Sample records for biomass gasification fuel

  1. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  2. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)


    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  3. Gasification of fuel blends from biomass and wastes

    Andersson, Arne [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II


    Pressurized air-blown fluidized-bed gasification of biomass and biomass-based fuel blends were carried out at LTH. The operation was stable and smooth. The fluidized-bed functioned well in keeping a stable gasification and homogeneous conditions along the reactor. Parameters, such as the equivalent ratio, the bed temperature and the freeboard temperature were studied. It was found that the equivalent ratio was the dominant factor when the carbon conversion was complete. The energy content of the fuel gas, the fuel gas production, and the amount of tar and LHCs increased with decreasing equivalent ratio. Low freeboard and bed temperatures can lead to low carbon conversion and low gasification efficiency. Below 100% carbon conversion, the fuel-N conversion to ammonia increased with increasing reactor temperature. The tendency was similar for the carbon conversion to gas, but it was more pronounced. A high reactor temperature helped to reduce the amount of LHCs and tar in the fuel gas. Fuel blends with plastic or carton waste in biomass were successfully gasified. A waste fraction of 20% was found practical. Higher ratio may cause blocking in the feeding system for carton and demand special care to control the equivalent ratio for plastics. No melting problem was observed for plastics. The product gas quality was not much affected by adding the wastes. No clear increase of the chlorine content in the fuel gas was observed. However mixing of plastics greatly increased the amounts of LHCs and tar in the fuel gas. In general, introducing a small amount of plastic and carton wastes into biomass gasification will not require much change in the gasification system. This gives rise to the possibility of co-gasifying wastes in an ordinary biomass gasifier. From lab-scale experiments, a model for ammonia decomposition was proposed. A Ni-based catalyst was chosen to be applied for the fuel gas from the gasifier. At 800-900 deg C, and 3-sec space-time, 65-95% ammonia removal and

  4. Integration of Biomass Gasification with High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Baxter, D.; Hunter, Ch.

    České Budějovice: Energy Consulting, 2003, s. 145-155. ISBN 80-239-1142-2. [International Conference of Central European Energy , Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources CEEERES'03 /2./. Prague (CZ), 10.11.2003-11.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : biomass * gasification * fuel cells Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Chodimella, V.P.; Seshan, K.; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad


    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid biom

  6. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Mitchell, Reginald


    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  7. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass for Fuel Gas Production

    Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Chumak, Oleksiy; Mašláni, Alan


    Roč. 13, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 299-313. ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma gasification * syngas * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009,5cbc272245f24168,0ac09d02537962cf.html

  8. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    for biomass transportation. Traditional decentralized CHP plants suffer from low net electrical efficiencies compared to central power stations, though. Especially small-scale and dedicated biomass CHP plants have poor electrical power yield. Improving the electrical power yield from small-scale CHP...... plants based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP...... plants. The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems for better efficiency and environmental impact

    Colpan, C. Ozgur [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Dept.; Dincer, Ibrahim [Ontario Univ., Oshawa, ON (Canada). Inst. of Technology


    In this paper, a conventional biomass fueled power production system is compared with a SOFC and biomass gasification system in terms of efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. A heat transfer model of the SOFC and thermodynamic models for the other components of the systems are used to find the performance assessment parameters of the systems. These parameters are taken as electrical and exergetic efficiencies. In addition, specific greenhouse gas emissions are calculated to evaluate the impact of these systems on the environment. The results show that the SOFC and biomass gasification system has higher electrical and exergetic efficiencies and lower greenhouse gas emissions. (orig.)

  10. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon that was not...

  11. Gasification-based biomass

    None, None


    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  12. Modeling of biomass gasification

    Full text: Optimal conversion of chemical energy of the biomass or other solid fuel into the desired gas depends on proper configuration, sizing, and choice of gasifier operating conditions. Optimum operating conditions are often derived through trials on the unit or by experiments on pilot plants. Simulation, or mathematical modeling, allows the designer or plant engineer to reasonably optimize the operation or the design of the plant. The good mathematical model can: find optimum operating conditions or a design for the gasifier, provide information on extreme operating conditions (high temperature, high pressure) where experiments are difficult to perform, provide information over a much wider range of conditions than one can obtain experimentally, better interpret experimental results and analyze abnormal behavior of a gasifier, if that occurs, assist scale-up of the gasifier from one successfully operating size to another, and from one feedstock to another. The equilibrium model is independent of the gasifier design which can make them more suitable for a system study of the most important process parameters. The use of an equilibrium model assumes that the residence time of the reactants in the gasifier is high enough to reach chemical equilibrium. For established biomass ultimate analysis, temperature of gasification air and temperature of produced gas, combining the mass balance equations with the equations for the equilibrium constants and equation of energy balance, the equivalence ratio (ER) and composition of produced gas can be obtained. A mathematical model for investigation of the influence of temperature of the produced gas and temperature of gasification air on the process parameters was developed. It can be used for estimation and design of gasification equipment. key words: biomass gasification, mathematical modeling, equilibrium model

  13. Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David


    Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

  14. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Saeed Soltani


    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  15. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  16. A Medium-Scale 50 MW fuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall


    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MW fuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  17. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.


    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  18. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  19. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Norheim, Arnstein


    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  20. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi


    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  1. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    Rokni, Masoud


    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electric......An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  2. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)


    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  3. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud


    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...... University of Denmark. The SOFC converts the syngas more efficiently than the MGT, which is reflected by the energetic electrical efficiency of the gasifier and MGT system in opposition to the gasifier and SOFC configuration – η_el = 28.1% versus η_el = 36.4%. By combining the SOFC and MGT, the unconverted...... syngas from the SOFC is utilised in the MGT to produce more power and the SOFC is pressurised, which improves the efficiency to as much as η_el = 50.3%. Variation of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency...

  4. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  5. Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 2: Gasification systems

    Gasification as a thermo-chemical process is defined and limited to combustion and pyrolysis. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, which results in a high production of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash. The solid phase usually presents a carbon content higher than 76%, which makes it possible to use it directly for industrial purposes. The gaseous products can be burned to generate heat or electricity, or they can potentially be used in the synthesis of liquid transportation fuels, H2, or chemicals. On the other hand, the liquid phase can be used as fuel in boilers, gas turbines or diesel engines, both for heat or electric power generation. However, the main purpose of biomass gasification is the production of low- or medium heating value gas which can be used as fuel gas in an internal combustion engine for power production. In addition to limiting applications and often compounding environmental problems, these technologies are an inefficient source of usable energy.

  6. Thermal plasma gasification of organic waste and biomass for fuel gas production

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Patras : University of Patras Plasma Technology Lab, 2008. s. 3-3. ISBN N. [Biennial European Plasma Conference HTTP-10/10th./. 07.07.2008-11.07.2008, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. Thermal plasma gasification of organic waste and biomass for fuel gas production

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Patras: University of Patras Plasma Technology Lab, 2008. s. 3-3. ISBN N. [Biennial European Plasma Conference HTTP-10/10th./. 07.07.2008-11.07.2008, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Corrosion during gasification of biomass and waste

    Källström, Rikard


    The gasification of biomass and waste results in severe atmospheric corrosion conditions. The problems arise because of the low oxygen content which prevents the metal forming stable and protective oxide surface layer. Consequently it is possible for the aggressive sulphur and chlorine present in the gas to attack the metal. In the Studsvik CFB gasification pilot plant, which uses RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel), the performance of 20 metallic and ceramic materials has been studied. Materials teste...

  9. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips


    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  10. Modelling of a Biomass Gasification Plant Feeding a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine System

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud


    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the other in a combined SOFC and micro gas turbine (MGT) arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The MGT utilizes the unconverted...

  11. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian;


    fuel cells (SOFC). Based on experimental data from a demonstrated 0.6 MWth two-stage gasifier, a model of the gasifier plant was developed and calibrated. Similarly, an SOFC model was developed using published experimental data. Simulation of a 3 MWth plant combining two-stage biomass gasification and...... SOFCs predicted a net electrical efficiency of 44.9% (LHV (lower heating value)) when 1.4 MWe power was produced. The work had significant focus on providing a highly accurate model of the complete plant. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the SOFC operating temperature, SOFC fuel utilization factor...

  12. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  13. Thermal Plasma Gasification of Biomass

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Shahid Shaukat, S.), s. 39-62 ISBN 978-953-307-491-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : thermal plasma * plasma gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian


    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and...

  15. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Reed, T.B.


    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  16. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58.2% based on lower heating value (LHV). -- Highlights: → Combined two-stage gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and gas turbine technology. → Hybrid plant for efficient decentralized power and heat production from biomass. → Through modeling, energy and exergy analyses reveal inefficiencies. → Optimization efforts for increased plant efficiency. → Electrical efficiency reached 58% (LHV) producing 290 kW electricity.

  17. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  18. Biomass gasification and fuel cells: system with PEM fuel cell; Gaseificacao de biomassa e celula a combustivel: sistema com celula tipo PEMFC

    Sordi, Alexandre; Lobkov, Dmitri D.; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Rodrigues, Jean Robert Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin], e-mail:


    The objective of this paper is to present the operation flow diagram of an electricity generation system based on the biomass integrated gasification fuel cell of the type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). The integration between the gasification and a fuel cell of this type consists of the gas methane (CH4) reforming contained in the synthesis gas, the conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO), and the cleaning of the gaseous flow through a PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate the efficiency of the system with and without methane gas reforming. The performance was also analyzed for different gasification gas compositions, for larger molar fractions of hydrogen and methane. The system electrical efficiency was 29% respective to the lower heating value of the gasification gas. The larger the molar fraction of hydrogen at the shift reactor exit, the better the PSA exergetic performance. Comparative analysis with small gas turbines exhibited the superiority of the PEMFC system. (author)

  19. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    De Jong, W.


    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays m

  20. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.


    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  1. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Judith A. Kieffer


    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  2. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion



    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  4. A review on gasification of biomass

    Kirubakaran, V. [Rural Technology Centre, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivaramakrishnan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saranathan College of Engineering, Tiruchirapalli 620012, Tamil Nadu (India); Nalini, R. [Department of Renewable Energy, Periyar Maniyammai College of Technology for Women, Vallam 613403, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekar, T. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Premalatha, M.; Subramanian, P. [Centre for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (CEESAT), National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Studies on the effect of size, structure, environment, temperature, heating rate, composition of biomass and ash are reviewed. Based on the observations reported so far, auto-gasification of biomass by the bio-oxygen and the catalytic ash would be feasible. The auto-gasification may be explained in terms of heterogeneous catalytic reaction. Better understanding of auto-gasification is possible by further studies carrying out on the effect of heating rate on auto-gasification. (author)

  5. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))


    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  6. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David


    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  7. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    W. H. Chong


    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass


    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne


    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.


    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere


    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick


    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  11. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Kalina Jacek


    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  12. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    Rokni, Masoud


    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  13. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S


    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. PMID:26967339

  14. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu


    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  15. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  16. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto


    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process, and the...... design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  17. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper;


    showed that guaiacol formed significant amount of deposits. The structure observed was a lacquer type of deposit. It was determined that there was no distinct deposit formation due to phenol. Experiments were conducted with a 0.48 litre one-cylinder high compression ratio SI engine fueled by synthetic...

  18. Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  19. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Miao, Qi

    reactions occur in gas phase. Each section was divided into a number of small cells, over which mass and energy balances were applied. Due to the high heating rate in circulating fluidized bed, the pyrolysis was considered instantaneous. A number of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered in the model. Mass transfer resistance was considered negligible since the reactions were under kinetic control due to good gas-solid mixing. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature distribution along the gasifier, the concentration and distribution of each species in the vertical direction of the bed, the composition and lower heating value (LHV) of produced gas, the gasification efficiency, the overall carbon conversion and the produced gas production rate. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model sensitivity analysis showed that equivalence ratio (ER), bed temperature, fluidization velocity, biomass feed rate and moisture content had various effects on the gasifier performance. However, the model was more sensitive to variations in ER and bed temperature. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the demonstration plant. The reactor was operated on rice husk at various ERs, fluidization velocities and biomass feed rates. The model gave reasonable predictions. The model was also validated by comparing the simulation results with two other different size CFBBGs using different biomass feedstock, and it was concluded that the developed model can be applied to other CFBBGs using various biomass fuels and having comparable reactor geometries. A thermodynamic model was developed under ASPEN PLUS environment. Using the approach of Gibbs free energy minimization, the model was essentially independent of kinetic parameters. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the model to test its response to operating variables, including ER and biomass moisture content. The results

  20. Monitoring `Renewable fuels`. Gasification and pyrolysis of biomass. Second situation report; Monitoring ``Nachwachsende Rohstoffe``. Vergasung und Pyrolyse von Biomasse. Zweiter Sachstandsbericht

    Roesch, C.; Wintzer, D.


