Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.
2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp
People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...
930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81
Sangeeta Bajpai; Sharma, A K; V.K. Kanungo
Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plan...
2010150 A prospective multicenter randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial on effects of Tiantai No. 1 in treating mild cognitive impairment. WU Zhengzhi(吴正治),et al. Shenzhen Hosp,Southern Med Univ,Guangdong 518035.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30(3):255-258.
920220 Studies on plasma cortisol concen-tration and blood leukocyte content of gluco-corticoid receptors in patients with asthenia-cold asthenia-heat syndrome.ZHANG Guan-gyu (张广宇),XLE Zhufar (谢竹藩).Tradit & West
930625 Clinical study of rotundium in treating atrialfibrillation.WANG Dajin,et al.CardiovascDis Instit,Tongji Med Univ,Wuhan,430022.Chin JIntegr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(8):455—457.L—tetrahydropalmatine(Rotundium)is an alkaloidof Corydalis turtschaninovii.Some animal experimentshad demonstrated that Rotundium had a good antiar-rhythmic effect on blocking the calcium channel andthat it was a class Ⅳ antiarrhythmic agent,similar to
2007134 Clinical study on "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. LUO Wenzheng(罗文政), et al. Coll Acupunct & Massage, Guangzhou TCM Univ, Guangzhou 510405. Chin J Integr Trad & West Med 2007;27(3):201-203. Objective To study the clinical effect of "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with generalized anxiety were randomly assigned to two groups equally. the medication group treated with anti-anxiety drugs and the acupuncture group with "Jin′s three-needling". The treatment course was 6 weeks. The clinical effects were evaluated with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), clinical global impression (CGI), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of 2nd, 4th, 6th week of the treatment course. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in platelet, and plasma levels of corticosterone (CS) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) method before and after treatment. Results The clinical effects in the two groups were equivalent, while the adverse reaction found in the acupuncture group was less than that in the medication group (P<0.05). The platelet concentration of 5-HT and plasma ACTH level decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with insignificant difference between the group (P<0.05). The plasma CS level had no obvious change in the two groups after treatment as compared with that before treatment.Conclusion "Jin′s three-needling" shows similar curative effect on generalized anxiety to routine Western medicine but with less adverse reaction, which may be realized through regulating the platelet 5-HT concentration and plasma ACTH level.
Denise M. Glover
Review of Khawa Karpo: Tibetan Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation. Jan Salick and Robert K. Moseley. 2012. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. Pp. 273. US$55 (paperback). ISBN 978-1-935641-06-3.
Grdović Svetlana; Savić Mila; Bečkei Ž.; Dimitrijević B.
In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Ro...
Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila
Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations
Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto;
Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine ...
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...
El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude
Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Do...
@@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.
Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei
As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines. PMID:27301588
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariève
Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...
Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen
The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of
Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad
Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. PMID:26072222
Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the component parts of the international health care system. It has been an inevitable trend to merge traditional Chinese medicine into systemic medicine. Along with the emergence of the concept of systemic disease, the wide dissemination of evidence-based medicine and the establishment of thought pattern of systemic medicine, the exploration emphasis of modern medical science has been transferred from microcosmic or solid structure to macrocosmic unit a...
Full Text Available Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plants. From the available literature it can be ascertained that these traditional rural home gardens can be a suitable site for conservation, propagation, and expansion of medicinal plants that form the backbone of the traditional medicine system and are fast dwindling due to over exploitation and development pattern. Widely reported presence in rural home gardens of medicinal plant species, such as, Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Aloe vera, Mill., Asparagus racemosus, Willd., Chlorophytum tuberosum, Baker., Curcuma angustifolia, Roxb., Dioscorea bulbifera, L., Dioscorea hispida, Dennst., Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., Gymnema sylvestre, Br., Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth., Terminalia arjuna, (Roxb. Wight. and Arn., Tinospora cordifolia, Miers., that are considered endangered is a further confirmation of this belief that traditional rural home gardens can be a good conservation site for domestication and conservation of these plant species.
Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun
Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. PMID:27136524
The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further eva...
Traditional medicine practice involves a complex combination of activities, order of knowledge, beliefs and customs to generate the desired effects for the diagnosis, prevention or elimination of imbalances in physical, psychological or social well-being. Traditional medicine practice is based on the indigenous knowledge of a given people, a given community, and their experiences in the co...
Amir-Mohammad Jaladat; Majid Nimrouzi; Mehrdad Karimi; Mamak Hashemi; Mehdi Falah; Fatemeh Attarzadeh
Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian mass...
Jong Yeol Kim
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude
Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434
El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude
Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434
Full Text Available In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae family were described. Basic nutritive components of pasture and mixed hay: crude moisture, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude cellulose, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorous (P, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were measured. Botanical analysis has confirmed the presence of plant diversity, as well as the nutritive value of sheep pastures. Chemical analyses of samples pointed out that the levels of crude proteins, cellulose, fats, macro and trace elements are sufficient to satisfy the requirements of low input sheep farming system and therefore can be considered a solid base for reintroduction of autochthonous sheep breeds in the peripheral parts of the Deliblato Sands area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085: Management of sustainable farming of organic lamb production as a support to rural development
In this paper we present the Karanga traditional system of therapy of illness and disease manifest in the treatments administered by the medical practitioners. In order to establish the traditional system of therapy of illness and disease, numerous interviews were carried out with healers, herbalists and elders in the field area. This enabled a systematic compilation of cases. There was also the pressing need to be present at rituals and instances where healing was effected and to observe the...
1 Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is "the traditional medicine that originated in China,and is characterized by holism and treatment based on pattern identification/syndrome differentiation" (WHO,2007).In China,traditional medicine accounts for around 40％ of all healthcare delivered;in the West,TCM is increasingly adopted by medical practitioners as a form of complementary and altemative medicine (CAM) (WHO,2002).Both in China and in the West,scientists are attempting to bring the ancient heritage of TCM into line with modem standards,through the scientific development of TCM in the direction of evidence-based medicine (Qiu,2007).There is a pressing need for the digital preservation and global access of TCM knowledge assets.
The 2006 reception conference of the International Education College of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was held April 28 in Beijing, unveiling its overseas students recruitment program this year.
Wan, Xia; Liu, Jian-ping
Abstract: Biological, psychological and sociological model of medicine substantializes the old model lacking the social humane attributes. The new medical model makes people take medical anthropology into research and highly evaluate traditional medical system. Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is part of medical anthropology with three major characteristics: wide research scope, specificity, and integration. It has developed its own research methods, such as field i...
Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok;
Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....
Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…
Mali, Prashant Y
Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important woody, medicinal plant and has been prominent place in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani system of medicines. Objective of the present review is to avail the comprehensive information on ecological biodiversity, traditional uses and phytochemistry of P. integrifolia. Information of the plant was searched using various electronic databases in reference to the terms Premna integrifolia, ecological biodiversity, traditional uses and phytoconstituents of P. integrifolia along with Ayurvedic books, Indian classical texts, pharmacopoeias, journals, etc. There is an inherent difference within the three Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFIs) published with regard to the botanical sources of Agnimanthā. Complete data of the plant has been collected manually since from the years 1947-2015 and was arranged accordingly. Available data have reports that roots of P. integrifolia are widely used for the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like Daśamūlakvātha, Ariṣṭa, Cūrṇa and Chayawanprashavleh for the treatment of a variety of afflictions. It has also reported to have p-methoxy cinnamic acid, linalool, linoleic acid, β-sitosterol and flavone luteolin, iridoid glycoside, premnine, ganiarine and ganikarine, premnazole, aphelandrine, pentacyclic terpene betulin, caryophellen, premnenol, premna spirodiene, clerodendrin-A, etc., phytoconstituents in its various parts. There is need to validate its traditional uses, isolation and confirmation of reported phytoconstituents, biological and clinical efficacy by modern analytical and biological techniques which could be recommendation for further scientific research. PMID:26600661
Ginseng is a root vegetable whose shape resembles the human body, and its name (pronounced "insam" in Korean) contains the Chinese characters for "man". Korean ginseng is also known by the names of Korea's last two royal dynasties: Goryeo and Joseon. Its scientific name is "Panax Ginseng C.A.Meyer, " panax being a composite term formed from the Greek words pan (all) and axos (medicine), which also give us the English word "panacea". Although Korean ginseng belongs to the same botanical genus as the product ...
Hari Shankar Lal
Full Text Available Jharkhand is rich in biodiversity of medicinal plants. The forest area is about 40% of the total area of Jharkhand. 32 tribal communities found in Jharkhand. They are used medicinal plants by traditional knowledge. Traditional medicinal practioners known as vaidays or kavirajas from the primary health care provider in rural Jharkhand.The objective of this present study was to conduct a value addition survey amongst tribal of Hazaribag and around the district of Jharkhand. Knowledge about to conserve these natural resources is very important. If all the people know about our natural resources & its important in our life by training or another sources than save it for value addition. If one sps save per people by conserve it for value addition than disease free nature obtained. Information on 95 plants sps was obtained which were used by tribal vaidyas to treat various ailments given the table 1. These medicinal plants belong to 95 genera and 51 families. All plants were grown or cultivated in home steads or fields as ornamental plant, shade giving plants ,timber yielding plants, home construction plants ,medicinal plants ,vegetable ,fruits etc.The various plant part used included whole plants, leaves ,stems,roots,tuber,barks,flower,fruits,&seeds. Traditional and ethnic knowledge generated from such leads has played most significant role in the discovery of novel product as well as newer ideas about conservation of natural resources. This paper deals the biodiversity of plant which is used by tribals in Hazaribag Jharkhand.
Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar
Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain
Lortal, Sylvie; Licitra, Giuseppe; Valence, Florence
Today, wooden shelves are used for the ripening of about 500,000 tons of cheese per year in Europe, including about 350,000 tons in France, such as most of the famous cheeses with the protected designation of origin (PDO), e.g., Comté, Reblochon, Beaufort, Munster, Cantal, and Roquefort. For some PDO cheeses, the use of wooden tools is mandatory. Many cheesemakers believe that wooden tools improve the organoleptic and typical characteristics of their final products. Wood is a natural and sustainable material which has been used for centuries in traditional cheese production in a wide variety of forms (vats, shelves, and packaging). Wood is important in the cheesemaking process, interacting with the milk in vats or with the cheeses placed on shelves for ripening. Wood is viable due to its ability to exchange water but, above all, because it is covered by a rich microbial biofilm. As wood is porous and difficult to clean, the European Commission regularly highlights the question of its safety when in contact with food and calls for deeper scientific investigation. In this review, knowledge about the multiple technological roles of wood in dairy technology is discussed. The crucial role of wood as a reservoir of microbial biodiversity for traditional cheeses is reviewed, along with results of safety assessments. As a conclusion, the numerous questions remaining about this natural inoculating system are discussed. PMID:26068076
The Inga maintains alive a medical tradition whose therapeutics is based on the use of plants. There is evidence that they have incorporated into their medicine Hispanic medical principles and of other indigenous communities as well as the use of plants from other regions of Colombia, mainly by exchange with communities of the Amazonian jungle.119 plants used by Inga women specialists in medicine are referenced as well as the preparation of 149 remedies used to solve health problems
Sh. Fahimi; H. Hajimehdipoor; Abdollahi, M.; S.A. Mortazavi
Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended trea...
Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang
The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of more than 5,000 years and it has the earliest medicine book in the world: Yellow Emperor's Canon: Internal Medicine (Huang Ti Nei Jing), by the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC) (Lin , 1988; Shampo and Kyle, 1989; Wang, 1999). However the combinational and systemic recipes that bring TCM high efficiency also block the promotion of TCM treatment to various diseases, including depression. In this short comment we firstly give some theoretical basis for TCM treatment to depression, then some clinical reports on efficiency; we also present some possible explanations on TCM treatments to depression. PMID:19300379
Full Text Available "nThere are two mutually supportive systems in medical profession: modern medicines and traditional medicine. The current status is that although the modern medicine occupies the major position in healthcare system, the therapeutic effect of traditional medicines should not be omitted. If all of them merged and unified as one, it will be beneficial to the development of human medicine. In this paper, the integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and modern medicine was exemplified to elucidate the mutual complements, mutual benefits of traditional medicines and modern medicine to maintain the unification of human medicine via the development of molecular biology, cytology etc. We believed that TCM theory may share the same mechanism with western medicine at some extent which need to be explored in the future research. In our point of view, although the road may twist and turn, the results are promising.
Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh
Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.
Davyson de L. Moreira
Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.
Santana, Refal Milanes
The traditional medical system of cuba is an amalgam so the medical knowledge of the Africans, Hispanics and the Amerindians of cuba. An attempt is made is this article to provide a short introduction to this fascinating body of knowledge, which awaits further investigations by scholars of ethnic medicine.
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve
Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....... using household survey data collected from 571 households in three rural and peri-urban sites in Nepal in 2012. Questions encompassed household socioeconomic characteristics, illness characteristics, and treatment-seeking behaviour. Treatment choice was investigated through bivariate analyses. Results...
Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.
Lal, Radhika; Sorte Junior, Waldemiro Francisco
[Introduction ...] The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 provides a brief background of the economic and social context of rural development issues in Brazil. Section 3 explores Brazil’s productive inclusion approach and draws implications for the design of natural-resource-based production chains and the delivery of services (e.g. phytotherapies and phytocosmetics). Section 4 of the paper provides a survey of issues at the intersection of biodiversity, traditional medicine, drug disco...
Full Text Available Screening of phytochemicals is a precious stair in the detection of bioactive principles present in particular medicinal plant and may lead to novel drug discovery. In the present study, principal phytoconstituents of 25 traditional medicinal plants were identified in order to relate their presence with bioactivities of the plants. Screening of the plants was performed using standard methods and resulted in the detection of the presence of tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids. Flavonoids were present in 19 of 25 plants while alkaloids were present in sixteen plants. The presence of these phytochemicals can be correlated with medicinal potential of these plants. Further studies are needed with these plants to evaluate their pharmacological potentials, isolate, characterize and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds responsible for their activities and other medicinal values.
Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol...
Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan
Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...
Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa
Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research.
P. K. PATEL
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge is the essence of social capital of the poor people and plays a significant role in conservation of biodiversity. Local culture, spirit, social and ethical norms possessed by local people has often been determining factors for sustainable use, and conservation of biodiversity. Local people believe that the Sylvan deities would be offended if trees are cut and twigs, flowers, fruits, etc. are plucked. These groves are considered as one of the most species-rich areas for plants, birds and mammals. The paper deals with use of certain indigenous medicinal plants among the local people of the Panchmahals District, Gujarat. The study highlighted the use of 16 plant species as herbal medicine in the treatment of various ailments. It is of utmost necessity to take up ex-situ cultivation and conservation of these medicinal plant species. Plant name, local name, family, along with their parts used, ethnobotanical application with active principles and conservation strategies are discussed.
Shafiee, Hassan Ali; Moravej-Salehi, Elham
Context: In the Iranian traditional medicine, anbarnesa smoke derived from burning female donkey’s dung has long been used for treatment of inflammatory ulcers and infections of the middle and external ear with no significant side effects. The aim of this study was to introduce anbarnesa and discuss its therapeutic effects. Evidence Acquisition: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Medline, Google, and Google Scholar databases to find studies on anbarnesa. The keywords searched were as follows: “anbarnesa,” “traditional medicine,” “medicinal smoke,” “donkey,” “dung,” “antimicrobial,” “inflammation,” “infection,” and “cytotoxicity. Results: Literature review reveals that ANNAS (anbarnesa smoke) enhances wound healing, decreases scar formation, inhibits growth of cancer cells (Hela and KB) and has antimicrobial properties. Also, ANNAS combined with propylene glycol is nontoxic in 1/64, 1/128, and 1/256 dilutions. Conclusions: The constituents of anbarnesa smoke mainly possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and growth inhibition effects on cancer cells. PMID:26756020
Development of chromatographic fingerprinting and its related chemometric methods in the research of quality control of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) are discussed. The quality control methods for guarantying the authentication and stability of products and semi-products of TCMs are firstly assessed. The technique based on chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a kind of high-through put and integral tools to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs,confirmation and identification of their important chemical components are necessary. Some new strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with systems biology and bioinformatics,it seems possible for one to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality comprehensively.
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. PMID:26645523
Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi
Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.
Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.
Full Text Available The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav. Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill. Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne. A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 μg g-1 dry weight was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration
Full Text Available Because of the many problem relating to health care delivery in Africa, it is becoming apparent that neither the exclusive/monopolistic nor the tolerant legislative systems should be tolerated any longer. Especially since the Alma Ata Conference held by the WHO/UNICEF there has been growing impetus towards either inclusive/parallel (the beneficial co-existence of traditional and modern medical systems, or integrated systems. Although the idea of making traditional and modern medicine work in tandem in a united treatment context has its merits, it is also plagued by issues such as the nature of the products of an integrated training, resistance by stubborn protagonists of either of the two systems, or that only lip-service is paid to the idea of co-operation. Nevertheless, it is believed that all interest groups - the authorities responsible for health care delivery, the Western-trained health care workers, the traditional healers and the users of these services - stand to gain from such liaison.
Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.
In spite of the scientific advances made by modern medicine, 75-80 percent of the population turn to traditional medicine for health care. This medicine has evolved with the history of mankind, and traditional knowledge is a popular asset that is integrated into the socio-medical environment. The OAU expressed a real interest in the subject of traditional medicine during the first symposiu...
In Malaysia, mainly there are three complimentary systems of medicine practiced they are the traditional Malay, Chinese and Indian systems. The traditional herbal medicines and their preparations have been widely used in Malaysia for thousands of years. The pervasive use of complementary medicines raises several concerns. Many of these arise because most complementary medicines are not licensed as medicines, and therefore evidence of quality, efficacy and safety is not required before marketi...
Ai-Ping Lu; Hong-Wei Jia; Cheng Xiao; Qing-Ping Lu
Traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal medicine and acupuncture, as one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), plays the key role in the formation of integrative medicine. Why do not the modern drugs targeting the specificity of diseases produce theoretical effects in clinical observation? Why does not the traditional Chinese medicine targeting the Zheng (syndrome) produce theoretical effects in clinic?There should have some reasons to combine Western medicine with Chinese herbal medicine so as to form the integrative medicine. During the integration, how to clarify the impact of CAM theory on Western medicine has become an emergent topic. This paper focuses on the exploration of the impact of theory of traditional Chinese medicine on the therapy of diseases in Western medicine.
Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.
Full Text Available More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.
Qiu-Ju Li; Ai-Hua Zhang; Hui Sun; Xi-Jun Wang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many oriental countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. It is a very complex mixture containing hundreds or thousands of different components. Pharmacokinetic study on active constituents in TCM preparations is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of TCM. In the drug discovery phases, pharmacokinetics is a key to guide medicinal chemists in the optimization process of a chemical series and to assist pharmacologists to design in vivo studies. To explore the potentially bioactive components in TCM, it is necessary to further study the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of multiple absorbed components and find out the optical time-course behavior to providing more substantial research for new leads in drug discovery. Pharmacokinetics screening method could provide a reliable means of prospecting natural products in the search for new leads in drug discovery. This review summarizes the research progress of PK on TCM in the search for suitable lead compounds in recent years.
