Sample records for biomass constitutive polymers

  1. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation; Biomasa lignocelulosica, polimeros constitutivos. Procesos biologicos de degradacion de la lignina

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.


    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe


    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. PMID:26971070

  4. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël


    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  5. A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer


    It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou’s material parameter function and Tobushi’s mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

  6. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples


    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  7. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.


    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  8. Polymerization of nonfood biomass-derived monomers to sustainable polymers.

    Zhang, Yuetao; Chen, Eugene Y-X


    The development of sustainable routes to fine chemicals, liquid fuels, and polymeric materials from natural resources has attracted significant attention from academia, industry, the general public, and governments owing to dwindling fossil resources, surging energy demand, global warming concerns, and other environmental problems. Cellulosic material, such as grasses, trees, corn stover, or wheat straw, is the most abundant nonfood renewable biomass resources on earth. Such annually renewable material can potentially meet our future needs with a low carbon footprint if it can be efficiently converted into fuels, value added chemicals, or polymeric materials. This chapter focuses on various renewable monomers derived directly from cellulose or cellulose platforms and corresponding sustainable polymers or copolymers produced therefrom. Recent advances related to the polymerization processes and the properties of novel biomass-derived polymers are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:24699900

  9. Constitutive modeling for rubber-toughened polymers with evolutional anisotropy and volume expansion

    A constitutive model for rubber-toughened polymer blends is developed. In most cases, rubber particles contained in a blend can be idealized as voids, because the microscopic cavitation and debonding of rubber particles occurs at a rather early stage of deformation. Under this approximation, a rubber-toughened polymer (polycarbonate—20 vol%SEBS rubber blend) is considered as a porous material. In the present constitutive model, a geometric anisotropy due to changes in void shape during deformation is taken into account. Furthermore, plastic potential and yield condition are modeled as distinct functions in order to accurately reproduce the macroscopic volume change behavior. The values of material parameters are determined through a series of precise experimental studies. It is shown that the proposed constitutive model exhibits a sufficient predictability for the mechanical response of rubber-toughened polymers for engineering applications

  10. Systematic coarse graining flowing polymer melts: thermodynamically guided simulations and resulting constitutive model.

    Iig, Patrick


    Complex fluids, such as polymers, colloids, liquid-crystals etc., show intriguing viscoelastic properties, due to the complicated interplay between flow-induced structure formation and dynamical behavior. Starting from microscopic models of complex fluids, a systematic coarse-graining method is presented that allows us to derive closed-form and thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations for such fluids. Essential ingredients of the proposed approach are thermodynamically guided simulations within a consistent coarse-graining scheme. In addition to this new type of multiscale simulations, we reconstruct the building blocks that constitute the thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained model. We illustrate the method for low-molecular polymer melts, which are subject to different imposed flow fields like planar shear and different elongational flows. The constitutive equation for general flow conditions we obtain shows rheological behavior including shear thinning, normal stress differences, and elongational viscosities in good agreement with reference results. PMID:21678766

  11. A Micromechanical Constitutive Model of Progressive Crushing in Random Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.


    A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.

  12. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    Hayes, Keesha A.


    Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Constitutive model for a stress- and thermal-induced phase transition in a shape memory polymer

    Recently, increasing applications of shape memory polymers have pushed forward the development of appropriate constitutive models for smart materials such as the shape memory polymer. During the heating process, the phase transition, which is a continuous time-dependent process, happens in the shape memory polymer, and various individual phases will form at different configuration temperatures. In addition, these phases can generally be divided into two parts: the frozen and active phase (Liu Y et al 2006 Int. J. Plast. 22 279–313). During the heating or cooling process, the strain will be stored or released with the occurring phase transition between these two parts. Therefore, a shape memory effect emerges. In this paper, a new type of model was developed to characterize the variation of the volume fraction in a shape memory polymer during the phase transition. In addition to the temperature variation, the applied stress was also taken as a significant influence factor on the phase transition. Based on the experimental results, an exponential equation was proposed to describe the relationship between the stress and phase transition temperature. For the sake of describing the mechanical behaviors of the shape memory polymer, a three-dimensional constitutive model was established. Also, the storage strain, which was the key factor of the shape memory effect, was also discussed in detail. Similar to previous works, we first explored the effect of applied stress on storage strain. Through comparisons with the DMA and the creep experimental results, the rationality and accuracy of the new phase transition and constitutive model were finally verified. (paper)

  14. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    Khan, Kamran


    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  15. Constitutional Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design, Synthesis and Conformational and Structural Properties; TOPICAL

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of six constitutional isomers of dendrimer-like star polymers is described. Each of the polymers have comparable molecular weights ((approx) 80,000 g/mol), narrow polydispersities ( and lt; 1.19) and an identical number of branching junctures (45) and surface hydroxyl functionalities (48). The only difference in the six isomers is the placement of the branching junctures. The polymers are constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) with branching junctures derived from 2,2'-bis(hydroxylmethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) emanating from a central core. The use of various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons coupled with the ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactones allowed a modular approach to the dendrimer-like star polymer isomers. The most pronounced effects on the physical properties/morphology and hydrodynamic volume was for those polymers in which the branching was distributed throughout the sample in a dendrimer-like fashion. The versatility of this approach has provided the possibility of understanding the relationship between architecture and physical properties. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to determine the hydrodynamic radius Rh and radius of gyration Rg respectively. The relationship between Rg and molecular weight was indicative of a compact star-like structure, and did not show advanced bias towards either the dense core or dense shell models. The radial density distribution of the isomers was therefore modeled according to a many arm star polymer, and good agreement was found with experimental measures of Rh/Rg

  16. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    Yokoyama T.


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. The compressive stress-strain curves at three different strain rates derived from the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior during loading process can be successfully predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation.

  17. Numerical modeling of nonlinear deformation of polymer composites based on hyperelastic constitutive law

    Qingsheng YANG; Fang XU


    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites exhibit nonlinear and hyperelastic characteristics under finite deformation. This paper investigates the macroscopic hyperelastic behavior of fiber reinforced polymer compo-sites using a micromechanical model and finite deforma-tion theory based on the hyperelastic constitutive law. The local stress and deformation of a representative volume element are calculated by the nonlinear finite element method. Then, an averaging procedure is used to find the homogenized stress and strain, and the macroscopic stress-strain curves are obtained. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate hyperelastic behavior and deformation of the composites, and the effects of the distribution pattern of fibers are also investigated to model the mechanical behavior of FRP composites.

  18. A simplified constitutive model for predicting shape memory polymers deformation behavior

    Li, Yunxin; Guo, Siu-Siu; He, Yuhao; Liu, Zishun


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can keep a temporary shape after pre-deformation at a higher temperature and subsequent cooling. When they are reheated, their original shapes can be recovered. Such special characteristics of SMPs make them widely used in aerospace structures, biomedical devices, functional textiles and other devices. Increasing usefulness of SMPs motivates us to further understand their thermomechanical properties and deformation behavior, of which the development of appropriate constitutive models for SMPs is imperative. There is much work in literatures that address constitutive models of the thermo-mechanical coupling in SMPs. However, due to their complex forms, it is difficult to apply these constitutive models in the real world. In this paper, a three-element model with simple form is proposed to investigate the thermo-mechanical small strain (within 10%) behavior of polyurethane under uniaxial tension. Two different cases of heated recovery are considered: (1) unconstrained free strain recovery and (2) stress recovery under full constraint at a strain level fixed during low temperature unloading. To validate the model, simulated and predicted results are compared with Tobushi's experimental results and good agreement can be observed.

  19. Copyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 2. Characterisation of the liquid phases

    Marin, N.; Collura, S.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France); Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kutnetzov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Cebolla, V. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)


    The copyrolysis of wood biomass-polyolefins was carried out in a rotating autoclave. At 400C, more than 50% (in mass) of final products are found in the liquid phase for a 1:1 (in mass) mixture. The obtained liquids are separated in a distillable liquids fraction and in an extracted liquids fraction. The first fraction can be fully characterised by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only olefins, paraffins and some aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylene), issued from the polymers, are found in this fraction. The origin of the polymer plays the most important role in the chemical composition of this fraction. Some interactions with the solid issued from thermal degradation of the biomass are evidenced, for example by the presence of 2-alkenes with 3n carbon atoms. In the heavy liquids fraction, more than 80% (in mass) of the products are heavy olefins or paraffins. Schematically, we can explain the results of the copyrolysis experiments by: the biomass, whatever its origin, leads to solid, water and gas; polymer leads to liquid and gaseous olefins and paraffins; at a temperature lower than 400C, the biomass reacts and during the pyrolysis at 400C the formed solid evolves to act as a radical donor; assisted by radicals from biomass, polymer chain scission leads to the production of the light liquids; if the presence of biomass has an influence on the chemical composition of final products (particularly the light liquids fraction) their origin has, in general, only a limited effect.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)


    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  1. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)


    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  2. Green Polymer Precursors from Biomass-Based Levulinic Acid

    Chalid, M.; Heeres, H.J.; Broekhuis, A.A.


    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a suitable chemical feedstock that can be isolated from biomass. Its conversion into γ-valerolactone (GVL) via hydrogenation and ringclosure to the lactone has been studied as a versatile route to the manufacture of biodegradable polyesters. For hydrogenati

  3. Recyclable Thermoresponsive Polymer-Cellulase Bioconjugates for Biomass Depolymerization

    Mackenzie, Katherine J.; Francis, Matthew B.


    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which...

  4. Green Polymer Precursors from Biomass-Based Levulinic Acid

    Chalid, M.; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, A.A.


    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a suitable chemical feedstock that can be isolated from biomass. Its conversion into γ-valerolactone (GVL) via hydrogenation and ringclosure to the lactone has been studied as a versatile route to the manufacture of biodegradable polyesters. For hydrogenation of LA using Ru/C catalyst (the first method), conversion of LA at 100% was observed after 50 min at 90°C in water, with a GVL selectivity of 73%. The product selectivity may be steered by the te...

