findings are a demonstration of how language expresses the characteristics of a legal text type in a professional domain of commerce/trade.

  5. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    Mohamad C. N. Sinno


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA, B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  6. Perturbation approach applied to modal diffraction methods.

    Bischoff, Joerg; Hehl, Karl


    Eigenvalue computation is an important part of many modal diffraction methods, including the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) and the Chandezon method. This procedure is known to be computationally intensive, accounting for a large proportion of the overall run time. However, in many cases, eigenvalue information is already available from previous calculations. Some of the examples include adjacent slices in the RCWA, spectral- or angle-resolved scans in optical scatterometry and parameter derivatives in optimization. In this paper, we present a new technique that provides accurate and highly reliable solutions with significant improvements in computational time. The proposed method takes advantage of known eigensolution information and is based on perturbation method. PMID:21532698

  7. Conceptos modales e individuación

    Pérez Otero, Manuel


    [spa] Según el punto de vista predominante en la filosofía sobre la modalidad durante la mayor parte del siglo XX cualquier noción de necesidad que pueda tener sentido es dependiente de nuestros sistemas lingüísticos de representación. Así, la distinción modal tradicional, de carácter ontológico o metafísico, entre propiedades esenciales y propiedades accidentales sólo sería admisible en la medida en que pueda verse como un antecedente, más o menos afortunado, de distinciones lingüísticas bas...

  8. Modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui; Choudhury, Debaditya; Harris, Robert J; Arriola, Alexander; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R; Birks, Timothy A; Thomson, Robert R


    This paper reports on the modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter. The device consists of a multicore-fibre photonic lantern and an ultrafast laser-inscribed slit reformatter. It operates around 1550 nm and supports 92 modes. Photonic lanterns transform a multimode signal into an array of single-mode signals, and thus combine the high coupling efficiency of multimode fibres with the diffraction-limited performance of single-mode fibres. This paper presents experimental measurements of the device point spread function properties under different coupling conditions, and its throughput behaviour at high spectral resolution. The device demonstrates excellent scrambling but its point spread function is not completely stable. Mode field diameter and mode barycentre position at the device output vary as the multicore-fibre is agitated due to the fabrication imperfections.

  9. Modal Based Fatigue Monitoring of Steel Structures

    Graugaard-Jensen, J.; Brincker, Rune; Hjelm, H. P.;


    domain by applying the mode shapes of the calibrated Finite Element model and strains are obtained using the shape functions for the actual elements. The technique has been applied on a model frame structure in the laboratory and on a wind loaded lattice pylon structure. In both cases the estimated...... stresses has been compared with direct strain gauge measurements and it appears that the difference between the strains measured by strain gauges and the strains estimated by the presented technique is quite small. Looking at the fatigue of the lattice pylon it appears that the estimated damage is...... obtained mode shapes are then used to calibrate a Finite Element model of the structure and to obtain the modal coordinates of the active modes by inverting the mode shape matrix. If the number of active modes is smaller than the number of measurement points, then the problem is solved by regression. If...

  10. Imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses

    In horses, ultrasonography and contrast radiography are useful imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses adjacent to the joint capsule or tendon sheath. Both ultrasound and contrast radiography can differntiate synovial cysts, ganglia, and synovial fistulae. Well-circumscribed soft tissue swellings adjacent to a joint or tendon sheath should be evaluated first via survey radiography. When bone lesions have been ruled out, contrast radiography and ultrasonography are useful in evaluating the soft tissue. Diagnostic differentials for cystic masses located near a joint or tendon sheath include synovial cyst, ganglion, and intersynovial fistula. A synovial cyst can be differentiated from a ganglion by identifying a communication between the soft tissuemass and a synovial structure