Full Text Available In Malaysia, mainly there are three complimentary systems of medicine practiced they are the traditional Malay, Chinese and Indian systems. The traditional herbal medicines and their preparations have been widely used in Malaysia for thousands of years. The pervasive use of complementary medicines raises several concerns. Many of these arise because most complementary medicines are not licensed as medicines, and therefore evidence of quality, efficacy and safety is not required before marketing. In this paper, I would like to present an overview of the characteristics of regulation, quality and registration of traditional and complementary medicinal (TCM products in Malaysia.
Semi-natural grasslands including hay meadows belong to the most species-rich habitats in central Europe and are therefore of high conservation value. The high biodiversity of these grasslands has been maintained for many centuries through the regular disturbance by traditional management practices. In the Valais, an arid mountain region of Switzerland, traditional management of hay meadows includes irrigation by open water channels. In the past decades, however, the traditional irrigation te...
Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man
With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created. PMID:21695628
Ananda A Dorai
Full Text Available Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People′s perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future.
Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M;
There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishin...
Wang, Bo-Ram; Choi, In Young; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae
Background South Korea has maintained a dual healthcare delivery system that incorporates both traditional Korean and Western medicine. In this research, we identified the determinants of the frequency of using traditional Korean medicine among musculoskeletal patients, who are known to be the most frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine. Methods In this research, we reviewed 2 consecutive years of nationally representative survey data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Pane...
Ananda A Dorai
Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. T...
Xu, Qihe; Bauer, Rudolf; Hendry, Bruce M.; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Duez, Pierre; Simmonds, Monique SJ; Witt, Claudia M.; Lu, Aiping; Robinson, Nicola; Guo, De-an; Hylands, Peter J.
Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) ...
Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some
Mehri Abdollahi Fard; Asie Shojaii
Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedire...
Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plant...
Emiel Van Galen; Burt Kroes
@@ Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) , Registration, EU pharmaceutical legislation, Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products, tHMP, quality, safety, efficacy, traditional use, EMEA, European Medicines Agency, European Pharmacopoeia, Herbal Medicinal Products Committee, HMPC, Community Monographs, Commu-nity List.
Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun
Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316
Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products
Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing
Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977
Rama Shankar; M S Rawat
(Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010) North eastern India comprising of eight states namely Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura is widely rich in biodiversity belonging to different climatic conditions varying from tropical subtropical, temperate and alpine zones which covers the ...
Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory research work carried out aiming to identify the barriers in the usage of traditional medicines by the holders of the knowledge. The focus is on the usage of the traditional medicines by the homogenous people, Malayali tribe community at Shervaroy hills of Eastern Ghats. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among the tribe community of the area. Where the knowledge has been passed on from generations making the traditional medicinal knowledge strongly imbibed in their culture, the research findings divulged the reasons as to why in spite of having immense knowledge on traditional medicines these tribe community are opting for codified from of medicines. This report also explored the understanding of older generation in the context of holders of the traditional medicinal knowledge among the Malayali tribe community. The conclusion supports the implementation of existing policies stringently with recommendations so as to draw closer towards the three objectives enshrined in the Convention of Biodiversity and Biological Diversity Act, 2002. This paper contributes to the policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, non-governmental organizations and the holders of traditional medicinal knowledge so as to collaborate, in the process, protecting and promoting the traditional knowledge in medicinal plants.
Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P
Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865
Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; grc540, grc540
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...
Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; SHIRZAD, Meysam; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence in recent years. Dramatic growth in AD prevalence has increased the importance of more researches on AD treatment. History has shown that traditional medicine can be a source of inspiration to find new therapies. Objectives: This study tried to codify the recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) by studying the main medical manuscripts. The second purpose was to compare these fi...
Ashok Kumar Panda; Kailash Chandra Swain
Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis ) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps ...
Krishna Kaphle; Sanjeev Rastogi
Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some ...
Ashok Kumar; A C Rana
Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English) and Kathphal (Hindi). Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activitie...
Sharma, S C; Ahmad, S. Aziz
History of medicine and plants dates back to remote past when herbal treatment was the only answer to all kind of ailments. Nowadays, greater emphasis is again being laid to phytotherapy all over the world. Besides, cultivation-cum-setting up herbal gardens are also mooted on hills and plain areas as management of all kinds of diseases is possible through plant drugs sans toxicity.
Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.
This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are collecte
<正>The promotion of cooperation between China and Greece in the important field of traditional medicine was a major part of the work carried out during a goodwill visit to Greece by a CPAFFC delegation led by President Chen Haosu October 21-26,2009.This was discussed at a symposium"The Art of Medicine of Greece and China"
Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw he...
Elfahmi, [No Value; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver
Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine that has been practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. Although modern (conventional) medicine is becoming increasingly important in Indonesia, jamu is still very popular in rural as wel
Chen, Yifu; 陈一孚
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a medical system with a unique medical philosophy that continues to guide the contemporary turning out of new pharmaceutical formulae. The clinically-proved effective components of these formulae are being extracted by means of modern technology. Natural Chinese medicines account for approximately 30% of the global sales volume of all medicines, and the international market-size of the TCM industry is increasing rapidly. The TCM industry depends on the p...
M. M. Pandey
Full Text Available Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.
Linlin Gao; Xiongzhi Wu
The interactions among drugs, tumor and host are critical for a response to therapy and for outcome. Anticancer herbs used in Chinese medicine are classified into 4 groups based on their target (tumor, patient and drug) as follows: eliminating pathogenic factors, strengthening the body resistance, enhancing effects of chemotherapy and detoxication of chemotherapy. Correspondingly, anticancer drugs used in Western medicine can be classified into 4 groups as follows: cytotoxic drugs, biological response modifiers, chemosensitizers and chemoprotectants.Based on the theory 0f Chinese medicinal formulas, prescriptions are composed of four constituents,namely,primary constituent(main component of the formula prescription),minister constituent(second component of formula prescription),adjuvant constituent(adjuvant component of the formula prescription)and messenger constituent(component making the formula prescription targeting pathological tissues).To control the interaction among drugs and to modulate the interaction among the tumor,patient and drugs,we suggest that combined therapy for Western medicine might include 4 constituent,i.e.,primary,cooperative,adjuvant and modulatory constituent.Cytotoxic dru gs frequently are used as primary and cooperative constituents.Whereas biological response modifiers and biochemical modu lators are usu ally regarded respectively as adjuvant drugs and modulatory constituents.We believe these new concepts may be helpful for the aim of appropriately designing.evaluating or providing combination therapy.
Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.
Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan
Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641
Full Text Available Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English and Kathphal (Hindi. Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihelmintic, antiinflammatory and antiasthmatic properties were shown by researchers. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on various traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myrica nagi.
Omonzejele, Peter F; Maduka, Chukwugozie
This study investigated the extent to which recourse to traditional healers depended on biometric variables; ways of knowing in good time what ailments were more likely to be better handled by traditional healers; rationale behind traditional healing methodologies. On the whole, four research questions were engaged. The sample for the study included residents in urban (Benin City) and rural (Ehime Mbano) communities in Nigeria. The instruments comprised of two questionnaires. The traditional healers were also interviewed in addition. The findings of the research included the following: in both rural and urban areas, women and more elderly persons had more recourse than other groups to traditional medicine; Christians, less educated persons, self-employed persons and women affirmed most strongly to the efficacy of traditional medicine over Western medicine with respect to certain ailments; ways for averting spiritual illnesses included obeying instructions from ancestors and offering regular sacrifices to the gods; methods used by traditional healers to determine whether an ailment was "spiritual" or as a result of home problems included diagnosis linked to divination, interpretation of dreams particularly those involving visits by ancestors, interpretation of nightmares and omens such as the appearance of owls; methods for curing patients included use of herbs particularly those believed to have magical powers, offering of sacrifices, use of incantations and wearing of protective medicine. PMID:21390575
K. P. Sampath Kumar
Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.
Kayombo, Edmund J; Mahunnah, Rogasian L A; Uiso, Febronia C
A qualitative study was carried to assess prospects and challenges of medicinal plants conservation and traditional medicine in Tanzania. The study shows that TRM and medicinal have great prospects in healthcare delivery worldwide. These prospects have more impact in developing countries where 70%-80% of population used TRM for Primary Healthcare (PHC). It is reported that 25% of prescribed drugs in conventional healthcare were derived from their ethnomedicinal use in TRM. Medicin...
Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W
Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is ther...
Kim, Sang-Kyun; Nam, SeJin; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Anna; Lee, Jeong-Ju
Background In traditional medicine, there has been a great deal of research on the effects exhibited by medicinal materials. To study the effects, resources that can systematically describe the chemical compounds in medicinal materials are necessary. In recent years, numerous databases on medicinal materials and constituent compounds have been constructed. However, because these databases provide differing information and the sources of such information are unclear or difficult to verify, it ...
Abdullah Bin Junaid* and Reshma Nasreen
Full Text Available The regulatory authorities are now focusing on the regulatory issues of traditional medicines under which Unani system of medicine falls. Today we are witnessing an increase in the use of traditional medicines throughout the world raising the questions as to how safe these preparations are. People are now bending towards the Unani system of medicine because of its safety, efficacy and lesser side effects and hence raising the popularity of the Unani system of medicine. The major problem associated with Unani system of medicine is the lack of regulatory issues that ultimately leads to counterfeiting of Unani medicines. In the present article an endeavour has been made to present an overview of Unani system of medicine with special attention towards the Unani Cosmeceuticals products. This article intends to contribute towards the regulatory knowledge by giving a survey of published information regarding the regulations of the Unani Cosmeceuticals products. This article also focuses on the good manufacturing practices along with the standards for Unani Cosmeceuticals drug contents. This present article also deals with the measures to be adopted by the regulatory authorities so as to make the Unani Cosmeceuticals products of high standard quality which have much safety and efficacy.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.
Full Text Available Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine.