  5. Time-resolved transient optical absorption study of constitutional-dynamic conjugated polymers

    Pfleger, Jiří; Rais, David; Vitvarová, T.; Vohlídal, J.; Svoboda, J.

    Pisa : European Polymer Federation, 2013. O7-3. [European Polymer Congress - EPF 2013. 16.06.2013-21.06.2013, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1143; GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : time-resolved optical spectroscopy * conjugated polymers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Recyclable thermoresponsive polymer-cellulase bioconjugates for biomass depolymerization.

    Mackenzie, Katherine J; Francis, Matthew B


    Here we report the construction and characterization of a recoverable, thermoresponsive polymer-endoglucanase bioconjugate that matches the activity of unmodified enzymes on insoluble cellulose substrates. Two copolymers exhibiting a thermoresponsive lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were created through the copolymerization of an aminooxy-bearing methacrylamide with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) or N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMa). The aminooxy group provided a handle through which the LCST was adjusted through small-molecule quenching. This allowed materials with LCSTs ranging from 20.9 to 60.5 °C to be readily obtained after polymerization. The thermostable endoglucanase EGPh from the hypothermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii was transaminated with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate to produce a ketone-bearing protein, which was then site-selectively modified through oxime linkage with benzylalkoxyamine or 5 kDa-poly(ethylene glycol)-alkoxyamine. These modified proteins showed activity comparable to the controls when assayed on an insoluble cellulosic substrate. Two polymer bioconjugates were then constructed using transaminated EGPh and the aminooxy-bearing copolymers. After 12 h, both bioconjugates produced an equivalent amount of free reducing sugars as the unmodified control using insoluble cellulose as a substrate. The recycling ability of the NIPAm copolymer-EGPh conjugate was determined through three rounds of activity, maintaining over 60% activity after two cycles of reuse and affording significantly more soluble carbohydrates than unmodified enzyme alone. When assayed on acid-pretreated Miscanthus, this bioconjugate increased the amount of reducing sugars by 2.8-fold over three rounds of activity. The synthetic strategy of this bioconjugate allows the LCST of the material to be changed readily from a common stock of copolymer and the method of attachment is applicable to a variety of proteins, enabling the same approach to be amenable to thermophile

  7. Assessment of the technical and economic potentials of biomass use for the production of steam, chemicals and polymers

    Saygin, D.; Gielen, D. J.; Draeck, M.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M. K.


    Fossil fuel substitution with biomass is one of the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of raising industrial steam and producing materials (i.e. chemicals, polymers) from biomass. We quantify their long-term global potentials in terms of en

  8. The effect of heat developed during high strain rate deformation on the constitutive modeling of amorphous polymers

    Safari, Keivan H.; Zamani, Jamal; Guedes, Rui M.; Ferreira, Fernando J.


    An adiabatic constitutive model is proposed for large strain deformation of polycarbonate (PC) at high strain rates. When the strain rate is sufficiently high such that the heat generated does not have time to transfer to the surroundings, temperature of material rises. The high strain rate deformation behavior of polymers is significantly affected by temperature-dependent constants and thermal softening. Based on the isothermal model which first was introduced by Mulliken and Boyce et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 43:1331-1356, 2006), an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the yield and post-yield behavior of glassy polymers at high strain rates. When calculating the heat generated and the temperature changes during the step by step simulation of the deformation, temperature-dependent elastic constants are incorporated to the constitutive equations. Moreover, better prediction of softening phenomena is achieved by the new definition for softening parameters of the proposed model. The constitutive model has been implemented numerically into a commercial finite element code through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). The experimental results, obtained using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, are supported by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and Decompose/Shift/Reconstruct (DSR) method. Comparison of adiabatic model predictions with experimental data demonstrates the ability of the model to capture the characteristic features of stress-strain curve of the material at very high strain rates.

  9. Constitutive modeling of large inelastic deformation of amorphous polymers: Free volume and shear transformation zone dynamics

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Samadi-Dooki, Aref


    Due to the lack of the long-range order in their molecular structure, amorphous polymers possess a considerable free volume content in their inter-molecular space. During finite deformation, these free volume holes serve as the potential sites for localized permanent plastic deformation inclusions which are called shear transformation zones (STZs). While the free volume content has been experimentally shown to increase during the course of plastic straining in glassy polymers, thermal analysis of stored energy due to the deformation shows that the STZ nucleation energy decreases at large plastic strains. The evolution of the free volume, and the STZs number density and nucleation energy during the finite straining are formulated in this paper in order to investigate the uniaxial post-yield softening-hardening behavior of the glassy polymers. This study shows that the reduction of the STZ nucleation energy, which is correlated with the free volume increase, brings about the post-yield primary softening of the amorphous polymers up to the steady-state strain value; and the secondary hardening is a result of the increased number density of the STZs, which is required for large plastic strains, while their nucleation energy is stabilized beyond the steady-state strain. The evolutions of the free volume content and STZ nucleation energy are also used to demonstrate the effect of the strain rate, temperature, and thermal history of the sample on its post-yield behavior. The obtained results from the model are compared with the experimental observations on poly(methyl methacrylate) which show a satisfactory consonance.

  10. Possibility of growing ecologically sound biomass in Cs-contaminated soils by polymer compositions

    interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems. The research team has developed new means for growing ecologically sound biomass for food in RN-contaminated soils through regulation of biological migration of anthropogenic RN (particularly 137Cs) by adding polymer compositions to the ecosystems 'water- soil- plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant'. The composition on the base of inorganic filler, in this case bentonite, has high level of absorption of radioactive cesium (Water purification coefficient = 2.71 for 137Cs and 2.62 - for 134Cs) and was selected for testing in soil and hydroponic conditions. It has been found out that application of this polymer in the root-inhabited media, in comparison to the control variant (without applying polymer), promoted the decrease of 137Cs content in Japanese basil (Shi-so, Perilla frutescens v. crispa) leaves 5.7 and 2.1 times under hydroponic conditions and field experiments, consequently. The field tests have proved that polymer composition can regulate cesium transfer in 'water-soil-plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant' systems. The research results can be successfully used for overcoming and eliminating of the catastrophic consequences of Fukushima-1 NPP nuclear accident. The research has been funded under A-2072 ISTC. (authors)

  11. Possibility of growing ecologically sound biomass in Cs-contaminated soils by polymer compositions

    Hovsepyan, Albert H.; Tadevosyan, Anna H.; Mairapetyan, Khachatur S.; Alexanyan, Julietta S.; Ghalachyan, Laura M. [G.S.Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems, National Academy of Sciences, 0082 Yerevan (Armenia); Tavakalyan, Nina B. [Yerevan Institute ' Plastpolymer' , 0007 Yerevan (Armenia); Pyuskyulyan, Konstantin I. [Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, 0910 Metsamor (Armenia)


    involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems. The research team has developed new means for growing ecologically sound biomass for food in RN-contaminated soils through regulation of biological migration of anthropogenic RN (particularly {sup 137}Cs) by adding polymer compositions to the ecosystems 'water- soil- plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant'. The composition on the base of inorganic filler, in this case bentonite, has high level of absorption of radioactive cesium (Water purification coefficient = 2.71 for {sup 137}Cs and 2.62 - for {sup 134}Cs) and was selected for testing in soil and hydroponic conditions. It has been found out that application of this polymer in the root-inhabited media, in comparison to the control variant (without applying polymer), promoted the decrease of {sup 137}Cs content in Japanese basil (Shi-so, Perilla frutescens v. crispa) leaves 5.7 and 2.1 times under hydroponic conditions and field experiments, consequently. The field tests have proved that polymer composition can regulate cesium transfer in 'water-soil-plant' and 'water- nutrient solution-plant' systems. The research results can be successfully used for overcoming and eliminating of the catastrophic consequences of Fukushima-1 NPP nuclear accident. The research has been funded under A-2072 ISTC. (authors)

  12. Polymer/biomass-derived biochar for use as a sorbent and electron transfer mediator in environmental applications.

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk


    Co-pyrolysis of polymer and biomass wastes was investigated as a novel method for waste treatment and synthesis of enhanced biochar. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) with polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) or polystyrene (PS) increased the carbon content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and pH of the biochar. As a result, the sorption of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and Pb to polymer/RS-derived biochar was markedly enhanced. The increased aromaticity and hydrophobicity may be responsible for enhancing the DNT sorption to the polymer/RS-derived biochar. In contrast, increasing CEC, higher pH, and the newly developed surface area may account for the enhancement in Pb sorption. The addition of polymer to RS did not significantly change the catalytic role of biochar during the reduction of DNT by dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that co-pyrolysis of RS and polymer can improve the biochar properties to enhance the sorption of DNT and Pb. PMID:27347801

  13. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures. Part 1. Influence of experimental conditions on the evolution of solids, liquids and gases

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, 42 Karl Marx Street, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, Rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)


    The thermal behaviour of wood biomass and synthetic polymer mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. Beech wood, pine wood, cellulose, hydrolytic lignin, medium density polyethylene, isotactic and atactic polypropylene were selected as starting materials. The effects of reaction conditions, biomass and polymers' origins on the degree of mixture conversion as well as on the yields of liquid and gaseous products were established and discussed. A preliminary thermogravimetric investigation has shown that biomass is thermally degraded at a lower temperature than the studied polyolefins. As described in the literature, independent thermal behaviors were, in all cases, observed for each component of biomass/plastic mixtures (1:1 weight ratio). Co-pyrolysis of the different types of natural and synthetic polymer mixtures in an inert atmosphere has led to high yield of light distillate fraction and benzene soluble products. The optimum temperature for biomass/plastic mixture conversion which corresponds to the maximum yield of light liquids was 400C. The origins of both biomass and plastic had significant influences on the co-pyrolysis products' distribution. In some cases non-additive effects were observed. This effect, generally, took place at biomass/plastic ratio lower then 1 (weight ratio) and resulted in high yields of distillate liquid fraction.