    The second situation report deals with gasification and pyrolysis as means of improving the energetic utilisation of wood and strawlike biomass and with various possibilities of utilising the gas produced in these processes. It also presents different gasification techniques, measures for gas purification, and ways of utilising gas for electricity generation. Out of the wide range of possible process combinations for producing energy from biomass the report only deals more closely with a few concepts that appear very promising from today`s viewpoint. Working from the current state and perspectives of technical development and from prospective operating conditions and potential market chances of pyrolysis and gasification the report deliberates on the future orientation of research, development, and demonstration activities. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im zweiten Sachstandsbericht werden die Vergasung und Pyrolyse zur besseren energetischen Nutzung von Holz und halmartiger Biomasse und verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur Verwertung des dabei erzeugten Gases betrachtet. Es werden unterschiedliche Vergasungstechniken, Massnahmen zur Gasreinigung und Arten der Gasnutzung zur Stromgewinnung dargestellt. Aus der Vielzahl an moeglichen Kombinationen werden einige, aus gegenwaertiger Sichtweise besonders vielversprechende Konzepte zur Energieerzeugung ueber die Biomassevergasung naeher ausgefuehrt. Ausgehend vom Stand und von den Perspektiven der technischen Entwicklungen sowie den Einsatzbedingungen und potentiellen Marktchancen werden Schlussfolgerungen fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung im Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration Anstrengungen gezogen. (orig./SR)

  1. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)


    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight

  2. Biomass gasification project WKK2013 Unterpremstaetten; Biomassevergasungsprojekt WKK2013 Unterpremstaetten

    Greiler, Erwin [oeCompany - Renewable Energy Consulting Dr. Greiler, Graz (Austria)


    The biomass gasification project WKK1013 Unterpremstaetten consists of two biomass gasification plants working with the principle of downdraft gasification. These include two combined heat and power (CHP) plants for energetic wood gas usage. Those produce, with the aid of woodchips as biomass, solid fuel in a very ecofriendly way. From an economical aspect 100% of the heat requirement(eco-heat) and around 60 to 70% of the power demand (eco-power) of an in 2012/2013 constructed low-energy housing estate within the market town Unterpremstaetten near Graz is being produced. (Styria/Austria). The complete heat loss of the thermal power stations is being saved with two hot water tanks with a capacity of 5.000 l each. The housing area was build by the low-energy house standards and are among other things equipped with an electric vehicle charging station. (orig.)

  3. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower


    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  4. Perspectives on gasification systems to produce energy carriers and other chemicals with low CO2 emissions : techno‐economic system analysis on current and advanced flexible thermo‐chemical conversion of fossil fuels and biomass

    Meerman, J.C.


    To prevent dangerous climate change, the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHG) need to be reduced. Two key mitigation options to reduce GHG involve a transition from the current fossil-fuel based infrastructure towards one based on renewable and the implementation of CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). Gasification facilities could be attractive for both of these options. Gasification is a relatively new technology where carbonaceous feedstocks (including coal and biomass),...

  5. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kWe integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  6. Investigations about co-firing of herbaceous biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle

    Investigations about co-firing of herbaceous biomass in an integrated gasification combined cycle were discussed in this presentation. The approach was presented, with particular reference to geographic information system analysis; gasification experiments with grass as fuel; and combustion experiments with product gas-natural mixtures. Specific topics that were discussed included carbon dioxide mitigation via co-firing of biomass; fuel quality requirements for gas turbines; optically accessible combustion test rig; and results for flame speed and nitrogen oxide emissions. It was concluded that grass is an available fuel for gasification. The gasification experiments proved that stable operation is possible at certain conditions. tabs., figs.

  7. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  8. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)


    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  9. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Francis Lau


    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  10. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.


    of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  11. Updraft biomass gasification reactor evaluation of fuel; Reator de gaseificacao de biomassa em fluxo contra corrente para aquecimento de ar de secagem

    Santos, Ivanildo da S. dos; Silva, Jadir N. da; Martins, Marcio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails:,,


    Searching for a clean hot air from biomass for on farm applications, a gasification/combustion system was designed, built and evaluated. The system consisted of a countercurrent gasifier, coupled with a combustion chamber that burns the producer gas, and eucalyptus firewood was used as a fuel. Willing to reduce heat losses from the unit as well as to prevent thermal hazardous the unit was totally covered with brick's wall. Initial unit thermal efficiency was of about 56% and it reaches up to 71% at recharge. It was concluded that this system attended the proposed objectives, producing clean hot air that can be used for drying purposes as well as ambient space heating. (author)

  12. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  13. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  14. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit



    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  15. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  16. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MWth) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MWth) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  17. Gasification of biomass in thermal plasma

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Vol. 2. Brno: University of Technology Brno, 2007 - (Aubrecht, V.; Bartlová, M.), s. 7-16 ISBN 978-80-214-3369-4. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc/17th./. Brno (CZ), 10.09.2007-13.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Biomass * gasification * thermal plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Plasma pyrolysis and gasification of biomass

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Beijing: Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, CAS, 2008. s. 33-33. [Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology APCPST 9/9th./. 08.11.2008-11.11.2008, Huangshan] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Biomass Gasification and High Temperature Gas Cleaning

    Hejdová, Petra; Solich, M.; Vosecký, Martin; Malecha, J.; Koutský, B.; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej

    -: -, 2005, s. 221-224. ISBN 80-8073-382-1. [New Trends in Technology Systems Operation'05. Prešov (SK), 20.11.2005-21.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass and waste * gasification * hot gas cleaning Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Plasma gasification of waste organics and biomass

    Hrabovský, Milan

    Brno: Masaryk University, 2008. s. 42-43. ISBN N. [Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/2nd./. 31.08.2008-04.09.2008, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Thermal plasma * biomass * gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Fuel gas from biomass for power and heat generation. Results of tests at the test gasification plant at Technical University Dresden; Brenngase aus Biomasse fuer die Strom- und Waermeerzeugung. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen am Vergasungsversuchsstand der TU Dresden

    Boehning, D.; Beckmann, M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany). Institut fuer Energietechnik


    The gasification of biomass into smaller decentralized plants with a thermal output up to 500 kW has been a subject of variable intensity in research and development. The current development state of the process is however still insufficient regardless of the process, such that a reliable and economic operation of the plants can be guaranteed. For the use of the produced fuel in the gas-engine, high standards are necessary for its quality. The article focusses on the reduction of tar content in fuel gas via catalytic partial oxidation. It describes the theoretical analysis of fundamentals with results and presents experimental tests at the gasification plant and the obtained results. Tests have been realized at the 75 kW{sub th} fixed bed gasifier at the catalytic partial oxidation (1{sup st} Function unit) and at the cooling of gas (2{sup nd} Function unit). The construction and material of the catalyst are essential parameters as well as the apply amount of oxygen, the position of supplying and mixing. By the use of a gas cooling in a stationary fluidized bed is it possible to decrease the tar content in the fuel gas, via condensation on bed material (charcoal). The gas cooling is installed behind the catalyst. The outcome of the combination of both gas treatment-function-units is a further monovariant for optimization. The second unit can also be considered as a ''safety filter''. (orig.)

  2. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  3. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.


    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  4. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H2/CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H2/CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H2/CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 oC for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H2/CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  5. Biomass gasification: A demonstration in Brazil

    Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine (BIG-GT) cycles offer considerable opportunities for improved efficiency in biomass power systems. As a result of international collaboration, a full-scale plant in Brazil will be the first commercial scale demonstration plant to utilise this system. The project, if successful, will lead to the commercial development of highly efficient, relatively easily installed biomass energy plants. The global implications could be significant, with biomass possibly contributing to power supplies in a scale similar to nuclear and hydro by the mid 21st century. It could provide a basis for rural development and employment in developing countries, and utilization of excess crop land in the industrial world

  6. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment


    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  7. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  8. Biomass gasification: the understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    Meng, X.


    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly alternatives to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. The product gas normally contains the major compon...

  9. Catalytic steam gasification of biomass for a sustainable hydrogen future: influence of catalyst composition

    Wu, C.; Wang, Z.; Wang, L.; J. Huang; Williams, PT


    Hydrogen is regarded as a clean energy for fuelling the future. Hydrogen will be the energy carrier from other resources such as hydropower, wind, solar and biomass. Producing hydrogen from gasification of biomass wastes, particularly in the presence of steam, represents a promising route to produce this clean and CO2-neutral fuel. The steam pyrolysis-gasification ofbiomass (wood sawdust) was carried out with various nickel-based catalysts for hydrogen production in a two-stage fixed bed reac...

  10. Removal of ammonia from producer gas in biomass gasification: integration of gasification optimisation and hot catalytic gas cleaning

    Hongrapipat, Janjira; Saw, Woei-Lean; Pang, Shusheng [University of Canterbury, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand)


    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the main contaminants in the biomass gasification producer gas, which is undesirable in downstream applications, and thus must be removed. When the producer gas is used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, NH{sub 3} is the main precursor of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed in gas turbine, whereas in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) technology, the NH{sub 3} gas poisons the catalysts employed. This paper presents a critical review on the recent development in the understanding of the NH{sub 3} formation in biomass gasification process and in the NH{sub 3} gas cleaning technologies. The NH{sub 3} gas concentration in the producer gas can firstly be reduced by the primary measures taken in the gasification process by operation optimisation and using in-bed catalytic materials. Further removal of the NH{sub 3} gas can be implemented by the secondary measures introduced in the post-gasification gas-cleaning process. Focus is given on the catalytic gas cleaning in the secondary measures and its advantages are analysed including energy efficiency, impacts on environment and recyclability of the catalyst. Based on the review, the most effective cleaning process is proposed with integration of both the primary and the secondary measures for application in a biomass gasification process. (orig.)

  11. Cogeneration and production of 2nd generation bio fuels using biomass gasification; Cogeneracion y produccion de biocombustibles de 2 generacion mediante gasificacion de biomasa

    Uruena Leal, A.; Diez Rodriguez, D.; Antolin Giraldo, G.


    Thermochemical decomposition process of gasification, in which a carbonaceous fuel, under certain conditions of temperature and oxygen deficiency, results in a series of reactions that will produce a series of gaseous products is now widely used for high performance energetic and versatility of these gaseous products for energy and 2nd generation bio fuels and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (Author)

  12. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  13. Reed as a gasification fuel: a comparison with woody fuels

    S. Link


    Full Text Available Reed and coniferous wood can be used for energy production via thermochemical conversion, for instance by gasification. The rate-determining step of the gasification process is the reaction between the char and the gaseous environment in the gasifier, whose rate depends on variables such as pressure, temperature, particle size, mineral matter content, porosity, etc. It is known that reactivity can be improved by increasing the temperature, but on the other hand the temperature achieved in the reactor is limited due to the ash fusion characteristics. Usually, the availability of reed as a fuel is locally modest and, therefore, it must be blended with other fuels such as wood. Blending of fuels brings together several problems relating to ash behaviour, i.e. ash fusion issues. Because there is no correlation between the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends and their individual components, it is essential to carry out prior laboratory-scale ash fusion tests on the blends. This study compares the reactivity of reed and coniferous wood, and the ash fusion characteristics of blends of reed and coniferous wood ashes. When compared with Douglas fir and reed chars, pine pellets have the highest reactivity. Reed char exhibits the lowest reactivity and, therefore, it is advantageous to gasify reed alone at higher gasification temperatures because the ash fusion temperatures of reed are higher than those of woody fuels. The ash produced by reed and wood blends can melt at lower temperatures than ash from both reed and wood gasified separately. Due to this circumstance the gasification temperature should be chosen carefully when gasification of blends is carried out.

  14. Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass in an IGCC Power Plant: Gasifier Modeling

    Luis Correas


    Full Text Available Co-gasification of coal and biomass in an existing coal-fired IGCC power plant is proposed as an efficient, flexible and environmentally friendly way to increase the biomass contribution to electricity generation. A model of an entrained flow gasifier is described and validated with nearly 3,000 actual steady-state operational data points (4,800 hours. The model is then used to study co-gasification of coal, petroleum coke and up to 10 percent of several types of biomass. As a result, the influence of fuel variations on gasifier performance and modifications in operation that should be made in co-gasification are obtained. A conclusion of our study is that co-gasification is possible provided that operation is properly adapted. A validated model can be very useful for predicting operating points for new fuel mixtures.