Since the World Health Organization officially promoted traditional medicine in developing countries in 1978, there have been increasing interests among developing countries in integrating traditional medicine into a national health care system. Most of these policies, however, tend to be the policy of coexistence instead of integration. This paper focuses on the rationale, strategies, and process of integrating traditional medicine into a modern health care system by using the experience of Chinese medicine in Taiwan as an example. After briefly describing the changing roles of Chinese medicine in Taiwan, the author critically reviews the government policies and regulations on Chinese medicine. Research findings and government statistics on the demand and supply of Chinese medicine are also described to provide some insights for developing recommendations for an appropriate integration policy. To effectively integrate traditional medicine into a modern health care system, this paper suggests that such integration should begin at the grass roots level, that is with the training of physicians and practitioners. A successful, integrated health care system would facilitate more efficient use of domestic medical resources, and enhance self-sufficiency in health development for resource poor countries. Integrating traditional medicine into a modern health care system, moreover, can benefit industrialized nations as well. After recommending several strategies for integration, the author proposes a further development of a unified medical system as the final stage of full integration. This unified medical system should be an inclusive medical system, which could help countries to expand the available medical resources. PMID:7939847
Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic reli...
The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especial...
Liu, Qingfei; Luyten, Walter; Pellens, Klaartje; Wang, Yiming; Thevissen, Karin; Liang, Qionglin; Cammue, Bruno; Schoofs, Liliane; Luo, Guoan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From over 100 Chinese clinical trial publications, we retrieved 22 commercial preparations and 17 clinical prescriptions used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating mycotic vaginitis, typically caused by Candida albicans. The 8 most frequently used plants as well as another 7 TCM and 18 folk medicinal plants used in the South of China for antifungal therapy were investigated for in vitro antifungal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of plants, ...
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional medicine (TM) are important social phenomena. This article reviews the sociological literature on the topic. First, it addresses the question of terminology, arguing that the naming process is a glimpse into the complexities of power and history that characterize the field. Second, focusing on the last 15 years of scholarship, it considers how sociological research on users and practitioners of TM/CAM has developed in that time. Thi...
Jokar, Assie; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; Nassiri-Toosi, Mohsen; Hamedi, Shokouhsadat
Terminalia chebula (family: Combretaceae) is widely used in the traditional medicine of India and Iran to treat diseases that include dementia, constipation, and diabetes. This tree is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as halileh or halilaj and the fruit is used to develop treatments. It is described in ITM as an astringent that has a "cold" and "dry" temperament. References to the medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula were collected from important ITM sources and from modern medical databases (PubMed, Scirus, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The medicinal properties described for this tree in ITM were compared with those reported in studies of modern phytotherapy. The results confirm that the tree referred to as halileh in traditional books is the Terminalia chebula used in present-day studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but have been traditionally treated with Terminalia chebula include fever, and psychological and psychiatric issues. This article confirms the medicinal uses of Terminalia chebula. PMID:27400482
Full Text Available Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM is a holistic system of medicine. Saffron (Crocus sativus is one of the most famous plants cultivated in Iran and has a wide range of activities such as oxytocic, anti-carcinogenic, exhilarant, anti-depressant, and anti-asthma effects. In addition, saffron can increase the bioavailability and enhance absorption of other drugs. This study comprises a bibliographical survey of 13 major ITM books regarding different medical aspects of this species. Ferdows al-Hekmah fi’l-Tibb (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine, Al-Hawi fi’l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine, Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art, Al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshahi, and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure are some of the most important ITM books used in this survey.
Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh; Esmaeil Nazem; Ashrafeddin Goushegir; Mohammad Mahdi Isfahani; Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi; Marzieh Baygom Siahpoosh
Background: Male infertility accounts for 30-50% of all infertilities among couples. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stressed the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of male infertility. Many Iranian traditional physicians have described the traits of specific foods for prevention and treatment of male infertility. Objective: To explore the principles and roles of foods recommended by ITM scientists in prevention and treatment of male infertility as well as enlisting al...
Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.
Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse
Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar
Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world’s aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili’s (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Results: Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. Conclusions: According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future. PMID:27247784
Full Text Available Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM. Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes, Canon of medicine (by Avicenna, ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani, Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi, and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan. Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID, Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.
Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran
Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.
Glen E. Randall
Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.
Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…
A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders.In many cases, there is no anatomic endocrineor metabolic cause in explanation of chronic constipation.More than 85% of them called functional or idiopathic.Constipation is one of the serious disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Besides the problem it causes, chronic constipation can be the origin of many disease. That is why, ithas been called Mother of disease.The purpose of this study is to investigate the Constipation in children and the role of other organs such as the liver by view of Iranian Traditional Medicine Materials and Method: This study is a review through Iranian traditional medicine references. At first, all the main available traditional books were reviewed. All the data about therapies of vaginal discharge in ITM were collected then classified. Results: In traditional medicine different reasons have been mentioned for constipation especially for childrenwhich most of them are similar to etiology in Modern Medicine.Constipation due to liver disorder is one of the causes of constipation.In Iranian Traditional medicine` viewpoint, one of the mechanism for excretion is existence of secreted bile in intestine.If by any reason,measure or quality of its which secreted in intestine through bile changes or if intestinal mucous secretion becomes barrier for absorbing the food,it will caused disorder in excretion and finally will lead to constipation.Well known Iranian Traditional Medicine scientists, has mentioned all reasons for liver disorders and changing quality& quantity of secreted bile .he has mentioned the solutions as well. Conclusion: It is hoped that by paying attention to constipation and with advanced clinical research we will be able to explain idiopathic constipation and prepare new ways of treatments for constipation. New researches have approved the effectiveness of these foods and drugs for treating the constipation. Keywords
Ji Heon Choi; Sungwook Kang; Chang Hoon You; Young Dae Kwon
The purpose of this study is to identify key factors that determine a person's decision to seek treatment from traditional Korean medicine (TKM) instead of conventional medicine through analysis of nationally representative data from Korea, where a dual healthcare system exists. The analysis is based on episodic data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel. The main dependent variable is the selection between TKM and conventional medicine. We used a multiple logistic regression model to ide...
Ashok Kumar Panda
Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended.
Biodiversity is a really surprising ecological event, as long as there is an extraordinary chemical and biochemical homogeneity at the very foundation of all living beings. It is believed that there are at least three phenomena that may explain it: Darwinian evolution, that is a kind of ramifying evolution; structural coupling, as defined by H. Maturana; and, finally, thermodynamical phenomena, as presented by S. Kauffman leaning on the concepts of organization and a propagating organization that diversifies, and they are all interpreted by E. D. Schneider and J. J. Kay from the idea of Earth as a thermodynamical system. The explanatory importance of this idea in the current environmental crisis, evident in other events such as global warming, is of great relevance.
Kumari, Priti; Joshi, Girish Chandra; Lalit Mohan TEWARI
The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticilla...
Mohammad M Zarshenas
Full Text Available The history of headache, as a common neurological complication, goes back to almost 9000 years ago. Many ancient civilizations present references to headaches and the coherent treatment strategies. Accordingly, several documents comprising headache complications embodying precise medical information stem from Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM that can provide useful opportunities for more comprehensive treatment. We conducted a survey on headache through original important pharmacopeias and other important medical manuscripts of TPM which were written during 9 th to 19 th centuries and have derived all headache categories and herbal remedies. An extensive search of scientific data banks, such as Medline and Scopus, has also been exercised to find results relating to the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and analgesic effects of denoted medicinal herbs. The concept of headache and treatments in TPM covers over 20 various types of headache and more than 160 different medicinal plants administered for oral, topical, and nasal application according to 1000 years of the subject documents. Nearly, 60% of remarked medicinal herbs have related anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects and some current headache types have similarities and conformities to those of traditional types. Beside historical approaches, there are many possible and available strategies that can lead to development of new and effective headache treatment from medicinal plants so that this study can provide beneficial information on clinical remedies based on centuries of experience in the field of headache which can stand as a new candidate for further investigations.
Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi
Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future.
The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)
Valli, Marilia; Pivatto, Marcos; Danuello, Amanda; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Araujo, Angela Regina; Furlan, Maysa; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica
The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)
IT is clear that in order for TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) production to meet world standards and enter the international market, herb plantation in China must be standardized. In late September 2003, the US FDA(Food and Drug Administration)held a seminar on the standardization of TCM development and quality control. It reached the conclusion that as long as the Chinese medicine production process meets GAP (Good Agricultural Practice,meaning standardized herbal material plantation), GLP (Good Laboratory Practice, meaning standardized experimental research)and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice, meaning standardized extraction and preparation technology) standards, TCM products merit certification.
Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P; Keßler, P.J.A.
This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are collected in the wild (65%) as well as species grown in home gardens. Leaves, stems and roots are most commonly used either fresh or dried or by decocting the dried parts in water. Women are mainly respons...
Mehri Abdollahi Fard
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki, Bryonia alba (Fashra, Ferula persica (Sakbinaj, Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar, and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed.
Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie
Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834
Jie SHI; Yan-li LIU; Yu-xia FANG; Guo-zhu XU; Hai-fen ZHAI; Lin LU
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), and at least 6 are in clinical trials. The general therapeutic principle of Chinese medicine developed was based on its unique theory of "reinforcing healthy Qi and resolving and removing effects of toxicity". Acupuncture, another essential part of TCM, which was developed based on the principle that "functions of the human body are controlled by the 'Jing-Luo' and 'Qi-Xue' system", has been used not only in China, but also in Europe, the USA and other countries, for controlling opiate addiction. There are some advantages in using TCM for opiate detoxification, including less harmful side effects, high safety and ideal effects in the inhibition of protracted withdrawal symptoms and relapse. Co-administration of TCM with modern medicine shows some synergistic effects in detoxification. Many TCM for detoxification also have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal body functions induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory and preventing neurological disorder. Given that TCM is effective in the prevention of relapse and causes fewer side effects, it may be used widely in the treatment of opiate addiction.
Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Shirzad, Meysam; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence in recent years. Dramatic growth in AD prevalence has increased the importance of more researches on AD treatment. History has shown that traditional medicine can be a source of inspiration to find new therapies. Objectives: This study tried to codify the recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) by studying the main medical manuscripts. The second purpose was to compare these findings with new medical information. Materials and Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts from 10th to 18th century were searched for traditional terms of dementia (Nesyan, Fisad-uz-Zekr, Faramooshkari) focused on treatment methods. The findings were classified into three groups: lifestyle recommendations, dietary approaches, and drug therapies. These findings were compared with new medical findings. Results: ITM has dietary recommendations for dementia such as increasing consumption of nuts, poultry and eggs, milk, and grape products (like raisin and currant). These compounds are full of unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and polyphenolic compounds. New findings suggest that these substances can help in prevention and treatment of AD. ITM has some lifestyle considerations like increasing physical and mental activities, listening to music, attending musical feasts, and smelling specific perfumes. New medical findings confirm nearly all of these recommendations. Along with the aforementioned items, treatment with natural medicines is in the first line of traditional treatment of dementia. New investigations show that many of these herbs have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory factors and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects. A few of them also have N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blocking activity. When these herbs are put together in traditional formulations, they can comprehensively fight against the disease. Conclusions: More ethnopharmacological
Full Text Available The establishment of national park in customary region had aroused conflic since it had not incorporate traditional management system in its management system. The objectives of this research is to develop such policies for national park zonation that amalgamating the national-global interests for conservation on the one side and the customary community interests on the other side. Result shows that adaptation was needed toward the prevailing science-based ecologically-oriented regulation on zoning plan, so it would incorporate the community's custom in order to achieve effective management of national park. Appropriate and applicable zoning can be achieved through implementation of management mindset with customary people livelihood perspectives, zone establishment which give priority to the achievement of national park functions rather than the fulfillment of zone requirements, and adaptation of zone formation and criteria toward traditional land use as efforts to accommodate the interest of biodiversity conservation and customary people livelihood.Keywords: national park, adaptation, costumary community, traditional land use, zonation
Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher;
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this...... basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing....
Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Full Text Available Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.
Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario
It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179
With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author)
Hang, N. D.; Canh, T. T.; Thuy, T. T.
With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance.
Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.
Mehdi Pasalar; Majid Nimrouzi; Rasool Choopani; Mahmoud Mosaddegh; Mohammad Kamalinejad; Abolali Mohagheghzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medici...
Zefeng Wang; Haitong Wan; Jinhui Li; Hong Zhang(Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 Korea); Mei Tian
With the speeding tendency of aging society, human neurological disorders have posed an ever increasing threat to public health care. Human neurological diseases include ischemic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury, which are induced by impairment or specific degeneration of different types of neurons in central nervous system. Currently, there are no more effective treatments against these diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is focused on, ...
Lee Jong-Ho; Koung Fan-Pei; Cho Chong-Kwan; Lee Yeon-Weol; Yoo Hwa-Seung
Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to eval...
Paterson, R. R. M.
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are growing in popularity. However, are they effective? Cordyceps is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as another TCM, Ganoderma. Cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on Lepidopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a TCM for centuries. However, the natural fungus has been harvested to the extent that it is an endangered species. The effectiveness has been...
Nagamatsu Tadashi; Tsao Sai-Wah; Ng Kwan-Ming; Wang Ning; Siu Kayu; Feng Yibin; Tong Yao
Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Techn...
M. Hipper; Karmacharya, N.; Gewali, M. B.; Bhattarai, S.; Chaudhary, R.P.; Jha, P. K.; M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; U. Lindequist
Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace str...
Xiong, Xingjiang; WANG, PENGQIAN; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke
Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge...
Yarjou, Saeedeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; NAZEM, Esmail; Emami, Amir Hossein
Background: Nutritional deficiency, bleeding, and inflammation are three main causes of anemia. On the other hand, erythropoietin (EPO) production, iron availability, and a healthy bone marrow are essential for erythropoiesis. Recently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been used to treat the patients already taking iron supplements. In Iranian traditional medicine literature, much has been written about anemia and its treatment. Objectives: This study aimed to review Iranian tradi...
Pulok K Mukherjee; Ranjit K Harwansh; Shiv Bahadur; Subhadip Banerjee; Amit Kar
Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM) is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC) of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.
Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini
Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.
Kareru, P G; Kenji, G M; Gachanja, A N; Keriko, J M; Mungai, G
Ethnobotanical information and traditional medicines were investigated and documented in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya. Oral interviews were obtained from over 100 herbalists, both men and women aged between 40 and 80 years. All the herbalists interviewed were Christians and had little formal education. Non-Christian herbalists were purported to combine herbal medicines with witchcraft and were not interviewed. Of the 40 commonly used herbal plants 25 were used as multi-purpose medicinal plants (mpmp), while 15 were used to treat one disease type. There was a correlation between the outpatient morbidity data at the local District hospital, and the common incident diseases treated by the herbalists. Generally a decoction or infusion of the herb was recommended for the treatment of internal or external condition of the patients. Malaria and typhoid were treatable with a total of 15 and 12 plants respectively and were among the first two commonest diseases found in the study area. Terminalia brownii was found to be the most used medicinal plant either alone or in combination with other herbs. The second and third most utilized medicinal plants were Ovariodendron anisatum and Wurbugia ugadensis respectively. PMID:20162075
Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)
Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504
Full Text Available In rural world, the use of medicinal plants in healthcare system is an integral source of easily available remedy. This study was conducted on herbal preparations of different plant parts used by the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh for controlling the diseases. The villages like Yekar, Dulom, Sippi, Soki, lamdik in Upper Subansiri District, Ngopok, Passighat, in East Siang Distrivt, East Kameng District, West Kameng District, Lower Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh, India were surveyed through personal interviews with the villagers and medicine men and assistance of local information. We recorded the traditional use of 101 medicinal plants species belonging to 50 taxonomic plant families used for treating a total of 156 different diseases/ailments. The informant consensus factor (ICF values demonstrated that local people tend to agree more with each other in terms of the plants used to treat malaria (0.71, jaundice (0.62, urological problems (0.56, dermatological disorders (0.45, pain (0.30, and respiratory disorder (0.33, and while the general health (0.15 and gastro-intestinal disorders category (0.28 were found low ICF values. The highest number of medicinal plants (101 species was reported from the Adi of Lower Dibang Valley followed by the Nocte of the Tirap (25 species and the Nyishi ethnic groups of Papum Pare districts (13 species.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model.
@@ REVIEW ON VIETNAMESE TRADITIONAL PHARMACO-MEDICINE Vietnam has a 4000-year old traditional system of pharmaco-medicine which was founded during the Hung King era (2879-257 B.C.).Vietnamese traditional medicine (TM) came from the society and was developed during the long years of living,working and struggling for existence among the Vietnamese people among 54 ethnic groups under extremely severe natural conditions,conflicts,and interaction with local neighboring nations such as China,Laos,Cambodia,India,etc.All of those form the foundations to shape the diversity,abundance and specialty of Vietnamese TM.Valuable experiences in TM have been transmitted from generation to generation,which is an important part of Vietnamese culture.
Tian, Li-li; Zhu, Guo-fu
The zebra fish model, as an integral animal model, features small volume, high throughput, low cost, short cycle and reliable experimental results, thus has been widely used in medical studies. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) constitute a complex system, their active ingredients and action mechanisms are among study hotspots in during the development of modern TCMs. Along with the constant improvement of advanced technologies and methods, zebra fishes have been increasingly applied in studies on TCMs and shown advantages in active screening, and toxicity and metabolism studies. In this paper, TCM studies by using zebra fishes in recent years are summarized to provide new ideas and methods for basic studies on TCMs. PMID:26087540
Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling
The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described. PMID:25112106
Perpetuini, Giorgia; Di Gianvito, Paola; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Schirone, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna
Yeasts involved in secondary fermentation of traditional sparkling wines should show specific characteristics, such as flocculation capacity and autolysis. Recently it has been postulated that autophagy may contribute to the outcome of autolysis. In this study, 28 flocculent wine Saccahromyces cerevisiae strains characterized by different flocculation degrees were studied for their autolytic and autophagic activities. Autolysis was monitored in synthetic medium through the determination of amino acid nitrogen and total proteins released. At the same time, novel primer sets were developed to determine the expression of the genes ATG1, ATG17 and ATG29. Twelve strains were selected on the basis of their autolytic rate and ATG gene expressions in synthetic medium and were inoculated in a base wine. After 30, 60 and 180 days the autolytic process and ATG gene expressions were evaluated. The obtained data showed that autolysis and ATG gene expressions differed among strains and were independent of the degree of flocculation. This biodiversity could be exploited to select new starter stains to improve sparkling wine production. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26804203
This paper discusses the present state of Traditional Chinese Medicine being divided into three leading lines of thought, namely, the Clinical line,the Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine line and the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine line. It also describes the position of Traditional Chinese Medicine being a medical science rich in philosophy and wisdom and a culture centred upon medical science and technology. It outlines the basic characteristic of Traditional Chinese pointed out various flaws in methodology in Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine research. It also stresses that in order to make fruitful progress in the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine,multi-discipline research in Traditional Chinese Medicine should be made on a thoroughly understanding of the basic methodology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and follow its established principles.
Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.
This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
Mathieu, Gueye; Meissa, Diouf
Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses. PMID:20161914
R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby
Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.
Full Text Available During Colonial Period, Western Medicine was introduced, and due to the lean-to-one-side policy by the Japanese, Western Medicine became the mainstream medical science while Oriental Medicine was pushed to the outskirts. The general public in colonial period got help from medical profession after they tried something they could do at home when they got sick or injured. There were differences to get help from western or traditional medicine according to their economic status, living area, and educational status, the character of disease or injury, etc. In general, public made more use of traditional medicine than western medicine. Although the traditional medicine had better regional and economic approach, there was another important factor that made the general public prefer traditional medicine to western medicine. The general public had strong belief in the treatment of traditional medicine. There was no strong belief that western medicine was better in scientific ground and modern than oriental medicine. In spite of their general preference for traditional medicine, the general public had some conflict in everyday choice on medicine. The belief of relatives, personal experience, economic status, the character of the disease made the conflict possible. Sometime the general public chose both traditional and western medicine altogether.