  14. Advantages of a 3-parameter reduced constitutive model for the measurement of polymers elastic modulus using tensile tests

    Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.


    Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.

  15. Constitutional Constraints

    Fallon, Richard Henry


    The main ambition of "Constitutional Constraints" is to open up the subject of constitutional constraints on government officials, including Presidents and Supreme Court Justices, as a topic for discussion within the field of Constitutional Theory. The subject has so far received little comprehensive discussion in the law reviews, in part because of a division between scholarly approaches that treat constitutional law as a system of norms and political scientific theories that portray judges ...

  16. Constitutional Hardball

    Tushnet, Mark V.


    This Essay develops the idea that there is a practice called constitutional hardball. The practice has three characteristics: it involves arguments and behavior by political actors (including judges, although their role is less interesting than that of other political actors) that are defensible - though sometimes only barely so - by standard constitutional doctrine; it is inconsistent with settled pre-constitutional understandings; and it involves extremely high stakes (control over the nati...

  17. 秸秆类生物质成型热黏塑性本构模型构建%Establishment of thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for straw biomass briquetting

    孙启新; 陈书法; 董玉平


    针对生物质颗粒生产能耗高、效率低的现状,该文从生物质组成角度,特别是木质素特性出发探讨其成型机理。秸秆成型过程由于内摩擦力的作用产生大量热量,温度的上升会造成木质素的软化,木质素的这一变化为纤维颗粒的团聚提供了黏结力。温度和木质素特性对生物质塑性成型性能产生巨大影响,是热黏塑变形过程。为研究生物质内部特性对塑性成型过程的影响,运用内时理论,以玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆和水稻秸秆为研究对象,构建了秸秆类生物质压缩成型内时本构方程。借助黏土流动理论,推导定义生物质黏塑性强化函数和核函数,运用数值分析和试验得出本构方程的系数。与试验数据相比较,基于内时理论的热黏塑性本构模型较好的模拟了生物质塑性流变过程。结果显示,向秸秆中添加20%的木质素,可有效提高其塑性流动性能,降低其在相同应变下的应力以及生产能耗;当成型温度在100~115℃之间,应变率在1×102~1×103 s-1之间,对于木质素质量分数分别为29%的玉米秸秆、33.5%的小麦秸秆和34.3%的水稻秸秆的固化成型性能最好。%Biomass briquetting is one of the key technologies to solve the problem of its collection, transportation and storage. Meanwhile biomass pellet, as a renewable energy, can be used instead of coal for heating, electricity, etc. Study on the mechanism of biomass briquetting is the basic way to develop new forming methods and equipments, and to improve productivity greatly. The research in this paper is about a thermo viscoplastic constitutive model for the biomass briquetting mechanism based on endochronic theory. Straw mainly consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a typical example of dissipative material. Biomass briquetting process is a mixed process of extrusion flow and interstitial flow. During the process, a large

  18. Constitutional economics

    Ludwig Van den Hauwe


    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Constitutional Economics: Cinderella in the Czech Economic Community? held by the Czech Economic Association in February 2000. The main speaker at the seminar was Prof. Karel Kouba (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague), who characterized constitutional economics as a still relatively new and promising research program. The ensuing discussion concerned several topics, including the relationship between public ...

  19. Constitutional Conservatism

    Berkowitz, Peter


    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  20. Constitutive Models

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina;


    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  1. Application of a rotary kiln for the treatment of carbonaceous materials of the selective waste polymer and biomass type

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Bičáková, Olga; Náhunková, Jana

    Ostrava: VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 2011 - (Fečko, P.; Čablík, V.), 7-11 ISBN 978-80-248-2387-4. [International Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /15./. Ostrava (CZ), 08.06.2011-10.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotary kiln * pyrolysis * biomass Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  2. Predictive/fitting capabilities of differential constitutive models for polymer melts - reduction of non-linear parameters in the eXtended Pom-Pom model

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr


    Roč. 292, č. 11 (2014), s. 2753-2763. ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : constitutive mode * XPP model * LDPE materials * strain hardening * elongational flow * shear flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  3. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Bird, R. Byron


    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  4. What Is a Constitution?

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988


    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  5. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.


    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas


    dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction. In......This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During the...... hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by...

  7. Detailed modelling of biomass pyrolysis: biomass structure and composition

    The research routes followed in the field of numerical modelling development for biomass devolatilization are here summarised. In this first paper a wide introduction concerning the description of the chemical nature of the main classes of compounds which constitute biomasses is reported, it is the starting point for the subsequent description of the developed models, described in the companion paper

  8. Star Polymers.

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G


    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings. PMID:27299693

  9. Chemicals and polymers from biomass

    Coombs, James; Hall, Katy [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)


    While fossil energy prices remain relatively low and agricultural prices are maintained at a relatively high level as a result of production costs, the use of purpose grown crops as a source of fuels requires subsidies, tax support or other financial incentives to be viable. In the short term, the use of agricultural and forest raw materials as industrial raw materials for production of higher value products appears more attractive. However, simple substitution of a petroleum-based product by one derived from plants is seldom possible. Options are reviewed, covering both established commercial activities (such as starch, vegetable oil, paper-pulp and natural fibres), as well as the extensive research and development activities that should lead to new crops, new products and new markets. (Author)

  10. Chemicals and polymers from biomass

    Coombs, James; Hall, Katy [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)


    While fossil energy prices remain relatively low and agricultural prices are maintained at a relatively high level as a result of production costs, the use of purpose grown crops as a source of fuels requires subsidies, tax support or other financial incentives to be viable. In the short term, the use of agricultural and forest raw materials as industrial raw materials for production of higher value products appears more attractive. However, simple substitution of a petroleum-based product by one derived from plants is seldom possible. Options are reviewed, covering both established commercial activities (such as starch, vegetable oil, paper-pulp and natural fibres), as well as the extensive research and development activities that should lead to new crops, new products and new markets. (Author)

  11. Biomass boilers

    Nahodil, Jiří


    Bachelor’s thesis deals with the use of biomass for heating houses and apartment houses. The first part is dedicated to biomass. Here are mentioned the possibility of energy recovery, treatment and transformation of biomass into a form suitable for burning, its properties and combustion process itself. The second part is devoted to biomass boilers, their separation and description. The last section compares the specific biomass boiler with a boiler to natural gas, particularly from an economi...

  12. Economic Analysis of Constitutions

    Roger B. Myerson


    This paper is a preliminary draft of an article to appear in Chicago Law Review (2000), as part of a symposium reviewing two new books on economic analysis of constitutions: Dennis Mueller's Constitutional Democracy and Robert Cooter's Strategic Constitution. Some of the basic questions of constitutional analysis are introduced, and the importance of work in this area is shown as one of the major new developments in social theory. The methods of economic theory are then shown to be particular...

  13. Conventional Constitutional Law


    Judges share conventional understandings about what the Constitution requires, both of themselves and of other constitutional actors. These informal conventions lead to formal decisions, which are then centrally enforced by the state in the same manner as all other judicial decisions. This recognition of conventional constitutional law has three critical implications for our understanding, critique and reform of constitutional law. First, it is unlikely that judges will refer e...

  14. Trends in polymer-grade L-lactic acid fermentation by non-food biomass%聚合级L-乳酸的非粮生物质发酵研究进展

    于波; 曾艳; 姜旭; 王丽敏; 马延和


    乳酸在化工、医药和食品加工等领域有着广泛的用途.随着聚乳酸产业的兴起,对聚合级L-乳酸的需求量也不断增加.开发低成本的非粮生物质乳酸发酵工艺、实现发酵-分离耦合是降低聚合级L-乳酸成本、摆脱原料价格不断上涨压力的技术趋势.文中简要综述了近2~3年使用非粮生物质发酵生产聚合级L-乳酸的技术进展,并对未来乳酸发酵工艺作了展望.%Lactic acid has a wide range of uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industry. With rapid development of poly (lactic acid) industry, the demand for polymer-grade L-lactic acid is continuously increasing. Developing low-cost, non-food-biomass-lactic-acid fermentation process and the fermentation-separation coupled technology are trends to reduce polymer-grade L-lactic acid production cost. This review summarized the most recent advances in low-cost L-lactic acid fermentation based on the use of non-food biomass, followed by addressing the key issue that might be strategically important for future development of polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in industry.

  15. Biomass process handbook


    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  16. Utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    F Venter


    Full Text Available We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. A cogent, generally accepted methodology for constitutional comparison, however does not exist. There can, it is therefore submitted, be no such thing as a universal, monolithic science or discipline of comparative law, be it in the field of private or of public law. On the other hand, juridical comparison done unscientifically will not yield the fruits of useful knowledge.The law in general is replete with unspecific notions such as justice, reasonableness, public interest, boni mores, and many others. It should therefore not be disturbing to find that values are often foundational to the operation and application of constitutional law. The values underpinning different constitutional systems may be useful as a tertium comparationis in a comparative exercise. This however requires a penetrating consideration of the foundations of the systems being compared.In this contribution "a small comparative exercise" is undertaken by way of demonstration of the method. The South African constitutional provisions relating to equality and affirmative action are set against the background of the relevant norms and practices in the United States of America and Canada. This produces some useful insights:• in the USA equality increasingly underpins a strict proscription of discrimination, thus shrinking the scope for justifiable affirmative action programmes;• the South African law relating to discrimination and upliftment of the disadvantaged was clearly influenced by, and is therefore better understood against the background of, the equivalent arrangements in Canada, which was in its turn possibly conceived against the backdrop of early developments in this regard in the USA;• the Canadian doctrine and law of the constitution deals with affirmative action as an exception to the prohibition of discrimination and does not favour private affirmative action programmes

  17. Biomass pretreatment

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P


    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  18. Kenya's New Constitution

    Kramon, Eric; Posner, Daniel N


    On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving authority, and guaranteeing rights to women, minorities, and marginalized communities, the constitution has the potential to transform Kenyan politics. Political and logistical obstacles will, however, pose a challenge to implementation. Yet that the constitution has been ...