  15. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S


    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326


    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels;


    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  17. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  18. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.


    this low-pressure, low-temperature process and successfully analyzed by these devices. In late 2005, GTI conducted intensive field characterizations of biomass-derived syngas at GTI’s FFTF during a concurrent test of pelletized wood-fueled gasification and catalyst performance investigated under Cooperative Agreement DE-FG36-04GO14314. In 2006 GTI continued its sampling development and verification activities at GTI’s FFTF with a follow-on set of calibration measurements. The combination of the sample conditioning and sample stream transport methods developed under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175, and the assembly and coordination of gas analyzers and data collection and analyses under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024, have provided a new, powerful, enabling capability for on-line data characterizations of biomass- and coal-derived syngas from thermochemical conversion process streams.

  19. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    Nanou, P.


    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportat

  20. Biomass/coal steam co-gasification integrated with in-situ CO2 capture

    Addressing recent environmental regulations on fossil fuel power systems and both biomass fuel supply and coal greenhouse gas issues, biomass/coal co-gasification could provide a feasible transition solution for power plants. In the quest for an even more sustainable process, steam co-gasification of switchgrass and coal was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture, with limestone as the bed material and sorbent. Five gasification/carbonation (at <700 °C) and calcination (at >850 °C) cycles were performed in an atmospheric pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. Hydrogen production was enhanced significantly (∼22%) due to partial adsorption of CO2 by the CaO sorbent, shifting the gasification reactions forward, consistent with Le Châtelier's principle. Tar yield measurements showed that reducing the gasification temperature could be achieved without experiencing higher tar yield, indicating that the lime has a catalytic effect. The sorbent particles decayed and lost their calcium utilization efficiency in the course of cycling due to sintering. The co-existence of three types of solids (biomass, coal, lime) with different particle properties led to bed segregation. An equilibrium model was found to be useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems. - Highlights: • Biomass/coal steam co-gasification was integrated with in-situ CO2 capture. • 5 gasification/carbonation (<700 °C) and calcination (>850 °C) cycles were performed. • Lime-enhanced co-gasification enhanced hydrogen production significantly (∼22%). • CaO decayed as an absorbent of CO2 due to sintering and some was lost by attrition. • Equilibrium models are useful in design of lime-enhanced gasification systems

  1. Biomass gasification for the production of methane

    Nanou, P.


    Biomass is very promising as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources because it is a renewable source that contains carbon, an essential building block for gaseous and liquid fuels. Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is a fuel used for heating, power generation and transportation. In The Netherlands, the contribution of natural gas to the primary energy consumption is almost 50% (Source: Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands [ECN]) and it is a fuel with a well-devel...

  2. A comparison of gasification phenomena among raw biomass, torrefied biomass and coal in an entrained-flow reactor

    Highlights: ► Gasification phenomena of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are studied. ► The carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. ► The coal gas efficiency is sensitive to the type of fuel. ► The gasification performance of torrefied bamboo is enhanced and closer to that of coal. ► With optimum operation, syngas formation from torrefied biomass is amplified by 88%. - Abstract: Gasification of torrefied biomass is a promising technique for producing synthesis gas (syngas) of higher quality than has previously been available. In this study, in order to evaluate the potential of the technique, gasification processes for three different materials, which include raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo (at 280 °C for 1 h), and high-volatile bituminous coal in an entrained-flow gasifier using O2 as the gasification agent, are studied numerically and compared to each other. The obtained results suggest that in all cases, the carbon conversions of the three fuels are higher than 90%. However, the cold gasification efficiency for raw bamboo is low, mainly due to the relatively lower calorific value of the material. In the case of the torrefied bamboo fuel, the gasification performance is enhanced significantly and is quite similar to the coal gasification under the same conditions. It appears that the optimum oxygen-to-fuel mass flow ratios for the gasification of raw bamboo, torrefied bamboo, and coal are 0.9, 0.7, and 0.7, and their equivalence ratios are 0.692, 0.434, and 0.357, respectively. Under optimum conditions with respect to the equivalence ratio, the cold gas efficiency of torrefied bamboo is improved by 88%, as compared to raw bamboo

  3. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    This work aims at identifying potential low-grade biomass fuels for a near future Danish CHP system encompassing pretreatment of these fuels by Pyroneer gasification for subsequent conversion of the gas in existing coal-fired boilers. The focus of the work is on development of a suitable screening...

  4. Thermodynamics second law efficiency analysis for high temperature biomass gasification

    The key challenge for biomass-based system is to develop efficient conversion technologies to reduce impact of ecological drawbacks. The development of efficient technologies for biomass gasification requires correct use of thermodynamics. This paper addresses gasifier performance analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to quantify irreversibilities in biomass gasification process at high temperatures in the range 800K-1400K. The analysis is based on exegetic model that account for the quality of energy by means of irreversibilities. (author)

  5. Energetic analysis of gasification of biomass by partial oxidation in supercritical water

    Qingqing Guan; Chaohai Wei; Xinsheng Chai; Ping Ning; Senlin Tian; Junjie Gu; Qiuling Chen; Rongrong Miao


    Partial oxidation gasification in supercritical water could produce fuel gases (such as H2, CO and CH4) and signif-icantly reduce the energy consumption. In this work, an energetic model was developed to analyze the partial oxidative gasification of biomass (glucose and lignin) in supercritical water and the related key factors on which gasification under autothermal condition depended upon. The results indicated that the oxidant equiva-lent ratio (ER) should be over 0.3 as the concern about energy balance but less than 0.6 as the concern about fuel gas production. Feedstocks such as glucose and lignin also had different energy recovery efficiency. For ma-terials which can be efficiently gasified, the partial oxidation might be a way for energy based on the combustion of fuel gases. Aromatic materials such as lignin and coal are more potential since partial oxidation could produce similar amount of fuel gases as direct gasification and offer additional energy. Energy recovered pays a key role to achieve an autothermal process. Keeping heat exchanger efficiency above 80%and heat transfer coefficient below 15 kJ·s−1 is necessary to maintain the autothermal status. The results also indicated that the biomass loading should be above 15%but under 20%for an autothermal gasification, since the increase of biomass loading could improve the energy supplied but decrease the efficiency of gasification and gaseous yields. In general, some specific conditions exist among different materials.


    David Liscinsky


    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  7. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya


    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  8. Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass

    Defluidisation and agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification of biomass is analysed and discussed. It is argued that the agglomeration and defluidisation processes, in principle, closely resemble those that determine the behaviour of glass during glass processing. Crucial properties for working with glass melts are the viscosity, stickiness, surface tension, etc. It is, however, (very) difficult to theoretically quantify these properties through thermodynamics or other theoretical means. Hence it will be problematic to theoretically predict agglomeration and defluidisation. Models for predicting defluidisation must therefore probably be of an empirical nature. As a consequence of this, a number of fluidised bed gasification tests were empirically analysed with respect to defluidisation. In total 145 tests were evaluated; of these 51 defluidised or exhibited some kind of bed disturbance. A number of fuels and bed materials were included in the analysis using a multivariate statistical approach. Based on the analysis an empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature during fluidised bed gasification is suggested. -- Highlights: → An empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature is suggested. → Alkali and pressure lowers the defluidisation temperatures, whilst Ca and Mg has the opposite effect. → Magnesite as bed material relative to quartz or olivine sand increase defluidisation temperatures with more than 100 oC.

  9. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)


    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  10. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)


    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  11. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  12. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren;


    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  13. Synergistic evaluation of the biomass/coal blends for co-gasification purposes

    S Gaqa, S Mamphweli, D Katwire, E Meyer


    Full Text Available Approximately 95% of electricity in South Africa is generated from coal, which is a fossil fuel that has detrimental environmental impacts. Eskom has started investigating the possibility of co-firing coal with biomass to improve their carbon footprint. However, co-firing utilizes approximately 80% of water and results in extensive environmental impacts. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of co-gasification of coal and biomass, which is a thermochemical process that uses about a third of the water required by a coal-fired power station, and results in much lower emissions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was conducted to investigate the existence of a synergy between coal and biomass during gasification. Various coal/biomass blends were investigated using TGA. The synergistic effect between the two feedstock as determined through TGA allowed the prediction of the gasification characteristics of the blends that most likely gave the highest conversion efficiency. Preliminary results suggested the existence of this synergy.

  14. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;


    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...

  15. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  16. Pressurized gasification of biomass - complete power plant technology; Biomassan paineistettu kaasutus valmis voimalaitostekniikaksi

    Virkkunen, L. [Enviropower Oy, Tampere (Finland)


    Enviropower Oy, which is an affiliate of Tampella Power Oy, has just finished a large gasification test program at the 20 MW test power plant situated at Tampere. Total amount of 3 000 m{sup 3} of finnish mixed wood chips were gasified during the tests in 1993. Enviropower has been the first which has gasified biomass using large-scale pressurized system. The technology can be applied both for biomass and coal. This so called multi-fuel boiler increases the possibilities to use biomass as fuels, and also improves the competitivity of it because it makes the merely utilization of biomass possible also in the coal fired power plants. Gasification technique, based on wood, waste wood and peat, will be commercialized fast in the plants which partially utilizes also other fuels than coal. The most economical way to increase the utilization of biomass is to gasify it with other fuels using the new technology. The gasification combined cycle power plant, based on pressurized fluidized bed gasification can coarsely be compared with common natural gas combined cycle power plants. Gas, produced by gasification from solid fuels, is used as fuel instead of natural gas. The process is very simple. Coal, waste wood, peat and other solid fuels are heated in a fluidized bed type pressurized reactor at the temperature of about one thousand degrees celsius, under the conditions in which the fuels are gasified. The sulfur, the dust and the other harmful compounds are removed from the product gas, and the clean gas is combusted in a gas turbine and the heat produced in the process is converted into electric power using heat recovery boiler and steam turbine

  17. Thermogravimetric study on the influence of structural, textural and chemical properties of biomass chars on CO2 gasification reactivity

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of textural, structural and chemical properties of biomass chars on the CO2 gasification rate. Various lignocellulosic biomass chars were prepared under the same conditions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the char properties such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption manometry, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Fluorescence. Gasification tests were carried out in a thermobalance under 20% CO2 in nitrogen at 800 °C. Significant differences of the total average reactivity were observed with a factor of 2 between the prepared chars. Moreover, different behaviors of gasification rate profiles versus conversion were obtained. This difference of behavior appeared to be correlated with the biomass char properties. Hence, up to 70% of conversion, the gasification rate was shown to depend on the char external surface and the potassium content. At higher conversion ratio, a satisfactory correlation between the Catalytic Index and the average gasification rate was identified. The results highlight the importance of knowing both textural and structural properties and mineral contents of biomass chars to predict fuel reactivity during CO2 gasification processes. Such behavior prediction is highly important in the gasifiers design for char conversion. - Highlights: • CO2 gasification reactivity of various lignocellulosic chars were examined. • Chars properties affect strongly samples gasification behavior. • Initial gasification rate is affected by external surface, K content and D3/G ratio. • Gasification rate behavior depends on the Alkali index at high conversion

  18. Equipment for gasification of pulverized fuel

    Nosach, V.G.; Derevitskii, A.N.; Khopta, G.N.; Kocherezhko, A.N.; Vorob' ev, P.I.; Zholudov, Y.S.


    Equipment for gasification of pulverized fuel (PF) consisting of a vertical gasification chamber, a cinder removal chamber connected to the lower part of it, an injector for supplying the PF, a connecting pipe for supplying O/sub 2/-containing gas, a (steam) header for supplying steam located outside of the gasification chamber, and a pipe for drawing off the gasification products. The improvement, having the purpose of increasing the productive capacity, consists in this, that the gasification chamber has a burner located in the upper part of it with connecting pipes for supplying fuel and O/sub 2/ containing gas; the injectors for supplying PF are mounted in the walls of the gasification chamber at an angle to its vertical axis, are directed to the side of the burner, and are connected to the header for supplying steam. The pipe for drawing off the gasification products is located in the cinder removal chamber. In the case of coarser particles in the countercurrent inflow of combustion products and PF, finer ones are introduced into the stream of combustion products, which optimizes the reaction time of the different particles in accordance with their dispersity; 75% of the PF is gasified practically instantaneously because of the great difference in temperatures of the combustion products and PF (thermal shock), which makes it possible to accelerate the gasification process and increase the productive capacity of the equipment three-fold.