Kesler, Denece O; Hopkins, L Olivia; Torres, Eliseo; Prasad, Arti
Comprehensive cultural competency includes knowledge and awareness of culturally based healing and wellness practices. Healthcare providers should be aware of the individual patient's beliefs, culture, and use of culturally based health practices because patients may adopt such practices for general wellness or as adjunct therapies without the benefit of discussion with their healthcare provider. This article describes the culturally based traditional healing curriculum that has been implemented in the University of New Mexico Public Health and General Preventive Medicine Residency Program in order to fulfill this knowledge necessity. Curricular elements were added in a stepwise manner starting in 2011, with the full content as described implemented starting in 2013. Data were collected annually with evaluation of the full curriculum occurring in 2015. New Mexico has a diverse population base that includes predominantly Hispanic and Native American cultures, making the inclusion of curriculum regarding traditional healing practices very pertinent. Residents at the University of New Mexico were educated through several curricular components about topics such as Curanderismo, the art of Mexican Folk Healing. An innovative approach was used, with a compendium of training methods that included learning directly from traditional healers and participation in healing practices. The incorporation of this residency curriculum resulted in a means to produce physicians well trained in approaching patient care and population health with knowledge of culturally based health practices in order to facilitate healthy patients and communities. PMID:26477902
Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010 North eastern India comprising of eight states namely Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura is widely rich in biodiversity belonging to different climatic conditions varying from tropical subtropical, temperate and alpine zones which covers the major occurrence of medicinal plants. The different states of North east India are falling into different hill zones like Eastern Himalaya beginning from Sikkim to Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh, Naga hills covering the areas of Nagaland and Manipur states, Lusai hills with Mizoram and Tripura states and Garo, Jayantiya and Khasi hills occupying the state of Meghalaya. The biodiversity distribution extents even to neighbouring countries like China, Mayayanmar and Bangladesh. Classification of different hills of north eastern India provides the distribution of specific medicinal plants like Sikkim is the richest source for Berginia ciliate, Cordiceps sinensis, Hippophae species, Nardostachys jatamansi, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Swertia chirayita; Arunachal Pradesh for Acorus calamus, Aquillaria agallocha, Berberis aristata, Cinnamomum tamala, C. zeylanica, Coptis teeta, Cordiceps sinensis, Embelia ribes, Paris polyphylla, Rubia cordifolia, Gynocordia odorata, Illicium griffithii, Taxus wallichiana, Valeriana jatamansi; Nagaland and Manipur for Smilax glabra, Asparagus adscendens with less occurrence of Rubia cordifolia, Taxus wallichiana, Thallictrum foliolosum etc; Jayantiya hill of Meghalaya comprises of wider distribution of Embelia ribes; Lusai hill covering the state of Mizoram and eastern plains of Tripura comprises of Holorhena antidysenterica, Mallotus phillippinensis, Saraca asoka, Smilax glabra, Stephania glabra and Terminalia chebula. Plants
Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Zheng; Yu, Li-Mei; Goyer, Robert A.; Waalkes, Michael P.
Mercury is a major toxic metal ranking top in the Toxic Substances List. Cinnabar (contains mercury sulfide) has been used in traditional medicines for thousands years as an ingredient in various remedies, and 40 cinnabar-containing traditional medicines are still used today. Little is known about toxicology profiles or toxicokinetics of cinnabar and cinnabar-containing traditional medicines, and the high mercury content in these Chinese medicines raises justifiably escalations of public conc...
Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming
"Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452
Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Bhat, Shripad; Kholkute, Sanjiva D
Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by c...
Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chiu, Shin-Lin; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Lan, Shou-Jen
Background In Taiwan, there is a good universal healthcare system to the patients; however, the majority of Taiwanese seek the complementary and alternative medicine when they are injured or ill. The traditional Chinese medicine, which is a branch of complementary alternative medicine, is prevalent in Taiwan. Without proper sequence of maneuvers, either traditional Chinese medicine or conventional medicine might cause unexpected complications. We report a case of 76-year-old woman who was man...
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
Full Text Available This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L. Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson’s disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine.
Dan Yan; Luo, Jiao Y.; Han, Yu M.; Cheng Peng; Dong, Xiao P.; Chen, Shi L.; Sun, Li G.; Xiao, Xiao H.
BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, ...
Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.
Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Zheng-yong; Ma, Yu-ling; Ma, Shuang-cheng
Citrus aurantium is one of the most common traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, the chemical components, content determination and pharmacological actions of C. aurantium were summarized for the comprehensive utilization of its resources. Because of the complicated resources of C. aurantium, only one single component as index couldn't reflect the quality and effects and comprehensive evaluation which concluding multiple components should be established in the future quality control. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. PMID:26080542
Full Text Available Buxar district (Bihar,India is one of the less floristically studied regions of central Gangetic plain. The district lacks dense forests and its medicinal flora exclusively consists of dicot angiosperms. A total of 84 species belonging to 27 families were reported in this study. Majority of the reported plants were herbs with highest contribution from family Fabaceae (12. The present paper deals with the traditional uses of these plants. Plants and their part thereof were used to treat diseases such as - malaria, small pox, leprosy, diarrhea, diabetes, rheumatisms, hepatitis A, heart problems, elephantiasis, STDs, asthma, dysentery, in pregnancy complications and against snake and scorpion poisons. Findings will help in conservation and cultivation of these plants.
Zheng, Chuan-Jin; Zhao, Shu-Jin; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Jun
The root of Fallopia multiflora is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. However, it is often confused and substituted with the roots of F. multiflora var. ciliinervis, Pteroxygonum giraldii, Cynanchum auriculatum, and Stephania cepharantha. To establish a DNA polymorphism-based assay for the identification of F. multiflora, the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of six Fallopia species were sequenced and analyzed. Based on the diversity of ITS regions among the species the diagnostic primers PMITS28 and PMITS545, which amplified an expected 517-bp DNA fragment from F. multiflora DNA, were designed. No amplified product was observed when DNA from other species was used. This method can be used for the authentication of F. multiflora. PMID:19242903
Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.
Seyede Nargess Sadati; Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani; Nastaran Ebadi; Maryam Yakhchali; Azadeh Raees Dana; Fatemeh Masoomi; Mahnaz Khanavi; Farid Ramezany
One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, ...
S. J. Hashemi; J. Asgarpanah; Z. Alaee; Sadeghian, S.; Hasani, H.; A. Azimi
Evaluating the in vitro antifungal activity of Phlomis lanceolata, Rhynchocorys elephas, Otostegia persica and Eremurus persicus, four species used in Iranian Traditional Medicine, has been performed on the clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum and the yeast Candida albicans. The susceptibility tests were done by agar disc diffusion method and...
Singh, Harsh; Husain, Tariq; Priyanka AGNIHOTRI; Puran Chandra PANDE; Iqbal, Mudassar
The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservatio...
Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling
Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.
Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu
The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530
Xin Chen; Lu Yang; O. M. Zack Howard; Joost J. Oppenheim
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a central role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. There is considerable evidence that DCs can be used as therapeutic targets for pharmacological modulation of immune responses. Traditional Chines emedicine (TCM) has a long-standing history of using herbal medicine in the treatment of variety of human diseases.Many of the clinical effects of TCM have reportedly been attributed to the up- or down-regulation of immune responses. Accumulating evidence indicates that TCM and its components can interfere with immune responses at the earliest stage by targeting key functions of DCs. Here, we review those published studies of TCM with respect to their effects on immunobiological functions of DCs. Investigations based on both chemical entities derived from TCM as well as TCM herbal mixtures are presented. These studies suggest that various TCM herbal medicines have the capacity to inhibit or promote major functions of DCs, such as differentiation, maturation, cytokine production, survival, antigen uptake and presentation as well as trafficking. These studies have revealed novel biological effects of TCM and documented the utility of this approach to discover novel biological modifier of DC functions derived from natural sources.
Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli
With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972
Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827
Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian
The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085
Helena A Figueira
Full Text Available Helena A Figueira1,3,5, Olivia A Figueira2, Alan A Figueira1,4, Joana A Figueira1, Tania S Giani1,3,5, Estélio HM Dantas3,51ABACO/Sohaku-in Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2IPEMED – Medical Research and Teaching Institute, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3LABIMH/ UNIRio – Laboratory of Biomedical Human Kinetics/Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4UFF, Federal Fluminense University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5REMH – Euroamerican Network of Human Kinetics, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: The shift in age structure is having a profound impact, suggesting that the aged should be consulted as reporters on the quality of their own lives.Objectives: The aim of this research was to establish the possible impact of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM techniques on the quality of life (QOL of the elderly.Sample: Two non-selected, volunteer groups of Rio de Janeiro municipality inhabitants: a control group (36 individuals, not using TCM, and an experimental group (28 individuals, using TCM at ABACO/Sohaku-in Institute, Brazil.Methods: A questionnaire on elderly QOL devised by the World Health Organization, the WHOQOL-Old, was adopted and descriptive statistical techniques were used: mean and standard deviation. The Shapiro–Wilk test checked the normality of the distribution. Furthermore, based on its normality distribution for the intergroup comparison, the Student t test was applied to facets 2, 4, 5, 6, and total score, and the Mann–Whitney U rank test to facets 1 and 3, both tests aiming to analyze the P value between experimental and control groups. The significance level utilized was 95% (P < 0.05.Results: The experimental group reported the highest QOL for every facet and the total score.Conclusions: The results suggest that TCM raises the level of QOL.Keywords: quality of life, traditional chinese medicine, east-west medicine, WHOQOL-Old, elderly
Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh
Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM
In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.
van Teijlingen Edwin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health and health-care seeking behaviour amongst immigrant populations suggests that culturally-based behaviours change over time towards those prevalent in the host culture. Such acculturation of immigrant groups occurs as part of the interaction of immigrants with mainstream culture. This study examined the acculturation of Ghanaian immigrants in Greater Toronto Area (Canada focusing particularly on attitudes towards and usage of Ghanaian traditional medicine (TRM. Methods The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questionnaire interviews were conducted with a sample of Ghanaians in active collaboration with the Ghanaian-Canadian Association in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. A total of 512 questionnaire interviews were conducted. In addition, three focus groups of nine participants each were conducted with a sub-sample of Ghanaians in Canada. Results Both the questionnaire and the focus groups indicated that nearly 73% of the Ghanaian immigrants in Canada have a positive attitude toward Ghanaian TRM. This is in comparison with less than 30% who have changed their attitude for various reasons. Some of the attraction of TRM lies in its holistic origin. Ghanaians in the GTA have been pursuing 'integration' and 'assimilation' in their acculturation in Canada. Some have given up or modified some of their attitudes and opinions toward TRM to embrace the 'modern' or 'civilized' way of living. Conclusion There is the need for health care providers and other stakeholders to be aware of the influence of religion on African immigrants during their acculturation process. Although modernity is said to be founded on the 'ruthless undermining of tradition', there is no evidence to suggest that Ghanaian traditional religion has been undermined to such an extent that there is a major change in attitudes towards TRM.
Disayavanish, C; Disayavanish, P
Thai traditional medicine is one of the most valuable heritages handed down from Thai ancestors. In spite of increasing popularity of Western modern medicine, Thai traditional medicine is still widely used in taking care of health in daily life especially among the rural Thais. For the past decade, the government and private organizations have worked in collaboration to restore the values and popularity of Thai traditional medicine. Recently, the Ministry of Public Health has promoted the use of herbal medicine, and the Center for Herbal Information has collected data and performed scientific studies on this matter. Thai Massage Restoration Project has also revised the text on Thai traditional massage, which is now widely practised. The future prospects of Thai traditional medicine are rather positive because the Foundation for Restoring Thai Traditional Medicine and the College of Ayurvedic Medicine have the program and curriculum to produce personnel on traditional medicine. They have also attempted to integrate the basic knowledge of Western medicine into the study and practice of Thai traditional medicine. PMID:9895186
Hatami, Hossein; Afjei, Ebrahim; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda
The basis for success of Iranian Gnostics, poets and scientists were moral teaching, attention to origin and searching for specific goals in creation of human and creatures as well as finding some of his essence in studying all phenomena regarding the creation of universe by divine attitude. There is no surprise that such relationship was bilateral and according to his promise to those who truly follow him such that he will show the right path of learning to human in order to obtain the secrets of life. This relationship has resulted in growth of famous Iranian scientists such as Rhazes, Ahvazi, Avicenna, Ferdousi and… at the beginning of the second millennium. Thus, goal of this research is to study the style of writing in original resources of traditional medicine. In order to increase the accuracy of this study, an electronic database version of traditional medicine resources has been prepared. Writing style of Alhavi book (by Rhazes), Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna) and Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi (by Jorjani) was considered. This task was accomplished by searching using related key words such as God, creator, magnificent, omnipotent, transcendent, omniscient and many other similar words and then encoding them. Finally, content analysis of these words was performed. Hundreds of monotheistic words and many small and great texts related to monotheistic literature have been encountered in the literature, and some are mentioned in the following. Rhazes has started some parts of Alhavi by remembering the name of merciful God and saluting his prophets and has mentioned "God" for more than 570 times and the word "God willing" for more than 215 times. Ahvazi has written his book called Kamel-al-Sanaah by using monotheistic literature, so that both volumes of book are started by remembering the name of God and saluting his prophets. In the introduction of first volume of his book, he has acknowledged God due to conferring logic and wisdom to
Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu
The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26281610
Muhammad Qasim; Zainul Abideen; Muhammad Yousuf Adnan; Raziuddin Ansari; Bilquees Gul; Muhammad Ajmal Khan
Objective: To document the traditional uses of wild plants as medicine by the villagers along the coastal highway from Karachi to Uthal. Methods: Information presented in this research was gathered from the local people using an integrated approach of floral collections, discussions with the elderly people and traditional medicinal practitioners using semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Ethno-medicinal surveys indicated the medicinal importance of 54 plant species from 2...
王融冰; 刘军民; 江宇泳; 吴云忠; 王晓静; 池频频; 孙凤霞; 高连印
Objective: To improve the effects of treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to explore the clinical significance of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine (ICWM) in the treatment of SARS and its influence on the chief indexes in the process of the disease. Methods: The clinical study involving observation of 135 patients of SARS was conducted in the randomized, synchronously controlled and open way. The patients were divided into two groups, 68 in the ICWM group and 67 in the control group, all of whom were treated with the same basic treatment of western medicine, but to the ICWM group, Chinese drugs for clearing Heat, detoxifying and removing Dampness were given additionally. The comprehensive effect on relieving fever, cell-mediated immunity, pulmonary inflammation and secondary infection was compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic effect in the ICWM group was better than that in the control group in such aspects as steadily lowering body temperature, alleviating general symptoms, accelerating the absorption of pulmonary infiltration and easing cellular immunity suppression. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of ICWM is better in treating SARS than that of western medicine alone.
Zhao, Huan; Liu, Jian-qiu; Qu, Kai-yue; Feng, Li; He, Yi
In recent years, the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously, and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large, which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples' demand for drug, and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries. Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present, we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as foll...
Wei Ming Q; Liu Gang; Parekh Harendra S
Abstract Although traditional Chinese medicine has benefitted one fifth of the world's population in treating a plethora of diseases, its acceptance as a real therapeutic option by the West is only now emerging. In light of a new wave of recognition being given to traditional Chinese medicine by health professionals and regulatory bodies in the West, an understanding of their molecular basis and highlighting potential future applications of a proven group of traditional Chinese medicine in th...
Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond
Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditio...
Molla, Ermias Lulekal; Rondevaldova, J; Bernaskova, E; Cepkova, J; Asfaw, Z; Kelbessa, E; Kokoska, L; Van Damme, Patrick
Context: Traditional medicinal plants have long been used in Ethiopia to treat human and livestock ailments. Despite a well-documented rich tradition of medicinal plant use in the country, their direct antimicrobial effects are still poorly known. Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plant species that were selected based on the ethnobotanical information on their traditional use to treat infectious diseases in Ankober District. Methods: About 23 differ...
Feng, Zhi-pei; Tao, Qun-shan; Peng, Dai-yin; Wei, Hua
Traditional Chinese medicine industry is China's strategic emerging industry with great potential for self-innovation. Traditional Chinese medicine industry has successively experienced four stages which are the foundation (laying stage), the core status (establishing stage), the modern system (exploring stage), and the modernization system (constructing stage). Throughout the evolution of the self-innovation in traditional Chinese medicine industry, it presents distinct characteristics which we can explore the beneficial enlightenment. PMID:26552191
Fibich, P.; Rychtecká, T.; Lepš, Jan
Roč. 63, Feb 12 (2015), s. 47-55. ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity effects * diversity-interactions models * species identity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1146609X15000181
Funk, Johanna; Guthadjaka, Kathy; Kong, Gary
BowerBird is an open platform biodiversity website (http://www.BowerBird.org.au) and a nationally funded project under management of the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and Museum Victoria. Members post sightings and information about local species of plants and animals, and record other features of ecosystems. Charles Darwin University's Northern…
Shirbeigi, Leila; Oveidzadeh, Laleh; Jafari, Zahra; Fard, Monireh Sadat Motahari
Background: Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is based on humors theory. Temperament or mizaj is the result of a combination of four fundamental humors called blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Like any other diseases, acne is the result of humoral imbalance. Acne is a highly prevalent dermatological problem, which has both physical and psychological effects on patients. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of acne formation and natural remedies from the perspective of Persian scientists. Methods: The etiology and treatment of acne were collected and analyzed from selected TPM medical textbooks. Some selected plants in these books were assessed in tabular format and their anti-acne activities were compared with modern medicine’s databases. Results: In the acne treatment, considering six essential schemes for health, diet and herbal remedies as well as manipulation are recommended. Although the mentioned herbs in acne treatment have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects; however, some have special proven effects on the acne formation process. There is also a strong relationship between the digestive system and skin. This paper was rendered to show ancient Persian scholar’s viewpoints on acne and its treatment. Conclusion: Some reported remedies might be beneficial towards further studies on acne treatment. PMID:26722141
Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a cancer that immature white blood cells continuously overproduce in the bone marrow. These cells crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow bringing damage and death. Methotrexate (MTX is a drug used in the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. In particular, for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it had significant effect. MTX competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis so as to inhibit purine synthesis. In addition, its downstream metabolite methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs inhibit the thymidylate synthase (TS. Therefore, MTX can inhibit the synthesis of DNA. However, MTX has cytotoxicity and neurotoxin may cause multiple organ injury and is potentially lethal. Thus, the lower toxicity drugs are necessary to be developed. Recently, diseases treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as complements are getting more and more attention. In this study, we attempted to discover the compounds with drug-like potential for ALL treatment from the components in TCM. We applied virtual screen and QSAR models based on structure-based and ligand-based studies to identify the potential TCM component compounds. Our results show that the TCM compounds adenosine triphosphate, manninotriose, raffinose, and stachyose could have potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment.
Seto, S W; Yang, G Y; Kiat, H; Bensoussan, A; Kwan, Y W; Chang, D
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder affecting a large number of people worldwide. Numerous studies have demonstrated that DM can cause damage to multiple systems, leading to complications such as heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disorders. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that DM is closely associated with dementia and cognition dysfunction, with recent research focusing on the role of DM-mediated cerebrovascular damage in dementia. Despite the therapeutic benefits of antidiabetic agents for the treatment of DM-mediated cognitive dysfunction, most of these pharmaceutical agents are associated with various undesirable side-effects and their long-term benefits are therefore in doubt. Early evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions, which tend to have minimal toxicity and side-effects. More importantly, these TCM interventions appear to offer significant effects in reducing DM-related complications beyond blood glucose control. However, more research is needed to further validate these claims and to explore their relevant mechanisms of action. The aims of this paper are (1) to provide an updated overview on the association between DM and cognitive dysfunction and (2) to review the scientific evidence underpinning the use of TCM interventions for the treatment and prevention of DM-induced cognitive dysfunction and dementia. PMID:26060494
Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes
Background: Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Methods: Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as “Persian medicine”, “Persian traditional medicine”, “Iranian medicine”, and “Iranian traditional medicine”. All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. Results: A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine” and “Iranian Red Crescent Medicine” journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on “Basic concepts of Persian medicine”, “Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine”, and “Historical aspects”, by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. Conclusion: During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords “Iranian” or “Persian” medicine is
S. Laura Guzmán Gutiérrez; Ricardo Reyes Chilpa; Herlinda Bonilla Jaime
The term “nervios” is referred as a folk illness recognized by Mexican Traditional Medicine, and also widely reported across many countries in Latin America. “Nervios” are characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest”, which decreases the ability to achieve daily goals. The causes are varied; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders, which share symptoms, or can be in...
Da-Cheng Hao; Pei-Gen Xiao
Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal pla...
Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadian-Attari
Full Text Available Dietary notifications have been introduced recently for Alzheimer Disease (AD. In Iranian old medical manuscripts, there are some nutritional recommendations related to Nesyan (AD equivalent. The aim of this article was to compare dietary recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM with novel medical outcomes.1 Searching for dietary recommendations and abstinences described in ITM credible manuscripts; 2 Extracting fatty components of ITM diet according to the database of the Department of Agriculture of the USA; 3 Statistical analysis of fatty elements of traditionally recommended foods via Mann-Whitney Test in comparison with elements of the abstinent ones; 4 Searching for AD dietary recommendations and abstinences which currently published in medical journals; 5 Comparing traditional and new dietary suggestions with each other.1 Traditionally recommended foods are fattier than abstinent ones (P<0.001. There are meaningful differences between unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs (P<0.001, saturated fatty acids (P<0.001, and cholesterol (P<0.05 of recommended foods and abstinent ones. 2 Traditionally recommended diet is also fattier than the abstinent diet (4.5 times; UFAs of the recommended diet is 11 times more than that of the abstinent one; it is the same story for cholesterol (1.4 times; 3 Recent studies show that diets with high amounts of UFAs have positive effects on AD; a considerable number of papers emphasizes on probable positive role of cholesterol on AD; 4 Traditional recommended diet is in agreement with recent studies.ITM recommended diet which is full of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be utilized for complementary treatment of AD.
Full Text Available Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.
Pohle, P.; Gerique, A.
The tropical mountain rainforests of the eastern Andean slopes in southern Ecuador have an extraordinary rich biodiversity. At the same time. these sensitive ecosystems are vulnerable because of the extension of agricultural land, the extraction of timber, mining activities, the tapping of water resources and similar anthropogenic intrusions. Ethno-specific knowledge of the tropical rainforest ecosystem was determined in sample communities of the Shuar, the Saraguros ...
Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie
As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in Web and information technologies with the increasing decentralization of organizational structures have resulted in massive amounts of information resources and domain-specific services in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The massive volume and diversity of information and services available have made it difficult to achieve seamless and interoperable e-Science for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. Therefore, information integration and service coordination are two major challenges in e-Science for TCM. We still lack sophisticated approaches to integrate scientific data and services for TCM e-Science. Results We present a comprehensive approach to build dynamic and extendable e-Science applications for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM based on semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The semantic e-Science infrastructure for TCM supports large-scale database integration and service coordination in a virtual organization. We use domain ontologies to integrate TCM database resources and services in a semantic cyberspace and deliver a semantically superior experience including browsing, searching, querying and knowledge discovering to users. We have developed a collection of semantic-based toolkits to facilitate TCM scientists and researchers in information sharing and collaborative research. Conclusion Semantic and knowledge-based techniques are suitable to knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. It's possible to build on-demand e-Science system for TCM based on existing semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The presented approach in the paper integrates heterogeneous distributed TCM databases and services, and provides scientists with semantically superior experience to support collaborative research in TCM discipline.
S. Laura Guzmán Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The term “nervios” is referred as a folk illness recognized by Mexican Traditional Medicine, and also widely reported across many countries in Latin America. “Nervios” are characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest”, which decreases the ability to achieve daily goals. The causes are varied; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders, which share symptoms, or can be included in the same group of disorders with “nervios”. The therapies are designed to reassure health, i.e. “calm the nerves”. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. In this review we compile information regarding the plants used for the treatment of “nervios” in México, along with those for which reports of anxiolytic or/and antidepressive activity exist. We found 92 plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of “nervios”, among these, sixteen have been studied experimentally. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav., Malpighiaceae, which current clinical studies have validated its efficacy in patients, and their active components, the triterpenes galphimine A, B, and C, identified. Interestingly only nine plants were found to be reported in folk medicine for the treatment of sadness or/and depression, but their antidepressant activity has not been investigated. However, among the plants used in folk medicine for treatment of “nervios”, several, as Litsea glaucescens Kunth, Lauraceae, have been proven to show antidepressant activity in experimental models, and some of their active compounds have been determined. These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system.
In Ethiopia, traditional herbal medicine is dominated by plant-focused work, which has been largely driven by an overriding interest in the specific therapeutic properties of individual plants. In search of information on the properties of various Ethiopian medicinal plants, researchers have generally focused their attention on two main sources: (i) the professional traditional health prac...
道教是中国的本土宗教，中医是中华民族的特色医药学。中医从起源到发展和道教一直密不可分。做一个真正的中医医生，需要了解道教对中医的影响。%Taoism was China's indigenous religion .Traditional Chinese medicine was the Chinese nation's characteristic medicine .From its origins to the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Taoism had been inseparable .Traditional Chinese physician did a real need to understand the impact of Taoism on Chinese medicine .
Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m. (author)
Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.
Ji Hye Kim; Yong Cheol Shin; Seong-Gyu Ko
Despite the fact that numerous researches were performed on prevention and treatment of inflammation related diseases, the overall incidence has not changed remarkably. This requires new approaches to overcome inflammation mediated diseases, and thus traditional medicine could be an efficacious source for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the contribution of traditional medicine, especially Rhus verniciflua Stokes, to modern medicine against diverse inflam...
Zhao Liu; Zhigang Jiang; Hongxia Fang; Chunwang Li; Aizi Mi; Jing Chen; Xiaowei Zhang; Shaopeng Cui; Daiqiang Chen; Xiaoge Ping; Feng Li; Chunlin Li; Songhua Tang; Zhenhua Luo; Yan Zeng
A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior ar...
A. Jedkareh; Esmaeili, S.; A. Alembagheri; S.A. Mortazavi
Dry skin is a common problem which affects wound healing, severity of other skin diseases and quality of life of people. One of its undesirable effects is fissure that is a cutaneous condition in which there is a linear loss of epidermis and dermis with sharply defined, nearly vertical walls. In the present study, we have investigated the etiology of the disease and its treatments in conventional medicine and Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Two traditional medicine references, current sci...
Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Mohammed Lamorde; Concepta Merry; Collins Kukunda-Byobona; Ponsiano Ocama; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Anthony Ndyanabo; Iga Boaz; Valerian Kiggundu; Fred Nalugoda; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D
BACKGROUND: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. ...
Mandana Tavakkoli-Kakhki; Malihe Motavasselian; Mahmoud Mosaddegh; Mohammad Mahdi Esfahani; Mohammad Kamalinejad; Mohsen Nematy; Saeid Eslami
Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Aft...
Belisle, Hannah Appelbaum; Hennink, Monique; Ordóñez, Claudia E.; John, Sally; Ngubane-Joye, Eunephacia; Hampton, Jane; Sunpath, Henry; Preston-Whyte, Eleanor; Marconi, Vincent C.
The concurrent use of traditional African medicine (TAM) and allopathic medicine is not well understood for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cross-sectional, qualitative study examines perceptions of the concurrent use of TAM and ART among: i) patients receiving ART at the Sinikithemba HIV Clinic of McCord Hospital, in Durban, South Africa; ii) allopathic medical providers (doctors, nurses, HIV counsellors) from Sinikithemba; and iii) local tradi...
Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke
Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized
Uprety Yadav; Asselin Hugo; Dhakal Archana; Julien Nancy
Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricte...
In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and prevent...
Padhi, M. M.
The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historic...
This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren’s syndrome(SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines(KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. 1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the gen...
This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the ...
Lin, Wen-Ching; Wen, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Ning-Sun
For the development of "medical foods" and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26042672
Full Text Available For the development of "medical foods" and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.
This article explores the tension between African traditional medicine and orthodox medicine, and argues for a cosmopolitan and inclusive health policy that integrates ethnomedical therapies into the core framework of global health architecture. The paper argues that age-old traditional therapies in Africa are relegated to the peripheries of orthodox health policy. The paper briefly discusses the accelerating pace of globalization of intellectual property rights (patents) as a factor that would continue to perpetrate bio-piracy and threaten traditional herbal therapies with extinction. The search for an inclusive global health policy opens a new vista in the interaction of traditional and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that a sustained relegation of African traditional medicine to the margins of orthodox health policy is a phenomenon that would likely project the globalization of public health as predatory, discriminatory and unfair. PMID:17639845