  19. Biomass recalcitrance

    Felby, Claus


    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes......, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. "Biomass Recalcitrance" is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology....

  20. The Constitution by Cell

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan


    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  1. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Brennan, William J., Jr.


    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  2. Investigation of advanced constitutive equations under different flow conditions

    Zatloukal, M.; Pivokonský, Radek; Gough, T.; Coates, P.

    Charlotte : Society of Plastics Engineers, 2006, s. 2356-2360. ISBN 9781601190987. [ANTEC 2006. Charlotte (US), 07.05.2006-11.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive equations * FEM modelling * polymer melts * constitutive models Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Torrefied biomass-polypropylene composites

    Torrefied almond shells and wood chips were incorporated into polypropylene as fillers to produce torrefied biomass-polymer composites. Response surface methodology was used to examine the effects of filler concentration, filler size, and lignin factor (relative lignin to cellulose concentration) on...


    Gabriela NEMTOI


    The study concerning the laws’ constitutionality represents the reason of constitutional warranty on judicial standards, which governs a democratic state. The supremacy of constitution is only a principle, which has to be doubled by establishing a mechanism creating consistency to it. In order to assure the supremacy of constitution, the doctrine and constitutional practice have created efficient judicial institutions, the control of laws’ constitutionality by the competency of Constitutional...

  5. The constitutive sofa cushion

    Hanghøj, Sara


      Full Paper presented by Sara Hanghøj 24.9.2008 at the International Conference "Crafticulation &Education"  University of Helsinki 23.-26.  September 2008 Session: Gendered Textiles     THE CONSTITUTIVE SOFA CUSHION - MATERIALIZATION ANALYSED FROM A CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE   Abstract How can...... personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...... female handcraft-teachers, was generated and constituted with the sofa cushion as one of many actors.      ...

  6. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    challenging the type of governance which constitutional states were supposed to represent and ensure. They also provoke old questions: Who bears the responsibility for governance without a government? Can accountability be ensured? The term 'constitutionalism' is still widely identified with statal form of......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are...... democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...


    Alexandre Jamal Batista


    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  8. Biomass energy

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  9. The Constitution of Partnering

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  10. Disputing the Constitution.

    Pyle, Christopher H.


    Constitutional law is a good way to introduce students to fundamental debates over means and ends, over what means work and at what costs, and over what ends are not merely desirable, but may be legitimately achieved even through the application of collective force. It also offers an exciting way to teach logic. (MLW)

  11. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  12. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Hill, B Jessie


    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  13. The Constitution Debate

    Heinrich Schneider


    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the ‘Convention on the Future of Europe’ and from the observers of that Convention’s work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Convention’s work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with ‘background’ problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the ‘Community method’. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’ in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  15. Judiciary on Russian Constitutional System

    Vladislav Arkhipov


    Full Text Available This article is about new constitutional order in Russia emphasizing fundamental areas as the role of judiciary in the Russian Constitutional System from 1993 Constitution, the one which replaced the 1978 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Constitution based on communist ideology. Therefore, it is intended to examine the principle of separation of powers, constitutionally recognized human rights and liberties, relationship between international bodies’ case law of human rights and the Russian Constitutional Court, among others issues.

  16. Interplay between viscoelastic and chemical tunings in fatty-acid-based polyester adhesives: engineering biomass toward functionalized step-growth polymers and soft networks.

    Vendamme, Richard; Olaerts, Katrien; Gomes, Monica; Degens, Marc; Shigematsu, Takayuki; Eevers, Walter


    This Article describes the synthesis and characterization of renewable self-adhesive coatings with tunable viscoelastic properties and equipped with well-defined amounts of carboxylic acid "sticker" groups with adhesion promoting characteristics. Hydroxyl-ended polyesters with various architectures (linear, branched) were synthesized by melt polycondensation of dimerized fatty acids and fatty diols and then cured with maleic anhydride-modified triglycerides (such as maleinized soybean oil) in the presence of the amidine catalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. The curing reaction of alcoholysis has the dual effect of chain extending/cross-linking the base polymers via creation of polymeric half-esters linkages while introducing carboxylic acid functions within the gel structure. We demonstrated how the adhesion properties can be finely tuned from molecular design and formulation of the network precursors and how the rheology and functionality of the coatings influence the adhesive bond formation and development. These renewable polyester adhesives proved to be suitable materials for pressure-sensitive adhesives applications with respect to adhesion strength, viscoelasticity, and functionality. In addition, the environmental benefits of such materials are briefly discussed. PMID:22612310

  17. Constitutional appeals refused

    Already in the three-judge-appointed preliminary commission, the Fed. Constitutional Court, in several cases unanimously, refused a constitutional appeal against decisions in court cases regarding nuclear power plants with the substantiation that they have no sufficient prospects for success, or that they are inadmissable. These decisions are incontestable. The following orders were issued: 1) Churches must also pay for electricity produced by nuclear power plants. 2) Construction of the Grohnde nuclear power plant will not be interrupted. 3) Limited right of action against nuclear power plant licences (here: Stade) 4) Confirmation of the preliminary site approval for Kruemmel nuclear power plant. The essential reasons for the decisions are given. (orig./HP)

  18. What constitutes information integrity?

    S. Flowerday


    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  19. Biomass power; Biomasse-Energie

    Woergetter, M.


    The author reports about use of biomass in Austria and Bavaria: power generation, production of biodiesel, bioethanol, energy efficiency of small biomass furnaces. (uke) [German] Bioenergie wird von breiten Kreisen als wichtiger Ansatz in Richtung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung in Europa gesehen. Die Herausforderung liegt dabei im neuen Herangehen an Entscheidungen; Dimensionen der Wirtschaft, der Umwelt und der Gesellschaft sind dabei zu beruecksichtigen. Bioenergie ist somit keine reine Frage der Umwelt, sondern zielt auf den Umbau unseres Systems in Richtung Nachhaltigkeit. (orig.)

  20. The denied constitution

    Borja, Miguel


    The present article examines the luck of the proposals presented by indigenous and afro-Colombian communities, during the National Constituent Assembly of 1991. These proposals were aimed to define a new territorial organization of the State, but they were discarded from the Constitution and the subsequent legislative development. We are, therefore, front of the lack of knowledge of one of the most important realities of the country: the construction of space by the indigenous and afro-Colomb...

  1. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    Kluth, Winfried


    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  2. What constitutes information integrity?

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms


    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  3. What constitutes information integrity?

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms


    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  4. Smart film actuators using biomass plastic

    This paper presents a novel smart film actuator based on the use of a biomass plastic as a piezoelectric film. Conventional polymeric smart sensors and actuators have been based upon synthetic piezoelectric polymer films such as PVDF. Almost all synthetic polymers are made from nearly depleted oil resources. In addition combustion of their materials releases carbon dioxide, thereby contributing to global warming. Thus at least two important sustainability principles are violated when employing synthetic polymers: avoiding depletable resources and avoiding ecosystem destruction. To overcome such problems, industrial plastic products made from synthetic polymers were developed to replace oil-based plastics with biomass plastics. This paper applies a biomass plastic with piezoelectricity such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). As a result, PLLA film becomes a distributed parameter actuator per se, hence an environmentally conscious smart film actuator is developed. Firstly, this paper overviews the fundamental properties of piezoelectric synthetic polymers and biopolymers. The concept of carbon neutrality using biopolymers is mentioned. Then a two-dimensional modal actuator for exciting a specific structural mode is proposed. Furthermore, a biomass plastic-based cantilever beam with the capability of modal actuation is developed, the validity of the proposed smart film actuator based upon a biomass plastic being analytically as well as experimentally verified

  5. Investigation of accessory hemicellulases and pectinases for polysaccharide hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass

    The polysaccharides, cellulose, hemicellulose, and other additional carbohydrate polymers of terrestrial biomass, comprise renewable feedstocks for carbon-based chemicals and fuels. Biomass pretreatment is required to overcome its recalcitrance to biochemical deconstruction to monomeric sugars for ...

  6. Biomass potential

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  7. Biomass IGCC

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)


    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Ethics and constitutional government.

    Albright, James A


    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  9. HFRP管约束超高性能混凝土的本构模型%Constitutive Model for Ultrahigh-performance Concrete Confined by Hybrid Fiber-reinforced Polymer Tubes

    邓宗才; 白玉磊; 曲玖龄


    为了研究混杂纤维增强聚合物(hybrid fiber reinforced polymer,HFRP)约束超高性能混凝土(ultra-high performance concrete,UHPC)圆柱体的轴压特性,通过36个圆柱体轴压试验,测定了应力-应变全曲线.试验结果表明:已有的几个有代表性的强度和极限应变预测模型并不适用于HFRP管约束UHPC,因此,考虑了纤维混杂种类对约束效率的影响,提出了新的强度与极限应变的公式,其预测精度较高;已有几个代表性的应力-应变本构模型预测曲线比实测曲线偏低,提出了双线性的本构模型,理论曲线和试验曲线吻合良好,模型表达式简单,便于设计人员使用.