  19. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  20. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Hansen, Morten Tony


    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP,, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  1. Process simulation of biomass gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Highlights: • Bubbling fluidized bed gasification of biomass is studied by computer simulation. • The effect of some critical parameters on gasification performance is studied. • The performance of air–steam gasification of wood chips is analyzed. • Model predictions are compared against available data from the literature. • The optimum operating conditions for the gasification are found. - Abstract: A detailed process model was developed to simulate the air–steam gasification of biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed for hydrogen and syngas production by coupling Aspen Plus simulator and dedicated FORTRAN subroutines. Effects of critical parameters, including gasification temperature, steam/biomass ratio (SBR), equivalence ratio (ER), and biomass particle size (BPS) on the composition of fuel gas were discussed. The results indicate that the high temperature is more favorable for production of useful syngas (H2 and CO) and hydrogen yield (HY). The simulation results also demonstrate that ER is the most important factor in the process; higher ER contributed to higher carbon conversion, tar reforming, and gas yield, however, it lowered gas caloric value and cold gas efficiency. However, steam injection recognized as a key factor to produce more hydrogen rich gas in the SBR range studied, but had a major effect on CO2 formation. The model is validated by experimental data and found relatively to be in good agreement

  2. Energy supply technologies. Thermal fuel conversion pyrolysis, gasification and combustion

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Anker; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [DTU (Denmark)


    The basic idea in thermal conversion of fuels is to transform and utilize chemical energy bound in the fuel to e.g. supersaturated steam in steam cycle, from which electricity may be produced upon passage of a steam turbine. Anyhow, thermal conversion of solid fuels occur, in principle, either in one strongly exothermic step from fuel to fully oxidized species, or in multiple steps, initiated by an endothermic step, in which a calorific gas is produced, followed by multiple exothermic conversion steps. The difference between these extremes provides possibilities of heat and power production, combined with application of gaseous products for production of liquid fuels. Recently, several opportune concepts of combined thermal conversion and fuel production have been introduced. Recommendations for future research areas: 1) Further development of pressurized gasifiers to handle biomass and waste as well as co-gasification of biomass and coal. 2) Work on integration of the gas-to-liquid (GLT) technology with power production so that waste heat can be used efficiently for power and central heat production. Integration with other advanced technologies so outlet CO{sub 2}-sequestration can be obtained and that the gasification can be integrated with combined cycle power production. 3) Increase of plant efficiency by improving the efficiency of both the gasification and synthesis process. 4) Development of new catalysts, with higher tolerance towards poisoning, and improved control over product composition. 5) Development and test of motors, and distribution systems, for new fuel types. There are several incitements to provide alternative transport fuels based on biomass as a raw material. It will be a CO{sub 2}-neutral transport fuel, it will reduce the dependence on imported fossil fuels in the Western world, and it is possible to further develop a domestic industry based on liquid fuels. (BA)

  3. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Barrio, Maria


    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  4. Efficient gasification of wet biomass residue to produce middle caloric gas

    Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Hidehisa Tani; Yutaka Mito


    Various process residues represent a kind of biomass resource already concentrated but containing water as much as 60 wt.%.These materials are generally treated as waste or simply combusted directly to generate heat.Recently,we attempted to convert them into middle caloric gas to substitute for natural gas,as a chemical or a high-rank gaseous fuel for advanced combustion utilities.Such conversion is implemented through dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG).Concerning the high water content of the fuels,DFBG was suggested to accomplish either with high-efficiency fuel drying in advance or direct decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis from char gasification and tar/hydrocarbon reforming.Along with fuel drying,calcium-based catalyst can be impregnated into the fuel,without much additional cost,to increase the fuel's gasification reactivity and to reduce tar formation.This article reports the Ca impregnation method and its resulting effects on gasification reactivity and tar suppression ability.Meanwhile,the principle of directly gasifying wet fuel with decoupled dual fluidized bed gasification (D-DFBG) is also highlighted.

  5. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails:,,


    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  6. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Hein, Matthew R.

    or an anticipated 1,766 tonnes of biomass. The levelized cost of electricity (COE) ranged from 65.6/GJ (236/MWh) to 208.9/GJ (752/MWh) with the price of generated electricity being most sensitive to the biomass feedstock cost and the levelized COE being significantly impacted by the high cost of compressed storage. The resulting electrical energy available to the grid has an approximate wholesale value of 13.5/GJ (48.6/MWh) based on year 2007 Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO) regional averages [1]. Therefore, the annual average wholesale value of the generated electricity is lower than the cost to produce the electricity. A significant deficiency of this simple comparison is that it does not consider the fact that the proposed wind and biomass gasification hybrid is now a dispatchable source of electricity with a near net-zero lifetime carbon footprint and storage capability. Dispatchable power can profit from market fluctuations that dramatically increase the value of available electricity so that in addition to providing base power the hybrid facility can store energy during low price points in the market and generate at full capacity during points of high prices. Any financial incentive for energy generated from reduced carbon technologies will also increase the value of electricity produced. Also, alternative operational parameters that do not require the costly storage of synthetic natural gas (SNG) will likely result in a more competitive levelized COE. Additional benefits of the system are in the flexibility of transporting wind and biomass energy produced as well as the end use of the energy. Instead of high-voltage electrical transmission a gas line can now be used to transport energy produced by the wind. Syngas can also be further processed into higher energy density liquefied syngas. Liquid fuels can then be transported via commercial freight on existing road infrastructure.

  7. Pyrolysis and Gasification of Industrial Waste Towards Substitution Fuels Valorisation

    Jung, Céline Gisèle


    Industrial waste is usually sorted in order to valorise most of minerals, polymers and metals. This sorting does generate a sorting residue with a rather high calorific value. The present study shows the opportunities of producing gaseous or liquid substitution fuels by pyrolysis or gasification of industrial sorting residues. By the use of the predictive model, it is possible to evaluate, for various inputs (tyres, fluffs, mixed plastics and biomass residues), the mass en energy balance for ...

  8. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)


    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  9. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O2, H2O and CO2 had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO2 increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael


    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  11. Integrated drying and gasification: technology for power generation from brown coal and biomass

    The fact that 2% of Australia's electricity generation needs to be derived from new renewable energy sources by the year 2010 limits the fuel/energy options in the short term, simply from the sheer size of the undertaking, namely some 9000 GWh of electricity is required from new renewables alone. Realistically, this target can only be achieved by using biomass as the major fuel/energy source. The increasing government, scientific and community pressures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has focussed particular emphasis on the use of renewable fuels for electricity and heating applications. Various biomass fuels such as agricultural residues, forestry wastes and special energy crops have been targeted as sources. Small and large- scale tests have been conducted in various combustion and gasification equipment facilities especially in Europe and to a lesser extent in Australia. Several operational issues, e.g. chloride removal, slagging, need further resolution. A major factor in the introduction of biomass gasification is the comparative cost with existing coal-fired facilities for producing electricity. However, co-firing of biomass with coal appears to be a less costly option. Nonetheless, biomass gasification technologies are being actively demonstrated and show enhanced efficiency. The IDGCC process is designed to produce electricity at low cost and high efficiency from low-rank coals. These high moisture coals are available at low cost in many countries and their use would reduce imports of black coal or other fuels. The process has been shown to operate successfully at the 10 MW scale and the technology is ready to be applied to a commercially scale plant in the 120 to 400 MW scale plants. The drying and gasification part of IDGCC, i.e. IDG, is a suitable means of preparing biomass for co-firing in existing boiler plant, with advantages in simplifying fuel size reduction and in keeping undesirable inorganic constituents out of the boiler

  12. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;


    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...... in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following....../MGT or catalytic fuel synthesis....

  13. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej


    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  14. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector...... possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system....... Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass, it...

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier

    This investigation concerns the process of air biomass gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Theoretical equilibrium calculations and experimental investigation of the composition of syngas were carried out and compared with findings of other researchers. The influence of excess air ratio (λ) and parameters of biomass on the composition of syngas were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed, based on the equilibrium and thermodynamic balance of the gasification zone. The experimental investigation was carried out at a setup that consists of a gasifier connected by a pipe with a water boiler fired with coal (50 kWth). Syngas obtained in the gasifier is supplied into the coal firing zone of the boiler, and co-combusted with coal. The moisture content in biomass and excess air ratio of the gasification process are crucial parameters, determining the composition of syngas. Another important parameter is the kind of applied biomass. Despite similar compositions and dimensions of the two investigated feedstocks (wood pellets and oats husk pellets), compositions of syngas obtained in the case of these fuels were different. On the basis of tests it may be stated that oats husk pellets are not a suitable fuel for the purpose of gasification.

  16. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)


    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with CO2 recycle for synthesis gas production

    Highlights: • Cold gas efficiency does not take system energy into account, another factor is proposed. • Recycled CO2 improves efficiency and CO2 per syngas production at some operating conditions. • Optimum CO2/C is around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of biomass gasification with recycled CO2 was investigated in this work to determine optimum operation mode and CO2/C ratio. Gasification System Efficiency (GSE), which takes into account the energy demand in the system, and CO2 emission per syngas production (CO2/Sg) were calculated to evaluate the performance of the gasification system. Considering the production of syngas at a H2/CO ratio of 1.5, it was revealed that indirect gasification using biomass as fuel is the most efficient and environmental-friendly operation mode. The recycled CO2 proves to increase syngas production. However, when considering the additional energy demand required for processing the CO2 recycle, it was demonstrated that there are only some ranges of operating conditions (high pressure and low temperature) which offer the benefit of the CO2 recycle. The optimum CO2/C was reported to be around 0.1–0.2 for pressurized and low temperature gasification

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review



    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  19. Biomass gasification with preheated air: Energy and exergy analysis

    Karamarkovic Rade M.


    Full Text Available Due to the irreversibilities that occur during biomass gasification, gasifiers are usually the least efficient units in the systems for production of heat, electricity, or other biofuels. Internal thermal energy exchange is responsible for a part of these irreversibilities and can be reduced by the use of preheated air as a gasifying medium. The focus of the paper is biomass gasification in the whole range of gasification temperatures by the use of air preheated with product gas sensible heat. The energetic and exergetic analyses are carried with a typical ash-free biomass feed represented by CH1.4O0.59N0.0017 at 1 and 10 bar pressure. The tool for the analyses is already validated model extended with a heat exchanger model. For every 200 K of air preheating, the average decrease of the amount of air required for complete biomass gasification is 1.3% of the amount required for its stoichiometric combustion. The air preheated to the gasification temperature on the average increases the lower heating value of the product gas by 13.6%, as well as energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the process. The optimal air preheating temperature is the one that causes gasification to take place at the point where all carbon is consumed. It exists only if the amount of preheated air is less than the amount of air at ambient temperature required for complete gasification at a given pressure. Exergy losses in the heat exchanger, where the product gas preheats air could be reduced by two-stage preheating.

  20. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research



    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  1. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFUNDA

    Reinikainen, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email:


    The project was directed towards improved methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route. The aim of the project was to broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The subtopics of the research project were: (1) Fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step (2) Reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces (3) Evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications (4) Monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world (5) New analysis techniques (6) Hydrogen from biomass via gasification.

  2. The development of biomass gasification technology towards market penetration in China

    Biomass is the second most frequently used fuel, after coal, in China, which accounts for 20% of primary energy consumption. Though the main usage of biomass is for household cooking, the newly developed biomass gasification technology, especially the circulating fluidized bed gasification (CFBG) technology, has laid the foundations for allowing biomass gasification industry penetration into the commercial energy market. The thermal application of CFBG in wood processing factories, utilizing processing wastes to produce gaseous fuel, has been developed successfully and economically in China. The use of CFBG for generating electricity in rice mills, utilizing rice hulls with an output of 1 MW, is also underway. The status and development history of CFBG application in China is introduced in the paper. The aspects of large scale industrial application, utilization of self-produced feed material to reduce the cost of raw material, transportation problems, energy utilization combined with environmental protection etc., is discussed. The economic benefit of using CFBG for biomass and wastes towards market penetration is also presented. (author)

  3. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud


    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage in...... landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein it...

  4. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr


    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  5. Pretreatment and Feeding of Biomass for Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasification

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav; Martinec, J.


    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2009), s. 629-635. ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720701 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass * feeding * gasification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  6. Power generation from biomass (with special emphasis on gasification)

    Technological, social, economic and environmental aspects of power generation from biomass (through gasification process) are discussed with special reference to India. Resource base for biomass is mainly formed of agricultural residues, agro-industrial residues and energy plantations. It is shown that in India power generation potential of biomass will be of the order of 61 x 109 kilowatt-hours/yr i.e. more than 10,000 MW of installed capacity of thermal power plants by the year 2000. Aerobic digestion, combustion and gasification technologies are used for biomass conversion. Out of these, gasification is of special relevance to a country like India, because it has a wide range of applications and can be used on decentralised small scale level as well as on centralised large scale level. Cost of power from biomass for irrigation pumpsets, village electrification and captive power units for industries is given. Finally social benefits and positive environmental impacts of power from biomass are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  7. Pyrolysis pretreatment of biomass for entrained-flow gasification

    The biomass for entrained-flow gasification needs to be pretreated to significantly increase its heating value and to make it more readily transportable. The pyrolysis pretreatment was conducted in a lab scale fixed-bed reactor; the reactor was heated to elevate the temperature at 5 °C/min before holding at the desired pyrolysis temperature for 1.5 h a fixed time. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the yield, composition and heating value of the gaseous, liquid and solid products were determined. The pyrolysis removed most oxygenated constituents of rice straw while significantly increased its energy density. Meantime, it changes the physical properties of biomass powders. The results show that the angle of repose, the angle of internal friction of semi-char decrease obviously; the bulk density of semi-char is bigger than that of biomass. This could favor the feeding of biomass. Considering yield and heating value of the solid semi-char product and the feeding problem, the best pyrolysis temperature was 400 °C. The results of this study have confirmed the feasibility of employing pyrolyzed biomass for entrained-flow gasification; they are useful for the additional studies that will be necessary for designing an efficient biomass entrained-flow gasification system.

  8. Hydrogen production from marine biomass by hydrothermal gasification

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of Posidonia oceanica was studied. • The output was mainly composed of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. • Maximum hydrogen yield was obtained with biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL) at 600 °C. • Maximum hydrogen and methane yields were 10.37 and 6.34 mol/kg, respectively. • The results propose an alternative solution to the landfill of marine biomass. - Abstract: The hydrothermal gasification of Posidonia oceanica was investigated in a batch reactor without adding any catalysts. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 °C with different biomass loading ranges of 0.04–0.12 (g/mL) in the reaction time of 1 h. The product gas was composed of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a small amount of C2–C4 compounds. The results showed that the formation of gaseous products, gasification efficiency and yield distribution of produced gases were intensively affected by biomass loading and temperature. The yields of hydrogen (10.37 mol/kg) and methane (6.34 mol/kg) were attained at 600 °C using biomass loading of 0.08 (g/mL). The results are very promising in terms of deployment of the utilization of marine biomass for hydrogen and/or methane production to industrial scale applications, thereby proposing an alternative solution to the landfill of P. oceanica residues

  9. Biomass Gasification Behavior in an Entrained Flow Reactor: Gas Product Distribution and Soot Formation

    Qin, Ke; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Lin, Weigang;


    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis were studied in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of operating parameters and biomass types on the syngas composition were investigated. In general, the carbon conversion during biomass gasification was higher than 90% at th...... increased both the H2 and CO yields. Wood, straw, and dried lignin had similar gasification behavior, except with regard to soot formation. The soot yield was lowest during straw gasification possibly because of its high potassium content....

  10. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)


    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  11. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier


    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  12. Experimental study on application of high temperature reactor excess heat in the process of coal and biomass co-gasification to hydrogen-rich gas

    The paper presents the results of the experimental study on the simulated application of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) excess heat in the process of allothermal co-gasification of coal and biomass. The laboratory scale installation with a fixed bed gasifier and auxiliary gasification agents pre-heating system, simulating the utilization of the HTR excess heat, were applied in the study. Steam and oxygen were the gasification media employed, and the process was focused on hydrogen-rich gas production. The results of the co-gasification of fuel blends of various biomass content at 800 °C and in various system configurations proved that the application of the simulated HTR excess heat in pre-heating of the gasification agents leads to the increase in the gaseous product yield. Furthermore, the HCA (Hierarchical Clustering Analysis) employed in the experimental data analysis revealed that the gasification of fuel blends of 20 and 40%w/w of biomass content results in higher volumes of the total gas, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than gasification of fuel blends of higher biomass content. - Highlights: • Simulated utilization of HTR excess heat in co-gasification of coal and biomass. • Assessment of three system configurations in terms of hydrogen production. • Application of the HCA in the experimental data set analysis. • Variation in gas components volume and content with fuel blend composition

  13. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar


    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  14. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  15. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel


    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  16. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated CCHP system with biomass air gasification

    Highlights: • Propose a biomass-gasification CCHP system. • A heat pipe heat exchanger is used to recover waste heat from product gas. • Present the energy and exergy analyses of the biomass CCHP system. • Analyze the annual off-design performances. - Abstract: Biomass-fueled combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is a sustainable distributed energy system to reduce fossil energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. This study proposes a biomass CCHP system that contains a biomass gasifier, a heat pipe heat exchanger for recovering waste heat from product gas, an internal combustion engine to produce electricity, an absorption chiller/heater for cooling and heating, and a heat exchanger to produce domestic hot water. Operational flows are presented in three work conditions: summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for different operational flows. The case demonstrated that the energy efficiencies in the three work conditions are 50.00%, 37.77%, and 36.95%, whereas the exergy efficiencies are 6.23%, 12.51%, and 13.79%, respectively. Destruction analyses of energy and exergy indicate that the largest destruction occurs in the gasification system, which accounts for more than 70% of the total energy and exergy losses. Annual performance shows that the proposed biomass-fueled CCHP system reduces biomass consumption by 4% compared with the non-use of a heat recovery system for high-temperature product gas

  17. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.


    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  18. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)


    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  19. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei


    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. PMID:25265865

  20. Clean fuels from biomass

    Hsu, Y.-Y.


    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  1. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark


    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  2. Energetic use of wood and biomass by circulating fluidized bed gasification. Final report

    The project's objective was the development and utilization of a biomass gasification process based on CFB-gasification with dry hot gas upgrading for IC-engine operation. Construction and operation of a test plant at pilot scale with 400 kW fuel input capacity. Development of a mathematical model for CFB-gasification. Reliable operation of CFB-gasifier, good results at partial load and good behaviour at changing the load. Air blown gasification of wood chips yielded lower heating values (LHV) up to 5500 kJ/m3 (s.T.p., dry) for the gas. Main attention to measures for tar removal. Target value was 3 (s.T.p.) for napthalene + PAH. Average amount of tar after CBF-gasifier at 3000-5000 mg/m3 (s.T.p.). Primary measures aiming at a decreased tar production were not suitable for achieving the target value. Several secondary measures were tested. Tars could almost completely be cracked or reformed by special catalysts. In continuous test runs of more than 100 h duration tar contents less than 50 mg/m3 were achieved. A scale up for a catalytic gas cleaning system based on the results is planned. Estimations of economics show the process concept to be advantegous for plants up to 30 MW fuel input capacity. Profitable costs for combined heat and power production from biomass can be expected. (orig.)

  3. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  4. Biomass Gasification in Thermal Plasma Reactor

    Konrád, Miloš; Hrabovský, Milan; Hlína, Michal; Kopecký, Vladimír

    Bratislava: Comenius University Bratislava, 2009 - (Papp, P.; Országh, J.; Matúška, J.; Matejčík, Š.), s. 115-116 ISBN 978-80-89186-45-7. [Symposium on Application of Plasma Processes/17th./. Liptovský Ján (SK), 17.01.2009-22.01.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084; GA MPO FT-TA4/050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * gasification * syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  5. A simulation study on the torrefied biomass gasification

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model for raw and torrefied biomass with thermodynamic analysis. • Experimental pyrolysis yields including tar as inputs to the model. • Equivalence ratio had the most pronounced effect on the model outcomes. • Torrefied biomass gave higher H2 and CO contents and energy and exergy efficiencies. • Torrefaction mass yields affect the gasification process efficiency. - Abstract: Many studies have evaluated biomass behavior in a gasification process. Similar studies with torrefied biomass are needed to evaluate the improvements in biomass properties with torrefaction. This forms the basis of this study. A two-stage biomass gasification model is presented by using Aspen Plus as the simulation and modeling tool. The model included the minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the produced gas to achieve chemical equilibrium in the process, constrained by mass and energy balances for the system. Air and steam were used as the oxidizing agent in the process that uses both untreated and torrefied biomass as feedstocks. Three process parameters, equivalence ratio (ER), Gibbs reactor temperature and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR), were studied. 27 cases were included in the analysis by operating the system below the carbon deposition boundary with all carbon in gaseous form in the product gas. Product gas composition in the form of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen (N2) was analyzed together with cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies for all the cases. Overall, mole fractions of H2, CO, CO2 and N2 were between 0.23–0.40, 0.22–0.42, 0.01–0.09 and 0.14–0.36 for torrefied wood and 0.21–0.40, 0.17–0.34, 0.03–0.09 and 0.15–0.37 for untreated wood, respectively. Similarly, cold gas energy and exergy efficiencies were between 76.1–97.9% and 68.3–85.8% for torrefied wood and 67.9–91.0% and 60.7–79.4% for untreated wood, respectively. Torrefied biomass has higher H2 and CO

  6. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  7. Assessment of integration of different biomass gasification alternatives in a district-heating system

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O. [Department of Energy and Environment, Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)


    With increasingly stringent CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets, incentives for efficient use of limited biomass resources increase. Technologies for gasification of biomass may then play a key role given their potential for high electrical efficiency and multiple outputs; not only electricity but also bio transport fuels and district heat. The aim of this study is to assess the economic consequences and the potential for CO{sub 2} reduction of integration of a biomass gasification plant into a district-heating (DH) system. The study focuses on co-location with an existing natural gas combined cycle heat and power plant in the municipal DH system of Goeteborg, Sweden. The analysis is carried out using a systems modelling approach. The so-called MARTES model is used. MARTES is a simulating, DH systems supply model with a detailed time slice division. The economic robustness of different solutions is investigated by using different sets of parameters for electricity price, fuel prices and policy tools. In this study, it is assumed that not only tradable green certificates for electricity but also tradable green certificates for transport fuels exist. The economic results show strong dependence on the technical solutions and scenario assumptions but in most cases a stand-alone SNG-polygeneration plant with district-heat delivery is the cost-optimal solution. Its profitability is strongly dependent on policy tools and the price relation between biomass and fossil fuels. Finally, the results show that operation of the biomass gasification plants reduces the (DH) system's net emissions of CO{sub 2}. (author)

  8. Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach

    Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib


    Full Text Available Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.

  9. Carbonaceous residues from biomass gasification as catalysts for biodiesel production

    Rafael Luque; Antonio Pineda; Juan C. Colmenares; Juan M. Campelo; Antonio A. Romero; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; Luisa F. Cabeza; Jaime Cot-Gores


    Tars and alkali ashes from biomass gasification processes currently constitute one of the major problems in biomass valorisation,generating clogging of filters and issues related with the purity of syngas production.To date,these waste residues find no useful applications and they are generally disposed upon generation in the gasification process.A detailed analysis of these residues pointed out the presence of high quantities of Ca (>30 wt%).TG experiments indicated that a treatment under air at moderate temperatures (400-800 ℃) decomposed the majority of carbon species,while XRD indicated the presence of a crystalline CaO phase.CaO enriched valorized materials turned out to be good heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils,providing moderate to good activities (50%-70% after 12 h) to fatty acid methyl esters in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol.

  10. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas


    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu


    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. PMID:26826573

  12. Properties of synthetic gas produced by plasma gasification of biomass

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Konrád, Miloš; Kopecký, Vladimír; Kavka, Tetyana; Lorcet, H.

    Greifswald: INP Greifswald, 2010, s. 452-455. ISBN 0-9539105-4-7. [International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications (GD 2010)/18th./. Greifswald (DE), 05.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084; GA MŠk MEB020814 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * Gerdien arc * gasification * biomass Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email:; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia


    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  14. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    Liu, M.


