Sample records for biosatellites

  1. [Research on the Kosmos biosatellites].

    Il'in, E A


    In the last decade the USSR has launched six biosatellites of the Cosmos series. The duration of the first flight was 6 days and of the five subsequent flights 18 to 21 days. The major goals of the flight studies were: investigation of adaptation of living systems to weightlessness, identification of the modifying effect of weightlessness on radiosensitivity, and detection of the biological effect of artificial gravity. The examinations were performed on 37 biological species, with most of them on rats. The exposure to weightlessness gave rise to moderate stress reactions and specific changes, particularly in the musculo-skeletal system (muscle atrophy, reduced bone strength, etc). Artificial gravity of 1 g generated inflight helped maintain the normal function of most physiological systems. The exposure of mammals (rats) to 137Ce irradiation did not reveal a modifying effect of weightlessness on radiation sickness. Distinct manifestations of the effects of weightlessness on intracellular processes were not observed. Dissimilar results were obtained with respect to the growth and development of living organisms in weightlessness. PMID:6700188

  2. Summary of experiments onboard Soviet biosatellites

    Nikolaev, S. O.; Ilyin, E. A.

    Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of mammals flown onboard biosatellites of the series Cosmos revealed changes in their cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine and vestibular systems. Space flight resulted in moderate stress reactions, intralabyrinthine conflict information during movements and changes in fluid-electrolyte metabolism. Exposure to artificial gravity (1 g) decreased the level of myocardial, musculoskeletal and excretory changes, but disturbed the function of equilibrium. Studies with combined weightlessness and ionizing radiation demonstrated that weightlessness did not produce a significant modifying effect on radiation damage and postradiation recovery. Consistent changes in certain systems of animals and humans in weightlessness confirm the practical importance of biosatellite studies, which also contribute to the solution of general biology problems associated with gravity effects on life processes.

  3. Future investigations onboard Soviet biosatellites of the Cosmos series

    Ilyin, E. A.

    Many rat experiments onboard Cosmos biosatellites have furnished information concerning the effects of weightlessness, artificial gravity, and ionizing radiation combined with weightlessness on structural and biochemical parameters of the animal body. The necessity to expand the scope of physiological investigations has led to the project of flight primate studies. It is planned to carry out the first primate experiments onboard the Cosmos biosatellite in 1982. At present investigations of weightlessness effects on the cardiovascular and vestibular systems, higher nervous activity, skeletal muscles and biorhythms of two rhesus monkeys are being developed and tested. It is also planned to conduct a study of weightlessness effects on embryogenesis of rats and bioenergetics of living systems onboard the same biosatellite. Further experiments onboard Cosmos biosatellites are planned.

  4. Investigations onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, E. A.

    The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms - Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.

  5. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A


    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes. PMID:2685464

  6. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)


    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  7. Investigations on-board the biosatellite Cosmos-83

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, Eu. A.

    The program of the 5day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 (December 1983) envisaged experimental investigations the purpose of which was to ascertain the effect of short-term microgravity on the physiology, growth and development of various animal and plant species. The study of Rhesus-monkeys has shown that they are an adequate model for exploring the mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness of the vestibular apparatus and the cardiovascular system. The rat experiment has demonstrated that mammalian embryos, at least during the last term of pregnancy, can develop in microgravity. This finding has been confirmed by fish studies. The experiment on germinating seeds and adult plants has given evidence that microgravity produces no effect on the metabolism of seedlings and on the flowering stage.

  8. Preliminary results of scientific research on biosatellite Kosmos-1129


    The first physiological study aimed at deeper examination mechanisms of weightlessness and adaptation/readaptation is described. It dealt with metabolism, support motor changes and nonspecific changes connected with stress reaction. Wistar rats were used in a triple setup: flight/vivarium/biosatellite mockup. Animal condition was assessed on motor activity and body temperature. Extensive tables show weight, blood and enzyme analysis, etc. Animals groups were labeled: stress, behavior, body composition, biorhythm, ontogenesis. The second or biological study dealt with tumorous carrot tissues but humidity control was defective: some indices are reported such as cell membrane permeability, tissue respiration, etc. It also was concerned with a fowl embryogenetic experiment (Japanese quail) but mechanical effects on landing reduced its success. The third study, on radiation dosimetry, presents a little tabulated data but chiefly gives lists of satellite detector units of different kinds and from different countries.

  9. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)


    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  10. [Hormone content of the blood plasma of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R


    The concentration of ACTH, insulin, glucagon, glucose, epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine was measured in plasma of the rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129. As a result of the flight, the concentration of insulin, thyrotrophic hormone, and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased. It is suggested that the above changes have been induced by an acute stress associated with biosatellite reentry and touchdown. PMID:3157831

  11. Preliminary results of the scientific experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite


    The scientific equipment and experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite are described, including various ground controls and the lab unit for studies at the descent vehicle landing site. Preliminary results are presented of the physiological experiment with rats, biological experiments with drosophila and higher and lower plants, and radiation physics and radiobiology studies for the planning of biological protection on future space flights. The most significant conclusion from the preliminary data is that rats tolerate space flight better with an artificial force of gravity.

  12. [Effect of space flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite on enzyme activity of the rat liver].

    Nemeth, S; Tigranian, R A


    After the 18.5 day Cosmos-1129 flight the activity of 7 glucocorticoid-stimulated enzymes of the rat liver was measured. Immediately postflight the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophan pyrolase and serine dehydrogenase increased. These enzymes rapidly (within several hours) react to increased glucocorticoids. The activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases also increased. These enzymes require many days of a continuous effect of glucocorticoids. The glycogen concentration in the rat liver also grew. At R + 6 the activity of tryptophan pyrolase and serine dehydrogenase decreased and that of the other enzymes returned to normal. The immobilization stress applied postflight led to an increased activity of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrolase. This study gives evidence that after space flight rats are in an acute stress state, evidently, produced by the biosatellite recovery. PMID:6620954

  13. Maturation of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    Simmons, D. J.; Grynpas, M. D.; Rosenberg, G. D.


    We have studied the chemistry, hydroxyapatite crystal size, and maturational changes in bone and dentin from rats exposed to microgravity for 12 days in a Soviet biosatellite (Cosmos 1887). Bone ash was reduced in vertebrae (L5) but not in the non-weight-bearing calvaria or mandibles. All tissues had a relatively normal percentage composition of Ca, P, and Mg. Nevertheless, flight rat calvaria and vertebral tissues tended to exhibit lower Ca/P and higher Ca/Mg ratios that any of their weight-matched controls groups, and gradient density analysis (calvaria) indicated a strong shift to the fractions lower specific gravity that was commensurate with impaired rates of matrix-mineral maturation. X-ray diffraction data were confirmatory. Bone hydroxyapatite crystal growth in the mandibles of flight rats was preferentially altered in such a way as to reduce their size (C-axis dimension). But in the mandibular diastemal region devoid of muscle attachments, flight rat bone and dentin were normal with respect to the Ca, P, Mg, and Zn concentrations and Ca/P and Ca/Mg ratios of age-matched controls. These observations affirm the concept that while microgravity most adversely affects the maturation of newly formed matrix and mineral moieties in weight-bearing bone, such effects occur throughout the skeleton.

  14. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)


    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  15. [Morphometry of giant multipolar neurons of the brain stem reticular formation in rats on board the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Belichenko, P V; Leontovich, T A


    Giant multipolar neurons of nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis of rats which had been kept on board the biosatellite "Kosmos-1667" were morphometrically studied. There was a trend towards the increase in the cellular surface, the maximum diameter of dendritic field, the volume of the whole dendritic territory in the test group ad in the control experimental group kept on the earth. A reliable decrease in dendritic mass oriented to nucleus vestibularis and an increase in dendritic mass oriented to the midline were also found in test group, as compared to 3 control groups. Our data were discussed in the light of nervous tissue plasticity in adult mammals. PMID:2736303

  16. [Ultrastructure of the cortex of the cerebellar nodulus in rats after a flight on the biosatellite Kosmos-1514].

    Krasnov, I B; D'iachkova, L N


    The ultrastructure of moss fibers and granule cells of the cortex of the cerebellum nodulus of rats flown for 5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and exposed to 1 g for 6-8 hours upon return to Earth is indicative of an excess excitation of terminals of moss fibers and excitation of granule cells. The excitation of moss fiber terminals reflect the excitatory state of hair cells of the otolith apparatus and neurons of the vestibular ganglion produced by the effect of 1 g after exposure to microgravity. This state can be viewed as evidence of a greater sensitivity of the hair cell of the otolith organ--neuron of the vestibular ganglion system during exposure to microgravity. It is hypothesized that the sensitivity of this system of other mammals may also increase in microgravity. PMID:3784524

  17. [Effect of weightlessness on the course of the reparative process in the muscles of the biosatellite Kosmos-2044 rats].

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I; Burkovskaia, T E


    The repair process in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of SPF Wistar rats flown for 14 days on the biosatellite Cosmos-2044 was investigated. The muscles were injured 2 days before launch by means of clamp forceps. The exposure inhibited the process but did not impair its phasic development. As a result, the reparative field diminished and took the size of an atrophic muscle; thinner myofibers appeared that originated from the ends of injured atrophic fibers and fibers that underwent splitting. It is postulated that repair inhibition is caused by the same mechanisms that produce muscle atrophy in microgravity. It is suggested that both repair inhibition and muscle atrophy are induced by disorders in the neurotrophic regulation of metabolism due to partial disuse. PMID:8577135

  18. [Water and electrolyte content of the organs and tissues of male rats following a flight on the Kosmos 1667 biosatellite].

    Denisova, L A; Lavrova, E A; Natochin, Iu V; Serova, L V


    After the 7-day space flight onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 the water, Na, K, Ca and Mg content of the liver, kidney, heart, skin and bone of male rats was measured. No significant changes in the weight or water content of the above organs were seen. The exception was a decrease of water contained in the heart and an increase of water contained in the caudal appendage of the epididymis. After flight the mineral composition of the liver was identical to that after control studies. The K content of the heart of the flight rats was lower and that of Na, Ca and Mg was identical to the parameter in the controls. The K content of the skin and bone increased and the Na content of the skin also grew. In the kidney the Ca content did not change whereas the content of K, Na and Mg decreased significantly. In the testis Na decreased and K increased after flight. Thus, changes in fluid-electrolyte homeostasis at the organ and tissue level can develop within 7 days of space flight. They occur not only in the musculoskeletal system but may also evolve in the nonweight-bearing organs. PMID:2967903

  19. [The effect of space flight on metabolism: the results of biochemical research in rat experiments on the Kosmos biosatellites].

    Popova, I A; Grigor'ev, A I


    Cosmos biosatellites research program was the unique possibility to study the metabolic features influenced by space flight factors. Based on the existing ideas about relationships between some metabolic responses, the state of metabolism and the systems of its control in the rats flown in space was evaluated to differentiate the processes occurred in microgravity, possibly under effect of this factor and during first postflight hours. The biochemical results of studying the rats exposed to space environments during 7, 14, 18.5 and 19.5 days and sacrificed 4-11 h after landing (Cosmos-782, -936, -1129, -1667, -2044 flight) are used. The major portion of data are in line with understanding that after landing when the microgravity-adapted rats again return to 1-g environments they display an acute stress reaction. A postflight stress reaction is manifested itself in a specific way as compared to adequate and well studied model of acute and chronic stress and dictates subsequent metabolic changes. Postflight together with the acute stressful and progressing readaptation shifts the metabolic signs of previous adaptation to microgravity are shown up. In the absence of engineering feasibility to control or record the state of metabolism inflight it can only presupposed what metabolic status is typical of the animals in space environments and that its development is triggered by a decreased secretion of the biologically active growth hormone. This concept is confirmed by the postflight data. PMID:1307036

  20. [Lipid peroxidation and the system of antioxidant protection in rats following a 13-day space flight on the Kosmos-1887 biosatellite].

    Markin, A A; Delenian, N V


    After a 13-day space mission, in the rats flown on Cosmos-1887 biosatellite the parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system--the contents of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases, tocopherol, total antioxidant activity (in blood plasma only), antioxidant enzyme activity (in tissues only)--superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathio peroxidase, glutathio reductase have been measured in the blood plasma, myocardium, skeletal muscles and liver. The liver level of diene conjugates, Schiff bases and tocopherol decreased, and an activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. In the skeletal muscles there was an elevation of diene conjugate contents followed by the decreases in malonic dialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity. In rat myocardium, superoxide dismutase activity and tocopherol levels increased significantly. In the blood plasma the levels of tocopherol, malonic dialdehyde and total antioxidant activity were elevated. It is concluded that the observed changes in lipid peroxidation developed probably in response to an effect of the last dynamic stage of space flight and during re-adapting to the Earth environments. PMID:1299445

  1. Comparison of cytogenetic effects in bone marrow of mice after the flight on the biosatellite "BION-M1" and the ground-based radiobiological experiment

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Ivanov, Alexander


    During space flight, the astronauts are exposed to radiation exposure at low doses with low dose rates, so one of the actual areas of Radiobiology is research of action of ionizing radiation in low and ultra-low doses. Violation of the chromosome apparatus of living biosystems, ranging from viruses and bacteria to humans, is the most reliable evidence of exposure to ionizing radiation. In this regard, the study of cytogenetic damage in the cells of humans and animals is central to space radiobiology (Fedorenko B.S., 2006). In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" (Sychev V.N. et al., 2014) was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite by method of cervical dislocation. The level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. The content of animals in the experiment with onboard equipment led to some increase in aberrant mitosis (2,3 ± 0,4%) and reduction of the mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION-M1" was a statistically significant increase in level of chromosome aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). According to VA Shurshakova (2014), the radiation dose to mice ranged from 32 to 72 mGy and relate to a range of small doses (ICRP, 2012). In this connection we conducted a series of experiments in the ground conditions, the aim of which was the study of earliest effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in mice irradiated with low doses of γ-irradiation of 10 to 200 mGy in the first 24 hours after exposure, i.e. within the first post-radiation exposure cell cycle. Studies were carried out on adult female mice outbred ICR (CD-1) - SPF category at the age of 4-4.5 months with an average

  2. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)


    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  3. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.


    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  4. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.


    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  5. Intramuscular calcium movements: Experiments from the Soviet Biosatellite Biocosmos

    Goblet, C.; Holy, X.; Mounier, Y.

    Experiments have been performed in skeletal muscle fibres from the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle of female rats. Changes in intramuscular calcium movements due to microgravity conditions have been tested by tension measurements in chemically skinned muscle fibres. Our results show that microgravity induces i) a decrease in maximal muscle strength developped by contractile proteins ii) a decrease of intensity and rate of both Ca release and Ca uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  6. [An experiment with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on the Kosmos-2044 biosatellite].

    Gavrilova, O V; Gabova, A V; Goriainova, L N; Filatova, E V


    Space experiment with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii demonstrated that the microgravity effects were noted in Chlamydomonas at both cellular and population levels: in space the cell size is increased, stage of active growth of the culture is extended, it contains the juvenile vegetative motile cells in greater quantities. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that in microgravity the changes in shape, structure and distribution of intracellular organelles and in volume ratio of organelles and cytoplasma are absent. Chlamydomonas data are in line with the results of the Infusoria and Chlorella experiments. PMID:1307032

  7. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Kosmos 1887

    Anikeeva, I. D.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A. M.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.; Benton, E. V.


    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied provided with various protective measures: the seeds were located inside the satellite and in open space, protected with aluminium foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminium foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can be thus regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  8. Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    Benton, E. V.; Anikeeva, I. D.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.


    The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied. The seeds were located inside the satellite in an open space, protected with aluminum foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminum foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival rate and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can thus be regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

  9. [Cytogenetic investigations of bone marrow cells from mice exposed onboard biosatellite "Bion-M1"].

    Dorozhkina, O V; Ivanov, A A


    The results of studying the mitotic activities and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells from C57/BL6N mice with the help of the anaphase technique in 12 hours after completion of the 30-day "Bion-M1" mission and ground-based experiment using flight equipment are presented. A statistically reliable decline of the mitotic activity (0.74%) was found in cells taken from the space flown animals. In the ground-based experiment, a statistically reliable downward trend in proliferative activity (1.37%) was revealed after the comparison with groups of vivarium control (1.46-1.53%). In both experiments mice increased the number of initial mitotic phases (prophase + metaphase) relative to the sum of anaphases and telophases. The number of aberrant mitoses grew reliably in the group of flight animals by 29.7%, whereas in the ground-based experiment an upward trend was insignificant as their number increased up to 2.3% only. In the vivarium controls aberrant mitoses constituted 1.75-1.8%. An increase in chromosomal aberrations was largely due to such abnormalities as fragments. These findings seem to have been a result of summation of the effects of radiation and other stressful factors in space flight. PMID:25958465

  10. [Histomorphometric analysis of the bones of rats on board the Kosmos 1667 biosatellite].

    Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Durnova, G N; Sakharova, Z F; Il'ina-Kakueva, E I


    Bones of the rats flown on Cosmos-1667 were examined histologically and histomorphometrically. It was found that 7-day exposure to weightlessness led to osteoporosis in the spongy matter of proximal metaphyses of tibia and, although to a lesser extent, in the spongiosa of lumbar vertebrae whereas no signs of osteoporosis were seen in the spongy matter of iliac bones. Osteoporosis in the spongy matter of the above bones developed largely due to the inhibition of bone neoformation, which was indicated by a decrease in the number and activity of osteoblasts. Increased bone resorption (as shown by a greater number and activity of osteoclasts) was observed only in the spongy matter of tibial metaphyses. It is emphasized that a reduction of the number of highly active osteoblasts in spongy bones is one of the early signs of inhibition of bone neoformation and development of osteoporosis. PMID:3695333

  11. [The vestibular apparatus of quail embryos in an experiment on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Lychakov, D V; Il'inskaia, E V; Dadasheva, O A; Gur'eva, T S


    The light microscope was used to study serial sections of labyrinths of quail embryos incubated and reared during 12 d orbiting of Cosmos 1129. On recovery the embryos were aged 9, 11.5 and 12 days. No significant deviations in the development of the vestibular apparatus in flight species were noted as compared to the controls. Given this and our experimental data about in-space development of fish and amphibians we may deduce that hypo-g does not exert a noticeable altering effect on the vestibular embryogenesis. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that in all otolith organs and semicircular channel ampules of the flight embryos cup-form neural endings innervating type I sensory cells were markedly swollen in contrast to the control. Earlier swollen cup-form nerve endings have been found in one adult rat after 7 days of space flight aboard Cosmos 1667. However, exposure in space does not bring about a substantial swelling of bud-like nerve endings which contact type II sensory cells. Thus, a conclusion may be drawn that spaceflight factors are liable to produce shifts in the type I sensory cell--cup-form nerve ending unit but they do not affect type II sensory cell--bud-like nerve ending unit to the extent when effects can be identified by light microscopy. PMID:8012306

  12. [Energy reactions in the skeletal muscles of rats following space flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Mailian, E S; Bruavkova, L B; Kokoreva, L V


    The respiration of mitochondria isolated from mixed skeletal muscles of hindlimbs of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 was investigated polarographically. At R + 10 hours the rate of mitochondrial respiration in different metabolic states during the oxidation of succinic acid and NAD-dependent substrates declined. The enzyme activity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and cytosol lactate dehydrogenase diminished. At R + 25 days both aerobic and anaerobic oxidative processes increased, thus leading to the recovery of the parameters (sometimes they not only returned to the norm but exceeded it). PMID:6294407

  13. [Circadian rhythms and temperature homeostasis in monkeys during a flight on the Kosmos 1514 biosatellite

    Klimovitskui, V. Ia; Alpatov, A. M.; Salzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. S.


    In the course of a 5-day space flight of two rhesus-monkeys the following parameters were recorded at an interval of 16 min: core body temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Ts), and motor activity (MA). The telemetric Tc sensor was implanted subcutaneously in the right axilla, Ts thermistor was attached to the right ankle, and the MA piezotape was fixed to the inner side of the vest. Circadian rhythms of Tc varied with a period of 24 hours in one monkey and 25 hours in the other. The daily Tc decreased on the average by 0.5 degrees C, Ts fell immediately after launch and remained close to the lower limit throughout the flight. The Ts amplitude decreased 5-fold. Phases of the circadian rhythms of Ts changed and circadian rhythms of MA remained unchanged and equal to 24 hours.

  14. The Kosmos-1129 biosatellite. [experiments in biological effects of space flight

    Nikitin, S. A.


    A number of experiments, designed by participating specialists from several countries, are described. The experiments included studies in biorhythm, stress, body parts, behavior, ontogenesis, and gravitational preference. The biological subjects of the experiments were retrieved immediately after the landing of the satellite and examined in a field laboratory.

  15. [Stereological analysis of rat bone tissue after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Prokhonchukov, A A; Peschanskiĭ, V S


    Stereological measurements of volume fractions of 53 samples of compact and spongy structures of bones of 15 rats were carried out. The measurements were performed on cortical lamellae, trabecules and lacunae, channels of osteons and matrices of femoral, tibial and fibular bones of rats. Postflight no significant changes were seen in the above parameters as compared to the vivarium controls. During readaptation to I g a slight increase in the volume fraction of spongy bones was noted. PMID:6750237

  16. [Energy reactions in the skeletal muscles of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Mailian, E S; Buravkova, L B; Kokoreva, L V


    The polarographic analysis of biological oxidation in rat skeletal muscles after the 18.5-day flight revealed changes specific for the flight animals: oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling, distinct inertness of energy accumulation 10 hrs after recovery. Tissue respiration inhibition occurred in both flight and synchronous rats suggesting the effect of other than weightlessness factors. In the flight animals the parameters of energy metabolism returned to the prelaunch level within a longer (29 days) time than in the synchronous rats (6 days). Muscles of different function (predominance of fast or slow fibers) showed similar responses of energy metabolism to weightlessness, i. e. inhibition of the intensity and decrease of the energy efficiency of oxidative processes. PMID:6876715

  17. [Characteristics of the rat nystagmic reaction after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Shipov, A A; Tabakova, L A


    The vestibular nystagmus of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 was examined with reference to the latent period, number of beats, duration and the average velocity. The nystagmus was elicited by increasing angular acceleration of 10, 20, 30 degrees/sec2. As compared to the controls, the flown animals showed a significant inhibition of the nystagmic reaction (P less than less than 0.001). The inhibition can be attributed to the desynchronosis which developed inflight. PMID:7176506

  18. [Reproductive function of the male rat after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Serova, L V; Denisova, L A; Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Meĭzerov, E S


    Male rats that were flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 were mated postflight with intact females. The mating 5 days postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects in the mature stage yielded the litter which lagged behind the controls with respect to the growth and development during the first postnatal month. The mating 2.5-3 months postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects at the stem cell stage yielded the litter which did not differ from the control. PMID:6890601

  19. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M


    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  20. [Medullary layer activity of the rat adrenals after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Kvetnanský, R; Blazicek, P; Tigranian, R A


    After a 18.5-day space flight on Cosmos-1129 rat adrenals were investigated for the concentration of catecholamines and activity of enzymes involved in their synthesis, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and phenyl ethanol amine-N-methyl transferase. It was found that inflight the sympatho-adreno-medullary system of rats was not exposed to a prolonged or strong stressogenic effect. Postflight the rats showed an increased reactivity to the immobilization stress. PMID:7120908

  1. [RNA-synthesizing activity in the liver of rats after a flight on the Kosmos 1667 biosatellite].

    Makeeva, V F; Komolova, G S


    The effect of a short-term flight (7 days) on the RNA synthetic activity in isolated nuclei of the rat liver and its content of nucleic acids was investigated. Postflight the activity of RNA-polymerase, the key enzyme of RNA synthesis, increased. The endogenous synthesis of RNA in nuclei grew, probably, due to the change in the activity of RNA-polymerase. Conversely, the concentration of nucleic acids in the liver tended to decrease. The results obtained give evidence that the changes in the RNA synthetic apparatus of hepatocytes in short-term flights are similar in sign to those seen in long-term flights. PMID:2447326

  2. [The righting reaction in free fall in labyrinthectomized rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Aĭzikov, G S; Markin, A S; Shipov, A A


    The paper presents the experimental data on a turning over reaction in labyrinthectomized rats after 18.5 day flight on Cosmos 936. On Earth, the labyrinthectomized rats are found to exhibit with time an activation of gaze fixation reflex (GFR) which substitutes for labyrinth function when executed a turning over reaction. In microgravity, in the labyrinthectomized rats there is no activation of GFR and postflight turning over reaction is absent in the rats. PMID:1297502

  3. [The C-cell system of the thyroid in rats following a flight on the Kosmos 1667 biosatellite].

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I; Dmitrieva, N P; Amirkhanian, E A


    Histological, electron-microscopic and morphometric investigations of the thyroid gland of Wistar SPF male rats (aged 3 months) flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 showed that its parenchyma was functionally active and changed but little as compared to the controls. However, at an acute stage of adaptation to microgravity C-cells showed morphological signs of their functional decline: the number of low activity cells and cells whose cytoplasm contained secretory granules increased, the volume of nuclei decreased significantly (by 16.2% as compared to the control), and dystrophic changes seen ultrastructurally appeared. These observations together with the results obtained in prolonged animal flights suggest that in microgravity the synthesis and excretion of the hormone calcitonin diminish. In combination with other factors, the functional decline of C-cells inhibits bone neoformation and enhances bone resorption. PMID:2967902

  4. [The righting reaction in the free fall of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Aĭzikov, G S; Markin, A S; Shipov, A A


    The free fall turning over reaction has been studied in the weightless and centrifuged rats flown on board Cosmos 936. There occur particular changes of the reaction in the weightless rats after landing and its complete absence in eyes-closed centrifuged rats. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations are discussed. PMID:1299453

  5. [Cytogenetic effects in experimental exposure to the heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N


    The experiment was carried out on lattice (Lactuca sativa) seeds flown in a biocontainer equipped with plastic detectors to record heavy charged particles (HCP). The purpose of the experiment was to determine the yield of aberrant cells as a result of irradiation, and to identify this effect as a function of HCP topography in the seed. The cytogenetic examination of flight seedlings revealed a significant difference between the seeds which were hit with HCP and those that remained intact. This indicates a significant contribution of the heavy component of galactic cosmic rediation into the radiobiological effect. The relationship between the radiobiological effect and the HCP topography in the seed was established: zones of the root and stem meristema proved to be most sensitive targets. PMID:7120912

  6. [An immunocytochemical study of the C-cell function of the thyroid in rats exposed on the Kosmos-2044 biosatellite].

    Loginov, V I


    Immunocytochemical analysis of thyroid gland C-cells of the rats exposed to a 14-day space flight revealed a decrease in the number of C-cells, volume of their nuclei and a declined percentage of active secretory C-cells, which point to a decline of calcitonin proactive and calcitonin secretory hypofunction of the thyroid C-cells system in flown rats. Tail suspension as a microgravity model caused similar changes in C-cells. PMID:8012307

  7. Conditioned reflex activity of rats at later periods after the end of flight aboard the Kosmos-605 biosatellite

    Livshits, N. N.; Meyzerov, Y. S.; Apanasenko, Z. I.; Kuznetsova, M. A.


    The aftereffects of spaceflight on the higher nervous activity of rats were studied. A five lane maze with a feeding terminal was used to check such factors as transfer of experience, the habit and speed of reaching the goal in the maze, long term memory, and the dynamics of errors. During the 3rd-7th postflight week, functional disturbances in the rat HNA were manifested in the deterioration of the capacity for the transfer of experience and for locating the feeding compartment in the maze, thus indicating a general decrease of work capacity. The increased number of errors and failures pointed to exhaustion of higher nervous processes and to the weakened functional activity of the brain.

  8. [General characteristics of an experiment to study the ontogeny of rats on board the Kosmos-1514 biosatellite].

    Serova, L V; Denisova, L A; Apanasenko, Z I; Briantseva, L A; Chel'naia, N A


    Ten female Wistar rats were exposed to zero-g during 5 days, i. e., from gestation day 13 to day 18. After recovery the flight animals showed a significant delay in weight gain, thymus involution, decreased liver weight, hemoglobin concentration. Nevertheless, their reproductive function did not differ from that of the controls: the rate of preimplantation and total fetal mortality as well as the number of live fetuses were very similar in the experimental and control animals. The flight group showed a slight decline of fetal weight and water content. The size of the litters produced by the flight and control rats was identical but the mortality rate of those former during the first 7 days after birth was significantly higher. This experiment has demonstrated that the mammalian fetus exposed to zero-g during the last term of pregnancy, i. e., at the stage of active organogenesis, can grow and develop in the normal way. A large body of biological material has been obtained for biochemical and histological examinations that will help evaluate the condition of dams, fetuses, and newborns. PMID:3990234

  9. [Enzyme activity in the subcellular fractions of the liver of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Tigranian, R A; Vetrova, E G; Abraham, S; Lin, C; Klein, H


    The activities of malate, isocitrate, and lactate dehydrogenases were measured in the liver mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic fractions of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. The activities of the oxidative enzymes, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial fraction and those of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in the cytoplasmatic fraction were found to decrease. PMID:6855177

  10. [Deoxyribonucleoprotein and nucleic acid changes in the tissues of rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Misŭrova, E U; TIgranian, R A; Sabova, T; Prasliĭcka, M


    The concentration of polydeoxyribonucleotides and nucleic acids was measured in the spleen, thymus, liver, bone marrow and blood of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129. The exposure led to an increase in the polydeoxyribonucleotide content in the thymus and a decrease of the DNA and RNA concentration in the spleen and thymus. These changes returned to normal at R+6. PMID:6181292

  11. Experiment K-7-30: Effects of Spaceflight in the Cosmos Biosatellite 2044 on the Vestibular-Ocular Reflex (VOR) of Rhesus Monkeys

    Cohen, B.; Cohen, N.; Helwig, D.; Solomon, D.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Sirota, M.; Yakushin, S.; Raphan, T.


    This technical paper discusses the following: (1) The VOR of two rhesus monkeys was studied before and after 14 days of spaceflight to determine effects of microgravity on the VOR. Horizontal, vertical and roll eye movements were recorded in these and six other monkeys implanted with scleral search coils. Animals were rotated about a vertical axis to determine the gain of the horizontal, vertical and roll VOR. They were rotated about axes tilted from the vertical (off-vertical axis rotation, OVAR) to determine steady state gains and effects of gravity on modulations in eye position and eye velocity. They were also tested for tilt dumping of post-rotatory nystagmus. (2) The gain of the horizontal VOR was close to unity when animals were tested 15 and 18 hours after flight. VOR gain values were similar to those registered before flight. If the gain of the horizontal VOR changes in microgravity, it must revert to normal soon after landing. (3) Steady state velocities of nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) were unchanged by adaptation to microgravity, and the phase of the modulations was similar before and after flight. However, modulations in horizontal eye velocity had more variation after landing and were on mean about 50% larger for angles of tilt of the axis of rotation between 50 and 90?/s after flight. This difference was similar in both animals and was significant. (4) A striking finding was that tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested for this function. This loss persisted for several days after return. This is reminiscent of the loss of response to pitch while rotating in the M-131 experiments of Skylab, and must be studied in detail in future spaceflights. (5) Thus, two major findings emerged from these studies: after spaceflight the modulation of horizontal eye velocity was larger during OVAR, and one animal lost its ability to tilt-dump its nystagmus. Both findings are consistent with the postulate that adaptation to microgravity causes alterations in the way that otolith information is processed in the central nervous system. The experiments lay the groundwork for studying the vertical and roll VOR before and after future space flights, as well as for studying modulations in vertical and roll eye position during OVAR and tilt dumping.

  12. [Morphofunctional properties of the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Kozinets, G I; Korol'kov, V I; Britvan, I I; Bykova, I A; Spitsyna, N E


    Morphofunctional properties of peripheral blood cells of Cosmos-936 rats were examined, using morphological, interferometric and electron microscopic techniques. As follows from the morphological data, immediately after recovery the weightless rats showed symptoms of a stress reaction which disappeared by R+3. The centrifuged rats exhibited less expressed symptoms of this sort. The percentage of bone marrow cell distribution was shifted towards enhanced myelopoiesis and diminished erythropoiesis. By the end of the readaptation period the ratio of bone marrow cell composition returned to normal. Interferometric and electron microscopic examinations did not reveal any irreversible changes in the structure and function of cells that may be caused by zero-g. PMID:6855176

  13. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A


    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity. PMID:2586059

  14. Main results of the experiments conducted during the flight of the Kosmos-1129 Biosatellite and the status of preparation of studies on the next biosatllite

    Ilin, E. A.


    Experiments included studies on the biological effects of weightlessness. Space flight stress, disorientation, and physiological factors are discussed for each experimental subject. The subjects included rats, drosophila flies, and plants. Metabolic rates were monitored along with other changes in the subject's activity cycles.

  15. [Effect of stress on nucleic acid metabolism in the rat spleen and liver after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Komolova, G S; Troitskaia, E N; Egorov, I A; Tigranian, R A


    Changes in nucleic acid metabolism of the spleen and liver of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-112 were investigated. Postflight changes in the liver RNA synthesis after an additional stress effect (immobilization) in the flown rats were expressed to a lesser degree than in the controls. The DNA synthesis remained essentially at the preflight level. The tissue content of nucleic acids suggests that postflight the dystrophic changes induced by the additional stress effect increased. It is very likely that an exposure to space flight effects contributes to the depletion of compensatory mechanisms maintaining the normal level of metabolic processes. PMID:6183483

  16. Full-genome study of gene expression in lumbar spinal cord of mice after 30-day space flight on Bion-M1 biosatellite

    Islamov, R. R.; Gusev, O. A.; Tanabe, A.; Terada, M.; Tyapkina, O. V.; Petrov, K. A.; Rizvanov, A. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Nikolskiy, E. E.; Grigorjev, A. I.


    Zero-gravity is one of the factors that negatively affect a man in space and it is not a surprise as the evolution of all living things proceeded in a one-G environment. The negative effects of zero-gravity set in while in space, but clinically manifest themselves following the cosmonauts' return to Earth, the usual one-G environment. All the systems of the organism, which adapted to the virtually weight-free environment, become incapable of regular performance in a one-G environment.

  17. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Fox, L.


    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  18. [Effect of weightlessness on the indices of brain development (the results of pregnant rats being on the Kosmos-1514 biosatellite and research on the subsequent development of their progeny on Earth)].

    Olenev, S N; Danilov, A R; Kriuchkova, T A; Sorokina, L M; Krasnov, I B


    Beginning from the 13th day of pregnancy the rats were under conditions of weightlessness of spaceflight for 6 days. After landing in 18-day-old fetuses the state of their brain development is investigated comparing to that in control animals, that are on the Earth. As demonstrates analysis of a number of morphological processes: reproduction, migration, neuronal differentiation, growth of processes, establishment of nervous connections, neuroglial interconnections and vascularization--all they under conditions of weightlessness develop rather fully. Certain deviations in vascularization (as examples the medulla oblongata and the striated tuber are taken) are observed--the amount of vessels is greater and they are thinner--and changes in migration rate of cells is demonstrated by the example of the cortical plate formation. These changes are quickly levelled during their subsequent development on the Earth. PMID:3426406

  19. Support of ASTP/KOSMOS fundulus embryo development experiment

    Fuller, P. M.; Keefe, J. R.


    Results from the Kosmos Biosatellite 782 flight are presented. Experiments with fish hatchlings are discussed along with postflight observation and testing. The preparation of fertilized eggs for the experiments is described.

  20. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.


    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  1. Dosimetric investigations of cosmic radiation aboard the Kosmos-936 AES (joint Soviet-American experiment K-206)

    Benton, E. V.; Kovalyev, Y. Y.; Dudkin, V. Y.


    The Soviet and American parts of the experiment are described separately. Particular attention was given to the following problems: placement of the detectors; study of neutron radiation within the biosatellite; and studies of fragmentation of heavy nuclei on accelerators. Unified methods were developed for the calibration of Soviet and American detectors.

  2. [Ultrastructural changes in transverse striated muscles under the influence of space flight factors].

    Pozdniakov, O M; Babakova, L L; Demorzhi, M S


    The influence of space flight (on the biosatellite "Kosmos-1667") on muscles (diaphragmatic, soleus, gastrocnemius) was studied by electron microscope. Muscles had destructive and atrophic changes. The rate of changes was maximal in m. soleus, minimal in the diaphragmatic m. However, some regeneration was found demonstrating the reversibility of changes. PMID:2974735

  3. Space flight and radiaton effects on aminoacid metabolism in skeletal muscles of rats

    The results are presented on the investigation of aminoacid metabolism in the skeletal muscles of rats after the flight on the Cosmos-690 biosatellite. It is demonstrated that a combined effect of 20.5 - day space flight and gamma-irradiation at doses of 220, 670 and 955 rad has reduced the content of a number of biologically important aminoacids and inhileited the activity of aspartate aminotransferase of sarcoplasmatic proteins

  4. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Spaceflight

    Fuller, Charles A. (Principal Investigator)


    This program examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2229 were exposed to 11 2/3 days of microgravity. The circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity were monitored constantly. This experiment has extended previous observations from COSMOS 1514 and 2044, as well as provided insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.


    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M


    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:26554128

  6. The combined effects of ionizing radiation and weightlessness on calcium and phosphorus content in the mineral fraction of the calcified tissues in the rat skeleton

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Komissarova, N. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Novikov, L. L.


    Phosphorus and calcium content in the ash from skeletal bones (ribs, scapula, vertebra, and crus) of 30 rats exposed to ionizing radiation (800 rads) on the flight of the Kosmos 690 biosatellite was studied. A 10 percent decrease in ash content coefficient and 29 percent decrease in phosphorus content was found immediately after the flight, and a 9 percent decrease in phosphorus content persisted after 26 days of readaptation to terrestrial conditions.

  7. Experiment K-6-13. Morphological and biochemical examination of heart tissue. Part 1: Effects of microgravity on the myocardial fine structure of rats flown on Cosmos 1887. Ultrastructure studies. Part 2: Cellular distribution of cyclic ampdependent protein kinase regulatory subunits in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, Jaime; Mednieks, M. I.; Sapp, W.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.


    The left ventricle of hearts from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days was compared to the same tissue of synchronous and vivarium control animals maintained in a ground based laboratory. The volume density of the mitochondria in the myocardium of the space-flown animals was statistically less (p equal less than 0.01) than that of the synchronous or vivarium control rats. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a certain degree of myocardial degeneration manifested in mitochondrial changes and accumulation of myeloid bodies. Generalized myofibrillar edema was also observed.

  8. Lipid peroxidation of plants under microgravity and its simulation

    Zhadko, S. I.; Polulyakh, Yu. A.; Vorobyeva, T. V.; Baraboy, V. A.


    In series of space experiments a board the biosatellites ``Cosmos 1887'', ``Bion 9'', the orbital stations ``Salut'', ``Mir'' and under clinostating, changes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidation activity (AOA) of Chlorella, Haplopappus tissue culture, wheat and pea roots were determined. The changes had a complex fluctuation character three steps of response were established; LPO decreasing accompanied by AOA increase; stabilization LPO⇄AOA balance; secondary LPO activation. Most early and highly amplitude decreasing of LPO were fixed in mitochondria. The rate of response have been increased on multicellular level of plants organization.

  9. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)


    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  10. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.


    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  11. HZE particle radiation studies aboard Kosmos 782

    A joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. investigation of high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiation was carried out on the Kosmos 782 biosatellite using plastic nuclear track detectors. HZE particle radiation inside the satellite was found to be strongly anisotropic, with flux values ranging from 0.13 to 5.15/cm2 day. The integral LET spectrum of HZE particles inside Kosmos 782 was similar to Skylab, both exhibiting a sharp decrease toward high LET values. Surprisingly few cosmic-ray Fe nuclei were measured inside Kosmos 782, possibly due to fragmentation in spacecraft materials. (author)

  12. Cosmos 1887 mission overview - Effects of microgravity on rat body and adrenal weights and plasma constituents

    Grindeland, R. E.; Vasques, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Popova, I. A.


    Tissues of male, specific pathogen-free Wistar rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite are studied. First the mission is described, and then analytical methods are outlined. It is noted that flight rats grew more slowly and had larger adrenal glands than earth gravity controls. Analysis of plasma reveals increased concentrations of hepatic alkaline phosphatase, glucose, urea nitrogen, and creatinine in flight rats. In contrast, electrolytes, total protein, albumin, corticosteron, prolactin, and immunoreactive growth hormone levels are unchanged. However, testosterone concentration is marginally decreased after flight and thyroid hormone levels are suggestive of reduced thyroid function.

  13. Urodelean amphibians in studies on microgravity: effects upon organ and tissue regeneration

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Anton, H. J.

    Results obtained from nine experiments performed onboard Russian biosatellites have shown that microgravity promotes tissue regeneration in the newt, Pleurodeles waltl. The effect has been reproduced in all flights and on a clinostat as well for eye tissues (lens and retina), limbs and tail. The effect was demonstrated in 1.5- to 2 -fold increase in cell proliferation in the early stages of regeneration in space flight. Animals "flown" intact and operated after flight regenerated faster than control ones and showed long-lasting micro-"g" effect. The most recent experiment flew aboard the Bion-11 biosatellite. This test was performed for study on microgravity effect on neural retina regeneration after optic nerve lesioning in the newt. Obtained results confirmed our previous information about intensification of regenerative processes in detached neural retina in urodela exposed to simulated weightlessness (Grigoryan et al., 1998). In particular, we found the increase and activation of cell populations participating in neural retina restoration and maintenance of retinal structure. Our findings suggest that promoting effect of microgravity upon regeneration could be influenced by several factors, largely influenced by a response of the whole organism to changed gravity vector. We hypothesized the synthesis of the specific range of stress proteins induced by micro-"g" and their regulative role in cell proliferation. Such a hypothesis for the existence of "altered gravity stress proteins" is discussed.

  14. Effects of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

    Nedukha, O M; Leach, J E; Ryba-White, M; Hilaire, E; Guikema, J; Kordyum, E L


    The study of pathogenicity of higher plants under conditions of microgravity is of great importance for the future production of food in space. Previous work suggests that microgravity affects both microbes and plants. Bacterial numbers increased after 17 days in an algae-bacterium association on the biosatellite "Kosmos-1887". This was speculated to result from an increase in the multiplication rate of the bacteria. Sporangia of both Actinomices brevis, in the shuttles "Soyuz-19" and "Appolon", and Phycomyces blakes, in biosatellite "Kosmos-936", formed after 10 days in microgravity. Sporangia did not form in the ground controls in the same time suggesting that the rate of fungal development is enhanced in microgravity. Plant responses to pathogens in microgravity have not been studied, however, microgravity profoundly impacts plant cell development, cytology, and physiology. In microgravity, developing cell walls are thinner and contain less lignin than ground-grown plants. The demonstrated effects of microgravity on both plants and microbes lead us to hypothesize that plants may be more susceptible to pathogens under conditions of microgravity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to the fungal root rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. PMID:11542328

  15. U.S. biological experiments in space

    Klein, H. P.


    The history of biologic experimentation in space is traced. Early balloon and rocket borne animals showed no abnormalities on the macroscale, and biosatellite launches with bacteria and amoebae revealed no microscopic dysfunctions. Adult Drosophila flies on board Cosmos spacecraft died with a shortened lifespan, while their offspring lived full lifespans. Green pepper plants grown in weightlessness showed a different orientation, but no physiological disturbances. Normal bone growth in rats has been found to almost cease after 11 days in space, and the mean life span of red blood cells decreases by four days. A series of experiments designed by U.S. scientists will be performed on primates provided and flown by the U.S.S.R. Finally, experiments on board Spacelab will involve determination of the persistence of circadian rhythms in bacteria and humans.

  16. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.


    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  17. Biochemical changes in rat liver after 18.5 days of spaceflight (41566)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C.Y.; Volkmann, C. M.; Klein, H. P.


    The effect of weightlessness on liver metabolism was investigated using tissue from rats flown in earth orbit for 18.5 days on the Soviet Cosmos 936 biosatellite and the changes in the activities of 28 carbohydrate and lipid enzymes were determined. The activities of two enzymes, palmitoyl-CoA desaturase and lactate dehydrogenase, increased, while the activities of five, glycogen phosphorylase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, both acyltransferases which act on alpha-glycerolphosphate and diglycerides, and and aconitate hydratase decreased. The other enzyme activities were found to be unchanged. In addition, increased levels of liver glycogen and palmitoleate were detected which probably resulted from the lowered glycogen phosphorylase and increased palmitoyl-CoA desaturase activities, respectively, in those animals that experienced weightlessness. All of the changes observed in the rats after 18.5 days of spaceflight disappear by 25 days after the flight.

  18. Morphometric analysis of rat muscle fibers following space flight and hypogravity

    Chui, L. A.; Castleman, K. R.


    The effect of hypogravity on striate muscles, containing both fast twitch glycolytic and slow twitch oxidative fibers, was studied in rats aboard two Cosmos biosatellites. Results of a computer-assisted image analysis of extensor digitorum muscles from five rats, exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and processed for the alkaline ATPase reaction, showed a reduction of the mean fiber diameter (41.32 + or - 0.55 microns), compared to synchronous (46.32 + or - 0.55 microns) and vivarium (49 + or - 0.5 microns) controls. A further experiment studied the ratio of fast to slow twitch fibers in 25 rats exposed to 18.5 days of hypogravity and analyzed at four different periods of recovery following the space flight. Using the previous techniques, the gastrocnemius muscle showed a reduction of the total muscle fiber area in square microns and a reduction in the percentage of slow fibers of flight animals compared to the control animals.

  19. Man in space: The use of animal models

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    Animals have traditionally preceded man into space. During animal and human travels in space over the past almost 30 years, numerous anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes have been observed. In order to safely qualify humans for extended duration space missions, scientific research needs to be performed. It may be possible to achieve many of these research goals with flight crews serving as experimental subjects; however, to do this with human subjects alone is impractical. Therefore, the use of animal surrogates as experimental subjects is essential to provide the missing information on the effects of spaceflights, to validate countermeasures, and to test medical treatment techniques which will be necessary for long duration missions. This research to assure human health, safety, and productivity in future extended duration space flights will include flights on NASA's Space Shuttle, unmanned biosatellites, and the Space Station Freedom.

  20. Effects of weightlessness, gravity compensation and radiation on the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum

    Tribolium confusum, the flour beetle; was chosen as a test organism for determination of possible synergistic effects of radiation and space environment in the inertial flight of Biosatellite-II. The organism subjected to weightlessness and radiation during the flight exhibited greater than expected wing abnormalities. However, a postflight vibration control experiment produced anomalous results, and some doubt remained with respect to assigning weightlessness as the sole cause of the increased wing abnormalities. Results are reported from experiments performed on the interaction of gravity compensation, radiation, and Tribolium development. It was found that gravity compensation together with heavy ion irradiation did not cause more wing abnormalities than those caused by radiation alone. However, radiation and gravity compensation plus high temperature did cause an increased percentage of wing abnormalities. Two possible reasons are discussed

  1. The Fiber Contractility and Cytoskeleton Losses in Space are Less Pronounced in Mongolian Gerbils

    Lipets, E. N.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Ogneva, I. V.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Karaduleva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Kuznetsov, S. L.; Podlubnaia, Z. A.; Shenkman, B. S.


    This work was purposed on the comparison of space flight effects on m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior of Mongolian gerbils. The animals have been flown onboard biosatellite Foton-M3 for 12 days. Contractile properties of single skinned muscle fibers were studied. It was revealed that diameter of m. soleus skinned fibers and maximal isometric tension were decreased by 19.7% and 21.8% respectively. The Ca-sensitivity reduction wasn't significant, that was in accordance with absence of changes of titin and nebulin relative content in soleus and minor manifestations in slow-to-fast fiber ratio (9%, p<0.05). There weren't observed significant changes of the same parameters in m. tibialis anterior. Ultimately the fiber contractility and cytoskeleton losses in space are less pronounced in Mongolian gerbils than in rats.

  2. Pancreas of C57 black mice after long-term space flight (Bion-M1 Space Mission)

    Proshchina, A. E.; Krivova, Y. S.; Saveliev, S. C.


    In this study, we analysed the pancreases of C57BL/6N mice in order to estimate the effects of long-term space flights. Mice were flown aboard the Bion-M1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control group was used to account for housing effects. Each of the groups included mice designated for recovery studies. Mice pancreases were dissected for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Using a morphometry and statistical analysis, a strong correlation between the mean islet size and the mean body weight was revealed in all groups. Therefore, we propose that hypokinesia and an increase in nutrition play an important role in alterations of the endocrine pancreas, both in space flight and terrestrial conditions.

  3. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.


    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  4. Review of primary spaceflight-induced and secondary reloading-induced changes in slow antigravity muscles of rats

    Riley, D. A.

    We have examined the light and electron microscopic properties of hindlimb muscles of rats flown in space for 1-2 weeks on Cosmos biosatellite flights 1887 and 2044 and Space Shuttle missions Spacelab-3, Spacelab Life Sciences-1 and Spacelab Life Sciences-2. Tissues were obtained both inflight and postflight permitting definition of primary microgravity-induced changes and secondary reentry and gravity reloading-induced alterations. Spaceflight causes atrophy and expression of fast fiber characteristics in slow antigravity muscles. The stresses of reentry and reloading reveal that atrophic muscles show increased susceptibility to interstitial edema and ischemic-anoxic necrosis as well as muscle fiber tearing with disruption of contractile proteins. These results demonstrate that the effects of spaceflight on skeletal muscle are multifaceted, and major changes occur both inflight and following return to Earth's gravity.

  5. Facilities for animal research in space

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.; Kishiyama, Jenny S.; Arno, Roger D.


    The animal facilities used aboard or designed for various spacecraft research missions are described. Consideration is given to the configurations used in Cosmos-1514 (1983) and Cosmos-1887 (1987) missions; the reusable Biosatellite capsule flown three times by NASA between 1966 and 1969; the NASA's Lifesat spacecraft that is being currently designed; the Animal Enclosure Module flown on Shuttle missions in 1983 and 1984; the Research Animal Holding Facility developed for Shuttle-Spacelab missions; the Rhesus Research Facility developed for a Spacelab mission; and the Japanese Animal Holding Facility for the Space Station Freedom. Special attention is given to the designs of NASA's animal facilities developed for Space Station Freedom and the details of various subsystems of these facilities. The main characteristics of the rodent and the primate habitats provided by these various facilities are discussed.

  6. Future prospects for space life sciences from a NASA perspective

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.


    Plans for future NASA research programs in the life sciences are reviewed. Consideration is given to international cooperation in space life science research, the NASA approach to funding life science research, and research opportunities using the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and Biological Satellites. Several specific programs are described, including the Centrifuge Project to provide a controlled acceleration environment for microgravity studies, the Rhesus Project to conduct biomedical research using rhesus monkeys, and the LifeSat international biosatellite project. Also, the Space Biology Initiative to design and develop life sciences laboratory facilities for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station and the Extended Duration Crew Operations program to study crew adaptation needs are discussed.

  7. [The effect of space flight factors on the peripheral blood in the newt Pleurodeles waltlii].

    Domaratskaia, E I; Mirchurina, T V; Nikonova, T M; Khrushchov, N G


    The effects of space flight factors (SFF) on the peripheral blood in Pleurodeles waltlii were assessed after 12-day flight on board of the biosatellite "Kosmos-2229". These animals were also used to study regeneration of the limb, tail and lens. The corresponding control groups of animals allowed to distinguish between the effects of the operation, non-specific and specific SFFs: (1) basal control-operated animals; (2) synchronous control-operated animals kept on the Earth under the same conditions as the flight group, and (3) intact animals. It has been shown that the relative content of neutrophils (mostly, young forms) increased and the proportion of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased under the influence of SFFs, while the capacity of blood cells for DNA synthesis was not affected. A conclusion has been drawn that the Spanish newts can be used for adequate studies of the SFF effects on the hemopoietic tissue. PMID:7987203

  8. Ionizing radiation fluxes and dose measurements during the Kosmos 1887 satellite flight.

    Charvat, J; Spurny, F; Kopecka, B; Votockova, I


    The results of dosimetric experiments performed during the flight of Kosmos 1887 biosatellite are presented. Two kinds of measurements were performed on the external surface of the satellite. First, the fluences and spectra of low energy charged particles were established. It was found that most of the particles registered by means of solid state nuclear track detectors are helium nuclei. Tracks of oxygen nuclei and some heavier charged particles were also observed. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to establish absorbed doses in open space on the satellite's surface and behind thin shielding. It was found that these doses were rather high; nevertheless, their decrease with shielding thickness is very rapid. Dosimetric and other consequences of the results obtained are analyzed and discussed. PMID:11537509

  9. [Microgravity, life span and biological age of animals].

    Serova, L V


    Summarized are author's and literary data about the microgravity effects on life span and biological age of animals obtained in experiments with laboratory rats flown in biosatellites Kosmos. Exposure of rats in the spaceflight microgravity as long as 3 wk. (up to 1/50th of the life period of this species) did not reduce the life span post flight. Alterations in biological age as judged by the reproductive function, general resistance and tissue regeneration rate were minor and in a number of parameters were significantly less as compared with the shifts resulting from simulation of the physiological effects of microgravity in laboratory (for a similar period). Prospects of investigations into this problem are considered. PMID:12442585

  10. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"].

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G


    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed. PMID:2512415

  11. [New experimental models in microbial ecology].

    Liz'ko, N N


    Peculiar features of dysbiosis development in persons under extreme conditions were studied. It was shown that a number of extreme factors participated in formation of dysbiotic disorders in intestinal microflora. Of paramount importance was the neuro-emotional stress. Lability of bifido- and lactoflora was considered as the starting mechanism in dysbacteriosis under the extreme conditions. In the experimental models with rats SPF and Primates during flights of biosatellites of the Kosmos series the role of indigenous++ microflora in maintaining the microecological homeostasis, as well as the need for development of artificial and controlled intestinal microflora promising in prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis under extreme conditions was shown. The theoretical and experimentally grounded necessity of maintaining constant intestine microbiocenosis was confirmed by the practice of using the system of measures for recovery, stabilization and optimization of microflora in persons under extreme conditions. PMID:2802876

  12. Influence of repetitive Gz acceleration on structural and metabolic profile of m. vastus lateralis in monkeys exposed to 30 day bedrest.

    Belozerova, I N; Matveeva, O A; Kuznetsov, S L; Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S


    It was shown that changes in structural and metabolic indices of extensor muscles of the lower extremities were usually found in man after exposure to space flight or to bed rest. Similar changes were also observed in monkeys, space-flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites. Response to weightlessness and to restraint was found to be different in m. soleus and in m. vastus lateralis. Therefore, it is important to study structural and metabolic changes of m. vastus lateralis fibers under conditions of gravitational unloading in monkeys, who have motor apparatus similar to that of man, and are much more fruitful object of research. It is assumed that artificial gravity can serve as a countermeasure, aimed at diminishing effects of gravitational unloading. We have studied the effect of repeated gravity overloading, created by means of a centrifuge, on structural and metabolic indices of monkey m. vastus lateralis at the background of 30 day head down tilt bed rest (BR). PMID:12697551

  13. Ionizing radiation fluxes and dose measurements during the Kosmos 1887 satellite flight

    The results of dosimetric experiments performed during the flight of Kosmos 1887 biosatellite are presented. Two kinds of measurements were performed on the external surface of the satellite. First, the fluences and spectra of low energy charged particles were established. It was found that most of the particles registered by means of solid state nuclear track detectors are helium nuclei. Tracks of oxygen nuclei and some heavier charged particles were also observed. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to establish absorbed doses in open space on the satellite's surface and behind thin shielding. It was found that these doses were rather high; nevertheless, their decrease with shielding thickness is very rapid. Dosimetric and other consequences of the results obtained are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  14. Investigation of cooling properties of the gaseous medium of a space station

    Baranski, S.; Blosznyski, R.; Hermaszewski, M.; Kubiczkowa, J.; Piorko, A.; Saganiak, R.; Sarol, Z.; Skibniewski, F.; Stendera, J.; Walichnowski, W.


    An investigation of cooling properties of the gaseous medium was performed in the biosatellite Kosmos-936 as well as in the orbital complexes Soyuz-28/Salyut-6 and Soyuz-30/Salyut-6 with the aid of an especially constructed electric dynamic catathermometer. In this instrument current was measured which was necessary to keep a steady settled temperature of the sensing device. The investigation was performed because of the disturbed heat exhange of the human body caused by lack of natural convection in weightlessness. The instrument also enabled objective estimation of the temperature of the cosmonaut's ody in six optionally selected regions. The results obtained by means of the catathermometer will also enable defining the appropriate hygienic conditions of the gaseous medium of space stations.

  15. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    Grindeland, R. E.


    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  16. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)


    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P andng/ml,p<.001) in IMBP than ARC animals. 1,25D (174156 vs. 212+77 pg/ml), Pi and AP were similar. In bone, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces averaged 38114% and 33+15% in all, with %vol. of osteoid higher in IMBP than ARC monkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  17. The Effects of Gravity on the Circadian Timing System

    Fuller, Charles A.


    All vertebrates have a physiological control system that regulates the timing of the rhythms of their daily life. Dysfunction of this system, the circadian timing system (CTS), adversely affects an organism's ability to respond to environmental challenges and has been linked to physiological and psychological disorders. Exposure to altered gravitational environments (the microgravity of space and hyperdynamic environments produced via centrifugation) produces changes in both the functioning of the CTS and the rhythmic variables it controls. The earliest record of primate rhythms in a spaceflight environment come from Biosatellite III. The subject, a pig-tailed macaque, showed a loss of synchronization of the body temperature rhythm and a fragmented sleep-wake cycle. Alterations in the rhythm of body temperature were also seen in rhesus macaques flown on COSMOS 1514. Squirrel monkeys exposed to chronic centrifugation showed an initial decrease in the amplitude and mean of their body temperature and activity rhythms. In a microgravity environment, Squirrel monkeys on Spacelab-3 showed a reduction in the mean and amplitude of their feeding rhythms. Since 1992 we have had the opportunity to participate on three US/Russian sponsored biosatellite missions on which a total of six juvenile male rhesus macaques were flown. These animals uniformly exhibited delays in the phasing of their temperature rhythms, but not their heart rate or activity rhythms during spaceflight. There was also a tendency for changes in waveform mean and amplitude. These data suggest that the spaceflight environment may have a differential effect on the different oscillators controlling different rhythmic variables. Ongoing studies are examining the effects of +G on the CTS. The long-term presence of humans in space highlights the need for effective countermeasures to gravitational effects on the CTS.

  18. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  19. Reproductive Performance of Female Braconids Compared after (A) Brief and (B) Protracted Exposures to Ionizing Radiations

    85Sr sources are installed in the initial US biosatellites to provide calculable dose levels during three-day orbital space flights. Such protracted exposures are longer than those used customarily in insect radiobiology and shorter than those of ecological studies. This paper concerns results from the ground controls of ill-fated US Biosatellite A and compares them with results from other dose rates and types of radiation. Males are packaged separately and used for mutational studies to be reported elsewhere. To compare the vulnerability of cell types in the ovariole sequence, nearly 1000 virgin females from a vigorous out- cross are used, half for ground controls and half for the satellite launched. Samples of 20-25 wasps are packed in each of two screw-capped capsules inserted into housings in plastic modules which also incorporate thermisters and radiodosimeters. These packages are fixed in shielded positions as well as in places which receive one of four levels of gamma rays from the 85Sr source. Each treatment thus consists of 40-50 virgins; a similar number receives a sensitizing preflight exposure to 2000 R of X-rays. After the flight period daily egg production is scored to detect resorption following gross chromosomal damage, embryonic deaths to reveal more subtle damage, and maternal life span as a measure of somatic fitness. In most insects bundles of numerous ovarioles confound interpretation relating cell status during exposure to eggs deposited subsequently. Habrobracon's four synchronized ovarioles provide a uniquely suitable system for studying radiosensitivity of a sequence complete from specialized oocytes through oocyte- trophocyte units to primitive interphase cells. Following a series of doses, the family of oviposition curves reflects the vulnerability of differentiating units in a valley which deepens and broadens with increased dose. At high dose rates, lowest egg production occurs on day 7. The pattern, well established for X-rays and 32P

  20. Establishment of Korea-Russia bilateral research collaboration for studies on biological effects of cosmic ray and space radiation

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Dongho; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok; Kim, Jaekyung; Kang, Oilhyun; Lee, Yoonjong; Kim, Jinhong; Jo, Minho


    {Omicron} KAERI-IBMP joint workshop on countermeasure and application researches to space environments - Sharing of state-of-the-art researches on space radiobiology using bio-satellites (BION-M1, Photon-soil) and ISS module (Bio-risk) was conducted - Sharing and discussion of state-of-the-art researches on dosimetry of space radiation and its affect on organisms were conducted. {Omicron} Making a contract on KAERI-IBMP Joint Research using Bio-risk module - Contract on KAERI-IBMP Joint Research to evaluate effect of space environment (microgravity and space radiation) on fermentative fungi (Aspergillus oryzae), Algae (Nostoc sp.), and plant seeds (rice, Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon) was made in November, 2010. {Omicron} Discussion on new Joint Researches on evaluation of space radiation on organisms - Final step on Bion-M projects in terms of evaluation of physiological changes of lactic acid bacteria consumed by Mouse - Discussing new joint research on evaluation of physiological changes of primate by space radiation {Omicron} Establishment and management of the practical working group to invite a branch office of the IBMP in Korea - The system and the working group to implement cooperating researches between KAERI-IBMP on space radiation were established.

  1. Structural and functional organisation of regenerated plant protoplasts exposed to microgravity on Biokosmos 9

    Klimchuk, D. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Danevich, L. A.; Tarnavskaya, E. B.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Iversen, T.-H.; Baggerud, C.; Rasmussen, O.

    Preparatory experiments for the IML-1 mission using plant protoplasts, were flown on a 14-day flight on Biokosmos 9 in September 1989. Thirty-six hours before launch of the biosatellite, protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyl cells of rapeseed (Brassica napus) and suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Ultrastructural and fluorescence analysis of cell aggregates from these protoplasts, cultured under microgravity conditions, have been performed. In the flight samples as well as in the ground controls, a portion of the total number of protoplasts regenerated cell walls. The processes of cell differentiation and proliferation under micro-g did not differ significantly from those under normal gravity conditions. However, in micro-g differences were observed in the ultrastructure of some organelles such as plastids and mitochondria. There was also an increase in the frequency of the occurrence of folds formed by the plasmalemma together with an increase in the degree of complexity of these folds. In cell cultures developed under micro-g conditions, the calcium content tends to decrease, compared to the ground control. Different aspects of using isolated protoplasts for clarifying the mechanisms of biological effects of microgravity are discussed.

  2. Peculiarities of ultrastructure of Chlorella cells growing aboard the Bion-10 during 12 days

    Popova, A. F.; Sytnik, K. M.

    The ultrastructure of Chlorella cells grown in darkness on a solid agar medium with organic additions aboard the Bion-1O biosatellite was studied. Certain differences in submicroscopic organization of organelles in the experimental cells were revealed compared to the Earth control. The changes are registered mainly in ultrastructure of energetic organelles - mitochondria and plastids of the experimental cells, in particular, an increase of mitochondria and their cristae size, as well as an increase of the total volume of mitochondrion per cell were established. The decrease of the starch amount in the plastid stroma and the electron density of the latter was also observed. In many experimental cells, the increase of condensed chromatin in the nuclei has been noted. Ultrastructural rearrangements in cells after laboratory experiment realized according to the thermogram registered aboard the Bion-10 were insignificant compared to the flight experiment. Data obtained are compared to results of space flight experiments carried out aboard the Bion-9 (polycomponent aquatic system) and the orbital station Mir (solid agar medium).

  3. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.


    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  4. Research on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to hypogravity: Past and future directions

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.

    Our current understanding of hypogravity-induced atrophy of skeletal muscles is based primarily on studies comparing pre- and post-flight properties of muscles. Interpretations are necessarily qualified by the assumption that the stress of reentry and readjustment to terrestrial gravity do not alter the parameters being analyzed. The neuromuscular system is highly responsive to changes in functional demands and capable of rapid adaptation, making this assumption questionable. A reexamination of the changes in the connective tissue and synaptic terminals of soleus muscles from rats orbited in biosatellites and sampled postflight indicates that these structural alterations represent adaptative responses of the atrophic muscles to the increased workload of returning to 1 G, rather than hypogravity per se. The atrophy of weightlessness is postulated to result because muscles are both underloaded and used less often. Proper testing of this hypothesis requires quantitation of muscle function by monitoring electromyography, force output and length changes during the flight. Experiments conducted in space laboratories, like those being developed for the Space Shuttle, will avoid the complications of reentry before tissue sampling and allow time course studies of the rate of development of adaptive changes to zero gravity. Another area of great importance for future studies of muscle atrophy is inflight measurement of plasma levels of hormones and tissue receptor levels. Glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone and insulin exert dramatic regulatory influences on muscle structure. Prevention of neuromuscular atrophy becomes increasingly more important as spaceflights increase in duration. Definition of the atrophic mechanism is essential to developing means of preventing neuromuscular atrophy.

  5. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  6. Effects of spaceflight on rat humerus geometry, biomechanics, and biochemistry

    Vailas, A. C.; Zernicke, R. F.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Durnova, G. N.; Li, K. C.; Martinez, D. A.


    The effects of a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) on the geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical characteristics of humeri of male specific pathogen-free rats were examined. Humeri of age-matched basal control, synchronous control, and vivarium control rats were contrasted with the flight bones to examine the influence of growth and space environment on bone development. Lack of humerus longitudinal growth occurred during the 12.5 days in spaceflight. In addition, the normal mid-diaphysial periosteal appositional growth was affected; compared with their controls, the spaceflight humeri had less cortical cross-sectional area, smaller periosteal circumferences, smaller anterior-posterior periosteal diameters, and smaller second moments of area with respect to the bending and nonbending axes. The flexural rigidity of the flight humeri was comparable to that of the younger basal control rats and significantly less than that of the synchronous and vivarium controls; the elastic moduli of all four groups, nonetheless, were not significantly different. Generally, the matrix biochemistry of the mid-diaphysial cross sections showed no differences among groups. Thus, the spaceflight differences in humeral mechanical strength and flexural rigidity were probably a result of the differences in humeral geometry rather than material properties.

  7. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.


    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  8. The Effects of Space Flight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.


    The activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the levels of glycogen and of individual fatty acids were measured in livers of rats ex- posed to prolonged space flight (18.5 days) aboard COSMOS 986 Biosatellite. When flight stationary, (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) rats were compared at recovery (R(sub 0)), decrceases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha glycerphosphate, acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, acconitase and Epsilon-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened since all activities, showing alterations at R(sub 0), returned to normal 25 days post-flight. Differences were also seen in levels of two liver constituents. When glycogen and total fatty acids of the two groups of flight animals were determined, differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed, the FS group at R(sub 0) contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did controls ad a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate were noted. These metabolic alterations appear to be unique to the weightless condition. Our data justify the conclusion that centrifugation during space flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  9. Experiment aboard Russian satellite "Foton M2" in 2005: new approaches for study on stimulating effect of space flight on cell proliferation and regeneration in Urodela

    Grigoryan, E.; Almeida, E.; Domaratskaya, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Aleinikova, K.; Mitashov, V.

    A study on space flight effect upon processes of regeneration is due to the necessity to know their characteristics in animals and human exposed to space and earth conditions shortly after flight Several experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosatellites showed that the rate of organ and tissue regeneration in space was greater than that on the ground Space flight effect stimulating regeneration was enduring and apparent not only just after flight but long time later as well This observation found support in studies simulated physiological weightlessness by means of fast-rotating clinostat It was shown also that the higher rate of regeneration was associated with enhanced cell proliferation For instance we found that the number of cells in S-phase in regenerating tissues was significantly greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls However it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro- g per se or by conditions of hyper- g during launching and re-adaptation on the earth Molecular mechanisms underlying the change also remained obscure These issues were addressed by the joint Russian-USA experiment Regeneration performed on Foton-M2 in 2005 In 16- day flight we used two well-known models of regeneration lens regeneration after lensectomy and tail regeneration after amputation in adult newts Pleurodeles walt Urodela In order to evaluate cell proliferative activity in time limits of microgravity influence the original method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU

  10. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.


    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  11. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)


    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  12. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M


    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  13. [Comparative study of the lymphoid organs of rats aboard a space flight under weightless and artificial gravity conditions].

    Durnova, G N


    A comparative histological investigation of the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph nodes has been performed in the rats flown for 18.5 days on board the biosatellite "Cosmos-936" under the conditions of weightlessness and artificial gravitation (acceleration 1 g) imitating terrestrial magnetism. It has been stated that in the animals that were under the conditions of weightless ness during the flight and were sacrificed 4.5--13 h after they have landed the Earth, accidental involution of lymphoid organs is noted with morphological signs in them of an acute stress in the form of massive degeneration of the thymus lymphocytes and neutrophilic infiltration of the spleen. In rats that during the flight were subjected to the effect of artificial gravitation there was noted neither involution of the lymphoid organs nor morphological signs of acute stress in them. One of the main cause of acute stress in the rats subjected to weightlessness during the space flight is supposed to be transition to the terrestrial gravitation. PMID:736799

  14. Our experience in the evaluation of the thermal comfort during the space flight and in the simulated space environment.

    Novak, L


    The paper presents the results of the mathematical modelling the effects of hypogravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The theoretical considerations were completed by the experiments "HEAT EXCHANGE 1" performed on the biosatellite "KOSMOS 936". In the second experiment "HEAT EXCHANGE 2" accomplished on the board of the space laboratory "SALYUT 6" was studied the effect of the microgravity on the thermal state of a man during the space flight. Direct measurement in weightlessness prowed the capacity of the developed electric dynamic katathermometer to check directly the effect of the microgravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The role of the heat partition impairment's in man as by the microgravity, so by the inadequate forced convection are clearly expressed in changes of the skin temperature and the subjective feeling of the cosmonaut's thermal comfort. The experimental extension of the elaborated methods for the flexible adjustment of the thermal environment to the actual physiological needs of man and suggestions for the further investigation are outlined. PMID:11537122

  15. Effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity

    Mandel, A. D.; Balish, E.


    The cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes was studied in rats subjected to 20 days of flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 7820. Groups of rats were immunized with 1,000,000 formalin-killed Listeria suspended in Freunds Complete Adjuvant, 5 days prior to flight. Immunized rats subjected to the same environmental factors as the flight rats, except flight itself, and immunized and nonimmunized rats held in a normal animal colony served as controls. Following recovery, lymphocyte cultures were harvested from spleens of all rats, cultured in vitro in the presence of L. monocytogenes antigens, Phytohemagglutinin, Conconavlin A, or purified protein derivative (PPD), and measured for their uptake of H-3-thymidine. Although individual rats varied considerably, all flight and immunized control rats gave a blastogenic response to the Listeria antigens and PPD. With several mitogens, the lymphocytes of flight rats showed a significantly increased blastogenic response over the controls. The results of this study do not support a hypothesis of a detrimental effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity. The data suggest a possible suppressive effect of stress and gravity on an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity.

  16. Experiment K-6-05. The maturaton of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Simmons, D.; Grynpas, M.; Rosenberg, G.; Durnova, G.


    The chemistry, hydroxyapatite crystal size, and maturation of the bone and dentin is characterized in rats exposed to microgravity for 12.5d in a Soviet Biosatellite (Cosmos-1887). Calvarial and vertebral bone ash was subnormal, but contained a normal percent composition of Ca, P, and Mg. These tissues varied from the norm by having lower Ca/P and higher Ca/Mg ratios than any of their age-matched controls (Vivarium and Synchronous Groups). Gradient density analyses (calvaria) indicated a strong shift to the lower fractions which was commensurate with impaired rates of matrix-mineral maturation. X-ray diffraction data were confirmatory. Bone hydroxyapatite crystal growth in Flight rats was preferentially altered in a way to reduce the dimension of their C-axis. Flight rat dentin was normal with respect to age-matched control Ca, P, Mg, and Zn concentrations and their Ca/P and Ca/Mg ratios. These observations affirm the concept that microgravity adversely affects the maturation of newly formed matrix and mineral moieties in bone.

  17. Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat

    Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.


    The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

  18. Effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of key genes encoding serotonin and dopamine system

    Popova, Nina; Shenkman, Boris; Naumenko, Vladimir; Kulikov, Alexander; Kondaurova, Elena; Tsybko, Anton; Kulikova, Elisabeth; Krasnov, I. B.; Bazhenova, Ekaterina; Sinyakova, Nadezhda

    The effect of long-term spaceflight on the central nervous system represents important but yet undeveloped problem. The aim of our work was to study the effect of 30-days spaceflight of mice on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 on the expression in the brain regions of key genes of a) serotonin (5-HT) system (main enzymes in 5-HT metabolism - tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), monoamine oxydase A (MAO A), 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors); b) pivotal enzymes in DA metabolism (tyrosine hydroxylase, COMT, MAO A, MAO B) and D1, D2 receptors. Decreased expression of genes encoding the 5-HT catabolism (MAO A) and 5-HT2A receptor in some brain regions was shown. There were no differences between “spaceflight” and control mice in the expression of TPH-2 and 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 receptor genes. Significant changes were found in genetic control of DA system. Long-term spaceflight decreased the expression of genes encoding the enzyme in DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase in s.nigra), DA metabolism (MAO B in the midbrain and COMT in the striatum), and D1 receptor in hypothalamus. These data suggested that 1) microgravity affected genetic control of 5-HT and especially the nigrostriatal DA system implicated in the central regulation of muscular tonus and movement, 2) the decrease in the expression of genes encoding key enzyme in DA synthesis, DA degradation and D1 receptor contributes to the movement impairment and dyskinesia produced by the spaceflight. The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant № 14-04-00173.

  19. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  20. Microgravity can activate signals urging cells to S-phase entry during tissue and organ regeneration in Urodele amphibians exposed to real and simulated microgravity

    Grigoryan, E.; Anton, H.-J.; Mitashov, V.

    Regenerative response following local injury or tissue removal in urodele amphibians is dependent on cell cycle entry of cells sources for regeneration in the remaining tissue. In a number of our experiments performed aboard biosatellites in orbital flights and fast rotated clinostat we found enhanced proliferative activity and, as a result, regeneration quicker than that in controls. In each investigated case an activity of cell proliferation evaluated by 3H-thymidine radioautography and BrdU assay at the early stages of lens, retina, forelimb and tail regeneration in newts was about 1,2-1,7 fold higher both under conditions of real and physiological weightlessness as compared with controls. Faster S-phase entry under conditions of micro- g was demonstrated by cycling multipotent cells as well as by differentiated postmitotic cells both participated in regeneration. Important, that cycling cells outside areas of regeneration were also found as displayed faster cellular growth. In our papers (1,2,3,4) we offered some hypothesis that could explain mechanisms of low g stimulating effect upon cell growth in regeneration in Urodela. In particular, changes in expression of some growth factors and their receptors, as well as the synthesis of specific range of generalized stress proteins (AGSPs) were proposed. However, in fact, molecular mechanisms of micro- g effect upon cell proliferation are mediated by changes on organismic level induced by micro- g environment. Some of them which are able to trigger off signaling changes on the cellular level that, in turn, evoke cells to grow faster would be represented in our report. 1. Mitashov V. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 241-255 2. Anton H.-J. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 55-65 3. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1998. 22 (2): 293-301 4. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 2002. 30 (4): 757-764

  1. Effect of weightlessness on sympathetic-adrenomedullary activity of rats

    Kvetňanský, R.; Torda, T.; Macho, L.; Tigranian, R. A.; Serova, L.; Genin, A. M.

    Three cosmic experiments were performed in which rats spent 18-20 days in space on board the biosatellites "COSMOS 782", "COSMOS 936" and "COSMOS 1129". The following indicators of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAS) activity were measured: tissue and plasma catecholamines (CA), CA-synthesizing enzymes—tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT)—as well as CA-degrading enzymes—monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Adrenal epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) as well as CA-synthesizing and degrading enzymes were not significantly changed in the animals after flight on COSMOS 782. On the other hand, a significant increase was found in heart CA, the indicator which is usually decreased after stress. 26 days after landing all values were at control levels. The results obtained, compared to our previous stress experiments on Earth, suggest that prolonged weightlessness does not appear to be a pronounced stressful stimulus for the SAS. Heart and plasma CA, mainly NE, were increased both in the group living in the state of weightlessness and the group living in a centrifuge and exposed to artificial gravitation 1 g (COSMOS 936), suggesting again that prolonged weightlessness is not an intensive stressful stimulus for the SAS. The animals exposed after space flight on COSMOS 1129 to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal EPI and an expressive increase of adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. Thus, the results corroborate that prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight though not representing by itself an intensive stressful stimulus for the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, was found to potentiate the response of "cosmic rats" to stress exposure after return to Earth.

  2. Effects of spaceflight on ocular counterrolling and the spatial orientation of the vestibular system

    Dai, M.; McGarvie, L.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.


    We recorded the horizontal (yaw), vertical (pitch), and torsional (roll) eye movements of two rhesus monkeys with scleral search coils before and after the COSMOS Biosatellite 2229 Flight. The aim was to determine effects of adaptation to microgravity on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The animals flew for 11 days. The first postflight tests were 22 h and 55 h after landing, and testing extended for 11 days after reentry. There were four significant effects of spaceflight on functions related to spatial orientation: (1) Compensatory ocular counterrolling (OCR) was reduced by about 70% for static and dynamic head tilts with regard to gravity. The reduction in OCR persisted in the two animals throughout postflight testing. (2) The gain of the torsional component of the angular VOR (roll VOR) was decreased by 15% and 50% in the two animals over the same period. (3) An up-down asymmetry of nystagmus, present in the two monkeys before flight was reduced after exposure to microgravity. (4) The spatial orientation of velocity storage was shifted in the one monkey that could be tested soon after flight. Before flight, the yaw axis eigenvector of optokinetic afternystagmus was close to gravity when the animal was upright or tilted. After flight, the yaw orientation vector was shifted toward the body yaw axis. By 7 days after recovery, it had reverted to a gravitational orientation. We postulate that spaceflight causes changes in the vestibular system which reflect adaptation of spatial orientation from a gravitational to a body frame of reference. These changes are likely to play a role in the postural, locomotor, and gaze instability demonstrated on reentry after spaceflight.

  3. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  4. Application of "FLUOR-P" device for analysis of the space flight effects on the intracellular level.

    Grigorieva, Olga; Rudimov, Evgeny; Buravkova, Ludmila; Galchuk, Sergey

    The mechanisms of cellular gravisensitivity still remain unclear despite the intensive research in the hypogravity effects on cellular function. In most cell culture experiments on unmanned vehicles "Bion" and "Photon", as well as on the ISS only allow post-flight analysis of biological material, including fixed cells is provided. The dynamic evaluation cellular parameters over a prolonged period of time is not possible. Thus, a promising direction is the development of equipment for onboard autonomous experiments. For this purpose, the SSC RF IBMP RAS has developed "FLUOR-P" device for measurement and recording of the dynamic differential fluorescent signal from nano- and microsized objects of organic and inorganic nature (human and animal cells, unicellular algae, bacteria, cellular organelles suspension) in hermetically sealed cuvettes. Besides, the device allows to record the main physical factors affecting the analyzed object (temperature and gravity loads: position in space, any vector acceleration, shock) in sync with the main measurements. The device is designed to perform long-term programmable autonomous experiments in space flight on biological satellites. The device software of allows to carry out complex experiments using cell. Permanent registration of data on built-in flash will give the opportunity to analyze the dynamics of the estimated parameters. FLUOR-P is designed as a monobloc (5.5 kg weight), 8 functional blocks are located in the inner space of the device. Each registration unit of the FLUOR-P has two channels of fluorescence intensity and excitation light source with the wavelength range from 300 nm to 700 nm. During biosatellite "Photon" flight is supposed to conduct a full analysis of the most important intracellular parameters (mitochondria activity and intracellular pH) dynamics under space flight factors and to assess the possible contribution of temperature on the effects of microgravity. Work is supported by Roskosmos and the

  5. In Vivo Measurements in Mice in the Bion-M 1 Mission

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Popova, Anfisa; Borovik, Anatoliy; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga

    The main aim of BION-M 1 mission was to reveal morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to prolonged exposure in microgravity. Besides that functional state and behavior were assessed in vivo using test battery, home cage observations and implantable telemetry in space-flown mice (SF), control mice from the ground replica of the flight experiment (GC) and in mice kept in vivarium (SFV and GCV). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously in a subgroup of mice using implantable telemetry throughout the flight as well as before and after it. After 30-days flight aboard BION-M 1 biosatellite SF mice have gained more weight than GC, SFV or GCV mice (11%). SF mice displayed pronounced motor impairment upon examination shortly after landing. 1 day after the flight mice were less active and more anxious in the open-field test, less coordinated in the Rotarod and aerial drop test and had less grip force compared to both control and pre-flight values. Exercise performance was greatly reduced after 30-days flight and recovered by day 7 post-flight. Before the flight mice were trained to perform a simple task using positively reinforced free operant conditioning approach. After the flight performance in the same task was preserved, however learning ability was impaired. Mice displayed drastic reduction of heart rate during launch and reentry acceleration periods. Heart rate (by 8-10%) and, to a lesser extent blood pressure (by 5%) were elevated during the 30-days flight. After return heart rate in SF mice remained elevated throughout the 7-days observation period with no apparent recovery. In summary, mice display pronounced disadaptation to 1g after 30-days exposure in microgravity with different physiological systems having different recovery dynamics. Of particular interest, hemodynamic reactions in mice closely resemble reactions in larger organisms, implying that factors that govern the cardiovascular system adaptation to

  6. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress/behavior using wild-type C57Bl/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    Blottner, Dieter; Vico, Laurence; Jamon, D. Berckmansp L. Vicop Y. Liup R. Canceddap M.

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbear-ing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based MSRM (modular science ref-erence module) in the frame of breadboard activities for a fully automated life support habitat called "Mice in Space" (MIS) at the Leuven University, Belgium. Results: Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages, IVC-mice) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, ag-gressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). Conclusions: The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure on orbit as planned for future biosatellite programmes. Sponsors: ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL

  7. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue


    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  8. Experiment K-7-41: Radiation Experiments on Cosmos 2044

    Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.; Kovalev, E. E.


    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 degrees and altitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq. cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10-4 and 3.05 x 10(exp -4) cm(exp -2).s(exp -1).sr(exp -4) of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(infinity).H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micro-m. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mremld in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra have been compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 degrees) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCR's, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  9. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen


    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  10. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and

  11. Changes in the population of perivascular cells in the bone tissue remodeling zones under microgravity

    Katkova, Olena; Rodionova, Natalia; Shevel, Ivan


    Microgravity and long-term hypokinesia induce reduction both in bone mass and mineral saturation, which can lead to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. (Oganov, 2003). Reorganizations and adaptive remodeling processes in the skeleton bones occur in the topographical interconnection with blood capillaries and perivascular cells. Radioautographic studies with 3H- thymidine (Kimmel, Fee, 1980; Rodionova, 1989, 2006) have shown that in osteogenesis zones there is sequential differentiation process of the perivascular cells into osteogenic. Hence the study of populations of perivascular stromal cells in areas of destructive changes is actual. Perivascular cells from metaphysis of the rat femoral bones under conditions of modeling microgravity were studied using electron microscopy and cytochemistry (hindlimb unloading, 28 days duration) and biosatellite «Bion-M1» (duration of flight from April 19 till May 19, 2013 on C57, black mice). It was revealed that both control and test groups populations of the perivascular cells are not homogeneous in remodeling adaptive zones. These populations comprise of adjacent to endothelium poorly differentiated forms and isolated cells with signs of differentiation (specific increased volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm). Majority of the perivascular cells in the control group (modeling microgravity) reveals reaction to alkaline phosphatase (marker of the osteogenic differentiation). In poorly differentiated cells this reaction is registered in nucleolus, nucleous and cytoplasm. In differentiating cells activity of the alkaline phosphatase is also detected on the outer surface of the cellular membrane. Unlike the control group in the bones of experimental animals reaction to the alkaline phosphatase is registered not in all cells of perivascular population. Part of the differentiating perivascular cells does not contain a product of the reaction. Under microgravity some poorly differentiated perivascular

  12. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    Ubiquitylation, a widespread and important posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins, controls a multitude of critical cellular processes, both in normal and pathological conditions. The present work aims to study involvement of ubiquitin-dependent regulation in adaptive response to the external stimuli. Experiments were carried out on C57BL/6 mice. The microgravity state under conditions of real spaceflight on the biosatellite “BION-M1” was used as a model of stress impact. Additionally, number of control series including the vivarium control and experiments in Ground-based analog were also studied. The aggregate of endogenously ubiquitylated proteins was selected as specific feature of ubiquitin-dependent processes. Dynamic changes of modification pattern were characterized in liver tissue by combination of some methods, particularly by specific isolation of explicit protein pool, followed by immunodetection and/or mass spectrometry-based identification. The main approach includes specific extraction of proteins, modified by multiubiquitin chains of different length and topology. For this purpose two techniques were applied: 1) immunoprecipitation with antibodies against ubiquitin and/or multiubiquitin chains; 2) pull-down using synthetic protein construct termed Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE, LifeSensors). TUBE represents fusion protein, composed of well characterized ubiquitin-binding domains, and thereby allows specific high-affinity binding and extraction of ubiquitylated proteins. Resulting protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies against different types of multiubiquitin chains. Using this method we mapped endogenously modified proteins involved in two different types of ubiquitin-dependent processes, namely catabolic and non-catabolic ubiquitylation, in liver tissues, obtained from both control as well as experimental groups of animals, mentioned above. Then, isolated fractions of ubiquitylated proteins

  13. The interactions of the cells in the development of osteoporotic changes in bones under space flight conditions

    Rodionova, Natalia; Kabitskaya, Olga


    Using the methods of electron microscopy and autoradiography with ³N-glycine and ³N-thymidine on biosatellites "Bion-11" (Macaca mulatta, the duration of the experiments -10 days), "Bion-M1" (mouse C57 Black, duration of the flight - 30 days) in the experiments with modeled hypokinesia (white rats, hind limbs unloading, the duration of the experiments 28 days) new data about the morpho-functional peculiarities of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling zones of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals to microgravity. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and paving endost one as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and perivascular cells. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of perivascular cell-stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, the number of apoptotic osteoblasts increases. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts, bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn't occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in remodeling loci. These cell reactions

  14. The effect of exposure to microgravity on the development and structural organisation of plant protoplasts flown on Biokosmos 9.

    Rasmussen, O; Klimchuk, D A; Kordyum, E L; Danevich, L A; Tarnavskaya, E B; Lozovaya, V V; Tairbekov, M G; Baggerud, C; Iversen, T H


    Preparatory experiments for the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission to be flown on the Space Shuttle in January, 1992, were performed on a 14 day flight on Biokosmos 9 (Kosmos 2044) in September 1989. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of weightlessness on protoplast regeneration. Problems with late access to the space vehicle meant that the newly isolated protoplasts from hypocotyl cells of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cv Niklas) and suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L, cv Nobo) had to be stored at 4 degrees C for 36 h prior to the launch of the biosatellite, in order to delay cell wall regeneration until the samples were in orbit. In the flight samples and the ground controls, a portion of the total number of protoplasts regenerated cell walls. The growth of flight rapeseed cells was only 56% compared to the ground control; the respective growth of carrot cells in orbit was 82% of the ground control. Analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase activity and the amount of protein was lower in the flight samples than in the ground controls. The number of different isoenzymes was also decreased in the flight samples. A 54% decrease in the production of cellulose was found in rapeseed, and a 71% decrease in carrot. Hemicellulose production was also decreased in the flight samples compared to the ground controls. Ultrastructural analysis of the cell aggregates from the protoplasts cultured in orbit, demonstrated that hydrolysis and disappearance of reserve starch occurred in the flight cell plastids. The mitochondria were more varied in appearance in the flight samples than in the ground control cells. An increased frequency of the occurrence of folds formed by the plasmalemma together with an increase in the degree of complexity of these folds was also observed. Fluorescence analysis showed a decrease of the calcium content in cell cultures under space flight compared to the ground controls. One general effect of the stay

  15. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  16. Purification of liquid products of cotton wipes biotransformation with the aid of Trichoderma viridae in orbital flight

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis

    Recovery of various organic wastes in space flight is an actual problem of modern astronautics and future interplanetary missions. Currently, organic waste are incinerated in the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere in cargo containers. However, this method of anthropogenic waste treatment is not environmentally compatible with future interplanetary missions, and is not suitable due to planetary quarantine requirements. Furthermore, the maintaining of a closed ecosystem in spaceship is considered as one of the main ways of ensuring the food and air crew in the long term fully autonomous space expedition. Such isolated ecosystem is not conceivable without biotransformation of organic waste. In this regard, currently new ways of recycling organic waste are currently developed. The most promising method is a method for processing organic waste using thermophilic anaerobic microbial communities.However, the products of anaerobic fermentation of solid organic materials contain significant amounts of organic impurities, which often give them sour pH. This presents a significant problem because it does not allow to use this fluid as process water without pretreatment. Fermentation products - alcohols, volatile fatty acids other carbonaceous substances must be withdrawn.One way to solve this problem may be the use of microorganisms biodestructors for recycling organic impurities in the products of anaerobic biodegradation Under the proposed approach, the metabolic products (having acidic pH) of primary biotransformation of solid organic materials are used as media for the cultivation of fungi. Thus, cellulosic wastes are recycled in two successive stages. The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of post-treatment liquid products of biodegradation of hygienic cotton wipes (common type of waste on the ISS) by the fungus Trichoderma viridae under orbital flight. The study was conducted onboard biosatellite Bion -M1, where was placed a bioreactor, designed to carry

  17. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    weightlessness-treated samples vs. controls. These findings correlated with reduced expression of Connexin43. Typical elongated cardiomyocytes, presenting as both individual cells and conglomerates, were present in the control samples, whereas the shortened and thickened individual cardiac myocytes prevailed in the samples subjected to space microgravity. Both control samples and microgravity-treated samples contained resident CSCs of all subtypes. Both individual CSCs and CSC-derived clones were present in the suspension of myocardial cells. However, the number of CSC-formed clones of different maturity was significantly higher in the samples subjected to space microgravity. Some clones comprised only small undifferentiated cells of one CSCs subtype, while the cells of the other clones expressed some of the specific cardiac antigens (α-Actinin and Troponin T) at varying rate. In addition, large α-actinin- and troponin T-positive individual cardiomyocytes with readily discernible sarcomeric structure still expressing the original CSC antigens were also identified. The data obtained suggest that prolonged space microgravity exposure during space flight causes significant structural changes in the mammalian myocardium which may affect cardiac contractile function. Weightlessness-induced loss in heart muscle weight is assumed to be compensated by an increase in the activity of resident CSCs, which form new cardiomyocytes proliferating and differentiating inside the clones. The authors express their gratitude to the staff of Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Company "Progress" for the preparation of experimental animals for the biosatellite flight. The study was in part supported by grants from BION-M1 Project and Program of Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences “Fundamental Sciences for Medicine” (2013).