  10. Environment, constitution, administration

    This issue contains papers delivered at the 13th congress of the Institute for Energy Law at Cologne University. The titles of the essays are as follows: The Implementation of governmental decisions as a constitutional problem; Protection of the environment within the system of judicial order; The compromise in harmonizing goals as part of the judicial order; The burden of proof as lever of the politics of law and order especially within the limits of the Emission Control Law; The protection of the law and the setting of standards by governmental and private channels; The legal Emission control provisions as prerequisite for licensing; Protection of established power installations. All essays are concerned with environmental problems. (HSCH)

  11. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion

  12. Degradation effects in polymers

    The extremely long molecular chains of polymers can be broken easily by the absorption of a quantum of energy above the energy of the covalent bond of the main carbon chain, which typically is in the range of 5-10 eV. The energy of beta and gamma photons of 1 to 10 MeV surpasses by many orders of magnitude this minimum value, representing a high risk of degradation to all kind of polymers, naturals and synthetics alike. The protection of polymers against high doses (20 - 1000 kGy) requires efficient additives preventing and/or stopping chain reaction type oxidative degradation. Primary and secondary antioxidants work well here in synergy. Commercial raw materials are available for radiation-sterilizable medical devices made out of polyolefins and other thermoplastics. Similarly, polymer compounds of suitable formulae are offered commercially for high-dose applications of polymers in nuclear installations. The controlled degradation of polymers of large molecular mass - or even of cross-linked molecular structures - is a promising field of radiation application. One area here is related to recycling non-accessible polymers such as fluorinated plastics of cross-linked rubber products. Another large possible area is the controlled radiation degradation of natural polymer systems. Radiation may facilitate the access to cross-linked natural polymer systems, such as wood, plant cellulose and biomass in general, decreasing to use of aggressive chemicals. The result is energetically favorable, environmentally friendly new procedures and raw materials of natural origin. A limited dose applied to polymers - although may cause some degradation - however may initiate new bonds on the 'wounded' chain. The popular graft-copolymerization technique can be applied in new, up-coming polymer processing technologies such as alloying, composite processing and reconstitutive recycling. By this way, even those polymers described earlier as radiation-degrading types, can be cross

  13. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.


    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  14. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark


    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  15. Electrifying biomass

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  16. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    Glazer, Nathan


    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  17. Polymer films

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.


    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  18. Biomass systems

    Biofuels productions and uses should allow valorization of raw materials belonging to biomass: plants used in food utilization, ligno-cellulose plants, or by-products even wastes from animal or vegetable origin. These bioenergies are renewable energies, and their developments pass through an economical competitivity, a clean and spare production, and atmospheric emissions control of vehicles. The principal advantage of bioenergies is the reduction of fossil carbon consumption and its replacement by a renewable carbon consumption. (A.B.). 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    The Nam Long Doan


    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  20. Understanding catalytic biomass conversion through data mining

    E.J. Ras; B. McKay; G. Rothenberg


    Catalytic conversion of biomass is a key challenge that we chemists face in the twenty-first century. Worldwide, research is conducted into obtaining bulk chemicals, polymers and fuels. Our project centres on glucose valorisation via furfural derivatives using catalytic hydrogenation. We present her

  1. Religion and the Japanese Constitution

    Hardacre, Helen


    This paper examines provisions regarding religion in the 1947 Constitution of Japan, showing how they differ from the Meiji constitution of 1889. It examines policies on religion established by the Allied Occupation of Japan (1945‐1952), especially relating to Shinto, their implementation, and their relation to the 1947 constitution. The paper documents the process through which Occupation officials drafted entirely new articles on religion, displacing a Japanese government commission that ...

  2. Ionic liquids as a tool for lignocellulosic biomass fractionation

    Lopes, André; João, Karen; Morais, Ana Rita; Bogel-Lukasik, Ewa; Bogel-Lukasik, R.


    Lignocellulosic biomass composes a diversity of feedstock raw materials representing an abundant and renewable carbon source. In majority lignocellulose is constituted by carbohydrate macromolecules, namely cellulose and hemicellulose, and by lignin, a polyphenilpropanoid macromolecule. Between these biomacromolecules, there are several covalent and non-covalent interactions defining an intricate, complex and rigid structure of lignocellulose. The deconstruction of the lignocellulosic biomass...

  3. Molecular and supramolecular orientation in conducting polymers

    Intrinsic anisotropy in electrical and optical properties of conducting polymers constitutes a unique aspect that derives π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone and from the weak inter-chain interaction. To acquire such an intrinsic property, conducting polymers have to be oriented macroscopically and microscopically (at the chain level). A review of the various techniques, including stretch-alignment of the polymer and of precursor polymers, polymerization in ordered media, i.e., in a liquid crystal solvent, and synthesis of liquid crystalline conducting polymers will be given. 29 refs

  4. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.


    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  5. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the Constitution…

  6. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter


    are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The...... conceptual dimensions of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  7. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Gerber, Scott D.


    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  8. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Clor, Harry


    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  9. The Constitution and Its Critics

    Main, Thomas J.


    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  10. Neutron studies of polymers

    The possibility to contrast given fractions of a polymer system at a cost of a low enthalpy difference is responsible for the success of the neutron method. This approach is especially useful for polymers as compared to colloids or simple liquids, because of the significative intra- and inter-molecular correlations. In this respect, the pseudo diblock copolymer constitutes one of the best test molecule of homogeneous polymer system. A review is given of main results: polymer size in melts, true backbone conformation and universal constants related to polymer structures. Effects of mechanical stress, of mesogenic order have been revealed. Neutron spin-echo experiments have given characteristic dispersion relations of intra- and inter-polymer diffusive motions. The labelling method is however more powerful than first realized. The amplitude associated with a polymer structure at an interface has been obtained directly (as in ellipsometry) with the use of contrast variation. Such structures are currently investigated by neutron reflectivity. Latest developments are found in the use of spin polarized targets, from which important cross correlations are derived

  11. Linear PE materials – predictive/fitting capabilities of the molecular-based constitutive equations

    Pivokonský, Radek; Zatloukal, M.; Filip, Petr

    Akron : The Polymer Processing Society, 2007, P19. [PPS-23: The Polymer Society Annual Meeting /23./. Salvator (BR), 27.05.2007-31.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600703; GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive equations * polymer melts * shear flow * elongational flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Biodegradable Polymers

    Isabelle Vroman; Lan Tighzert


    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  13. Constitutional multicenter bank linked to Sasang constitutional phenotypic data

    Jin, Hee-Jeong; Baek, Younghwa; Kim, Ho-Seok; Ryu, Jonghyang; Lee, Siwoo


    Background Biobanks are more important in medical area because they can give researchers data for demonstrating and validating their research. In this study, we developed a biobank called the Korea Constitutional Multicenter Bank (KCMB) based on Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM). The aim of the KCMB was a foundation to providing the scientific basis of SCM. Methods The KCMB has been constructed since 2006 in 24 Korean medical clinics with collection of questionnaire data, physical measurem...

  14. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  15. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.


    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  16. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    Fountas, Spyros; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn;

    Biomass handling operations (harvesting, raking, collection, and transportation) are critical operations within the agricultural production system since they constitute the first link in the biomass supply chain, a fact of substantial importance considering the increasingly involvement of biomass...... executed in an open and un-controlled environment.  The main objectives of the project were to investigate the potential of selective biomass harvesting based on biomass moisture content. A field experiment was conducted in the University farm of Aarhus University in Denmark in 2009. About 450...... georeferenced biomass samples were collected when the forage was cut and left in the ground.  The samples were weighed and dried and then weighed again, thereby determining the water content in the specific sample. For the prediction of the time-evolution of biomass moisture content as a function of the local...

  17. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on open-quotes ex post factoclose quotes suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on ex post facto laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the ex post facto clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the ex post facto clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs

  18. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Gollobin, Ira


    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  19. A survey on constitutional justice

    Kheirollah Parvin


    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  20. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    Puzrin, Alexander M


    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  1. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.


    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai


    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progr...

  3. Constitutional Design and Political Communication

    Xefteris, Dimitrios


    This paper models the constitutional design process, and points out the importance of political communication (defined as the level of information about the social distribution of policy preferences that individuals hold, at the time of this process) on the "extent" of "democratic restraints" of the socially preferred constitution and on the welfare derived by the society from its implementation. The results demonstrate that the level of political communication has a positive effect on the le...

  4. Valuation in the constitutional era

    Elmien (WJ) du Plessis


    The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This...

  5. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  6. Biomass treatment method

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.


    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  7. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    John Law


    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  8. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH)

  9. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    Abat Ninet, Antoni


    politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  11. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality is the...... process through which an organization is constituted in the interactions of both organizational and non-organizational members in both physical and virtual sites....

  12. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean


    specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices...... mediated, then online crises and their meanings are communicatively constructed. The chapter outlines how online conversations constitute discursive practices that make publics aware of critical situations of which they may or may not know and can even construct reputational crises. The chapter concludes...

  13. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.


    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Direct Photopatterning of Electrochromic Polymers

    Jensen, Jacob; Dyer, Aubrey L.; Shen, D. Eric;


    Propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) polymers are synthesized using an oxidative polymerization route that results in methacrylate substituted poly(ProDOTs) having a Mn of 10–20 kDa wherein the methacrylate functionality constitutes from 6 to 60% of the total monomer units. Solutions of these polymers...... show excellent film forming abilities, with thin films prepared using both spray‐casting and spin‐coating. These polymers are demonstrated to crosslink upon UV irradiation at 350 nm, in the presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, to render the films insoluble to common organic solvents....... Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and colorimetric analyses of the crosslinked polymer films are performed to establish that they retain the same electrochromic qualities as the parent polymers with no detriment to the observed properties. To demonstrate applicability for multi‐film processing...

  15. Modeling of global biomass policies

    This paper discusses the BEAP model and its use for the analysis of biomass policies for CO2 emission reduction. The model considers competing land use, trade and leakage effects, and competing emission reduction strategies. Two policy scenarios are presented. In case of a 2040 time horizon the results suggest that a combination of afforestation and limited use of biomass for energy and materials constitutes the most attractive set of strategies. In case of a 'continued Kyoto' scenario including afforestation permit trade, the results suggest 5.1 Gt emission reduction based on land use change in 2020, two thirds of the total emission reduction by then. In case of global emission reduction, land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) accounts for one quarter of the emission reduction. However these results depend on the modeling time horizon. In case of a broader time horizon, maximized biomass production is more attractive than LULUCF. This result can be interpreted as a warning against a market based trading scheme for LULUCF credits. The model results suggest that the bioenergy market is dominated by transportation fuels and heating, and to a lesser extent feedstocks. Bioelectricity does not gain a significant market share in case competing CO2-free electricity options such as CO2 capture and sequestration and nuclear are considered. To some extent trade in agricultural food products such as beef and cereals will be affected by CO2 policies. (Author)

  16. Constitutional Change Marks Ideological Breakthrough


    The amendments to the Constitution of the People'sRepublic of China, the fourth since the constitutionwas promulgated in 1982 and proposed by theCentral Committee of the Communist Party of China(CPC), are expected to enshrine the respect andprotection of human rights, the protection of private

  17. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.