    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  15. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email:; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)


    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  16. Formation of naphthalene at gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup with dolomite

    Tar generated at gasification of biomass and municipal wastes is an unwanted byproduct. With dolomite as catalyst the tar content is reduced to such a level as to allow final cleaning of the fuel gas with water. It is still desirable to further reduce the naphthalene level in the fuel gas. The aim of the project is to determine the influence of process variables on cracking of naphthalene with dolomite in a small fluidized bed gasifier, and to determine the influence on the content of BTX in the gas from the same variables. 10 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  17. Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with supplementary biomass firing: Energy and exergy based performance analysis

    A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances in a proposed configuration. Combustion of supplementary biomass fuel is considered using the oxygen available in the gas turbine (GT) exhaust. The effects of pressure and temperature ratios of the GT system and the amount of fuel burned in the supplementary firing chamber on the thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the plant have been investigated. The plant efficiencies increase with the increase in both pressure and temperature ratios; however, the latter has a stronger influence than the former. Supplementary firing of biomass increases the plant efficiencies of a BIGCC plant till an optimum level of degree of firing. The other technical issues related to supplementary firing, like ash fusion in the furnace and exhaust heat loss maintaining a minimum pinch point temperature difference are accounted and finally a set of optimum plant operating parameters have been identified. The performance of a 50 MWe plant has been analyzed with the optimum operating parameters to find out equipment rating and biomass feed rates. Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic irreversibilities in the plant. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic analysis of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) plant has been performed based on energy and exergy balances across various plant components in a proposed configuration in order to optimize the operating parameters. → The effect of supplementary biomass firing in the BIGCC plant has been analyzed in detail to find out the optimum degree of firing for the best plant performance. → The equipment ratings and fuel feed rates are evaluated and the technical feasibility of the plant configuration has been analyzed. → Exergetic efficiencies of different plant equipments are evaluated to localize the major thermodynamic

  18. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  19. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale


    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. PMID:24880809

  20. Liquid fuel from biomass

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  1. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  2. Performance evaluation of an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system

    Wongchanapai, Suranat; Iwai, Hiroshi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo


    The combination of biomass gasification and high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offers great potential as a future sustainable power generation system. In order to provide insights into an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system, system simulation was performed under diverse operating conditions. A detailed anode-supported planar SOFC model under co-flow operation and a thermodynamic equilibrium for biomass gasification model were developed and verified by reliable experimental and simulation data. The other peripheral components include three gas-to-gas heat exchangers (HXs), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), burner, fuel and air compressors. To determine safe operating conditions with high system efficiency, energy and exergy analysis was performed to investigate the influence through detailed sensitivity analysis of four key parameters, e.g. steam-to-biomass ratio (STBR), SOFC inlet stream temperatures, fuel utilization factor (Uf) and anode off-gas recycle ratio (AGR) on system performance. Due to the fact that SOFC stack is accounted for the most expensive part of the initial investment cost, the number of cells required for SOFC stack is economically optimized as well. Through the detailed sensitivity analysis, it shows that the increase of STBR positively affects SOFC while gasifier performance drops. The most preferable operating STBR is 1.5 when the highest system efficiencies and the smallest number of cells. The increase in SOFC inlet temperature shows negative impact on system and gasifier performances while SOFC efficiencies are slightly increased. The number of cells required for SOFC is reduced with the increase of SOFC inlet temperature. The system performance is optimized for Uf of 0.75 while SOFC and system efficiencies are the highest with the smallest number of cells. The result also shows the optimal anode off-gas recycle ratio of 0.6. Regarding with the increase of anode off-gas recycle ratio

  3. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  4. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Vehmaan-Kreula, M.; Raiko, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    This project was an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402 carried out in 1993-1994. The aims of the 1995 project were: (1) to study the formation of problematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen pounds in the conditions of entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (2) study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis, and (3) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification tests were carried out at a new entrained flow reactor of the Gasification Research Group of VTT using mainly peat as the feedstock. The pyrolysis kinetics was studies using three particle size distributions of fuel peat (0.075-0.125 mm, 0.16-0.25 mm and 0.315-0.5 mm). The char yields were determined at two temperatures (900 and 1000 deg C) and the effects fuel to gas ratio (suspension density) as well as the effects of gas atmosphere were determined. Limited amount of tests were also carried out with pine wood and dried de-inking sludge. The formation of tars and nitrogen compounds was studied with peat as the feedstock. Based on the test results of this project and the on earlier fluidized-bed gasification data of VTT, the following conclusions can be made: (1) the char yields in rapid entrained flow pyrolysis of small particles of peat and biomass are considerably lower than derived in fluid-bed pyrolysis of more coarse feedstocks. Consequently, simple entrained flow reactors without any recycling of char could already give rather high carbon conversions. However, high carbon conversions can also be easily achieved in fluidized-bed gasifiers with biomass fuels due to the high gasification reactivity of the char, (2) more tars were formed in entrained flow pyrolysis of peat than in fluidized-bed experiments carried out at the same temperature, (3) the total conversion of peat nitrogen to NH{sub 3}+HCN was as high in the entrained flow pyrolysis as in the fluid-bed pyrolysis experiments. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  6. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua


    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. PMID:25459803

  7. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) with CO2 removal

    Based on the results of previous studies, the efficiency of a Brayton/Hirn combined cycle fuelled with a clean syngas produced by means of biomass gasification and equipped with CO2 removal by chemical absorption reached 33.94%, considering also the separate CO2 compression process. The specific CO2 emission of the power plant was 178 kg/MW h. In comparison with values previously found for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with upstream CO2 chemical absorption (38-39% efficiency, 130 kg/MW h specific CO2 emissions), this configuration seems to be attractive because of the possibility of operating with a simplified scheme and because of the possibility of using biomass in a more efficient way with respect to conventional systems. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted with presenting the results on the basis of the Eco-Indicator 95 impact assessment methodology. Further, a comparison with the results previously obtained for the LCA of the ICGCC was performed in order to highlight the environmental impact of biomass production with fossil fuels utilisation. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilisation in terms of reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and natural resource depletion, although an improved impact assessment methodology may better highlight the advantages due to the biomass utilisation

  8. Problems and opportunities fr solar energy in biomass, pyrolysis, and gasification

    Reed, T.


    Passive solar input for drying crops and wood already make a significant input to the US energy budget, and active solar drying, requiring temperatures below 200/sup 0/C, can easily make an important substitution for fossil fuels in drying. Pyrolysis of biomass typically requires less than 1.6 MBtu/dry ton at a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and this could potentially be supplied by direct solar heating. The heat input is likely to be by indirect heating of a solid, liquid or gas heat-transfer agent. Fast pyrolysis requires modest heat inputs with high heat-transfer rates at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus may be particularly suited to focusing collectors as energy sources. Char gasification, using steam or CO/sub 2/, requires large energy inputs at temperatures over 900/sup 0/C and thus is the least likely field of application of solar energy. Ultimately, the large scale application of solar energy to biomass pyrolysis and gasification will depend on the relative cost of direct solar versus biomass inputs. Biomass energy inputs now typically cost 1 to 3 $/MBtu; when direct solar heat costs begin to approach this level, we may begin to use direct solar process heat for biomass conversion.

  9. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass Gasification Products to Syngas

    Scott L. Swartz


    Full Text Available Magnesium nickel silicate (MNS has been investigated as a catalyst to convert tars and light hydrocarbons to syngas (CO and H2 by steam reforming and CO2 reforming in the presence of H2S for biomass gasification process at NexTech Materials. It was observed that complete CH4 conversion could be achieved on MNS catalyst granules at 800–900 °C and a space velocity of 24,000 mL/g/h in a simulated biomass gasification stream. Addition of 10–20 ppm H2S to the feed had no apparent impact on CH4 conversion. The MNS-washcoated monolith also showed high activities in converting methane, light hydrocarbons and tar to syngas. A 1200 h test without deactivation was achieved on the MNS washcoated monolith in the presence of H2S and/or NH3, two common impurities in gasified biomass. The results indicate that the MNS material is a promising catalyst for removal of tar and light hydrocarbons from biomass gasified gases, enabling efficient use of biomass to produce power, liquid fuels and valuable chemicals.

  10. Potential approaches to improve gasification of high water content biomass rich in cellulose in dual fluidized bed

    Dong, Li; Xu, Guangwen [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Suda, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory, IHI Corporation, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Murakami, Takahiro [National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Biomass containing water of 30-65 wt.% and rich in cellulose, such as various grounds of drinking materials and the lees of spirit and vinegar, is not suitable for biological digestion, and the thermal conversion approach has to be applied to its conversion into bioenergy. The authors have recently worked on converting such biomass into middle heating-value gas via dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG) integrated with various process intensification technologies. This article is devoted to highlighting those technical ways, including the choice of the superior technical deployment for a DFBG system, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel in fuel drying, the integration of gas cleaning with fuel gasification via two-stage DFBG (T-DFBG), and the decoupling of fuel drying/pyrolysis and char gasification via the decoupled DFBG (D-DFBG). The attained results demonstrated that the superior deployment of bed combination for the DFBG should be a bubbling/turbulent fluidized bed gasifier integrated with a pneumatic riser combustor. In terms of improving efficiency of fuel conversion into combustible gas and suppressing tar generation during gasification, the impregnation of Ca onto fuel exhibited distinctively high upgrading effect, while both the T-DFBG and D-DFBG were also demonstrated to be effective to a certain degree. (author)

  11. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the gasification section. The advantages of indirect gasification are no syngas dilution with nitrogen and no external heat source required. The production process involves several process units, including biomass gasification, syngas cooler, cleaning and compression, methanation reactors and SNG conditioning. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various operating conditions such as gasifier pressure, methanation pressure and temperature. The largest internal exergy losses occur in the gasifier followed by methanation and SNG conditioning. It is shown that exergetic efficiency of biomass-to-SNG process for woody biomass is higher than that for waste biomass. The exergetic efficiency for all biomass feedstock increases with gasification pressure, whereas the effects of methanation pressure and temperature are opposite for treated wood and waste biomass.

  12. Recent utility efforts to develop advanced gasification biomass power generation facilities

    This paper provides a status report on recent utility efforts to evaluate cost-effective opportunities for developing advanced gasification biomass power generation facilities and, in some cases, to actually begin developing the facilities. An overview is provided of national estimates of the potential for producing electricity from various biomass feedstocks. Major manufacturers of advanced gasification biomass power generation technologies are described. Major biomass power generation projects underway by utilities in the US are described. Significant issues affecting further commercialization of biomass gasification facilities are discussed and strategies for addressing the barriers are suggested

  13. Biomass gasification as project for the rural development; A gaseificacao da biomassa como projeto para o desenvolvimento rural

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga; Parodi, Fernando Aurelio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails:;;;


    This paper presents a study on the gasification of the biomass as a project for the rural development. Consider the biomass gasification as an sustainable alternative for energy generation, with low pollutant emission.

  14. Evaluation of biomass gasification in a ternary diagram

    The present paper addresses the development of an alternative approach to illustrate biomass gasification in a ternary diagram which is constructed using data from thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of air-blown atmospheric wood gasification. It allows the location of operation domains of slagging entrained-flow, fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow and fixed/moving-bed gasification systems depending on technical limitations mainly due to ash melting behavior. Performance parameters, e.g. cold gas efficiency or specific syngas production, and process parameters such as temperature and carbon conversion are displayed in the diagram depending on the three independent mass flows representing (1) the gasifying agent, (2) the dry biomass and (3) the moisture content of the biomass. The graphical approach indicates the existence of maxima for cold gas efficiency (84.9%), syngas yield (1.35 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf)) and conversion of carbon to CO (81.1%) under dry air-blown conditions. The fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow processes have the potential to reach these global maxima since they can operate in the identified temperature range from 700 to 950 °C. Although using air as a gasifying agent, the same temperature range posses a potential of H2/CO ratios up to 2.0 at specific syngas productions of 1.15 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf). Fixed/moving-bed and fluidized-bed systems can approach a dry product gas LHV from 3.0 to 5.5 MJ/m3 (dry STP). The ternary diagram was also used to study the increase of gasifying agent oxygen fraction from 21 to 99 vol.%. While the dry gas LHV can be increased significantly, the maxima of cold gas efficiency (+6.5%) and syngas yield (+7.4%) are elevated only slightly. - Highlights: • Novel graphical approach for comprehensive assessment of biomass gasification. • Parameters fields for temperature, conversion, cold gas efficiency, syngas yield etc. • Identification of operation ranges for entrained, fluid and moving

  15. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    Wilcox, E.


    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  16. Hydrodynamic study on gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed gasifier



    Full Text Available Current scenario of energy insecurity urges us to realize the importance of alternate energy sources. In country with variety of vegetation like India, Biomass finds its place of which fluidized bed gasification of biomass could be more effective. This paper emphasizes the importance of a fluidized bed gasifier for energy conversion of agro-residues for useful purposes. Coconut Shell and Ground nut shell of gross calorific value 19.43MJ/kg and 14.91 MJ/kg respectively are taken for the study. The particle size is restricted not to exceed 3mm. Various empirical correlations involved in fluidization are studied and their interdependence is detailed. From various published data, importance of inert materials and their relative proportions with biomass fuels are studied and optimum biomass to sand ratio is fixed as 10 to 15% by mass. Equations for predicting the minimum fluidization velocities of these mixtures are also discussed. Variations of Fluidization parameters such asminimum fluidization velocity, bubble rise velocity, expanded bed height with respect to temperature, equivalence ratio, particle size is studied and their quantification is analyzed. A 108 mm internal diameter and 1400 mm high FBG is used for the study. Fuel is fed through screw feeder and air is supplied through blower. In the down stream side cyclone separator is placed after which the sampling and burner lines are connected. A regression model is developed and the feasibility of gasifying coconut shell and groundnut shell are discussed. Earlier and present work of coconut shell gasification proves fluidized bed gasification is more appropriate for agro residues.