    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  18. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan


    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cro...

  19. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    McCune, Bonnie F.


    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  20. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek


    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  1. Energy use of biomass

    HOLEČKOVÁ, Michaela


    The aim of this bachelor thesis is the research of different types of biomass, description of the various types of methods and technologies for energy usage of biomass and the mapping of large power plant units in the Czech Republic. The first part of this thesis deals with the definition of biomass, its distribution and the description of basic essential attributes describing its composition. The downstream part of this work is focused on the technologies of gaining energy out of biomass or ...

  2. Proteins in biomass streams

    Mulder, W.J.


    The focus of this study is to give an overview of traditional and new biomasses and biomass streams that contain proteins. When information was available, the differences in molecular structure and physical and chemical properties for the different proteins is given. For optimal biomass use, isolati

  3. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    Walker, R. [SWAN Biomass Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)


    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Biomass carbon-14 ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the 'biomass products' could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon (pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol (E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard (ISO standard). (author)

  5. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Fan eLin


    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  6. Extraction and characterization of lignin from different biomass resources

    Dereca Watkins; Md. Nuruddin; Mahesh Hosur; Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh; Shaik Jeelani


    Lignocellulosic biomass has been acknowledged for potential use to produce chemicals and biomaterials. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer with cellulose being number one, making up to 10–25% of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is a three-dimensional, highly cross-linked macromolecule composed of three types of substituted phenols, which include: coniferyl, sinapyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols by enzymatic polymerization, yielding a vast number of functional groups and linkages. The...

  7. Technical risks and constitutional law

    It was particularly by the peaceful use of nuclear energy that the topic has raised the interest of the Constitutional Court. The concepts of averting risks, risk precaution and remaining risks have to be differentiated terminologically. The governmental obligation of protecting the citizens and granting the constitutional rights as far as the limit of acceptable risks, which is difficult to determine, is dominating. When applying unavoidable and vague legal concepts these concepts must be specified not only by technical rules or guidelines, expert committees and the like but also by a newr legal basis so that 'the mechanism of the division of power can be set to rights again in the field of technical risk control'. (orig./HP)

  8. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Elmien du Plessis


    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  9. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  10. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].


    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889




    In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1) of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary...

  12. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of magnetic dispersions.

    Bhandar, Anand S; Wiest, John M


    A constitutive model for dispersions of acicular magnetic particles has been developed by modeling the particles as rigid dumbbells dispersed in a solvent. The effects of Brownian motion, anisotropic hydrodynamic drag, a steric force in the form of the Maier-Saupe potential, and, most importantly, a mean-field magnetic potential are included in the model. The development is similar to previous models for liquid-crystalline polymers. The model predicts multiple orientational states for the dispersion, and this phase behavior is described in terms of an orientational order parameter S and an average alignment parameter J; the latter is introduced because the magnetic particles have distinguishable direction due to polarity. A transition from isotropic to nematic phases at equilibrium is predicted. Multiple nematic phases-both prolate and oblate-are predicted in the presence of steady shear flow and external magnetic field parallel to the flow. The effect of increasing magnetic interparticle interactions and particle concentration is also presented. Comparisons with experimental data for the steady shear viscosity show very good agreement. PMID:16256493

  13. Ionic liquids as catalysts of lignocellulosic biomass processing

    Carvalho, Ana Vanessa Antunes


    The present work is devoted to study the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, especially wheat straw, by the application of the acidic ionic liquid (IL) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate. The ability of this IL to hydrolysis and conversion of biomass was scrutinised. The pre-treatment with hydrogen sulphate-based IL allowed to obtain a liquor rich in hemicellulosic sugars, furans and organic acids, and a solid fraction mainly constituted by cellulose and lignin. Quant...

  14. Legal Conflicts and Subnational Constitutionalism

    DELLEDONNE, Giacomo; MARTINICO, Giuseppe


    Paper presented at the World Conference of the International Association of Constitutional Law, Mexico City, 6-10 December 2010. This paper is the result of joint reflections, however Giuseppe Martinico wrote par. 2, 5, 8 and 9, Giacomo Delledonne wrote par. 3, 4 and 7, while par. 1 and 6 were elaborated jointly. We would like to thank Josep Maria Castellà Andreu, François-Xavier Millet and Robert Williams for their comments and Miguel Poiares Maduro and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann for their supp...

  15. Technical risks and Constitutional Law

    The author regards technical risk assessment as a legal problem of increasing importance. He discusses the delimitation of hazard, risk and damage; the protective duty of the state, and security of basic rights; the determination of risk elements; the interpretation of undetermined legal concepts. The essential question is as to what extent the undetermined legal concepts are subject to judicial reviews. A transition from 'subject-related' to 'procedural' reviewing requires corresponding insitutional and procedural rules according to which technical safety rules will be created. Under Constitutional Law, it does not seem to be satisfying to bind the courts to technical rules as long as there are none. (HSCH)

  16. Flow of polymer solutions through porous media

    Denys, K.F.J.


    These days leading oil and gas producing companies are investing increasing amounts of money into the development of non-fossil energy sources like wind-, solar-, biomass energy and forestry. On the other hand these companies are persisting in developing techniques to make energy recovery more efficient intending to stretch the life span of fossil resources. One of the more mature techniques to improve recovery efficiency is polymer flooding. Herein polymer solutions are injected in injector ...

  17. On the predictive/fitting capabilities of the advanced differential constitutive equations for branched LDPE melts

    Pivokonský, Radek; Zatloukal, M.; Filip, Petr


    Roč. 2006, č. 135 (2006), s. 58-67. ISSN 0377-0257 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB2810401; GA ČR GA103/05/2311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : constitutive models * polymer melts * constitutive equations * elongational flow * shear flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2006

  18. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.


    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  19. Zeolite-catalyzed biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals

    Taarning, Esben; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Yang, Xiaobo;


    Heterogeneous catalysts have been a central element in the efficient conversion of fossil resources to fuels and chemicals, but their role in biomass utilization is more ambiguous. Zeolites constitute a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts and developments in recent years have demonstrated...... their potential to find broad use in the conversion of biomass. In this perspective we review and discuss the developments that have taken place in the field of biomass conversion using zeolites. Emphasis is put on the conversion of lignocellulosic material to fuels using conventional zeolites as well...

  20. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers

    Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla


    Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.


    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;


    can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehy-dration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of the product are mostly de-pendent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass consists of various com-ponents such as......Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided into...... biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass into...

  3. Biomass to energy

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. Polymer Chemistry

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne


    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  5. Process for treating biomass

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh


    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  6. Process for treating biomass

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh


    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  7. Gasification-based biomass

    None, None


    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  8. Commercial Viability of Biomass Derived Lignin in the Resin and Carbon Fiber Industries

    Patterson, Scott


    Plant biomass is a sustainable energy source that can be used directly, or converted into other compounds like carbon fiber and resins. The full potential of plant biomass is difficult to exploit as up to 30% of the biomass consists of the complex compound lignin, which is difficult to degrade efficiently. Drs Eltis and Bugg have found that by manipulating the bacterium Rhodococcus jostii they are able to extract useful lignin-based polymers. To operate at an industrial level the technology m...

  9. Constitutive model for overconsolidated clays


    Based on the relationships between the Hvorslev envelope,the current yield sur-face and the reference yield surface,a new constitutive model for overconsolidated clays is proposed. It adopts the unified hardening parameter,to which the potential failure stress ratio and the characteristic state stress ratio are introduced. The model can describe many characteristics of overconsolidated clays,including stress-strain relationships,strain hardening and softening,stress dilatancy,and stress path dependency. Compared with the Cam-clay model,the model only re-quires one additional soil parameter which is the slope of the Hvorslev envelope. Comparisons with data from triaxial drained compression tests for Fujinomori clay show that the proposed model can rationally describe overconsolidated properties. In addition,the model is also used to predict the stress-strain relationship in the isotropic consolidation condition and the stress paths in the undrained triaxial compression tests.

  10. The Constitutive Values of Science

    Hugh Lacey


    Full Text Available Cognitive values are the characteristics that are constitutive of good theories, the criteria to which we appeal when choosing among competing theories. I argue that, in order to count as a cognitive value, a characteristic must be needed to explain actually made theory choices, and its cognitive significance must be well defended especially in view of considerations derived from the objective of science. A number of proposed objectives of science are entertained, and it is argued that adopting a par-ticular objective is dialectically intertwined with commitment to certain social values.Then, the ways in which science is, and is not value free is explored briefly, leading to the identification of a level of analysis where values may influence theory choice without causing paradox or threatening the impartiality of soundly-made scientific judgments.




    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  12. Constitutive modeling of shock response of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.; Brown, E. N.


    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer with a simple atomic structure that shows complex behavior under pressure and demonstrates a highly variable metastable phase structure in shock waves with amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high-pressure transition of the crystalline domain from crystalline phase IV at ambient through phase II to III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region nucleates from the amorphous one with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate features that may be related to the impedance mismatch between the phase domains subjected to such transitions resulting in variations of mechanical and thermophysical characteristics. We consider the inter-phase non-equilibrium and the amorphous-to-crystalline and inter-crystalline transitions that are associated with the high pressure and temperature transformations under shock wave loading as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase constitutive model that considers strength effects to describe the observed response under shock loading of the PTFE material. Experimental plate impact shock-wave histories are compared with calculated profiles using kinetics describing the transitions. The study demonstrates that the inter-phase pressure non-equilibrium of the state parameters plays the key role in the delay of the shock wave attenuation. At the same time, the forward transition associated with the crystallization might be responsible for the velocity spike in the experimental velocity profiles at high impact velocity and the modulus variation at low impact velocity. On the other hand, an accelerated attenuation of the velocity in the rarefaction wave is associated with another transition resulting in the residual crystallinity change during unloading.

  13. Non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism

    Duplij, Steven; Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giampiero; Kotvytskiy, Albert


    This paper studies non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism. Eventually, the problem is solved of finding, for a given particular solution of the gravity-Maxwell equations, the exact form of the corresponding non-linear constitutive equations.

  14. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    Wessel, van M.G.J.


    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  15. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    Cowen, Zelman


    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  16. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C


    The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... of the influence that the chemical constitution of the conjugated polymer backbone has on the photochemical stability. Based on changes in the UV-visible absorption and IR spectra, the polymers were categorized into two distinct groups, each with a separate degradation mechanism. During irradiation (1000 W m -2......, AM 1.5G) under ambient conditions the majority of the polymers degraded within 4-5 hours. Three polymers showed increased stability with degradation rates from 0.44 to 1.58% per hour measured as loss of absorption. Application of oxygen and UV barrier foils was found to drastically slow...

  17. Polymer Informatics

    Adams, Nico

    Polymers are arguably the most important set of materials in common use. The increasing adoption of both combinatorial as well as high-throughput approaches, coupled with an increasing amount of interdisciplinarity, has wrought tremendous change in the field of polymer science. Yet the informatics tools required to support and further enhance these changes are almost completely absent. In the first part of the chapter, a critical analysis of the challenges facing modern polymer informatics is provided. It is argued, that most of the problems facing the field today are rooted in the current scholarly communication process and the way in which chemists and polymer scientists handle and publish data. Furthermore, the chapter reviews existing modes of representing and communicating polymer information and discusses the impact, which the emergence of semantic technologies will have on the way in which scientific and polymer data is published and transmitted. In the second part, a review of the use of informatics tools for the prediction of polymer properties and in silico design of polymers is offered.

  18. Polymers & People

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma


    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  19. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel;


    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  20. Constitution of the White Earth Nation

    Vizenor, Gerald


    The Constitution of the White Earth Nation was ratified by sworn delegates on April 4, 2009. The Constitution declares a separation from the current federal constitution that consolidated six Anishinaabe or Chippewa reservations in Minnesota. This federal constitutional association has not served the specific interests of the citizens of the White Earth Reservation. The disposition of treaty land, for instance, and the uses of natural resources cannot equitably be decided by any o...

  1. World wide biomass resources

    Faaij, A.P.C.


    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  2. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Knezevic, Dragan


    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  3. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  4. Fermentation of biomass-derived syngas to ethanol and acetate by clostridium ljungdahlii

    Ortigueira, J.; Pinto, Filomena; Gírio, Francisco M.; Moura, Patrícia


    In the biochemical pathway of lignocellulosics conversion into fuels, a significant portion of biomass cannot be hydrolysed to fermentable sugars and remains as waste substrate that, due to its recalcitrance, is not converted to ethanol by microorganisms. In terms of product yield, this residual biomass represents renewable feedstock that is being wasted, which contradicts the target of 100% feedstock utilisation. The gasification of this biomass constitutes an alternative to circumvent this ...

  5. Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe : a challenging new area of constitutional inquiry

    KILPATRICK, Claire


    Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe is a rich new seam of constitutional inquiry that challenges existing constitutional scholarship in various ways. I make five claims about how it expands and challenges existing constitutional and EU scholarship. 1. It is new terrain for constitutional social scholarship. 2. Middle-class and public sector entitlements are a deeply problematic area for constitutional social scholarship. 3. Juristocracy charges cannot be the same ...

  6. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  7. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim... any subpart. A constitutional claim will be scrutinized in order to determine whether it is totally...

  8. The Constitutional Politics of Charitable Choice.

    Knippenberg, Joseph M.


    Clarifies the constitutional issue raised by government efforts to cooperate with faith-based organizations, noting that while programs can be constitutional without necessarily being good public policy, too frequently political and constitutional controversies mix these two considerations, thus confusing those trying to understand and resolve…

  9. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  10. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Williams, Robert F.


    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  11. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia


    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  12. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia


    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  13. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related to...... thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... nineteen eighties. Originally, the main aim was to collect and transfer knowledge about gasification of straw. Very quickly it became clear, that knowledge was insufficient and the available technology, in most cases, unsuitable for converting the Danish biomass. The need for such technology was...

  14. Remarks on energetic biomass

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  15. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.


    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  16. Constitutive Behavior and Finite Element Analysis of FRP Composite and Concrete Members

    Ki Yong Ann


    Full Text Available The present study concerns compressive and flexural constitutive models incorporated into an isoparametric beam finite element scheme for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP and concrete composites, using their multi-axial constitutive behavior. The constitutive behavior of concrete was treated in triaxial stress states as an orthotropic hypoelasticity-based formulation to determine the confinement effect of concrete from a three-dimensional failure surface in triaxial stress states. The constitutive behavior of the FRP composite was formulated from the two-dimensional classical lamination theory. To predict the flexural behavior of circular cross-section with FRP sheet and concrete composite, a layered discretization of cross-sections was incorporated into nonlinear isoparametric beam finite elements. The predicted constitutive behavior was validated by a comparison to available experimental results in the compressive and flexural beam loading test.

  17. Achieving the energy potential of biomass in developing countries

    Biomass (or the biologically renewable organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of plants) constitutes a world-wide energy potential of about 1.7 x 1011 dry tonnes/yr and can be converted to useful energy by two methods: (1) biogas production and (2) alcohol production by means of fermentation. Each is discussed separately. 4 refs, 7 tabs

  18. Tight-binding treatment of conjugated polymers

    Lynge, Thomas Bastholm

    This PhD thesis concerns conjugated polymers which constitute a constantly growing research area. Today, among other things, conjugated polymers play a role in plastic based solar cells, photodetectors and light emitting diodes, and even today such plastic-based components constitute an alternative...... of tomorrow. This thesis specifically treats the three conjugated polymers trans-polyacetylene (tPA), poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and poly(para-phe\\-nylene vinylene) (PPV). The present results, which are derived within the tight-binding model, are divided into two parts. In one part, analytic results...... are derived for the optical properties of the polymers expressed in terms of the optical susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of a static electric field. In the other part, the cumputationally efficient Density Functional-based Tight-Binding (DFTB) model is applied to the description...


    HAN Shifang


    A constitutive equation theory of Oldroyd fluid B type, i.e. the co-rotational derivative type, is developed for the anisotropic-viscoelastic fluid of liquid crystalline (LC) polymer. Analyzing the influence of the orientational motion on the material behavior and neglecting the influence, the constitutive equation is applied to a simple case for the hydrodynamic motion when the orientational contribution is neglected in it and the anisotropic relaxation, retardation times and anisotropic viscosities are introduced to describe the macroscopic behavior of the anisotropic LC polymer fluid. Using the equation for the shear flow of LC polymer fluid, the analytical expressions of the apparent viscosity and the normal stress differences are given which are in a good agreement with the experimental results of Baek et al. For the fiber spinning flow of the fluid, the analytical expression of the extensional viscosity is given.

  20. The biomass file

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  1. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain


    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory,a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed.Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant,a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived.Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers,a set of internal variables is introduced,and an internal-variable constitutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated.An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration.Moreover,the relationship between the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed.The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  2. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain

    黄筑平; 陈建康; 王文标


    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory, a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed. Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant, a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived. Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers, a set of internal variables is introduced, and an internal-variable consti-tutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated. An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration. Moreover, the relationship be-tween the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed. The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  3. The importance of biomass

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)


    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, wheat straw and hazelnut shell are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. The total forest potential of Turkey is around 935 million m3 with an annual growth of about 28 million m{sup 3}. Turkey's annual biomass potential in 2001 was million tons of oil equivalent. (author)

  4. Biomass in Germany

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  5. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Williams, Robert F.


    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  6. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...


    ... through September 23, 2009, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as well.... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship...

  7. Organometallic Polymers.

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.


    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  8. Coloured Polymers

    Pesando, I.


    We show that non-oriented coloured polymers (self--avoiding walks with different types of links) are in the same universality class of the ordinary self--avoiding walks, while the oriented coloured are not.

  9. Polymer electrolytes

    Abbrent, Sabina; Greenbaum, S.; Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.

    Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2015 - (Dudney, N.; West, W.; Nanda, J.), s. 523-589 ISBN 978-981-4651-89-9 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer electrolytes * applications * mesuring techniques Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Biomass_Master

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  11. Biomass Carbon Stock

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  12. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Knezevic, Dragan


    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  13. Steam boiler for biomass

    Knichal, Jaroslav


    At present, people already fully aware of how expensive it is energy dependence on fossil fuels. Trying to reduce this dependence goes hand in hand with environmental limits, which restrict the production of dangerous compounds. Biomass is a fuel that does not create large amounts of sulfur and carbon dioxide generated during combustion is in a closed cycle. Different types of biomass have different calorific value, and therefore different demands on the quantity needed to produce MWh. It is ...

  14. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  15. Mechanistic Constitutive Models for Rubber Elasticity and Viscoelasticity

    Puso, M


    Physically based models which describe the finite strain behavior of vulcanized rubber are developed. Constitutive laws for elasticity and viscoelasticity are derived by integrating over orientation space the forces due to each individual polymer chain. A novel scheme is presented which effectively approximates these integrals in terms of strain and strain invariants. In addition, the details involving the implementation of such models into a quasi-static large strain finite element formulation are provided. In order to account for the finite extensibility of a molecular chain, Langevin statistics is used to model the chain response. The classical statistical model of rubber assumes that polymer chains interact only at the chemical crosslinks. It is shown that such model when fitted for uniaxial tension data cannot fit compression or equibiaxial data. A model which incorporates the entanglement interactions of surrounding chains, in addition to the finite extensibility of the chains, is shown to give better predictions than the classical model. The technique used for approximating the orientation space integral was applied to both the classical and entanglement models. A viscoelasticity model based on the force equilibration process as described by Doi and Edwards is developed. An assumed form for the transient force in the chain is postulated. The resulting stress tensor is composed of an elastic and a viscoelastic portion with the elastic stress given by the proposed entanglement model. In order to improve the simulation of experimental data, it was found necessary to include the effect of unattached or dangling polymer chains in the viscoelasticity model. The viscoelastic effect of such chains is the manifestation of a disengagement process. This disengagement model for unattached polymer chains motivated an empirical model which was very successful in simulating the experimental results considered.