  17. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail:


    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  18. Biomass gasification to heat, electricity and biofuels. HighBio project publication

    Lassi, U.; Wikman, B. (eds.)


    Renewable energy and the use of biomass in energy production promotes sustainable development and decreases the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, e.g. wood chips can be used in the production of heat and electricity, as well as being used as a biofuel component and novel product for the chemical industry. Efficient utilisation of biomass requires a high level of knowledge and the development of new processes to create a new way of thinking. In this process, international co-operation plays a significant role. The aim of the HighBio project was to produce new information on biomass gasification and the utilisation opportunities of product gas in biofuel and biochemicals production. The project was also aimed at studying utilisation properties of biogasification ashes in distributed energy production. Small-scaled CHP plants can be used for simultaneous heat and power production by gasifying wood chips and by burning energy intensive product gas. Compared with thermal combustion, particulate emissions from gasification are lower, which also contributes to the EU's ever tightening emission legislation. Several small and middle scale companies in the Northern part of Finland and Sweden have worked with biomass gasification, and during the project, the birth of new ones has been seen. In this development stage, researchers of the HighBio project have also been strongly involved. Increased use of renewable energy opens up new possibilities for entrepreneurship and the birth of new companies, especially in rural areas. In order to enable these opportunities, we need research data from the universities, novel innovations, and especially their successful commercialisation. The HighBio project has also contributed to tackling those challenges by arranging research seminars and meetings to companies and other interest groups, as well as by establishing research activities and collaborations. Regional collaboration combined with national and international research networks

  19. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)


    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  20. Improving the performance of fluidized bed biomass/waste gasifiers for distributed electricity: A new three-stage gasification system

    Methods to increase the conversion of char and tar in fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) are discussed, with the focus on small to medium-size biomass/waste gasifiers for power production (from 0.5 to 10 MWe). Optimization of such systems aims at (i) maximizing energy utilization of the fuel (maximizing char conversion), (ii) minimizing secondary treatment of the gas (by avoiding complex tar cleaning), and (iii) application in small biomass-to-electricity gasification plants. The efficiency of various measures to increase tar and char conversion within a gasification reactor (primary methods) is discussed. The optimization of FBG by using in-bed catalysts, by addition of steam and enriched air as gasification agent, and by secondary-air injection, although improving the process, is shown to be insufficient to attain the gas purity required for burning the gas in an engine to produce electricity. Staged gasification is identified as the only method capable of reaching the targets mentioned above with reasonable simplicity and cost, so it is ideal for power production. A promising new stage gasification process is presented. It is based on three stages: FB devolatilization, non-catalytic air/steam reforming of the gas coming from the devolatilizer, and chemical filtering of the gas and gasification of the char in a moving bed supplied with the char generated in the devolatilizer. Design considerations and comparison with one-stage FBG are discussed. - Highlights: ► Optimization of fluidized bed biomass gasifiers is reviewed. ► The effectiveness of primary measures for tar and char conversion for small/medium scale units are discussed. ► Feasible measures for adjusting operation of fluidized bed gasifiers are assessed. ► A new three-staged-fluidized-bed gasification system for biomasses and wastes is proposed.

  1. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  2. Tar dewpoint analyser. For application in biomass gasification product gases

    This project aims at the development of an analyser for the on-line measurement of tar dewpoints in biomass product gases. The work has been executed according to the project proposal. On basis of the specifications for the tar dewpoint analyser (TDA), an existing hydrocarbon dewpoint sensor was modified and a gas conditioning section was designed for tar dewpoint measurements. Preliminary laboratory tests with the gas conditioning section and dewpoint sensor were run to investigate the performance and fouling characteristics of the dewpoint sensor and the gas conditioning section. The TDA (gas conditioning section + sensor) was tested and validated downstream the laboratory scale BFB gasifier at ECN. Tar dewpoints between 25C and 170C could successfully be measured. After finishing the tests a pre design for a commercial analyser was made. Finally, the market for the TDA was identified and segmented in R and D groups, indirect co-combustion and stand-alone biomass gasification installations

  3. Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach

    The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on

  4. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.


    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  5. Fuel economy: thermochemical regeneration and new method of coal gasification

    Nosach, V.H.


    Heat regeneration and coal gasification are two means of increasing the efficiency of utilizing fossil fuel resources. Two methods of heat regeneration are discussed: air regeneration and a new method, thermochemical regeneration. Use of thermochemical regeneration in heat-utilizing aggregates has increased fuel efficiency by 15-20%, and the combined use of both heat regeneration methods is also highly effective. The increased use of coal is generally associated with the greater air pollution. The most effective method of controlling harmful atmospheric emissions by coal-fueled power plants is a two-stage combustion system with preliminary coal gasification to remove sulfur and ash and combustion of the pure gasification products. But the introduction of coal gasification has increased the need for designing new gas generators. The advantages of using coal gasification at electric power plants include increasing the reliability of steam generators, decreasing expenditures for transporting fuel, and more complete utilization of coal. Coal gasification also broadens the use of low-quality coal. Gasification of Siberian coal with the production of synthetic natural gas also lessens the problem of transporting energy resources from Siberia to central regions of the USSR. A continuous method has been developed for producing synthetic gas by steam gasification of coal without use of oxygen.

  6. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo


    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Hassan Athari


    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  8. The economics of transport fuels from biomass

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of complete processes for producing conventional liquid fuels from biomass from biomass feed at the factory gate to final product storage. It was carried out to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. The processes covered are indirect liquefaction by thermal gasification and liquid fuel synthesis; direct thermal liquefaction and catalytic upgrading; and biochemical conversion through hydrolysis and fermentation. Feedstocks include wood, straw and refuse. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons that in some cases would require minor refining to convert them into marketable products; conventional alcohol fuels of methanol which has established opportunities and fuel alcohol which is as yet unproven in the market place; and bioethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. Generally the alcohol fuels are more attractive in comparing costs and prices, but the advantage is lost in absolute terms. (17 figures; 15 tables) (Author)

  9. Optimal process design for thermochemical production of fuels from biomass

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François


    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  10. Gasification for power, CHP and polygeneration Biomass Gasification for Combined Heat Power (CHP) Applications: the GAMECO Project

    Authier, O; Khalfi, Az-Eddine; Sanchez, L.; Aleman, Y; Delebarre, A; Mauviel, G; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Poirier, J.; Kerhoas, J


    International audience Air-blown fluidised bed biomass gasification is a well adapted technology for Combined Heat Power (CHP) applications with syngas valorisation in a gas engine. However, it is not mature yet. Despite promising prototypes, CHP gasification needs further improvements to become the reference technology in the medium-size CHP market. This is the purpose of the GAMECO project, which aims at improving an existing technology by optimising its operation, increasing its feedsto...

  11. Synthesis gas from biomass for fuels and chemicals

    Making H2 and CO (syngas) from biomass is widely recognised as a necessary step in the production of various second generation biofuels. There are two major ways to produce a biosyngas: fluidised bed gasification with catalytic reformer or entrained flow gasification. The latter option requires extensive pre-treatment such as flash pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis, torrefaction, or fluidized bed gasification at a low temperature. Cleaned and conditioned biosyngas can be used to synthesize second generation biofuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, methanol, DME, mixed alcohols, and even pure hydrogen. The report describes the different technical options to produce, clean and condition bio-syngas. Furthermore, issues related to scale and biomass transport are covered shortly

  12. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida


    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  13. Economics of biomass energy utilization in combustion and gasification plants: effects of logistic variables

    The substitution of conventional fossil fuels with biomass for energy production results both in a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and in the replacement of non-renewable energy sources. However, at present, generating energy from biomass is rather expensive due to both technological limits related to lower conversion efficiencies, and logistic constraints. In particular, the logistics of biomass fuel supply is likely to be complex owing to the intrinsic feedstock characteristics, such as the limited period of availability and the scattered geographical distribution over the territory. In this paper, the economical feasibility of biomass utilization for direct production of electric energy by means of combustion and gasification-conversion processes, has been investigated and evaluated over a capacity range from 5 to 50 MW, taking into account total capital investments, revenues from energy sale and total operating costs, also including a detailed evaluation of logistic costs. Moreover, in order to evaluate the impact of logistics on the bio-energy plants profitability, the effects of main logistic variables such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs and distribution density, have been examined. Finally, a mapping of logistic constraints on plant profitability in the specified capacity range has been carried out

  14. Reaction kinetics of solid fuels during entrained flow gasification

    Tremel, Alexander


    Despite the application of entrained flow gasification on larger scales, the reaction rates in the hot conversion zone are almost unknown. But the knowledge of the rates of the gasification reactions at high temperature and high pressure is crucial for the detailed design and optimisation of these gasifiers. This dissertation provides measurements of fuel conversion under operation conditions relevant to industrial gasifiers and aims at the transfer of the data to larger scale applications. A novel pilot-scale research reactor is developed that enables the study of gasification reactions at high temperature, high pressure and under entrained flow conditions. The Pressurised High Temperature Entrained Flow Reactor (PiTER) is operated at up to 1600 C and 4.0 MPa in pyrolysis and gasification experiments. The data set is extended by measurements in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor and a pressurised wire mesh reactor. Devolatilisation and gasification behaviour of a wide range of fuels is analysed including anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, biocoal (from hydrothermal carbonisation), and biomass; however, Rhenish lignite is used in most of the experiments. The pyrolysis data enable the validation of a simple first order reaction model that describes the influence of pressure, temperature, and residence time on volatile yield. Char samples collected from the three reactors are analysed using laboratory procedures and bench-scale setups. Specific char surface area is measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K, and is found to be significantly influenced by char conversion, reaction temperature, and devolatilisation pressure. The surface data are described by an extension of the Random Pore Model. Intrinsic char reactivity is measured in a pressurised thermogravimetric analyser and the influence of reactant partial pressure and temperature on the char-CO{sub 2} and char-H{sub 2}O reaction is studied. The intrinsic reaction rate is described by nth order and


    Martin Lisý


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  16. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels


    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...... process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...... rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas.The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy...

  17. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  18. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass (UCGFunda)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Nasrullah, M.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))


    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international co-operation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. A lot of data on the reactivity and ash sintering properties of various kinds of biomasses has been obtained in the project and the information will now be formulated into a mathematical model. In addition to catalysis also thermal reactions play an important role in gas cleaning. Both experimental and modelling work on both of the reaction types is being carried out. Three techno-economic evaluations on alternative and competing technologies will be completed in the coming year. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. New analysis techniques developed in the project have proven very useful and for instance a fast on-line tar analysis method is now well established. (orig.)

  19. Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Kuester, J.L.


    A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).


    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar


    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.


    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels

  2. Formation and removal of biomass-derived contaminants in fluidized-bed gasification processes

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The objectives of this thesis were to examine the effects of the feedstock and the operating conditions of a fluidized-bed gasifier on the formation of tars and nitrogen-containing compounds and to study the effectiveness of the hot gas cleaning methods developed for the removal of particulates, alkali metals, tars and nitrogen-containing compounds. The most essential part of the work was carried out in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification test facilities composed of an air-blown bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent hot gas filter unit. The operation pressure of the test rig could be varied in the range 0.3 - 1.0 MPa and the maximum allowable gasification temperature was 1 050 deg C. The maximum capacity with biomass fuels was 80 kg/h. A wide range of feedstocks from hard coals, lignite and peat to different wood derived fuels and straw were used in the gasification tests. Two different types of ceramic filters were tested in the filter unit connected to the pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier. The filter unit was operated in a temperature range of 400 - 740 deg C. The particulate removal requirements set by the gas turbines were met by both types of filters and with product gases derived from all the feedstocks tested. In addition to the gasification and gas filtration tests, catalytic tar and ammonia decomposition was studied using both laboratory and bench-scale test facilities. Inexpensive calcium-based bulk materials, dolomites and limestones, were efficient tar decomposition catalysts in atmospheric-pressure tests

  3. CFD Simulation of Biomass Gasification using Detailed Chemistry

    Rashidi, Arash


    The use of biomass as a CO2-neutral renewable fuel and the only carbon containing renewable energy source is becoming more important due to the decreasing resources of fossil fuels and their effect on global warming. The projections made for the Renewable Energy Road Map [1] suggested that in the EU, the use of biomass can be expected to double, to contribute around half of the total effort for reaching the 20 % renewable energy target in 2020 [2]. To achieve this goal, efficient processes to...

  4. Biomass gasification- a promising renewable energy technology for industries

    The demand for energy in the industrial sector is increasing to meet the growing activities due to the encouragement of the government in our country. This energy requirement is mostly thermal or electrical. To sustain the healthy trend there is an urgent need to look for alternate (renewable) sources of energy in addition to the measures of energy conservation wherever possible. One such very promising, matured, and advanced renewable energy technology is biomass gasification, offering a host of benefits. The use of this technology especially in the industrial sector, by taking the first hand practical examples from our experience of working in this area where it has been put to use is discussed. To further give an idea of the vast nature of its applicability different class of industries have been chosen highlighting the advantages derived by adopting this technology. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  5. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;


    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as...... are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is...

  6. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin


    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. PMID:26184898

  7. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Padban, Nader


    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  8. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)


    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  9. Preliminary study on co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt with coal and biomass

    Highlights: • Co-gasification of DOA with coal and biomass are proposed and studied. • Pure DOA char shows low reactivity mainly for low surface area, high graphitization degree and low ash content. • Co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect. • Synergetic effect between biomass and DOA is observed. • Potassium naturally in biomass can transfer to DOA and catalyzes the gasification of DOA. - Abstract: The co-gasification behavior of deoiled asphalt (DOA) with coal and biomass were investigated by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The gasification experiments were conducted under CO2 atmosphere within an isothermal temperature range from 900 to 1100 °C. The physical properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), N2 and CO2 adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Compared with coal or biomass, the low surface area, high graphitization degree and the low ash content are the main reasons for the low reactivity of DOA. The co-gasification of coal and DOA does not show synergetic effect, while the combination of biomass and DOA shows higher gasification reactivity than that of being calculated. The synergetic effect is mainly caused by the alkali metals. Further study shows the transfer of the potassium from the surface of biomass to DOA greatly increases the active sites of the DOA, which leads to obvious improvement of the co-gasification reactions. Meanwhile, the gasification experiments of adding coal and biomass ashes to DOA also support the above explanations

  10. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m3

  11. Assessment of the Potential of Biomass Gasification for Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    Barun Kumar Das


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is an agriculture based country where more than 65 percent of the people live in rural areas and over 70% of total primary energy consumption is covered by biomass, mainly agricultural waste and wood. Only about 6% of the entire population has access to natural gas, primarily in urban areas. Electricity production in Bangladesh largely depends on fossil fuel whose reserve is now under threat and the government is now focusing on the alternating sources to harness electricity to meet the continuous increasing demand. To reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, biomass to electricity could play a vital role in this regard. This paper explores the biomass based power generation potential of Bangladesh through gasification technology—an efficient thermochemical process for distributed power generation. It has been estimated that the total power generation from the agricultural residue is about 1178 MWe. Among them, the generation potential from rice husk, and bagasses is 1010 MWe, and 50 MWe, respectively. On the other hand, wheat straw, jute stalks, maize residues, lentil straw, and coconut shell are also the promising biomass resources for power generation which counted around 118 MWe. The forest residue and municipal solid waste could also contribute to the total power generation 250 MWe and 100 MWe, respectively.

  12. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  13. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  14. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw; Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman; Suzana Yusup


    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on dow...

  15. Assessment of forest biomass technology: Direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification

    This paper assesses the efficient forest biomass technology in groups of direct combustion, charcoal-making and gasification for application in developing countries. Other technologies, such as briquetting, biogas and alcohol distillation, are not covered. 7 refs, 7 tabs

  16. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin


    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. PMID:26164851

  17. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla


    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  18. Thermodynamic optimization of biomass gasification for decentralized power generation and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    In recent years, biomass gasification has emerged as a viable option for decentralized power generation, especially in developing countries. Another potential use of producer gas from biomass gasification is in terms of feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis - a process for manufacture of synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports optimization of biomass gasification process for these two applications. Using the non-stoichometric equilibrium model (SOLGASMIX), we have assessed the outcome of gasification process for different combinations of operating conditions. Four key parameters have been used for optimization, viz. biomass type (saw dust, rice husk, bamboo dust), air or equivalence ratio (AR = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), temperature of gasification (T = 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 oC), and gasification medium (air, air-steam 10% mole/mole mixture, air-steam 30%mole/mole mixture). Performance of the gasification process has been assessed with four measures, viz. molar content of H2 and CO in the producer gas, H2/CO molar ratio, LHV of producer gas and overall efficiency of gasifier. The optimum sets of operating conditions for gasifier for FT synthesis are: AR = 0.2-0.4, Temp = 800-1000 oC, and gasification medium as air. The optimum sets of operating conditions for decentralized power generation are: AR = 0.3-0.4, Temp = 700-800 oC with gasification medium being air. The thermodynamic model and methodology presented in this work also presents a general framework, which could be extended for optimization of biomass gasification for any other application.

  19. Exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production via biomass gasification and catalytic synthesis

    In this paper an exergy analysis of thermochemical ethanol production from biomass is presented. This process combines a steam-blown indirect biomass gasification of woody feedstock, with a subsequent conversion of produced syngas into ethanol. The production process involves several process sections, including biomass drying and gasification, syngas cleaning, reforming, conditioning, and compression, ethanol synthesis, separation of synthesis products, and heat recovery. The process is simulated with a computer model using the flow-sheeting software Aspen Plus. The exergy analysis is performed for various ethanol catalysts, including Rh-based and MoS2-based (target) catalysts as well as for various gasification temperatures. The exergetic efficiency is 43.5% for Rh-based and 44.4% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst, when ethanol is considered as the only exergetic output. In case when by-products of ethanol synthesis are considered as the additional output the exergetic efficiency for Rh-based catalyst increases to 58.9% and 65.8% for MoS2-based (target) catalyst. The largest exergy losses occur in biomass gasifier and ethanol synthesis reactor. The exergetic efficiency for both ethanol catalysts increases with decreasing gasification temperature. -- Highlights: ► Thermochemical ethanol production from biomass via biomass gasification and ethanol synthesis has been modeled. ► Exergy analysis is performed for various process conditions and ethanol catalysts. ► Exergetic efficiencies biomass-to-ethanol range from 43.5% for Rh-based catalyst to 44.4% for MoS2-based catalyst. ► The largest exergy losses take place in the biomass gasification. ► Exergy losses in gasification can be reduced at lower gasification temperatures.

  20. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Moilanen, A.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  1. Biomass steam gasification with in-situ CO{sub 2} capture for enriched hydrogen gas production: a reaction kinetics modelling approach

    Abrar Inayat, A.; Ahmad, M. M.; Yusup, S.; Mutalib, M. I. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh (Malaysia)


    Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO{sub 2} adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H{sub 2} can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO{sub 2} present in the system adsorbed. (authors)

  2. Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed

    Belyaev, A. A.


    Autothermal gasification of high-ash floatation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

  3. Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed

    A.A. Belyaev [Scientific Center for Comprehensive Processing of Solid Combustible Minerals (IGI), Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Combustible Minerals Federal State Unitary Enterprise


    Autothermal gasification of high-ash flotation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

  4. Gas, power and heat generation from biomass by allothermal gasification; Gas-, Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse durch allotherme Vergasung

    Yaqub Chughtai, M. [H und C Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Muehlen, H.J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)


    The allothermal DMT gasification process for biomass is a newcomer. The process, its initial materials, the uses of the product gas, and advantages of the allothermal process are described here. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz des allothermen DMT-Vergasungsverfahrens fuer Biomasse ist neu. Verfahren, Einsatzstoffe und Produktgasnutzung, sowie Vorteile des allothermen Verfahrens werden hier beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  5. Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed; Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht

    Ising, M.; Hoelder, D.; Backhaus, C.; Althaus, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)


    Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, in combination with a gas engine or gas burner, is a promising option for energetic use of biomass. Economic efficiency analyses on the basis of the UMSICHT plant show that this technology for combined heat and power generation from biomass is promising also for the range below 10 MW. The economic situation of any plant must be considered for the specific boundary conditions imposed by the power supply industry. The feasibility of the process was tested in a demonstration plant at Oberhausen. The plant was optimized further in extensive test series, and a number of tar reduction processes were investigated and improved on. The authors now intend to prove that gasification in a circulating fluidized bed combined with a gas engine cogeneration plant is feasible in continuous operation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Vergasung von Biomasse in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht ist in Kombination mit einem Gasmotor oder einem Gasbrenner eine vielversprechende Option fuer die energetische Biomassenutzung. Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen auf Basis der UMSICHT-Anlage zeigen, dass diese Technologie fuer die gekoppelte Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus Biomasse auch im Leistungsbereich unter 10 MW grosse Chancen verspricht. Dabei ist die oekonomische Situation einer Anlage im Einzelfall unter Beachtung der energiewirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen zu beurteilen. Durch den Betrieb einer Demonstrationsanlage in Oberhausen konnte die Funktion des Verfahrens nachgewiesen werden. In weiteren umfangreichen Versuchsreihen werden die Anlage weiter optimiert und verschiedene Konzepte zur Teerminderung untersucht und weiterentwickelt. Angestrebt ist der Nachweis des Dauerbetriebs von ZWS-Vergasung zusammen mit dem Gasmotoren-BHKW. (orig./SR)

  6. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm3 y−1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  7. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    Bell, N.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  8. Gasification of empty fruit bunch for hydrogen rich fuel gas production

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohamad Amran, M.S. [University Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering


    Dependence on fossil fuels as the main energy source has led to serious energy crisis and environmental problems. Therefore, due to the environmental considerations as well as the increasing demand for energy in the world, more attention has been paid to develop new energy sources. There has been interest in the utilization of biomass for production of environmental friendly biofuels. Biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral resource in the lifecycle while CO{sub 2} is a primary contributor to the global greenhouse effect. Hence, increasing attention is being paid to biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel to reduce the global greenhouse effect, particularly under the commitment of the Kyoto Protocol. Biomass used as an energy resource can be efficiently achieved by thermo-chemical conversion technology: pyrolysis, gasification or combustion. Gasification process is one of the most promising thermo-chemical conversion routes to recover energy from biomass. A study on gasification of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), a waste of the palm oil industry is investigated. The composition and particle size distribution of feedstock are determined and the thermal degradation behavior is analyzed by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then 300 g h{sup -1} fluidized bed bench scale gasification unit is used to investigate the effect of the operating parameters on biomass gasification namely reactor temperature in the range of 700--1000 C and feedstock particle size in the range of 0.3--1.0 mm. The main gas species generated, as identified by Gas Chromatography (GC), are H{sub 2} CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. With temperature increasing from 700 to 1000 C, the total gas yield is enhanced greatly and has reached the maximum value ({approx}92 wt. %, on the raw biomass sample basis) at 1000 C with big portions of H{sub 2} (38.02 vol.%) and CO (36.36 vol.%). Feedstock particle size shows some influence on the H{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} yields. The feedstock particle size of 0.3 to 0.5 mm is found to

  9. Clean Hydrogen Production via Novel Steam-Air Gasification of Biomass

    Gasification converts biomass into H2 and CO rich product gas by using air, oxygen and/or steam as reaction agent. An experimental and modelling study of hydrogen production was conducted using a laboratory scale counter-current fixed bed gasifier with preheated air and steam as the gasifying agents. Commercial charcoal was used as the fuel and the reactor bed was maintained at temperatures of 750-960 C by external heaters. H2 (17-28 vol%), CO (5-11 vol%) and CO2 (18-21 vol%) forms a large portion of the synthesis gas produced depending on the ratio of the gasifying agent. The experimental work was coupled with both equilibrium and kinetic modelling to predict the equilibrium composition, conversion rates and temperature profile. (authors)

  10. Gasification of refuse-derived fuel in a high throughput gasification system

    Increasing quantities of municipal wastes have led to the development of numerous technologies for combustion or gasification of these wastes. Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Battelle has completed a preliminary investigation of gasification of prepared municipal wastes [refuse derived fuel (RDF)] to produce a medium Btu gas without oxygen in its High Throughput Gasification system. A successful test program was conducted in a 12 TPD Process Research Unit (PRU) to provide data on product gas composition and production rates possible with the RDF feedstock. Test data generated during the program were compared to an extensive data base generated with wood in the research unit. Results of this test program are presented along with data on waste water characteristics from the PRU. Data generated during the experimental program were used in the generation of a process conceptual design. A preliminary economic evaluation based on this design indicates that the Battelle process provides significant economic benefits when compared to mass burn technologies