  16. Is There a Constitutional Right to Clone?

    Sunstein, Cass Robert


    Recent scientific innovations, and proposed legislation, have raised questions about the nature of the constitutional right to reproductive freedom, and in particular about whether there is a constitutional “right to clone.” This essay urges that as a matter of substantive due process, rationality review is probably appropriate, and that restrictions on both reproductive and therapeutic cloning would and should survive constitutional scrutiny. At the same time, many of the arguments for banni...

  17. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz


    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...


    KARTALCI, Kadir; DOĞAN, Mübeyna


    Today, for advanced democracies internalizing social law state, it seems impossible to tax without depending on the constitution. The terms of taxing and the power of taxing were put into the constitutions during republican period of our country. Hence, in 1982 constitution, article 73, subclause 3, the sentence`all taxes and fees are enacted, changed and repealed by law` emphasizes the legality of taxing.However, in a country experiencing martial laws and state emergencies heavily, by inter...

  19. The constitutive modeling of shape memory alloys

    Liang, Chen


    This dissertation presents a one-dimensional thermomechanical constitutive model for shape memory alloys based on basic concepts of thermodynamics and phase transformation kinetics. Compared with other developed constitutive relations, this thermomechanical constitutive relation not only reflects the physical essence of shape memory alloys, i.e., the martensitic phase transformation involved, but also provides an easy-to-use design tool for engineers. It can predict and describ...

  20. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    Mitchell F. Crusto


    Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state) from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses...

  1. Emulsification-Induced Homohelicity in Racemic Helical Polymer for Preparing Optically Active Helical Polymer Nanoparticles.

    Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jinrui; Deng, Jianping


    Optically active nano- and microparticles have constituted a significant category of advanced functional materials. However, constructing optically active particles derived from synthetic helical polymers still remains as a big challenge. In the present study, it is attempted to induce a racemic helical polymer (containing right- and left-handed helices in equal amount) to prefer one predominant helicity in aqueous media by using emulsifier in the presence of chiral additive (emulsification process). Excitingly, the emulsification process promotes the racemic helical polymer to unify the helicity and directly provides optically active nanoparticles constructed by chirally helical polymer. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the emulsification-induced homohelicity effect. The present study establishes a novel strategy for preparing chirally helical polymer-derived optically active nanoparticles based on racemic helical polymers. PMID:26829250

  2. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Skelton, J.C.


    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  3. Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles

    熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元


    Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s~1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.


    Daniela Cristina VALEA


    The control of constitutionality has an extremely important role in the functioning of the state of law. The premise for the birth of the control of constitutionality and the outlining of a control of constitutionality system is the necessity to guarantee ‘the supremacy of the law’, or ‘the supremacy of the Constitution’. In the constitutional systems in which the judge’s role of ‘constitutional judge’ was not recognized or assumed, the control of constitutionality was entrusted to a speciali...

  5. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    C Rautenbach


    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  6. Constitutional Provisions for Community Junior Colleges.

    McLeod, Marshall W.


    Examines the role of the federal and state constitutions in community college law. Discusses the lack of state constitutional law pertaining explicitly to these institutions and suggests a probable reason for this void. Gives examples of extant state laws and discusses implications for the community college field. (AYC)

  7. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO2, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case with

  8. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter


    The poster describes a strategy of for the development of polymer informatics. In particular, the development of polymer markup language, a polymer ontology and natural language processing tools for polymer literature.

  9. Antimocrobial Polymer

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)


    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  10. Burning of biomass waste

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  11. Polymer electronics

    Geoghegan, Mark


    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  12. Polymer Materials

    Charles C. Han; DONG Jinyong; NIU Hui; CHENG He; HUANG Ye; ZHENG Jianfen; XU Shanshan


    @@ Since the second half of the 20th century, polymer materials have already become an essential part of our daily life.The use of polymeric materials has already exceeded that of metals and ceramics in terms of volume and is intimately connected to our clothing, food, household use, transportation, and medical needs.Meanwhile it also brought some recycle and environmental problems.In the 21 st century, human beings are facing ever increasing challenges on environmental protection, energy shortage, and health-medical problems, which have made even higher demand on polymer materials due to its light weight, flexibility and high functionality.

  13. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Nussbaumer, T.


    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory


    Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from


    Louis J Virelli III


    Full Text Available The debate over the role of traditionalism in constitutional interpretation has itself become a tradition. It remains a popular and controversial topic among constitutional scholars and presents normative questions that are as divisive, difficult, and important today as at the Founding. Missing from the discussion, however, is a comprehensive account of how the Supreme Court has employed traditionalism-an approach that looks for meaning in present manifestations of longstanding practices or beliefs-in its constitutional jurisprudence. This project is the first to fill this gap by providing an exhaustive and systematic analysis of the Court's use of constitutional traditionalism. This article focuses on the Roberts Court's first five terms to provide an empirical foundation that will not only offer previously unavailable insights into the Court's current traditionalist practices, but will also set forth a useful framework for the ongoing normative debate over traditionalism. This project uses content analysis of key terms to identify every instance in which the Roberts Court employed traditionalism to interpret the Constitution. More specifically, this project set out to answer the following three questions: First, how frequently does the Roberts Court employ traditionalism in its constitutional jurisprudence? Second, how robust is the Court's use of traditionalism (i.e., is it used to interpret a broad or narrow range of constitutional provisions? And finally, how often and in what contexts do individual Justices on the Roberts Court rely on traditionalism in their own constitutional opinions? The research provided here suggests answers to all three of these questions. First, the data indicate that traditionalism has been relied upon regularly by the Roberts Court, appearing in nearly half of the Court's constitutional cases. Second, traditionalism is frequently applied to a wide variety of constitutional provisions: Two-thirds of the

  17. Constitutional Interpretation as Constitutional Creation: The 1999-2000 Harry Eckstein Lecture

    Murphy, Walter


    This paper starts from what I take as two plain facts of political life: First, the maintenance of any constitutional order whatsoever requires some constitutional interpretation; and, second, the complex normative bases of constitutional democracy cause this necessity to operate especially often. Next comes the gist of the paper, the argument that, in a constitutional democracy, interpreters must exercise a wide range of discretion that inevitably allows, in fact frequently requires, a degre...

  18. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that...... combines laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing...

  19. Biomass living energy

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  20. Clean fuels from biomass

    Hsu, Y.-Y.


    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  1. Biomass co-firing

    Yin, Chungen


    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized...

  2. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee


    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  3. Polymer physics

    Gedde, Ulf W


    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  4. Polymer Science.

    Frank, Curtis W.


    Described is a series of four graduate level courses in polymer science, offered or currently in preparation, at Stanford University. Course descriptions and a list of required and recommended texts are included. Detailed course outlines for two of the courses are presented. (BT)




    Full Text Available What seems relevant to us for highlighting in this study is the approach of the ministerial liability within the Romanian constitutional and legal system starting with the first document of constitutional value, namely the Developing Statute of the Paris Convention of 1858 until today, that is the Constitution of Romania, revised in 2003 and republished. Having in view that this is a generous study topic covering over 150 years of constitutional and legal evolution of ministerial liability in Romania, it is necessary to specify from the very beginning the need of a diachronic approach of this topic by identifying all Romanian Constitutions that have regulated the constitutional system during this period of time. Moreover, we have to specify that, during this period of time, Romania has experienced several forms of governance, namely monarchy, people’s republic, socialist republic and semi-presidential republic. With this approach, the proposed study opens a complex and complete yet not exhaustive vision in the current scope of the ministerial liability. It is also the reason why the study begins with preliminary considerations in which the terminology used in the content of the study is justified. Following a key-scheme, there are successively examined the two major parts of the study, namely the general theory regarding the concepts of ministerial responsibility and liability and the Romanian constitutional, legal and doctrinaire milestones of the ministerial liability.

  6. Study of generalized Prandtl rheological model for constitutive description of elastoplastic properties of materials

    W. Grzesikiewicz


    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to demonstrate the process of constitutive modelling of elastoplastic properties of materials using generalized Prandtl rheological model. A special attention is put on description of composites.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the proposed rheological model, the set of constitutive relationships is formulated. Identification of parameters of rheological model is carried out based on experimental hysteretic loops. The constitutive equations are used in the paper for computer simulation of experimental tests.Findings: It is proved in the paper that the obtained constitutive relationships can describe the phenomenon of plastic anisotropy. An illustrating example is demonstrated for fiber glass-reinforced polymer-matrix composite. The comparison between experimental results and computer simulations shows the validity of the model.Research limitations/implications: The computer simulations concentrate on one-dimensional problem. It is suggested for future investigations to implement three-dimensional constitutive model. Such an implementation may be conducted within FEM codes ABAQUS or ANSYS.Practical implications: Using the method of constitutive modelling of elastoplastic properties of materials it is possible to carry out computer simulations solving non-linear differential equations for any type of loadings both static and dynamic.Originality/value: The original value of the paper is the proposed procedure of identification of material model exhibiting plastic anisotropy based on generalized Prandtl rheological scheme. As the result, the system of constitutive relationships has explicit differential form, easy for numerical implementations.

  7. Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete

    The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained

  8. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz


    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  9. Constitutional notes on the atomic law

    Both in jurisdiction and in literature increasingly more individuals are doubling the constitutionality of the atomic law, especially its terms concerning permissions, because as they say, the legislator has not made the necessary guiding decisions. The following essay proves that, within the frame of the atomic law, the legislation has made the decisions which are necessary according to the Federal Constitutional Law. This shows that a legal alteration of the terms concerning permissions is not necessary, at least as far as constitutional reasons are concerned. (orig.)

  10. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet


    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .