, we have studied the interactions of S100A13 with C2A by 1H-15N HSQC titration and 3D-filtered NOESY experiments. We characterized the binary complex structure of S100A13-C2A by using a variety of multi-dimensional NMR experiments. This complex acts as a template for FGF-1 dimerization and multiprotein complex formation.
Binary GCD like Algorithms for Some Complex Quadratic Rings
Agarwal, Saurabh; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
2004-01-01
binary gcd like algorithms for the ring of integers in and , one now has binary gcd like algorithms for all complex quadratic Euclidean domains. The running time of our algorithms is O(n 2) in each ring. While there exists an O(n 2) algorithm for computing the gcd in quadratic number rings by Erich......On the lines of the binary gcd algorithm for rational integers, algorithms for computing the gcd are presented for the ring of integers in where . Thus a binary gcd like algorithm is presented for a unique factorization domain which is not Euclidean (case d=-19). Together with the earlier known...
Reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics
Li, Jingwen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2015-01-01
The prerequisite for our understanding of many complex networked systems lies in the reconstruction of network structure from measurable data. Although binary-state dynamics occurring in a broad class of complex networked systems in nature and society and has been intensively investigated, a general framework for reconstructing complex networks from binary states, the inverse problem, is lacking. Here we offer a general solution to the reconstruction problem by developing a data-based linearization approach for binary-state dynamics with linear, nonlinear, discrete and stochastic switching functions. The linearization allows us to convert the network reconstruction problem into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved efficiently and credibly by convex optimization based on compressed sensing. The completely data-based linearization method and the sparse signal reconstruction constitutes a general framework for reconstructing complex networks without any knowledge of the binary-state dynami...
Linear Complexity Lossy Compressor for Binary Redundant Memoryless Sources
Mimura, Kazushi
2011-01-01
A lossy compression algorithm for binary redundant memoryless sources is presented. The proposed scheme is based on sparse graph codes. By introducing a nonlinear function, redundant memoryless sequences can be compressed. We propose a linear complexity compressor based on the extended belief propagation, into which an inertia term is heuristically introduced, and show that it has near-optimal performance for moderate block lengths.
Variations in the structures and binding energies of binary complexes with HBO
Del Bene, Janet E.; Alkorta, Ibon; Sanchez-Sanz, Goar; Elguero, José
2012-06-01
Ab initio MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ calculations have been carried out to determine the structures and binding energies of binary complexes formed by HBO with a series of small molecules A. Three different types of structures have been identified, which depend on the nature of A. In one structure A:HBO, HBO acts as a weak proton donor. In the second HBO:A, HBO is a relatively strong base. The third type of complex A||HBO has HBO and A in an approximately parallel arrangement. The dipole moment of A influences both the type of complex formed and its binding energy.
Watson, Andrew B.
2011-01-01
Perimetric complexity is a measure of the complexity of binary pictures. It is defined as the sum of inside and outside perimeters of the foreground, squared, divided by the foreground area, divided by 4p . Difficulties arise when this definition is applied to digital images composed of binary pixels. In this paper we identify these problems and propose solutions. Perimetric complexity is often used as a measure of visual complexity, in which case it should take into account the limited resolution of the visual system. We propose a measure of visual perimetric complexity that meets this requirement.
Linear Complexity Lossy Compressor for Binary Redundant Memoryless Sources
Mimura, Kazushi
2011-01-01
A lossy compression algorithm for binary redundant i.i.d. sources is presented. The proposed scheme is based on sparse graph codes. By introducing a nonlinear function, redundant memoryless sequences can be compressed. We propose a linear complexity compressor based on the extended belief propagation, into which an inertia term is heuristically introduced, and show that it has near optimal performance for moderate blocklengths.
The k-Error Linear Complexity and the Linear Complexity for pqn-Periodic Binary Sequences
ZHU Fengxiang; QI Wenfeng
2006-01-01
The k-error linear complexity and the linear complexity of the keystream of a stream cipher are two important standards to scale the randomness of the key stream. For a pqn-periodic binary sequences where p, q are two odd primes satisfying that 2 is a primitive root module p and q2 and gcd(p-1 , q-1)=2, we analyze the relationship between the linear complexity and the minimum value k for which the k-error linear complexity is strictly less than the linear complexity.
BISC: Binary SubComplexes in proteins database
Juettemann, Thomas; Gerloff, Dietlind L
2010-01-01
Binary subcomplexes in proteins database (BISC) is a new protein–protein interaction (PPI) database linking up the two communities most active in their characterization: structural biology and functional genomics researchers. The BISC resource offers users (i) a structural perspective and related information about binary subcomplexes (i.e. physical direct interactions between proteins) that are either structurally characterized or modellable entries in the main functional genomics PPI databas...
On Linear Complexity of Binary Sequences Generated Using Matrix Recurrence Relation Defined Over Z4
Ramesh S
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the linear complexity property of binary sequences generated using matrix recurrence relation defined over Z4. Generally algorithm to generate random number is based on recursion with seed value/values. In this paper a linear recursion sequence of matrices or vectors over Z4is generated from which random binary sequence is obtained. It is shown that such sequences have largelinear complexity.
Krishnan, Kannan; Haddad, Sami; Béliveau, Martin; Tardif, Robert
2002-12-01
The available data on binary interactions are yet to be considered within the context of mixture risk assessment because of our inability to predict the effect of a third or a fourth chemical in the mixture on the interacting binary pairs. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models represent a potentially useful framework for predicting the consequences of interactions in mixtures of increasing complexity. This article highlights the conceptual basis and validity of PBPK models for extrapolating the occurrence and magnitude of interactions from binary to more complex chemical mixtures. The methodology involves the development of PBPK models for all mixture components and interconnecting them at the level of the tissue where the interaction is occurring. Once all component models are interconnected at the binary level, the PBPK framework simulates the kinetics of all mixture components, accounting for the interactions occurring at various levels in more complex mixtures. This aspect was validated by comparing the simulations of a binary interaction-based PBPK model with experimental data on the inhalation kinetics of m-xylene, toluene, ethyl benzene, dichloromethane, and benzene in mixtures of varying composition and complexity. The ability to predict the kinetics of chemicals in complex mixtures by accounting for binary interactions alone within a PBPK model is a significant step toward the development of interaction-based risk assessment for chemical mixtures. PMID:12634130
THE 2-ERROR LINEAR COMPLEXITY OF 2n-PERIODIC BINARY SEQUENCES WITH LINEAR COMPLEXITY 2n-1
Zhu Fengxiang; Qi Wenfeng
2007-01-01
Linear complexity and κ-error linear complexity of the stream cipher are two important standards to scale the randomicity of keystreams.For the 2n-periodic periodic binary sequence with linear complexity 2n-1 and κ=2,3,the number of sequences with given κ-error linear complexity and the expected κ-error linear complexity are provided.Moreover,the proportion of the sequences whose κ-error linear complexity is bigger than the expected value is analyzed.
Deshouillers, J.-M.; Riele, te, H.
1998-01-01
A heuristic analysis is presented of the complexity of an algorithm which was applied recently to verify the binary Goldbach conjecture for every integer in the interval $[4,10^{14]$, as well as for every integer in $[10^k,10^k+10^9]$, for different values of $k$ up to 300. The analysis agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations.
Deshouillers, J.-M.; Riele, H.J.J. te
1998-01-01
A heuristic analysis is presented of the complexity of an algorithm which was applied recently to verify the binary Goldbach conjecture for every integer in the interval $[4,10^{14]$, as well as for every integer in $[10^k,10^k+10^9]$, for different values of $k$ up to 300. The analysis agrees reaso
On complexity of optimized crossover for binary representations
Eremeev, Anton
2007-01-01
We consider the computational complexity of producing the best possible offspring in a crossover, given two solutions of the parents. The crossover operators are studied on the class of Boolean linear programming problems, where the Boolean vector of variables is used as the solution representation. By means of efficient reductions of the optimized gene transmitting crossover problems (OGTC) we show the polynomial solvability of the OGTC for the maximum weight set packing...
Complexity of Soils Porous Structure: A Simple Question
Benito, R. M.; Cardenas, J. P.; Santiago, A.; Borondo, F.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Grupo de Sistemas Complejos
2011-12-01
In the last decades scientist have realized that soil processes are implicated the biggest global challenges facing humanity such as soil aeration, sequestration or emission of greenhouse gasses, volatilization of volatile organic chemicals among other phenomena. Progress in these challenges will depend on being able to understand the integrated behavior of soil as a system, and dealing with the complexity in describing soil in these terms. In this work we focus in one of the critical soil issues: soil structure and pore connectivity. A quantitative and explicit characterization of soil structure is difficult because of the complexity of the pore space. We proposed a model to attempt to capture the complexity of the system in which we interpret porous soils as heterogeneous networks, where pores are represented by nodes and the links representing flows between them. Pore properties such as position and size are described by fixed states in a metric space, while an affinity function is introduced to bias the attachment probabilities of links according to these properties taking in account soil texture. These types of models are named as Heterogeneous Preferential Attachment (HPA). We perform an analytical study of the degree distributions in the soil model and show that under reasonable conditions all the model variants yield a multiscaling behavior in the connectivity degrees, leaving an empirically testable signature of heterogeneity in the topology of pore networks. With the aim to study in more detail topological properties of these networks, for different real soils samples an analysis of the community structure have been applied and studied depending on the values of the parameters of the porous soil model used. The detection of communities of pores, as groups densely connected with only sparser connections between groups, could contribute to understand the mechanisms of the diffusion phenomena in soils. References Cardenas, J. P. Cardenas, A. M. Tarquis, J. C
Slow dynamics in a quasi-two-dimensional binary complex plasma
Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V
2016-01-01
Slow dynamics in an amorphous quasi-two-dimensional complex plasma, comprised of microparticles of two different sizes, was studied experimentally. The motion of individual particles was observed using video microscopy, and the self part of the intermediate scattering function as well as the mean-squared particle displacement was calculated. The long-time structural relaxation reveals the characteristic behavior near the glass transition. Our results suggest that binary complex plasmas can be an excellent model system to study slow dynamics in classical supercooled fluids.
Markov-Binary Visibility Graph: a new method for analyzing Complex Systems
Sadra, Yaser; Ahadpour, Sodief
2011-01-01
In this work, we introduce a new and simple transformation from time series to complex networks based on markov-binary visibility graph(MBVG). Due to the simple structure of this transformation in comparison with other transformations be obtained more precise results. Moreover, several topological aspects of the constructed graph, such as degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and mean visibility length have been thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulations confirm the reliability of markov-binary visibility graph for time series analysis. This algorithm have the capability of distinguishing between uncorrelated and correlated systems. Finaly, we illustrate this algorithm analyzing the human heartbeat dynamics. The results indicate that the human heartbeat (RR-interval) time series of normally, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Atrial Fibrillation (AF) subjects are uncorrelated, chaotic and correlated stochastic systems, respectively.
Continued fractions for complex numbers and values of binary quadratic forms
Dani, S G
2011-01-01
We describe various properties of continued fraction expansions of complex numbers in terms of Gaussian integers. Numerous distinct such expansions are possible for a complex number. They can be arrived at through various algorithms, as also in a more general way from what we call "iteration sequences". We consider in this broader context the analogues of the Lagrange theorem characterizing quadratic surds, the growth properties of the denominators of the convergents, and the overall relation between sequences satisfying certain conditions, in terms of nonoccurrence of certain finite blocks, and the sequences involved in continued fraction expansions. The results are also applied to describe a class of binary quadratic forms with complex coefficients whose values over the set of pairs of Gaussian integers form a dense set of complex numbers.
Ultra Low Complexity Soft Output Detector for Non-Binary LDPC Coded Large MIMO Systems
Suthisopapan, Puripong; Kasai, Kenta; Imtawil, Virasit
2012-01-01
The theoretic results of MIMO capacity tell us that the higher the number of antennas are employed, the higher the transmission rate is. This makes MIMO systems with hundreds of antennas very attractive but one of the major problems that obstructs such large dimensional MIMO systems from the practical realization is a high complexity of the MIMO detector. We present in this paper the new soft output MIMO detector based on matched filtering that can be applied to the large MIMO systems which are coded by the powerful non-binary LDPC codes. The per-bit complexity of the proposed detector is just 0.28% to that of low complexity soft output MMSE detector and scales only linearly with a number of antennas. Furthermore, the coded performances with small information length 800 bits are within 4.2 dB from the associated MIMO capacity.
Quasi-two-dimensional complex plasma containing spherical particles and their binary agglomerates
Chaudhuri, M; Nosenko, V; Thomas, H M
2015-01-01
A new type of quasi-two-dimensional complex plasma system was observed which consisted of monodisperse microspheres and their binary agglomerations (dimers). The particles and their dimers levitated in a plasma sheath at slightly different heights and formed two distinct sublayers. The sys- tem did not crystallize and may be characterized as disordered solid. The dimers were identified based on their characteristic appearance in defocused images, i.e., rotating interference fringe pat- terns. The in-plane and inter-plane particle separations exhibit nonmonotonic dependence on the discharge pressure which agrees well with theoretical predictions.
Biswas Rashmidipta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The complexation reaction between salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, abbreviated as STSC, with Cu2+ ion was studied in the binary mixtures of methanol + 1,4-dioxane binary by using UV-Visible spectrophotometric and conductometric methods at different temperatures. The formation constants (Kf for the 1:1 complex, Cu2+-STSC, were calculated from computer fitting of the absorbance and molar conductance data against various mole ratios (cM:cL or cL:cM in different binary solvent mixtures. A non-linear correlation was observed for the variation of logKf for the complex against the solvent compositions. Various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the formation of Cu2+-STSC complex were also determined from the temperature dependence of the stability constants (Kf. The results showed that the complexation reaction is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.
Heterometallic M/Mn (M=Cu, Co, Zn) acetate complexes as precursors for binary oxides
A facile one-pot procedure, or so-called 'direct synthesis,' was used to prepare the novel heterometallic complexes [M2Mn(OAc)6(bpy)2], where M=Cu (1), Co (2), Zn (3), bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl, with high yields via oxidative dissolution of pure metals in a liquid phase. The complexes were characterized by an elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction method and FTIR. These complexes are proposed as precursors, whose thermal degradation may lead to the formation of solids possessing nano- to microsize levels of dispersity. The thermal behavior of the complexes obtained was studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA/DTG) in both air and N2 and also by TPD mass-spectrometry in vacuo. The FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and thermoanalytical data were used for the identification of the solid products of thermal degradation. The morphology and microstructure of the solid residues were analyzed, using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) at mkm and sub-micro levels. -- Graphical abstract: The novel heterometallic complexes [M2Mn(OAc)6(bpy)2] (M=Cu, Co, Zn, bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl) were isolated and used as precursors for low-temperature synthesis of binary oxides. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TG/DTA/DTG, TPD-MS, PXRD, SEM/EDX analysis was performed on complexes and powders. Display Omitted
Hatim Zaini
2004-12-01
Full Text Available paper introduces a novel method for complex number representation. The proposed Redundant Complex Binary Number System (RCBNS is developed by combining a Redundant Binary Number and a complex number in base (-1+j. Donald [1] and Walter Penny [2,3] represented complex numbers using base –j and (-1+j in the classified algorithmic models. A Redundant Complex Binary Number System consists of both real and imaginary-radix number systems that form a redundant integer digit set. This system is formed by using complex radix of (-1+j and a digit set of á= 3, where á assumes a value of -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3. The arithmetic operations of complex numbers with this system treat the real and imaginary parts as one unit. The carry-free addition has the advantage of Redundancy in number representation in the arithmetic operations. Results of the arithmetic operations are in the RCBNS form. The two methods for conversion from the RCBNS form to the standard binary number form have been presented. In this paper the RCBNS reduces the number of steps required to perform complex number arithmetic operations, thus enhancing the speed.
Kale, Avinash; Hire, Ramesh S; Hadapad, Ashok B; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Kumar, Vinay
2013-11-01
The two components (BinA and BinB) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin together are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquito larvae, and have been employed world-wide to control mosquito borne diseases. Upon binding to the membrane receptor an oligomeric form (BinA2.BinB2) of the binary toxin is expected to play role in pore formation. It is not clear if these two proteins interact in solution as well, in the absence of receptor. The interactions between active forms of BinA and BinB polypeptides were probed in solution using size-exclusion chromatography, pull-down assay, surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, and by chemically crosslinking BinA and BinB components. We demonstrate that the two proteins interact weakly with first association and dissociation rate constants of 4.5×10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 0.8 s(-1), resulting in conformational change, most likely, in toxic BinA protein that could kinetically favor membrane translocation of the active oligomer. The weak interactions between the two toxin components could be stabilized by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The cross-linked complex, interestingly, showed maximal Culex larvicidal activity (LC50 value of 1.59 ng mL(-1)) reported so far for combination of BinA/BinB components, and thus is an attractive option for development of new bio-pesticides for control of mosquito borne vector diseases. PMID:23974012
Tristable and multiple bistable activity in complex random binary networks of two-state units
Christ, Simon; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz
2016-01-01
We study complex networks of stochastic two-state units. Our aim is to model discrete stochastic excitable dynamics with a rest and an excited state. These two states are assumed to possess different waiting time distributions. The rest state is treated as an activation process with an exponentially distributed life time, whereas the latter in the excited state shall have a constant mean which may originate from any distribution. The activation rate of any single unit is determined by its neighbors according to a random complex network structure. In order to treat this problem in an analytical way, we use a heterogeneous mean-field approximation yielding a set of equations general valid for uncorrelated random networks. Based on this derivation we focus on random binary networks where the network is solely comprised of nodes with either of two degrees. The ratio between the two degrees is shown to be a crucial parameter. Dependent on the composition of the network the steady states show the usual transition f...
Single crystals of binary and ternary complexes of wild-type and D38C mutant H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) belongs to the medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily and requires zinc for catalysis. In the majority of these family members, the catalytic zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated by the side chains of a cysteine, a histidine, a cysteine or glutamate and a water molecule. In H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase, sequence analysis indicates that the zinc coordination is different, with the invariant cysteine replaced by an aspartate residue. In order to analyse the significance of this replacement and to contribute to an understanding of the role of the metal ion in catalysis, a range of binary and ternary complexes of the wild-type and a D38C mutant protein have been crystallized. For most of the complexes, crystals belonging to space group I222 were obtained using sodium/potassium citrate as a precipitant. However, for the binary and non-productive ternary complexes with NADPH/Zn, it was necessary to replace the citrate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. Despite the radical change in conditions, the crystals thus formed were isomorphous
Berti, E; González, J A; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-01-01
The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, non-linear effects may produce mode coupling. Mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, or by expanding the radiation field in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, non-linear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noi...
Gholam Hossein Rounaghi; Saeid Ahmadzadeh; Anuar Kassim; Majid Rezayi
2011-01-01
The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p-isopropylcalix[6]arene and Cs+ cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide–acetonitrile (DMSO-AN) binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of the (p-isopropylcalix[6]-arene·Cs)+ complex in all binary mixed solvents is 1:1. The stability of the complexes is affected by the composition of the binary solvent media and a non-linear behavior was o...
On the computational complexity of binary and analog symmetric hopfield nets
Sima; Orponen; Antti-Poika
2000-12-01
We investigate the computational properties of finite binary- and analog-state discrete-time symmetric Hopfield nets. For binary networks, we obtain a simulation of convergent asymmetric networks by symmetric networks with only a linear increase in network size and computation time. Then we analyze the convergence time of Hopfield nets in terms of the length of their bit representations. Here we construct an analog symmetric network whose convergence time exceeds the convergence time of any binary Hopfield net with the same representation length. Further, we prove that the MIN ENERGY problem for analog Hopfield nets is NP-hard and provide a polynomial time approximation algorithm for this problem in the case of binary nets. Finally, we show that symmetric analog nets with an external clock are computationally Turing universal. PMID:11112262
Karwowski, Damian; Domański, Marek
2016-01-01
An improved context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is presented. The idea for the improvement is to use a more accurate mechanism for estimation of symbol probabilities in the standard CABAC algorithm. The authors' proposal of such a mechanism is based on the context-tree weighting technique. In the framework of a high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) video encoder, the improved CABAC allows 0.7% to 4.5% bitrate saving compared to the original CABAC algorithm. The application of the proposed algorithm marginally affects the complexity of HEVC video encoder, but the complexity of video decoder increases by 32% to 38%. In order to decrease the complexity of video decoding, a new tool has been proposed for the improved CABAC that enables scaling of the decoder complexity. Experiments show that this tool gives 5% to 7.5% reduction of the decoding time while still maintaining high efficiency in the data compression.
Multiscale convexity analysis of certain fractal binary objects-like 8-segment Koch quadric, Koch triadic, and random Koch quadric and triadic islands-is performed via (i) morphologic openings with respect to recursively changing the size of a template, and (ii) construction of convex hulls through half-plane closings. Based on scale vs convexity measure relationship, transition levels between the morphologic regimes are determined as crossover scales. These crossover scales are taken as the basis to segment binary fractal objects into various morphologically prominent zones. Each segmented zone is characterized through normalized morphologic complexity measures. Despite the fact that there is no notably significant relationship between the zone-wise complexity measures and fractal dimensions computed by conventional box counting method, fractal objects-whether they are generated deterministically or by introducing randomness-possess morphologically significant sub-zones with varied degrees of spatial complexities. Classification of realistic fractal sets and/or fields according to sub-zones possessing varied degrees of spatial complexities provides insight to explore links with the physical processes involved in the formation of fractal-like phenomena.
The ternary complexes of In(III) with γ-picoline and nicotinic acid have been studied polarographically, in aqueous solution at pH 4.5 ± 0.02 and ionic strength 0.1 (KCl). The reduction of simple ion and its binary and ternary complexes was found to be reversible and diffusion-controlled involving three electrons. A Schaap and Mcmasters treatment of the observed polarographic data revealed the formation of (In-(nico)(γ-pico))2+, (In-(nico)2(γ-pico))+ and (In-(nico)(γ-pico)2)2+ ternary complexes with formation constants log β11=3.90, log beta21=5.58 and log β12=4.00. (author). 8 refs
LIU; Jianfeng; ZHANG; Yuan; ZHANG; Qin; WANG; Lixian; ZHANG; Jigang
2006-01-01
It is a challenging issue to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) underlying complex discrete traits, which usually show discontinuous distribution and less information, using conventional statistical methods. Bayesian-Markov chain Monte Carlo (Bayesian-MCMC) approach is the key procedure in mapping QTL for complex binary traits, which provides a complete posterior distribution for QTL parameters using all prior information. As a consequence, Bayesian estimates of all interested variables can be obtained straightforwardly basing on their posterior samples simulated by the MCMC algorithm. In our study, utilities of Bayesian-MCMC are demonstrated using simulated several animal outbred full-sib families with different family structures for a complex binary trait underlied by both a QTL and polygene. Under the Identity-by-Descent-Based variance component random model, three samplers basing on MCMC, including Gibbs sampling, Metropolis algorithm and reversible jump MCMC, were implemented to generate the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns so that the QTL parameters were obtained by Bayesian statistical inferring. The results showed that Bayesian-MCMC approach could work well and robust under different family structures and QTL effects. As family size increases and the number of family decreases, the accuracy of the parameter estimates will be improved. When the true QTL has a small effect, using outbred population experiment design with large family size is the optimal mapping strategy.
Gholam Hossein Rounaghi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p-isopropylcalix[6]arene and Cs+ cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide–acetonitrile (DMSO-AN binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of the (p-isopropylcalix[6]-arene·Cs+ complex in all binary mixed solvents is 1:1. The stability of the complexes is affected by the composition of the binary solvent media and a non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log Kf of the complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The thermodynamic parameters (DH°c and DS°c for formation of (p-isopropyl-calix[6]arene·Cs+ complex were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant and the obtained results show that the (p-isopropylcalix[6]arene·Cs+ complex is enthalpy destabilized, but entropy stabilized, and the values of the mentioned parameters are affected strongly by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvents.
Soliman, Ahmed A.; Alajrawy, Othman I.; Attaby, Fawzy A.; Linert, W.
2016-07-01
A series of new binary and ternary platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L1-4)Cl2].xH2O and [Pt(L1-4)ox].xH2O where L = formamidine ligands and ox = oxalate, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, UV-vis, infrared (IR), mass spectroscopy, thermal analysis and theoretical calculations. The spectroscopic data indicated that the formamidine ligands act as bidentate N2 donors. The complexes (1-8) are diamagnetic and the optimization of their structures indicated that the geometry is distorted square planar with Cl-Pt-Cl, O-Pt-O and N-Pt-N bond angles ranged 81.73°-95.82° which is acceptable for the heteroleptic complexes. The electronic energies (a.u.) of the complexes (-893.53 to -1989.84) indicate that the complexes are more stable than the ligands. The energies of the HOMO (-0.218 to -0.244) and LUMO (-.0111to -0.134) orbitals of the complexes were negative which indicates that the complexes are stable compounds. The dipole moment of the complexes (6.23-19.89 Debye) indicates that the complexes are polarized. The complexes are thermally stable as shown from their relatively higher overall activation energies (889-2066 kJ mol-1). The complexes are proved to have a good cytotoxicity with IC50 (μM) against MCF-7 (0.040-0.117), HCT-116 (0.085-0.119) and HepG-2 (0.058-0.131) cell lines, which open the field for further application as antitumor compounds.
The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, nonlinear effects may produce mode coupling. Artificial mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, if the radiation field is expanded in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, nonlinear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noise. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the gravitational wave community to modern variations of a linear parameter estimation technique first devised in 1795 by Prony: the Kumaresan-Tufts and matrix pencil methods. Using ''test'' damped sinusoidal signals in Gaussian white noise we illustrate the advantages of these methods, showing that they have variance and bias at least comparable to standard nonlinear least-squares techniques. Then we compare the performance of different methods on unequal-mass binary black hole merger waveforms. The methods we discuss should be useful both theoretically (to monitor errors and search for nonlinearities in numerical relativity simulations) and experimentally (for parameter estimation from ringdown signals after a gravitational wave detection)
Binary and ternary complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with carboxylate and aminocarboxylate ligands
Thakur, Punam [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Van Luik, Abraham E. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)
2014-11-01
The complex formation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with carboxylates: oxalic acid (Ox), malonic acid (Mal) succinic acid (Suc); glutaric acid (Glu), methylmalonic acid (Memal), oxydiacetic acid (ODA), TDA (thiodiacetic acid) and citric acid (Cit) and aminocarboxylates: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied by solvent extraction in 6.60 m NaClO{sub 4} at 25 C. The formation of only the 1: 1 NpO{sub 2}{sup +} complex was observed with the ligands under investigation. The complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with Ox, IDA, ODA and TDA was also measured at variable temperatures ranging from 25-60 C in 6.60 m NaClO{sub 4}. Results show that the complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} with these ligands increases with increasing temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} were calculated from the temperature dependence of the stability constants using the Van't Hoff equation. Additionally, the formation of an aqueous ternary complex of the form NpO{sub 2}(X)(L) (X = EDTA or HEDTA; L = Ox or ODA) was identified for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} at 25 C. Stabilities of these complexes are measured and discussed in term of their structures and basicities.
Binary and ternary complexation of NpO2+ with carboxylate and aminocarboxylate ligands
The complex formation of NpO2+ with carboxylates: oxalic acid (Ox), malonic acid (Mal) succinic acid (Suc); glutaric acid (Glu), methylmalonic acid (Memal), oxydiacetic acid (ODA), TDA (thiodiacetic acid) and citric acid (Cit) and aminocarboxylates: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied by solvent extraction in 6.60 m NaClO4 at 25 C. The formation of only the 1: 1 NpO2+ complex was observed with the ligands under investigation. The complexation of NpO2+ with Ox, IDA, ODA and TDA was also measured at variable temperatures ranging from 25-60 C in 6.60 m NaClO4. Results show that the complexation of NpO2+ with these ligands increases with increasing temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation of NpO2+ were calculated from the temperature dependence of the stability constants using the Van't Hoff equation. Additionally, the formation of an aqueous ternary complex of the form NpO2(X)(L) (X = EDTA or HEDTA; L = Ox or ODA) was identified for NpO2+ at 25 C. Stabilities of these complexes are measured and discussed in term of their structures and basicities.
Biswas Rashmidipta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The complexation reaction between N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol, abbreviated as SAP, with Cu2+ ion was studied in binary mixtures of methanol and 1,4-dioxane by using conductometric and spectrophotometric method at different temperatures. The stability constants (Kf for the 1:1 complex, Cu2+-SAP, were calculated from computer fitting of absorbance and molar conductance data against various mole ratios (cM:cL or cL:cM in different binary solvent mixtures. A non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf for the complex against the solvent compositions. Various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the formation of Cu2+-SAP complex were determined from the temperature dependence of stability constants (Kf. The overall results showed that the complexation reaction is entropy driven and is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.
Enriching gender in PER: A binary past and a complex future
Traxler, Adrienne L; Blue, Jennifer; Barthelemy, Ramón
2015-01-01
In this article, we draw on previous reports from physics, science education, and women's studies to propose a more nuanced treatment of gender in physics education research (PER). A growing body of PER examines gender differences in participation, performance, and attitudes toward physics. We have three critiques of this work: (1) it does not question whether the achievements of men are the most appropriate standard, (2) individual experiences and student identities are undervalued, and (3) the binary model of gender is not questioned. Driven by these critiques, we propose a conception of gender that is more up-to-date with other fields and discuss gender-as-performance as an extended example. We also discuss work on the intersection of identities [e.g., gender with race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) status], much of which has been conducted outside of physics. Within PER, some studies examine the intersection of gender and race, and identify the lack of ...
Naghmeh Saadati
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Calixresorcinarenes have proved to be unique molecules for molecular recognition via hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions with suitable substrates such as cations. The study of the interactions involved in the complexation of different cations with calixresorcinarenes in solvent mixtures is important for a better understanding of the mechanism of biological transport, molecular recognition, and other analytical applications. This article summarizes different aspects of the complexes of the Ti3+ metal cation with c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR as studied by conductometry in acetonitrile (AN–water (H2O binary mixtures at different temperatures. Conductance data show that the metal cation/ligand (ML stoichiometry of the complexes in solution is 1:1 in all cases. Non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf of the complexes vs. the composition of the binary solvent mixtures. Selectivity of CMCR for the Ti3+ cation is sensitive to solvent composition; in some cases and at certain compositions of the mixed solvent systems, the selectivity order is changed. Values of thermodynamic parameters (, for formation of the CMCR–Ti3+ complexes in AN–H2O binary systems were obtained from the temperature dependence of stability constants, and the results show that the thermodynamics of complexation reactions are affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.
Human DNA polymerase α in binary complex with a DNA:DNA template-primer
Javier Coloma; Johnson, Robert E.; Louise Prakash; Satya Prakash; Aggarwal, Aneel K.
2016-01-01
The Polα/primase complex assembles the short RNA-DNA fragments for priming of lagging and leading strand DNA replication in eukaryotes. As such, the Polα polymerase subunit encounters two types of substrates during primer synthesis: an RNA:DNA helix and a DNA:DNA helix. The engagement of the polymerase subunit with the DNA:DNA helix has been suggested as the of basis for primer termination in eukaryotes. However, there is no structural information on how the Polα polymerase subunit actually e...
Sushch, Iurii; Neronov, Andrii
2010-01-01
We study the geometry and dynamics of the Vela complex including the Vela supernova remnant (SNR), the binary system gamma2 Velorum and the Gum nebula. We show that the Vela SNR belongs to a subclass of non-Sedov adiabatic remnants in a cloudy interstellar medium (ISM), the dynamics of which is determined by the heating and evaporation of ISM clouds. We explain observable characteristics of the Vela SNR with a SN explosion with energy 1.4 x 10^50 ergs near the step-like boundary of the ISM with low intercloud densities (~ 10^{-3} cm^{-3}) and with a volume-averaged density of clouds evaporated by shock in the north-east (NE) part about four times higher than the one in the south-west (SW) part. The observed asymmetry between the NE and SW parts of the Vela SNR could be explained by the presence of a stellar wind bubble (SWB) blown by the nearest-to-the Earth Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the gamma2 Velorum system. We show that the size and kinematics of gamma2 Velorum SWB agree with predictions of numerical calcula...
High resolution seismic imaging of complex structures: a case study of the South China Sea data
Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jun; Fu, Geping
2016-03-01
Seismic imaging is an effective way for marine geophysical investigation. Different types of imaging schemes, such as pre-stack time migration (PSTM) and pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), are often used to reveal subsurface structures. Theoretically, the PSDM method, which better honors the wave field propagation, can produce more accurate subsurface images compared with PSTM. However, it is challenging for PSDM to obtain a proper velocity model. In the South China Sea basin, the presence of complex structures such as carbonate pinnacles makes velocity model building more difficult due to the complex geometry and strong velocity variation. We have developed a seismic processing work flow which aims to circumvent these difficulties and can improve the PSDM velocity model via iterative updating. In order to improve the data quality and obtain optimal results, a proper pre-processing is required. In this workflow, we use the full waveform inversion to update the velocity model, followed by the application of the tomography inversion. In this way, a geologically plausible velocity model for PSDM is obtained. Afterwards, we use the Q-tomography approach to estimate the Earth quality factor (Q), which numerically quantifies the earth absorption and attenuation effect. Finally we use a de-absorption pre-stack depth migration scheme to compensate for the Earth absorption and attenuation effect in the process of imaging. The amplitudes are balanced and a high quality subsurface image is obtained.
Chelating tendencies of several biologically important compounds viz. glycocyamine (GCN: N-amidino-aminoethanoic acid) taurine (TRN: 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) and pyridoxal [PDL: 3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-pyridine-4-carbaldehyde] have been examined by pH-metric titration technique in their binary complex formation with copper(II) and uranyl(VI) ions. The work has further been extended to investigating the ternary complex formation involving 2.2'-bipyridine. 1,10-phenanthroline or nitrilotriacetic acid as a primary and TRN and PDL as secondary ligands. All the experiments were carried out at 250C and at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaCl04) in aqueous or 50% (v/v) aqueous-ethanol medium according to the suitability of the experimental conditions. Stabilities of ternary complexes as compared to those of the corresponding binary complexes of the secondary ligands have also been discussed. (author)
Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt; Rasmussen, Kirsten Nyborg; Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Wildner-Christensen, Mette; Ørskov, Hans
2002-01-01
IGFBP-2, -3, -4, nor IGF-II caused any cross-reaction. The linear standard curve covered 3 orders of magnitude, and within and in-between assay coefficients of variation were less than 5 and 15%, respectively. To study the dynamic relationship between free IGF-I and binary complex formation, seven......-I correlated inversely with IGFBP-1 (-0.81 < or = r < or = -0.48; 0.0001 < or = P < or = 0.05) and the binary complex (-0.79 < or = r < or = -0.41; 0.0001 < or = P < or = 0.05). To study overnight fasting levels, we compared healthy controls and patients with type 1 diabetes and chronic renal failure (n = 10...
The mean activity (γ±) and osmotic (Φ) coefficients for binary and ternary aqueous solutions of trivalent electrolytes (mainly made up of lanthanide salts) are described in the framework of the primitive model of ionic solutions, using the binding mean spherical approximation (BiMSA). This model, based on the Wertheim formalism, accounts for (chemical or electrostatic) association of ions. In this work, the multivalent cation and the anion are allowed to form 1: 1 (pairs) and 1: 2 (trimers) complexes. Expressions for γ±) and Φ are given which satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem relation. The model involves concentration-dependent cation size and effective relative permittivity, variations that can be interpreted in terms of solvent effects. The theory is applied to aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures at 25 C with common anion. (authors)
Drummond, J.
2011-09-01
Two Excel Spreadsheet files are offered to help calibrate telescope or camera image scale and orientation with binary stars for any time. One is a personally selected list of fixed position binaries and binaries with well-determined orbits, and the other contains all binaries with published orbits. Both are derived from the web site of the Washington Double Star Library. The spreadsheets give the position angle and separation of the binaries for any entered time by taking advantage of Excel's built in iteration function to solve Kepler's transcendental equation.
Gao, Shuqin; Liao, Lifu; Xiao, Xilin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Du, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng
2010-05-01
A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of nicotine in mixtures without pre-separation has been proposed. Nicotine could react with 2,4-dinitrophenol through a charge-transfer reaction to form a colored complex. The second-order data from the visible absorption spectra of the complex in a series of ethanol-water binary solvents with various water volume fractions could be expressed as the combination of two bilinear data matrices. With the bilinear model, the second-order spectra data of mixtures containing nicotine and other interferents could be analysed by using second-order calibration algorithms, and the determination of nicotine in the mixtures could be achieved. The algorithm used here was parallel factor analysis. The method has been successfully used to determine nicotine in tobacco samples with satisfactory results.
A number of research works have been devoted to the optimization of protection strategies (e.g. transmission line switch off) of critical infrastructures (e.g. power grids, telecommunication networks, computer networks, etc) to avoid cascading failures. This work aims at improving a previous optimization approach proposed by some of the authors [1], based on the modified binary differential evolution (MBDE) algorithm. The improvements are three-fold: (1) in the optimization problem formulation, we introduce a third objective function to minimize the impacts of the switching off operations onto the existing network topology; (2) in the optimization problem formulation, we use the final results of cascades, rather than only a short horizon of one step cascading, to evaluate the effects of the switching off strategies; (3) in the optimization algorithm, the fast non-dominated sorting mechanisms are incorporated into the MBDE algorithm: a new algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting binary differential evolution algorithm (NSBDE) is then proposed. The numerical application to the topological structure of the 380 kV Italian power transmission network proves the benefits of the improvements.
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
The solid-state reaction, which is solvent free and green synthesis, has been adopted to explore the novel compound. The phase diagram of 4-chloroaniline (CA) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) system shows the formation of a novel 1:1 molecular complex, and two eutectics on either sides of complex. Thermochemical studies of complex and eutectics have been carried out for various properties such as heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, Jackson's parameters, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions. The formation of molecular complex was also studied by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and UV–Vis absorption spectra. The single crystal of molecular complex was grown and its XRD study confirms the formation of complex and identifies the crystal structure and atomic packing of crystal of complex. Transmission spectra of grown crystal of the complex show 70% transmittance efficiency with cut off wavelength 412 nm. The band gap and refractive index of the crystal of complex have also been studied. - Graphical abstarct: Exploiting phase diagram study and solvent free synthesis a novel compound was synthesized and its single crystal growth, atomic packing, energy band gap and refractive index were studied. Highlights: ► Novel organic complex was synthesized using Green or solvent free synthesis. ► Phase diagram study provided the information to identify the worthy composition of novel complex. ► The single crystal of the sufficient size was grown from the ethanol solution. ► Crystal analysis suggested that the covalent bond is formed between the two parent compounds. ► The transmittance of the crystal was found to be 70% and it was transparent from 412 to 850 nm.
Sharma, K.P.; Reddi, R.S.B.; Bhattacharya, S. [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advance Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Rai, R.N., E-mail: rn_rai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advance Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)
2012-06-15
The solid-state reaction, which is solvent free and green synthesis, has been adopted to explore the novel compound. The phase diagram of 4-chloroaniline (CA) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) system shows the formation of a novel 1:1 molecular complex, and two eutectics on either sides of complex. Thermochemical studies of complex and eutectics have been carried out for various properties such as heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, Jackson's parameters, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions. The formation of molecular complex was also studied by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The single crystal of molecular complex was grown and its XRD study confirms the formation of complex and identifies the crystal structure and atomic packing of crystal of complex. Transmission spectra of grown crystal of the complex show 70% transmittance efficiency with cut off wavelength 412 nm. The band gap and refractive index of the crystal of complex have also been studied. - Graphical abstarct: Exploiting phase diagram study and solvent free synthesis a novel compound was synthesized and its single crystal growth, atomic packing, energy band gap and refractive index were studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel organic complex was synthesized using Green or solvent free synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase diagram study provided the information to identify the worthy composition of novel complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single crystal of the sufficient size was grown from the ethanol solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal analysis suggested that the covalent bond is formed between the two parent compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transmittance of the crystal was found to be 70% and it was transparent from 412 to 850 nm.
İnci, Duygu; Aydın, Rahmiye; Vatan, Özgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Gençkal, Hasene Mutlu; Zorlu, Yunus; Cavaş, Tolga
2015-06-01
Binary and ternary water soluble copper(II) complexes - [Cu(nphen)2(H2O)](NO3)2·H2O (1), [Cu(phen)2(H2O)](NO3)2 (2), [Cu(nphen)(L-tyr)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O (3), [Cu(phen)(tyr)(H2O)] NO3·2H2O (4) - and diquarternary salts of nphen and phen (nphen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and tyr = L-tyrosine) have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these compounds have been investigated by thermal denaturation measurements, absorption and emission spectroscopy. The supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA cleavage activity of these compounds has been explored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against MCF-7, Caco-2, A549 cancer cells and BEAS-2B healthy cells was also studied by using XTT method. The complexes 1-4 exhibit significant high cytotoxicity with low IC50 values in compared with cisplatin. The effect of the substituents of phen and coordinated amino acid in the above complexes are presented and discussed.
Saif, M.; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Eid, Mohamed F.; Fouad, R.
A new series of metal complexes of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(III) with Schiff base ligand, H2L, 2-(Hydroxybenzylidene) thiosemicarbazone were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using glycine (Gly), 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as secondary ligands. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirmed by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as TG-DSC technique. The discussions of the prepared complexes indicate that the ligand behaves as a monoanionic tridentate ligand through ONS donor sites. Thermal studies suggested a mechanism for the degradation of the metal complexes as a function of temperature supporting the chelation modes and showed the possibility of obtaining new complexes pyrolytically in the solid state which cannot be synthesized from the solution. The absorption studies support that the binary Cu(II) complex exhibits a significant binding affinity to HS-DNA through intercalative mode.
Frame theory for binary vector spaces
Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Le, My; Reza, Letty; Tobin, Matthew; Tomforde, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop the theory of frames and Parseval frames for finite-dimensional vector spaces over the binary numbers. This includes characterizations which are similar to frames and Parseval frames for real or complex Hilbert spaces, and the discussion of conceptual differences caused by the lack of a proper inner product on binary vector spaces. We also define switching equivalence for binary frames, and list all equivalence classes of binary Parseval frames in lowest dimensions, excluding cases...
Dipole bound (DB) and valence bound (VB) anions of binary iodide-adenine complexes have been studied using one-color and time-resolved photoelectron imaging at excitation energies near the vertical detachment energy. The experiments are complemented by quantum chemical calculations. One-color spectra show evidence for two adenine tautomers, the canonical, biologically relevant A9 tautomer and the A3 tautomer. In the UV-pump/IR-probe time-resolved experiments, transient adenine anions can be formed by electron transfer from the iodide. These experiments show signals from both DB and VB states of adenine anions formed on femto- and picosecond time scales, respectively. Analysis of the spectra and comparison with calculations suggest that while both the A9 and A3 tautomers contribute to the DB signal, only the DB state of the A3 tautomer undergoes a transition to the VB anion. The VB anion of A9 is higher in energy than both the DB anion and the neutral, and the VB anion is therefore not accessible through the DB state. Experimental evidence of the metastable A9 VB anion is instead observed as a shape resonance in the one-color photoelectron spectra, as a result of UV absorption by A9 and subsequent electron transfer from iodide into the empty π-orbital. In contrast, the iodide-A3 complex constitutes an excellent example of how DB states can act as doorway state for VB anion formation when the VB state is energetically available
Stephansen, Anne B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); King, Sarah B.; Li, Wei-Li; Kunin, Alice [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yokoi, Yuki; Minoshima, Yusuke; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki [Department of Chemistry, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Neumark, Daniel M., E-mail: dneumark@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2015-09-14
Dipole bound (DB) and valence bound (VB) anions of binary iodide-adenine complexes have been studied using one-color and time-resolved photoelectron imaging at excitation energies near the vertical detachment energy. The experiments are complemented by quantum chemical calculations. One-color spectra show evidence for two adenine tautomers, the canonical, biologically relevant A9 tautomer and the A3 tautomer. In the UV-pump/IR-probe time-resolved experiments, transient adenine anions can be formed by electron transfer from the iodide. These experiments show signals from both DB and VB states of adenine anions formed on femto- and picosecond time scales, respectively. Analysis of the spectra and comparison with calculations suggest that while both the A9 and A3 tautomers contribute to the DB signal, only the DB state of the A3 tautomer undergoes a transition to the VB anion. The VB anion of A9 is higher in energy than both the DB anion and the neutral, and the VB anion is therefore not accessible through the DB state. Experimental evidence of the metastable A9 VB anion is instead observed as a shape resonance in the one-color photoelectron spectra, as a result of UV absorption by A9 and subsequent electron transfer from iodide into the empty π-orbital. In contrast, the iodide-A3 complex constitutes an excellent example of how DB states can act as doorway state for VB anion formation when the VB state is energetically available.
Tannistha Roy Barman; G N Mukherjee
2008-07-01
Combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with guanylurea (H$_{2}^{1}$NC(=O) 2NH.C(=3NH) 4NH2), hereafter, GuH, in the absence and in the presence of glycine (GlyH), in aqueous solution indicates variety of binary and mixed-ligand complexes: Cu(Gu)+, Cu(Gu)(OH); Cu(Gu)2, Cu(Gu-H)(Gu)-, Cu(Gu-H)$_{2}^{2-}$, Cu(Gu-H)(Gu-2H)3-; Cu(Gly)+, Cu(Gly) (OH); Cu(Gly)(Gu); Cu(Gly)(Gu-H)-, Cu(Gly)(Gu-2H)2-; (Gly)Cu(Gu)Cu(Gly)+, (Gly)Cu(Gu-H)Cu(Gly) and (Gly)Cu(Gu-2H)Cu(Gly)-. At pH < 6, guanylurea anion (Gu-) acts as a [(C=O), 3N-] or [=1NH, 3N-] bidentate ligand and above pH 7 it is transformed through a coordination equilibrium into a (=1N-, =3N-) bidentate ligand, similar to biguanide dianion. Occurrence of dinuclear complex species, (Gly) Cu(Gu)Cu(Gly)+, in the complexation equilibria, indicates bridging double bidentate [(1NH2, 3N-), (C=O, 4NH2)] and/or [(1NH2, 4NH2), (C=O, 3N-)] chelation by Gu- ion in an isomeric equilibrium. Above pH 6.5, the dinuclear complex decomposes mostly to the mononuclear species, Cu(Gly)(OH) and Cu(Gu)(OH) and only partly deprotonates to (Gly)Cu(Gu-H)Cu(Gly) and (Gly)Cu(Gu-2H)Cu(Gly)-. Electronic spectral shifts, with change of pH have been correlated with the possible modes of coordination of guanylurea species.
Ion imprinted polymer (IIP) materials were prepared for uranyl ion (imprint ion) by forming binary (5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) or 4-vinylpyridine (VP)) or ternary (5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol and 4-vinylpyridine) complexes in 2-methoxy ethanol (porogen) and copolymerizing in the presence of styrene and divinyl benzene as functional and crosslinking monomers, respectively and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. IIP particles were obtained by leaching the imprint ion in these polymer materials with 50% (v/v) hydrochloric acid, filtering, drying in an oven at 50 degree sign C and grinding. Control polymer particles were also prepared under identical conditions. The above synthesized polymer particles were characterized by IR, CHN, X-ray diffraction, and pore size analyses. These leached polymer particles can now pick up uranyl ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The IIP particles obtained with ternary complex of uranyl ion alone gave quantitative enrichment of traces of uranyl ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The optimal pH for quantitative enrichment is 4.5-7.5 and eluted completely with 10 ml of 1.0 M HCl. The retention capacity of uranyl IIP particles was found to be 34.05 mg of uranyl ion per gram of polymer. Further, the percent extraction, distribution ratio, and selectivity coefficients of uranium and other selected inorganic ions were also evaluated. Five replicate determinations of 25 μg of uranium present in 1.0 l of aqueous solution gave a mean absorbance of 0.036 with a relative standard deviation of 2.50%. The detection limit corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank was found to be 5 μg l-1
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.
2014-11-01
Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.
Faheim, Abeer A.; Abdou, Safaa N.; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.
2013-03-01
Salicylidene (4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid) Schiff base ligand H2L, and its binary and ternary Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOqu) and 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) as secondary ligands have been synthesised and characterized via elemental analysis, spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, mass and solid reflectance), molar conductance, magnetic moment, TG-DSC measurements and XRPD analysis. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggest that H2L ligand acts as monoanionic terdentate ligand with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via deprotonated phenolic-O, azomethine-N and sulfonate-O while 2-Ampy behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand via amino group-N and 8-HOqu behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand through the ring-N and deprotonated phenolic-O. The thermal behavior of these complexes shows that the coordinated water molecules were eliminated from the complexes at relatively higher temperatures than the hydrated water and there are two routes in removal of coordinated water molecules. All complexes have mononuclear structure and the tetrahedral, square planar or an octahedral geometry have been proposed. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the synthesised compounds, the binary and ternary Ni(II) complexes, (2, 8 and 10) and ternary Zn(II) complex, (12) were found to be very effective against Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis than all other complexes with MICs of 2 and 8 μg/mL, respectively.
The binary complexes of HF, H2O, NH3, N2, O2, F2, CO, and CO2 with HF, H2O, and NH3 have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital theory and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Most of the complexes involving N2, O2, F2, CO, and CO2 are found to have both hydrogen-bonded and non-hydrogen-bonded structures. The NBO analysis provides a consistent picture of the bonding in this entire family of complexes in terms of charge transfer (CT) interactions, showing the close correlation of these interactions with the van der Waals penetration distance and dissociation energy of the complex. Contrary to previous studies based on the Kitaura--Morokuma analysis, we find a clear theoretical distinction between H-bonded and non-H-bonded complexes based on the strength of CT interactions. Charge transfer is generally stronger in H-bonded than in non-H-bonded complexes. It plays an intermediate role in non-H-bonded CO2 complexes which have been studied experimentally. However, the internal rotation barrier (1 kcal mol-1) of the H2OxxxCO2 complex is found to be primarily of electrostatic origin with only a small (π-type) CT contribution. The role of electrostatic interactions, effect of electron correlation, and comparison of theory with experiment are also discussed
Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder
Reznik, Yuriy A
2007-01-01
This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.
Kihara, K.; Furuta, T. [Saraya Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)
1997-05-10
The composition of complexes formed in aqueous solution consisting of a binary mixture of sodium 1-octanesulfonate (NaOS) and lanthanum (III) chloride (LaCl3) was studied by measuring surface tension, electric conductivity and proton spin-lattice relaxation time. In the molar ratio of octanesulfonic anion and lanthanum (III) cation below 0.1, a 3:1-complex was formed. The area per the 3:1-complex absorbed at air-water interface was 208 angstrom{sup 2} on the assumption of monomolecular layer. The formations of 2:1- and 1:1-complex were found in the vicinity of 0.5 and above 1.2 of LaCl3/NaOS, respectively. Whereas, when LaCl3 was added to 15 mol m{sup -3} NaOS, the bactericidal activity of the mixed solution against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 markedly increased with increasing the molar ratio (LaCl3/NaOS) up to 1.0 and finally remained constant. The contribution of complexes on the bactericidal activity was estimated at 1.5:1:1 from the combination of data of complex distributions and bactericidal activity. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations
Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
Abstract A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...
Eclipsing binaries in open clusters
Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.
Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...
Gershenson, Carlos
2011-01-01
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs
Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick
2011-06-01
PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.
Shebl, Magdy; Ibrahim, M. A.; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Stefan, S. L.; Habib, H.
2013-11-01
A tridentate ONS donor ligand, HL, was synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminochromone-3-carboxaldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. The structure of the ligand was elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic and mass spectra. Reaction of the ligand with several copper(II) salts, including AcO-, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Br- and ClO4- afforded different metal complexes that reflect the non-coordinating or weakly coordinating power of the ClO4- and Br- anions as compared to the strongly coordinating power of AcO-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3- anions. Also, the ligand was allowed to react with Cu(II) ion in the presence of a secondary ligand (L‧) [N,O-donor; 8-hydroxyquinoline or N,N-donor; 1,10-phenanthroline]. Characterization and structure elucidation of the prepared complexes were achieved by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic, mass and EPR spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of some complexes were calculated. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral and square planar geometrical arrangements depending on the nature of the anion. The ligand and most of its metal complexes showed antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).
Numerical integrations of encounters of pairs of binaries have been used to study the class of interactions, called fly-bys, in which the two-binary configuration survives. It is shown that these typically weak interactions can be treated by means of a first-order perturbation theory. A simple simulation model for obtaining the energy transfer rate between various degrees of freedom has been constructed. The model was employed to estimate the additional energy transfer arising from impact parameters larger than those used in the numerical experiments. In the hard binary limit the total energy transfer caused by binary-binary encounters is dominated by the collisional interactions in which the two-binary configuration is destroyed. (author)
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Mixed single crystals of [Co(OCN2H4)5(H2O)][ZnCl4] were grown by the isothermal evaporation of an aqueous solution. The crystal structure of this complex was established by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.052 based on 7003 reflections). The crystals consist of [Co(OCN2H4)5(H2O)]2+ cations containing Co atoms in an octahedral coordination and [ZnCl4]2-] anions containing Zn atoms in a tetrahedral coordination. The carbamide molecules are involved in both intramolecular and interionic hydrogen bonds. The H2O molecule forms hydrogen bonds with the anions.
Belloni, T M
2016-01-01
The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...
Yanez, M.E.; Korotkov, K.V.; Abendroth, J.; Hol, W.G.J.
2009-05-28
Type II secretion systems (T2SS) translocate virulence factors from the periplasmic space of many pathogenic bacteria into the extracellular environment. The T2SS of Vibrio cholerae and related species is called the extracellular protein secretion (Eps) system that consists of a core of multiple copies of 11 different proteins. The pseudopilins, EpsG, EpsH, EpsI, EpsJ and EpsK, are five T2SS proteins that are thought to assemble into a pseudopilus, which is assumed to interact with the outer membrane pore, and may actively participate in the export of proteins. We report here biochemical evidence that the minor pseudopilins EpsI and EpsJ from Vibrio species interact directly with one another. Moreover, the 2.3 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a complex of EspI and EpsJ from Vibrio vulnificus represents the first atomic resolution structure of a complex of two different pseudopilin components from the T2SS. Both EpsI and EpsJ appear to be structural extremes within the family of type 4a pilin structures solved to date, with EpsI having the smallest, and EpsJ the largest, 'variable pilin segment' seen thus far. A high degree of sequence conservation in the EpsI:EpsJ interface indicates that this heterodimer occurs in the T2SS of a large number of bacteria. The arrangement of EpsI and EpsJ in the heterodimer would correspond to a right-handed helical character of proteins assembled into a pseudopilus.
In this work, SiO2/Sb2O3 prepared by the sol-gel processing method, having a specific surface area, SBET, of 790 m2 g-1, an average pore diameter of 1.9 nm and 4.7 wt.% of Sb, was used as substrate base for immobilization of the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine ion. Cobalt(II) ion was inserted into the porphyrin ring with a yield of complex bonded to the substrate surface of 59.4 μ mol g-1. A carbon paste electrode of this material was used to study, by linear sweeping voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques, the electrocatalytic reduction of dissolved oxygen. The reduction, at the electrode solid-solution interface, occurred at -0.25 V versus SCE in 1.0 mol l-1 KCl solution, pH 5.5, by a four electron mechanism. The electrode response was invariant under various oxidation-reduction cycles showing that the system is chemically very stable. Such characteristics allowed the study of the electrode response towards various dissolved oxygen concentrations using the chronoamperometry technique. The cathodic peak current intensities plotted against O2 concentrations, between 1.0 and 12.8 mg l-1, showed a linear correlation. The electrode response time was very fast, i.e. about 1 s. This study was extended using the electrode to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen in sea water samples
Bolt, Nate
2000-01-01
In the endless quest to transform itself, capitalism has spawned a new working class. The proletariat was an essential product of the industrial revolution, and the lighter, more efficient capitalism of the digital revolution has created the Binary Proletariat.
Freire, P C C
2004-01-01
The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.
Han, Z
2008-01-01
In this talk, we present the general principles of binary evolution and give two examples. The first example is the formation of subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and their application to the long-standing problem of ultraviolet excess (also known as UV-upturn) in elliptical galaxies. The second is for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We discuss the main binary interactions, i.e., stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) and common envelope (CE) evolution, and show evolutionary channels leading to the formation of various binary-related objects. In the first example, we show that the binary model of sdB stars of Han et al. (2002, 2003) can reproduce field sdB stars and their counterparts, extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars, in globular clusters. By applying the binary model to the study of evolutionary population synthesis, we have obtained an ``a priori'' model for the UV-upturn of elliptical galaxies and showed that the UV-upturn is most likely resulted from binary interactions. This has major implications...
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
XiangWu
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Joshua A. Faber
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees. For...... all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study
HAN Zhanwen
2011-01-01
Binary population synthesis （BPS）, an approach to evolving millions of stars （including binaries） simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis （EPS） model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer Duncan R.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer, D R
2008-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 solar masses, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e=0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.
Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes
Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C
2007-01-01
The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.
Torres, R M; Mioduszewki, A; Rodríguez, L F
2008-01-01
As part of an astrometric program, we have used the Very Long Baseline Array to measure the trigonometric parallax of several young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with great accuracy. Additionally, we have obtained an unprecedented sample of high-resolution (~ 1 mas) images of several young stellar systems. These images revealed that about 70% of the stars in our sample are very tight binary stars (with separations of a few mas). Since it is highly unlikely that 70% of all stars are such tight binaries, we argue that selection effects are at work.
Sturmfels, Bernd
2011-01-01
Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.
Formation of binary radio pulsars
In the framework of the standard scenario of the evolution of massive binary stars a study is made of the formation of final binary systems in which at least one of the components is a neutron star. It is found that about every fortieth radio pulsar must be a member of a close binary system. This is confirmed by observations. Radio pulsars are not formed in wide binary systems, possibly because of the very slow rotation of the presupernova stars
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Equational binary decision diagrams
Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de
2000-01-01
We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin
Almog, Assaf
2014-01-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of time series of activity of their fundamental elements (such as stocks or neurons respectively). While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relationships between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to replicate the observed binary/non-binary relations very well, and to mathematically...
Implications of Binary Properties for Theories of Star Formation
Larson, Richard B.
2000-01-01
The overall frequency and other statistical properties of binary systems suggest that star formation is intrinsically a complex and chaotic process, and that most binaries and single stars actually originate from the decay of multiple systems. Interactions between stars forming in close proximity to each other may play an important role in the star formation process itself, for example via tidally induced accretion from disks. Some of the energetic activity of newly formed stars could be due ...
Min-Max decoding for non binary LDPC codes
Savin, Valentin
2008-01-01
Iterative decoding of non-binary LDPC codes is currently performed using either the Sum-Product or the Min-Sum algorithms or slightly different versions of them. In this paper, several low-complexity quasi-optimal iterative algorithms are proposed for decoding non-binary codes. The Min-Max algorithm is one of them and it has the benefit of two possible LLR domain implementations: a standard implementation, whose complexity scales as the square of the Galois field's cardinality and a reduced complexity implementation called selective implementation, which makes the Min-Max decoding very attractive for practical purposes.
A novel sensing mechanism for electrostatic MEMS that employs static bifurcation-based sensing and binary detection is demonstrated. It is implemented as an ethanol vapour sensor that exploits the static pull-in bifurcation. Sensor detection of 5 ppm of ethanol vapour in dry nitrogen, equivalent to a detectable mass of 165 pg, is experimentally demonstrated. Sensor robustness to external disturbances is also demonstrated. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of statically detected electrostatic MEMS sensors is derived. It is shown that the sensitivity of static bifurcation-based binary electrostatic MEMS sensors represents an upper bound on the sensitivity of static detection for given sensor dimensions and material properties. (paper)
Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
Eby, David A
2013-01-01
A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.
Griebeler, Elmer L.
2011-01-01
Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
Preparation and Characterization of Binary Mixture of Efavirenz and Nicotinamide
Erizal Zaini
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide. The binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide (in equimolar ratio was prepared by solid state grinding and solvent dropped grinding. Characterizations were conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Interaction of efavirenz and nicotinamide in liquid states was studied by phase solubility profile. The dissolution rate studies was conducted by using USP type II apparatus in distilled water with 0.5 % sodium lauryl sulfate. Efavirenz dissolved was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with Acetonitrile and acetic acid 1 % as mobile phase. The diffracgram of powder X-Ray analysis showed that both efavirenz and nicotinamide are highly crystalline, and equimolar binary mixtures showed a similar diffraction peaks. Thermal analysis result showed that binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide form a simple eutectic mixture with the eutectic temperature (tE was 92.7 °C. The SEM analysis depicted that efavirenz and nicotinamide are polyhedral shaped particles, while binary mixture showed a homogenous aggregates of fine needle shaped particles. Phase solubility profile of the binary mixture indicated formation of a soluble complex between efavirenz and nicotinamide in 1:1 molar. The dissolution rate of the binary mixtures were significantly higher compared to the intact efavirenz.
Processes assessment in binary mixture plant
N. Shankar Ganesh, T. Srinivas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Binary fluid system has an efficient system of heat recovery compared to a single fluid system due to a better temperature match between hot and cold fluids. There are many applications with binary fluid system i.e. Kalina power generation, vapor absorption refrigeration, combined power and cooling etc. Due to involvement of three properties (pressure, temperature and concentration in the processes evaluation, the solution is complicated compared to a pure substance. The current work simplifies this complex nature of solution and analyzes the basic processes to understand the processes behavior in power generation as well as cooling plants. Kalina power plant consists of regenerator, heat recovery vapor generator, condenser, mixture, separator, turbine, pump and throttling device. In addition to some of these components, the cooling plant consists of absorber which is similar in operation of condenser. The amount of vapor at the separator decreases with an increase in its pressure and temperature.
Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems
Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke
2014-01-01
Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.
Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data
Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L. F. A.
2008-01-01
Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two propos...
Evolution of Close Binary Systems
Yakut, K; Eggleton, P
2005-01-24
We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.
Report IAU Comm. 42, Close Binary Stars
Ribas, Ignasi; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sion, Edward M.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Olah, Katalin
2008-01-01
Brief summaries are given about (1) close binary research from the perspective of the Bibliography of Close Binaries, (2) low-mass binaries and model discrepancies, (3) W UMa-type binaries, (4) cataclysmic variables, (5) Algol binaries, (6) the oEA stars, (7) effects of binarity on stellar activity.
Low autocorrelation binary sequences
Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan
2016-04-01
Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.
Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are ou...
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Bu, Tian-Ming; Zhang, Peng
2011-01-01
Many problems in Computer Science can be abstracted to the following question: given a set of objects and rules respectively, which new objects can be produced? In the paper, we consider a succinct version of the question: given a set of binary strings and several operations like conjunction and disjunction, which new binary strings can be generated? Although it is a fundamental problem, to the best of our knowledge, the problem hasn't been studied yet. In this paper, an O(m^2n) algorithm is presented to determine whether a string s is representable by a set W, where n is the number of strings in W and each string has the same length m. However, looking for the minimum subset from a set to represent a given string is shown to be NP-hard. In addition, we prove that counting the number of strings representable is #P-complete. But if the operator negation can be used, the number is some power of 2. This di?erence maybe help us understand the problem more profoundly.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Benacquista Matthew J.
2006-02-01
Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS
XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun
2002-01-01
A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.
PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS
Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun
2002-01-01
A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.
Pairing mechanisms for binary stars
Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061
2008-01-01
Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...
Planets in Binary Star Systems
Haghighipour, Nader
2010-01-01
The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...
Towards Physarum Binary Adders
Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005
2010-01-01
Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.
Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars
Freire, Paulo C C
2009-01-01
In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.
Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.
2013-02-01
Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.
A Novel RFID Anti-Collision Algorithm based on Binary Tree
Linpeng Hai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The method to deal with the tag collision in RFID system can be directly called “Multiple Access”. According to the ideas of these different anti-collision algorithms, they can be divided into two categories. One is the binary tree algorithm based on deterministic; the other is the statistical-based ALOHA algorithm. Overall, however, there is still room for improvement on anti-collision algorithm path optimization and communication complexity,. This paper focuses on binary tree algorithm. After analysis of the basic binary tree algorithm, dynamic binary tree algorithm, Trajan binary tree algorithm, paper propose a novel binary tree algorithm based on the dichotomy. Simulation performance shows that there have upgraded path optimization and communication efficiency
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information. (paper)
Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-09-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.
Antonini, Fabio [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perets, Hagai B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2012-09-20
The environment near supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contains a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai cycles, gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries that do not reside near an SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as a catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries and strongly affect their orbital properties. Such compact binaries would be detectable as GW sources by the next generation of GW detectors (e.g., advanced-LIGO). Our analysis shows that {approx}0.5% of such nuclear merging binaries will enter the LIGO observational window while on orbits that are still very eccentric (e {approx}> 0.5). The efficient GW analysis for such systems would therefore require the use of eccentric templates. We also find that binaries very close to the SMBH could evolve through a complex dynamical (non-secular) evolution, leading to emission of several GW pulses during only a few years (though these are likely to be rare). Finally, we note that the formation of close stellar binaries, X-ray binaries, and their merger products could be induced by similar secular processes, combined with tidal friction rather than GW emission as in the case of compact object binaries.
Binary black hole spectroscopy
We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ∼100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin-orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin-spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly
Strong Lensing by Binary Galaxies
Shin, E M
2008-01-01
We study the problem of gravitational lensing by binary galaxies, idealized as two isothermal spheres. In a wide binary, each galaxy possesses individual tangential, nearly astroidal, caustics and roundish radial caustics. As the separation of the binary is made smaller, the caustics undergo a sequence of metamorphoses. The first metamorphosis occurs when the tangential caustics merge to form a single six-cusped caustic, lying interior to the radial caustics. At still smaller separations, the six-cusped caustic undergoes the second metamorphosis and splits into a four-cusped caustic and two three-cusped caustics, which shrink to zero size (an elliptic umbilic catastrophe) before they enlarge again and move away from the origin perpendicular to the binary axis. Finally, a third metamorphosis occurs as the three-cusp caustics join the radial caustics, leaving an inner distorted astroid caustic enclosed by two outer caustics. The maximum number of images possible is 7. Classifying the multiple imaging according ...
Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries
Farmer, Alison
2010-01-01
Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...
Discs in misaligned binary systems
Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P
2016-01-01
We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...
Cryptography with DNA binary strands.
Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H
2000-06-01
Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'. PMID:10963862
Praveena Murugesan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.
Calphad thermodynamic description of some binary systems involving U
Berche, A. [DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dupin, N., E-mail: nathdupin@wanadoo.fr [Calcul Thermodynamique, 3 rue de l' avenir, 63670 Orcet (France); Gueneau, C. [DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Rado, C. [DEN/DTEC/SDTC/LTAP, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Sundman, B. [DEN/DANS/DPC/SCP, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); INSTN, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dumas, J.C. [DEN/CAD/DEC/SESC, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance cedex (France)
2011-04-15
Within the framework of a complex Calphad thermodynamic database for the 4th generation nuclear fuels, called Fuelbase, the description of different binary systems involving U are obtained. For most of the systems considered, only limited experimental work is available, often without any thermodynamic data. Assumptions as simple as possible were made in order to derive descriptions showing a reasonable agreement with experimental data and which allow to extrapolate in complex systems.
Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation
Kalikmanov, V.I.
2010-01-01
Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...
Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT
Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus
2013-01-01
Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylatio...
Coalescence of Binary Neutron Stars
Oohara, Ken-ichi; Namamura, Takashi
1996-01-01
The most important sources for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO or VIRGO are catastrophic events such as coalescence of a neutron-star binary. The final phase, or the last three milliseconds, of coalescence is considered. We describe results of numerical simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars using Newtonian and post-Newtonian hydrodynamics code and then discuss recent development of our 3D GR code.
Dielectric studies of binary mixtures of -propyl alcohol and ethylenediamine
B S Narwade; P G Gawali; Rekha Pande; G M Kalamse
2005-11-01
Dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (") of -propyl alcohol (PA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and their binary mixtures, for different mole fractions of ethylenediamine have been experimentally measured at 11.15 GHz microwave frequency. Values of density (), viscosity () and square refractive index ($n^{2}_{D}$) of binary mixtures as well as those of pure liquids are reported. Excess square refractive index, viscosity and activation energy of viscous flow have also been estimated. These parameters have been used to explain the formation of complexes in the system.
A reduction theorem for primitive binary permutation groups
Wiscons, Joshua
2015-01-01
A permutation group $(X,G)$ is said to be binary, or of relational complexity $2$, if for all $n$, the orbits of $G$ (acting diagonally) on $X^2$ determine the orbits of $G$ on $X^n$ in the following sense: for all $\\bar{x},\\bar{y} \\in X^n$, $\\bar{x}$ and $\\bar{y}$ are $G$-conjugate if and only if every pair of entries from $\\bar{x}$ is $G$-conjugate to the corresponding pair from $\\bar{y}$. Cherlin has conjectured that the only finite primitive binary permutation groups are $S_n$, groups of ...
The spatial structure of planetary nebulae with binary nuclei
The formation of the spatial structure of planetary nebulae with binary central stars is considered. It is shown that the main structure (the enhanced density area) has the form of an hour-glass or a toroid. The peripheral structure (a relatively fainter shell around the main structure) has the form of an ablate spheroid. If a planetary nebula is ionised incompletely, the observed form a peripheral structure can differ from the real form of an envelope
An Effective Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Binary Text Image
HU Zhihua; QIN Zhongping
2006-01-01
Aiming at the binary text image's characteristics of simple pixel, complex texture and bad immunity of information concealment, a digital watermarking embedment location choosing method has been put forward based upon compatible roughness set. The method divides binary text image into different equivalent classes. Equivalent classes are further divided into different subclasses according to each pixel's degree and texture changes between blocks. Through properties' combination, the embedment block and location which are fit for watermarking are found out. At last, different binary text images are chosen for emulation experiment. After being embedded, the image is compressed in JPIG-2. Gaussian noise, salt & pepper noise are added and cutting is employed to imitate the actual environment in which images may suffer from various attacks and interferences. The result shows that the detector has a sound testing effect under various conditions.
The Formation of the Wide Asynchronous Binary Asteroid Population
Jacobson, Seth A; McMahon, Jay
2013-01-01
We propose and analyze a new mechanism for the formation of the wide asynchronous binary population. These binary asteroids have wide semi-major axes relative to most near-Earth and Main Belt asteroid systems. Confirmed members have rapidly rotating primaries and satellites that are not tidally locked. Previously suggested formation mechanisms from impact ejecta, planetary flybys and directly from rotational fission events cannot satisfy all of the observations. The newly hypothesized mechanism works as follows: (i) these systems are formed from rotational fission, (ii) their satellites are tidally locked, (iii) their orbits are expanded by the BYORP effect, (iv) their satellites de-synchronize due to the adiabatic invariance between the libration of the secondary and the mutual orbit, and (v) the secondary avoids resynchronization due to the the YORP effect. This seemingly complex chain of events is a natural pathway for binaries with satellites that have particular shapes, which define the BYORP effect torq...
Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results
Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776
2011-01-01
A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...
High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries
Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)
2015-10-25
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.
Binaries and Globular Cluster Dynamics
Rasio, F A; Joshi, K J; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fregeau, John M.; Joshi, Kriten J.
2001-01-01
We summarize the results of recent theoretical work on the dynamical evolution of globular clusters containing primordial binaries. Even a very small initial binary fraction (e.g., 10%) can play a key role in supporting a cluster against gravothermal collapse for many relaxation times. Inelastic encounters between binaries and single stars or other binaries provide a very significant energy source for the cluster. These dynamical interactions also lead to the production of large numbers of exotic systems such as ultracompact X-ray binaries, recycled radio pulsars, double degenerate systems, and blue stragglers. Our work is based on a new parallel supercomputer code implementing Henon's Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems in the Fokker-Planck approximation. This new code allows us to calculate very accurately the evolution of a cluster containing a realistic number of stars (N ~ 10^5 - 10^6) in typically a few hours to a few days of computing time. The discrete, s...
Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars
Moeckel, Nickolas
2012-01-01
Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...
Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security
Marius POPA
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to increase the security and reliability of a software application. Also, the paper offers examples for binary code formats understanding and how the binary code injection may be applied.
The structure of contact binaries
Kaehler, H
2003-01-01
In radiative layers of rotating stars the luminosity carried by circulation currents through a surface of constant entropy (circulation luminosity) is shown to be positive. The corresponding decrease in the temperature gradient is important in the secondary of contact binaries. This result removes the deadlock in the theory of contact binaries. The resulting treatment of contact binaries is investigated, assuming thermal equilibrium. If the circulation luminosity is adjusted to give a prescribed temperature difference between the components, details turn out to be unimportant. The temperature difference is bound to be positive. The fractional extent of radiative regions is larger in the secondary than in the primary. In the course of evolution the period increases and the mass ratio decreases. A survey of unevolved and evolved contact configurations is presented. Observational tests are passed. In stable systems the degree of contact is small. Stable systems in the period-colour diagram, unevolved and evolved...
Gravitational-wave phasing for low-eccentricity inspiralling compact binaries to 3PN order
Moore, Blake; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2016-01-01
[abridged] Although gravitational radiation causes inspiralling compact binaries to circularize, a variety of astrophysical scenarios suggest that binaries might have small but nonnegligible orbital eccentricities when they enter the low-frequency bands of ground and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If not accounted for, even a small orbital eccentricity can cause a potentially significant systematic error in the mass parameters of an inspiralling binary. Gravitational-wave search templates typically rely on the quasi-circular approximation, which provides relatively simple expressions for the gravitational-wave phase to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order. The quasi-Keplerian formalism provides an elegant but complex description of the post-Newtonian corrections to the orbits and waveforms of inspiralling binaries with any eccentricity. Here we specialize the quasi-Keplerian formalism to binaries with low eccentricity. In this limit the non-periodic contribution to the gravitational-wave phasing can be ex...
Coalescing binaries and Doppler experiments
Vecchio, A.; Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.
1997-01-01
We discuss the sensitivity of the CASSINI experiments to gravitational waves emitted by the in-spiral of compact binaries. We show that the maximum distance reachable by the instrument is $\\sim 100$ Mpc. In particular, CASSINI can detect massive black hole binaries with chirp mass $\\simgt 10^6 \\Ms$ in the Virgo Cluster with signal-to-noise ratio between 5 and 30 and possible compact objects of mass $\\simgt 30 \\Ms$ orbiting the massive black hole that our Galactic Centre is likely to harbour.
Rectangular Decomposition of Binary Images
Suk, Tomáš; Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan
Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Blanc-Talon, J.; Popescu, D.; Philips, W.; Scheunders, P.), s. 213-224 ISBN 978-3-642-33139-8. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7517). [Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2012). Brno (CZ), 04.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : binary image decomposition * generalized delta-method * distance transformation * quadtree * bipartite graph * image compression * fast convolution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/suk-rectangular decomposition of binary images.pdf
Tariq Jamil
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Contrary to the traditional base 2 binary number system, used in today’s computers, in which a complex number is represented by two separate binary entities, one for the real part and one for the imaginary part, Complex Binary Number System (CBNS, a binary number system with base (−1+j, is used to represent a given complex number in single binary string format. In this paper, CBNS is reviewed and arithmetic algorithms for this number system are presented. The design of a CBNS-based parallel processor utilizing content-addressable memory for implementation of associative dataflow concept has been described and software-related issues have also been explained.
Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Stellar Companions
Gies, D R; Guo, Z; Lester, K V; Orosz, J A; Peters, G J
2015-01-01
Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.
Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Meifen
2014-01-01
The determination of the solid-liquid phase diagram of a binary system is always used as an experiment in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory courses. However, most phase diagrams investigated in the lab are simple eutectic ones, despite the fact that complex binary solid-liquid phase diagrams are more common. In this article, the…
Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security
Marius POPA; Sergiu Marin CAPISIZU
2013-01-01
The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to...
Discs in misaligned binary systems
Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.
2016-08-01
We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.
A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline
Littenberg, Tyson B.
2011-01-01
The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.
CFD Simulations of Binary Nucleation
Herrmann, E.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, A-P.; Kulmala, M.
Helsinki : -, 2010, P3U16. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Grant ostatní: FCR(FI) 1118615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleation * binary * parameterization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi
Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries
Tokovinin, Andrei
2015-01-01
A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...
A Redundant Binary Algorithm for RSA
施荣华
1996-01-01
The normal form and modified normal form for binary redundant representation are defined.A redundant binary algorithm to compute modular exponentiation for very large integers is proposed.It is shown that the proposed algorithm requires the minimum number of basic operations(modular multiplications)among all possible binary redundant representations.
Competitive learning for binary valued data
Leisch, Friedrich; Weingessel, Andreas; Dimitriadou, Evgenia
1998-01-01
We propose a new approach for using online competitive learning on binary data. The usual Euclidean distance is replaced by binary distance measures, which take possible asymmetries of binary data into account and therefore provide a "different point of view" for looking at the data. The method is demonstrated on two artificial examples and applied on tourist marketing research data. (author's abstract)
Hazlehurst Benny
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a critique of the ‘binary’ nature of much biblical interpretation and ethical belief in the Church, rejecting simplistic ‘either-or’ approaches to both. Instead there is offered an interpretation of key biblical texts through the lenses of circumstances, needs and motivation. It is argued that, when these factors are taken into account, even for Evangelicals, there is no longer a substantive biblical case against the acceptance of faithful, loving same-sex partnerships and the development of a positive Christian ethic for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. At the very least, the complexity of the interpretive task must lead to greater openness to and acceptance of those from whom we differ.
Implementation of Binary Search Trees Via Smart Pointers
Ivaylo Donchev
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Study of binary trees has prominent place in the training course of DSA (Data Structures and Algorithms. Their implementation in C++ however is traditionally difficult for students. To a large extent these difficulties are due not so much to the complexity of algorithms as to language complexity in terms of memory management by raw pointers – the programmer must consider too many details to ensure a reliable, efficient and secure implementation. Evolution of C++ regarded to automated resource management, as well as experience in implementation of linear lists by means of C++ 11/14 lead to an attempt to implement binary search trees (BST via smart pointers as well. In the present paper, the authors share experience in this direction. Some conclusions about pedagogical aspects and effectiveness of the new classes, compared to traditional library containers and implementation with built-in pointers, are made.
A Novel Path Delay Fault Simulator Using Binary Logic
Ananta K. Majhi; James Jacob; Patnaik, Lalit M.
1996-01-01
A novel path delay fault simulator for combinational logic circuits which is capable of detecting both robust and nonrobust paths is presented. Particular emphasis has been given for the use of binary logic rather than the multiple-valued logic as used in the existing simulators which contributes to the reduction of the overall complexity of the algorithm. A rule based approach has been developed which identifies all robust and nonrobust paths tested by a two-pattern test , while backtracing ...
Visible-Wavelength Integrated Spectroscopy of Binary Asteroids
Reiss, A. E.; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.
2009-12-01
Binary asteroid systems consist of two small planetary bodies orbiting a common center of mass. To date, approximately 65 systems have been imaged using adaptive optics, Hubble Space Telescope observations, and various radar imaging methods. An additional 100 binaries are suspected to exist based on light curve analysis and new discoveries are being announced every month. One important task involved in the study of these systems is the classification of their surface mineralogy. The compositional characterization of asteroid surfaces requires observations across a wide wavelength range. A number of rigorous classification methods have been used to group asteroids into classes based on their observed characteristics. Most recently, a feature-based taxonomy was developed by Bus and Binzel [Bus S. J. and Binzel R. P. (2002) Icarus 158, 146-177]. Bus and Binzel decomposed the visible-wavelength (0.44 - 0.92 μm) spectra of asteroids into three major groups—complexes C-, S-, and X-. Each complex was then further refined into 26 sub-classes associated with distinct mineralogical surface features. Using the Shane 3-meter telescope at Lick Observatory, we observed twelve binary asteroid systems with the KAST double spectrograph. The primary observations were conducted on three nights between May and July of 2009 as a part of an observation program to complete the Virtual Observatory Binary Asteroids Database (VOBAD). The spectrograph at the Shane telescope provides wavelength coverage between 0.3 and 1.0 μm using both blue (0.3-0.57 μm) and red (0.53-1.0 μm) channels, with each spectrograph optimized for its wavelength range. Using this instrument, we obtained a comprehensive measurement of our targets' visible spectra, exceeding the wavelength range over which Bus and Binzel taxonomy is based. We obtained visible-wavelength (0.3 - 1.0 μm) spectra for twelve binary asteroid systems, including six objects not previously classified using Bus and Binzel taxonomic
Accretion disk dynamics in X-ray binaries
Peris, Charith Srian
Accreting X-ray binaries consist of a normal star which orbits a compact object with the former transferring matter onto the later via an accretion disk. These accretion disks emit radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis exploits two regions of the spectrum, exploring the (1) inner disk regions of an accreting black hole binary, GRS1915+105, using X-ray spectral analysis and (2) the outer accretion disks of a set of neutron star and black hole binaries using Doppler Tomography applied on optical observations. X-ray spectral analysis of black hole binary GRS1915+105: GRS1915+105 stands out as an exceptional black hole primarily due to the wild variability exhibited by about half of its X-ray observations. This study focused on the steady X-ray observations of the source, which were found to exhibit significant curvature in the harder coronal component within the RXTE/PCA band-pass. The roughly constant inner-disk radius seen in a majority of the steady-soft observations is strongly reminiscent of canonical soft state black-hole binaries. Remarkably, the steady-hard observations show the presence of growing truncation in the inner-disk. A majority of the steady observations of GRS1915+105 map to the states observed in canonical black hole binaries which suggests that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states. Optical tomography of X-ray binary systems: Doppler tomography was applied to the strong line features present in the optical spectra of X-ray binaries in order to determine the geometric structure of the systems' emitting regions. The point where the accretion stream hits the disk, also referred to as the "hotspot'', is clearly identified in the neutron star system V691 CrA and the black hole system Nova Muscae 1991. Evidence for stream-disk overflows exist in both systems, consistent with relatively high accretion rates. In contrast, V926 Sco does not show evidence for the presence of a hotspot which
Thermodiffusion in binary and ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon + alcohol mixtures
Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad
2012-12-01
Thermodiffusion in complex mixtures, such as associating, molten metal, and polymer mixtures is difficult to model usually owing to the occurrence of a sign change in the thermodiffusion coefficient when the mixture concentration and temperature change. A mixture comprised of a nonpolar hydrocarbon and an alcohol is a complex and highly non-ideal mixture. In this paper an existing binary non-equilibrium thermodynamics model (Eslamian and Saghir, Physical Review E 80, 061201, 2009) developed for aqueous mixtures of alcohols is examined against the experimental data of binary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. For ternary mixtures, non-equilibrium thermodynamic expressions developed by the authors for aqueous mixtures of alcohols (Eslamian and Saghir, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, DOI 10.1002/cjce.20581) is used to predict thermodiffusion coefficients of ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. The rationale behind the sign change is elucidated and attributed to an anomalous change in the molecular structure and therefore viscosity of such mixtures. Model predictions of thermodiffusion coefficients of binary mixtures predict a sign change consistent with the experimental data although the model is still too primitive to capture all structural complexities. For instance, in the methanol-benzene mixture where the model predictions are poorest, the viscosity data show that when concentration varies, the mixture's molecular structure experiences a severe change twice, the first major change leading to a maximum in the thermodiffusion coefficient, whereas the second change causes a sign change.
Remnants of compact binary mergers
Domainko, W
2006-01-01
We investigate the long-term evolution and observability of remnants originating from the merger of compact binary systems and discuss the differences to supernova remnants. Compact binary mergers expel much smaller amounts of mass at much higher velocities, as compared to supernovae, which will affect the dynamical evolution of their remnants. The ejecta of mergers consist of very neutron rich nuclei. Some of these neutron rich nuclei will produce observational signatures in form of gamma ray lines during their decay. The composition of the ejecta might even give interesting constraints about the internal structure of the neutron star. We further discuss the possibility that merger remnants appear as recently discovered 'dark accelerators' which are extended TeV sources which lack emission in other bands.
Event Rates for Binary Inspiral
Kalogera, V
2001-01-01
Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.
Modified binary particle swam optimization
Sangwook Lee; Sangmoon Soak; Sanghoun Oh; Witold Pedrycz; Moongu Jeon
2008-01-01
This paper presents a modified binary particle swarm optimization(BPSO)which adopts concepts of the genotype-phenotype rep-resentation and the mutation operator of genetic algorithms.Its main feature is that the BPSO can be treated as a continuous PSO.The proposed BPSO algorithm is tested on various benchmark functions,and its performance is compared with that of the original BPSO.Experimental results show that the modified BPSO outperforms the original BPSO algorithm.
Tides in asynchronous binary systems
Toledano, Oswaldo; Moreno, Edmundo; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Detmers, R.; Langer, Norbert
2006-01-01
Stellar oscillations are excited in non-synchronously rotating stars in binary systems due to the tidal forces. Tangential components of the tides can drive a shear flow which behaves as a differentially forced rotating structure in a stratified outer medium. In this paper we show that our single-layer approximation for the calculation of the forced oscillations yields results that are consistent with the predictions for the synchronization timescales in circular orbits. In addition, calibrat...
Ribeiro, Emerson Schwingel; Dias, Silvio Luis Pereira; Gushikem, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo
2004-02-25
In this work, SiO{sub 2}/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by the sol-gel processing method, having a specific surface area, S{sub BET}, of 790 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, an average pore diameter of 1.9 nm and 4.7 wt.% of Sb, was used as substrate base for immobilization of the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine ion. Cobalt(II) ion was inserted into the porphyrin ring with a yield of complex bonded to the substrate surface of 59.4 {mu} mol g{sup -1}. A carbon paste electrode of this material was used to study, by linear sweeping voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques, the electrocatalytic reduction of dissolved oxygen. The reduction, at the electrode solid-solution interface, occurred at -0.25 V versus SCE in 1.0 mol l{sup -1} KCl solution, pH 5.5, by a four electron mechanism. The electrode response was invariant under various oxidation-reduction cycles showing that the system is chemically very stable. Such characteristics allowed the study of the electrode response towards various dissolved oxygen concentrations using the chronoamperometry technique. The cathodic peak current intensities plotted against O{sub 2} concentrations, between 1.0 and 12.8 mg l{sup -1}, showed a linear correlation. The electrode response time was very fast, i.e. about 1 s. This study was extended using the electrode to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen in sea water samples.
Binary and multifragment decay of very hot nuclei
Compound binary emission of complex fragments is illustrated for a variety of reactions. Complex fragment emission from 35 and 40 MeV/N 139La + 12C, 27Al, 40Ca and 51V reactions has been studied. Multifragment events from these reactions were assigned to sources characterized by their energy and mass through the incomplete-fusion-model kinematics. Excitation functions for the various multifragment channels appear to be nearly independent of the system and bombarding energy. Preliminary comparisons of the data with sequential-statistical-decay calculations are discussed. 14 refs., 7 figs
Galaxy Rotation and Rapid Supermassive Binary Coalescence
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-09-01
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.
Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster
Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John
2007-01-01
We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...
Evolution of binary stars in multiple-population globular clusters - II. Compact binaries
Hong, Jongsuk; Vesperini, Enrico; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale
2016-04-01
We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters. We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations. The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG and the SG binary fraction with the distance from the cluster centre and its dependence on the binary binding energy and cluster structural parameters. The difference between the binary fraction in the FG and the SG populations found in our simulations is consistent with the results of observational studies finding a smaller binary fraction in the SG population.
Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits
Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas
2016-01-01
Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...
Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries
Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise
2016-01-01
It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly ecce...
Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs
Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth
2015-01-01
In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.
Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars
Kaspi, V. M.
1999-01-01
Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes ...
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry
Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A
2016-01-01
The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.
PopCORN: Hunting down the differences between binary population synthesis codes
Toonen, S; Mennekens, N; Ruiter, A J
2013-01-01
Binary population synthesis (BPS) modelling is a very effective tool to study the evolution and properties of close binary systems. The uncertainty in the parameters of the model and their effect on a population can be tested in a statistical way, which then leads to a deeper understanding of the underlying physical processes involved. To understand the predictive power of BPS codes, we study the similarities and differences in the predicted populations of four different BPS codes for low- and intermediate-mass binaries. We investigate whether the differences are caused by different assumptions made in the BPS codes or by numerical effects. To simplify the complex problem of comparing BPS codes, we equalise the inherent assumptions as much as possible. We find that the simulated populations are similar between the codes. Regarding the population of binaries with one WD, there is very good agreement between the physical characteristics, the evolutionary channels that lead to the birth of these systems, and the...
Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars
Kaspi, V M
1999-01-01
Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes Multibeam survey, a major survey of the Galactic Plane which promises to discover new relativistic binary pulsar systems.
Speech perception of noise with binary gains
Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;
2008-01-01
For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed by the i...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....
In work on the basis of a method of the kinetic equations it is output the differential equations for binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids. These equations are the nonuniform equations of parabolic type. The solution of these equations completely feature existential behaviour of binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids, i.e. process of a structural relaxation. (author)
Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries
St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.
Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
2001-10-01
ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a
The structures of binary compounds
Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR
1990-01-01
- Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders
Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W
2005-01-01
Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.
Binary and Non-binary Aspects of 158Tb(40Ar, PLF) Reaction at Energies Close to 10 MeV/nucleon
Results of a complex analysis of 40Ar + 159Tb collision data obtained from inclusive and coincidence measurements are presented. The experimental results support the binary nature of projectile like fragments close in Z to the projectile. Indirect evidences for primary projectile and projectile like fragment breakup following transfer reaction and/or inelastic scattering were found. (author)
R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter
Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran
2013-01-01
R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...
Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries
Tauris, Thomas M
2015-01-01
In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...
Polarization in binary microlensing events
The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon-scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system. We show that, during a microlensing event, the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturbations observed near the maximum of the event light-curve. We consider a specific event case for which the parameter values corresponding to the two solutions are given. Then, assuming a polarization model for the source star, we compute the two expected polarization profiles. The position of the two peaks appearing in the polarization curves and the characteristic time interval between them allow us to distinguish between the binary and planetary lens solutions. (paper)
Investigation of metal-polyelectrolyte complex toxicity.
Karahan, Mesut; Mustafaeva, Zeynep; Koç, Rabia Çakır; Bağırova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M
2014-05-01
Water-soluble binary and ternary copper complexes of polyelectrolytes were synthesized, and the toxicity of these complexes was tested in mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) in vitro. Both the binary and ternary complexes were prepared at the ratio of 0.4 mole copper(II) ions per monomer of acrylic acid and 0.5 mole copper(II) ions per monomer of methyl vinyl ether maleic anhydride, furthermore at the ratio of 1 and 2 mole bovine serum albumin per mole of polyacrylic acid and poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride), respectively. Compared to binary copper(II)-polyelectrolyte complexes, these ternary complexes have been determined to be of least toxicity. PMID:22914259
Pulsating Components in Binary and Multiple Stellar Systems --- A Catalog of Oscillating Binaries
Zhou, A. -Y.
2010-01-01
We present an up-to-date catalog of pulsating binaries, i.e. the binary and multiple stellar systems containing pulsating components, along with a statistics on them. Compared to the earlier compilation by Soydugan et al.(2006a) of 25 delta Scuti-type `oscillating Algol-type eclipsing binaries' (oEA), the recent collection of 74 oEA by Liakos et al.(2012), and the collection of Cepheids in binaries by Szabados (2003a), the numbers and types of pulsating variables in binaries are now extended....
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Yungelson, Lev R.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Konstantin A. Postnov
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over o...
Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries
Muñoz, Diego J
2016-01-01
We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ~5 times the binary period P_b,accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ~1P_b. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This "symmetry breaking" between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200 P_b, and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the ...
ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES
In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.
Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions
Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;
2012-01-01
Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...
Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology
Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.
1993-01-01
We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.
Gravitational waves from inspiralling binary black holes
Binary black holes are the most promising candidate sources for the first generation of earth-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We summarize and discuss the state-of-the-art analytical techniques developed during the last few years to better describe the late dynamical evolution of binary black holes of comparable masses
Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits
Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Henning, Thomas
2012-01-01
We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.
Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions
Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew
2016-01-01
Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...
Orbital dynamics of binary boson star systems
We extend our previous studies of head-on collisions of boson stars by considering orbiting binary boson stars. We concentrate on equal-mass binaries and study the dynamical behavior of boson/boson and boson/antiboson pairs. We examine the gravitational wave output of these binaries and compare with other compact binaries. Such a comparison lets us probe the apparent simplicity observed in gravitational waves produced by black hole binary systems. In our system of interest however, there is an additional internal freedom which plays a significant role in the system's dynamics, namely, the phase of each star. Our evolutions show rather simple behavior at early times, but large differences occur at late times for the various initial configurations
Magneto Binary Nanofluid Convection in Porous Medium
Jyoti Sharma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of an externally impressed magnetic field on the stability of a binary nanofluid layer in porous medium is considered in this work. The conservation equations related to the system are solved using normal mode technique and Galerkin method to analyze the problem. The complex expressions are approximated to get useful results. Mode of heat transfer is stationary for top heavy distribution of nanoparticles in the fluid layer and top heavy nanofluids are very less stable than regular fluids. Oscillatory motions are possible for bottom heavy distribution of nanoparticles and they are not much influenced by properties of different nanoparticles. A comparative analysis of the instability of water based nanofluids with metallic (Cu, Ag and semiconducting (TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles under the influence of magnetic field is examined. Semiconducting nanofluids are found to be more stable than metallic nanofluids. Porosity destabilizes the layer while solute difference (at the boundaries of the layer stabilizes it. Magnetic field stabilizes the fluid layer system significantly.
Detecting gravitational waves from highly eccentric compact binaries
Tai, Kai Sheng; Pretorius, Frans
2014-01-01
In dense stellar regions, highly eccentric binaries of black holes and neutron stars can form through various n-body interactions. Such a binary could emit a significant fraction of its binding energy in a sequence of largely isolated gravitational wave bursts prior to merger. Given expected black hole and neutron star masses, many such systems will emit these repeated bursts at frequencies within the sensitive band of contemporary ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Unfortunately, existing gravitational wave searches are ill-suited to detect these signals. In this work, we adapt a "power stacking" method to the detection of gravitational wave signals from highly eccentric binaries. We implement this method as an extension of the Q-transform, a projection onto a multiresolution basis of windowed complex exponentials that has previously been used to analyze data from the network of LIGO/Virgo detectors. Our method searches for excess power over an ensemble of time-frequency tiles. We characterize the pe...
Polarization in binary microlensing events
Ingrosso, G; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Novati, S Calchi; Jetzer, Ph; Liuzzi, G; Zakharov, A
2013-01-01
The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars {in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system.} We show that {during a microlensing event} the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity, that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturba...
Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry
Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W
2013-01-01
Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.
Binary theory of electronic stopping
Sigmund, P
2002-01-01
Binary stopping theory has been developed to characterize the electronic stopping of swift heavy ions in matter. It is an extension of Bohr's classical theory of 1913 incorporating screening, higher-order-Z sub 1 and shell corrections, high-speed quantum and relativity corrections as well as projectile excitation and ionization. The main numerical input comes from optical properties. The computation of shell corrections involves orbital velocity distributions of target and projectile electrons. Calculated stopping parameters depend on ion charge. Equilibrium stopping forces may be computed by adoption of a suitable model for the equilibrium charge state. This paper summarizes the current status of the theory, in particular the sensitivity of its predictions to pertinent input. Charge-dependent stopping forces have been calculated for selected systems and compared to experimental results. Equilibrium stopping forces calculated for a wide variety of ion-target combinations are compared with experimental data fr...
Binary mixtures of chiral gases
Presilla, Carlo
2015-01-01
A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.
The Be X-ray Binary Outburst Zoo II
Kuehnel, M.; Kretschmar, P.; Nespoli, E.; Okazaki, A. T.; Schoenherr, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Falkner, S.; Brand, T.; Anders, F.; Schwarm, F.-W.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Fuerst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.
2015-03-01
We have continued our recently started systematic study of Be X-ray binary (BeXRB) outbursts. Specifically, we are developing a catalogue of outbursts including their basic properties based on nearly all available X-ray all-sky-monitors. These properties are derived by fitting asymmetric Gaussians to the outburst lightcurves. This model describes most of the outbursts covered by our preliminary catalogue well; only 13% of all datasets show more complex outburst shapes. Analyzing the basic properties, we reveal a strong correlation between the outburst length and the reached peak flux. As an example, we discuss possible models describing the observed correlation in EXO 2030+375.
2-D traveling-wave patterns in binary fluid convection
Surko, C.M.; Porta, A.L. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
An overview is presented of recent experiments designed to study two-dimensional traveling-wave convection in binary fluid convection in a large aspect ratio container. Disordered patterns are observed when convection is initiated. As time proceeds, they evolve to more ordered patterns, consisting of several domains of traveling-waves separated by well-defined domain boundaries. The detailed character of the patterns depends sensitively on the Rayleigh number. Numerical techniques are described which were developed to provide a quantitative characterization of the traveling-wave patterns. Applications of complex demodulation techniques are also described, which make a detailed study of the structure and dynamics of the domain boundaries possible.
Kozai effect on planetesimal accretion in highly inclined binaries
Zhou J.-L.
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Planet formation in highly inclined binaries is a complex issue. The Kozai mechanism plays an important role in this situation, since it will lead to high eccentricity and high relative impact velocity of planetesimals, thus hinder the planetesimal accretion. However, as we will show here, the presence of gas disk in some circumstance will suppress the Kozai effect by increasing the apsidal precession rate of the planetesimals, which increases the critical inclination. A criterion of the disk mass above which Kozai effect will not occur is given.
Gamma-ray binaries and related systems
Dubus, Guillaume
2013-01-01
After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high (0.1-100 GeV) and very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called 'gamma-ray binaries', since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary (eta Car) have also been detected - 'related systems' that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common ? What drives their high-energy emission ? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants ? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as ...
Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters
Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia
2016-01-01
Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...
Versatile screening for binary protein-protein interactions by yeast two-hybrid mating
Letteboer, S.J.F.; Roepman, R.
2008-01-01
Identification of binary protein-protein interactions is a crucial step in determining the molecular context and functional pathways of proteins. State-of-the-art proteomics techniques provide high-throughput information on the content of proteomes and protein complexes, but give little information
Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass
YAO KeFu; CHEN Na
2008-01-01
Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0, 1, and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content, the glass transition temperature Tg, the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover, the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability, which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.
Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass
2008-01-01
Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0,1,and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content,the glass transition temperature Tg,the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover,the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability,which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
2014-01-01
We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the...... same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects with...
Cassini states for black hole binaries
Correia, Alexandre C. M.
2015-01-01
Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems base...
Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms
Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel
2014-01-01
We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)
2013-11-10
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.
Coron, Jean-Sébastien; Roy, Arnab; Vivek, Srinivas
2015-01-01
We describe a new technique for evaluating polynomials over binary finite fields. This is useful in the context of anti-DPA countermeasures when an S-box is expressed as a polynomial over a binary finite field. For n-bit S-boxes, our new technique has heuristic complexity O(2n/2/√n) instead of O(2n....../2) proven complexity for the Parity-Split method. We also prove a lower bound of Ω(2n/2/√n) on the complexity of any method to evaluate n-bit S-boxes; this shows that our method is asymptotically optimal. Here, complexity refers to the number of non-linear multiplications required to evaluate the...
Compact Binaries in Star Clusters I - Black Hole Binaries Inside Globular Clusters
Downing, J. M. B.; Benacquista, M. J.; Giersz, M.; Spurzem, R.
2009-01-01
We study the compact binary population in star clusters, focusing on binaries containing black holes, using a self-consistent Monte Carlo treatment of dynamics and full stellar evolution. We find that the black holes experience strong mass segregation and become centrally concentrated. In the core the black holes interact strongly with each other and black hole-black hole binaries are formed very efficiently. The strong interactions, however, also destroy or eject the black hole-black hole bi...
Properties of planets in binary systems. The role of binary separation
Desidera, S.; Barbieri, M.
2006-01-01
The statistical properties of planets in binaries were investigated. Any difference to planets orbiting single stars can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. As planets were found around components of binaries with very different separation and mass ratio, it is particularly important to study the characteristics of planets as a function of the effective gravitational influence of the companion. A compilation of planets in binary systems was made; a search for compa...
Binaries in the Hipparcos data: Keep digging
Pourbaix, D; Jorissen, A
2004-01-01
Among the 120 000 objects in the Hipparcos catalogue, only 235 were fitted with an orbital model. Besides these 235 original astrometric binaries, most Hipparcos entries with a known spectroscopic orbit (extrasolar planet or stellar companion) have now been re-processed, as part of the on-going construction of the 9th Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (SB9, available at http://sb9.astro.ulb.ac.be). The pitfalls and successes of this re-processing are discussed in various contexts, like (i) orbital inclinations: the holy grail for extrasolar planets (ii) searching for binaries without a priori knowledge of their spectroscopic orbital elements, and application to barium stars (iii) why not all SB9 entries yield acceptable astrometric solutions? The lessons learned from this study are useful to devise the best possible binary-detection and orbit-determination algorithms for future astrometric missions like GAIA.
A mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G
2016-01-01
We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries
Beck P. G.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.
Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters - II. Compact Binaries
Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale
2016-01-01
We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters.We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations.The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG an...
Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field
Michaely, Erez
2015-01-01
We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...
Binary is Good: A Binary Inference Framework for Primary User Separation in Cognitive Radio Networks
Nguyen, Huy; Han, Zhu
2010-01-01
Primary users (PU) separation concerns with the issues of distinguishing and characterizing primary users in cognitive radio (CR) networks. We argue the need for PU separation in the context of collaborative spectrum sensing and monitor selection. In this paper, we model the observations of monitors as boolean OR mixtures of underlying binary latency sources for PUs, and devise a novel binary inference algorithm for PU separation. Simulation results show that without prior knowledge regarding PUs' activities, the algorithm achieves high inference accuracy. An interesting implication of the proposed algorithm is the ability to effectively represent n independent binary sources via (correlated) binary vectors of logarithmic length.
Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit
McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)
2014-12-21
This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.
Structure of simple (binary) oxides
Crystal structures of different simple and binary oxides of M3O, M2O, MO, MO2, MO4, MO3, M2O3, M3O4, M2O5, M2O7 composition as well as lowest cesium oxides (Cs7O, Cs4O, Cs11O3) are considered. Cs3O crystals are constructed out of the colomns of the Cs3O composition consisting of octahedrals OCs6 jointed through the opposite faces. This is the ZrI3 ''antistructure''. Cs2O has the CdCl2 antistructure. ZrO2, HfO2, CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2, PuO2, AmO2, CmO2, PoO2 oxides have the structural type of fluorite of rutile - VO2, NbO2, TaO2, MoO2, ReO2 oxides, of wurtzite - BeO. The NbO oxide is unique, in its structure the oxygen and niobium atoms form four complanar bonds. A three-dimensional skeleton constructed out of the octahedral structural units Nb6 (Nb-Nb 2.98 A) is separated. ZrO2 is a polymorphous, at 1100 grad. the monoclinic modification transfers to tetragonal. M2O7 oxides are Re2O7, Tc2O7
Detecting Eccentric Globular Cluster Binaries with LISA
Benacquista, M.
2001-01-01
The energy carried in the gravitational wave signal from an eccentric binary is spread across several harmonics of the orbital frequency. The inclusion of the harmonics in the analysis of the gravitational wave signal increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal for binaries whose fundamental frequency is below the galactic confusion-limited noise cut-off. This can allow for an improved angular resolution for sources whose orbital period is greater than 2000 s. Globular cluster ...
Copula-based bivariate binary response models
Winkelmann, Rainer
2009-01-01
The bivariate probit model is frequently used for estimating the effect of an endogenous binary regressor on a binary outcome variable. This paper discusses simple modifications that maintain the probit assumption for the marginal distributions while introducing non-normal dependence among the two variables using copulas. Simulation results and evidence from two applications, one on the effect of insurance status on ambulatory expenditure and one on the effect of completing high school on sub...
Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations
Vassiliki Kalogera
2004-10-01
We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.
Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions
Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew
2016-01-01
Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in...
GAIA survey of galactic eclipsing binaries
Zwitter, Tomaz
2002-01-01
General importance and capabilities of observations of eclipsing binaries by the forthcoming ESA mission GAIA are discussed. Availability of spectroscopic observations and a large number of photometric bands on board will make it possible to reliably determine physical parameters for $\\sim 10^5$ binary stars. It is stressed that current methods of object by object analysis will have to be modified and included in an automatic analysis pipeline.
Formation of Compact Binaries in Globular Clusters
Rappaport, Saul; Pfahl, Eric; Rasio, Fred; Podsiadlowski, Philipp
2001-01-01
We report here on two complementary population synthesis studies which relate directly to the formation and evolution of neutron star binaries in globular clusters. In the first, we compute the probability of retaining neutron stars in globular clusters, and quantitatively confirm the idea that the retention fraction for neutron stars born in binary systems is greatly enhanced over those born in isolated stars. However, the retention fraction may well be insufficient to explain the current po...
Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems
This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)
Binary nature of the Barium stars
We present radial-velocity spectrometer observations that indicate that Ba II stars are binary systems. The secondary stars of these systems have low masses, consistent with their being degenerate objects which have lost mass onto their primaries in a previous stage of evolution. It is suggested that the Population II equivalents, the CH stars, may also be binary systems. This may be related to the fact that they are found only in globular clusters of the lowest central concentration
On homogeneous nontransitive binary perfect code
Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.
2014-01-01
Studying binary perfect codes we show the existence of homogeneous nontransitive codes. Thus, as far as perfect codes are concerned, the propelinear codes are strictly contained in transitive codes, wheresas homogeneous codes form a strict subclass of transitive codes. In the work we deduce a necessary and sufficient condition for transitivity of perfect binary codes of rank one more than that of Hamming code. The paper is in Russian.
The Wolf-Rayet eclipsing binary HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud
The Wolf-Rayet star HD 5980, which is probably associated with the bright HII region NGC 346 of the Small Magellanic Cloud, was found to be an eclipsing binary by Hoffmann, Stift and Moffat (1978). Breysacher and Perrier (1980) determined the orbital period, P=19.26 +- 0.003d, of the system whose light curve reveals a strongly eccentric orbit (e=0.47 for i=800). The behaviour of the light curve outside the eclipses shows that one is dealing with a rather complex binary system. An analysis of the spectroscopic data is presented here. (Auth.)
The Last Three Minutes Issues in Gravitational Wave Measurements of Coalescing Compact Binaries
Cutler, C; Bildsten, L; Finn, L S; Flanagan, E E; Kennefick, D; Markovic, D M; Ori, A; Poisson, E; Sussman, G J; Thorne, K S; Cutler, Curt; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.; Bildsten, Lars; Finn, Lee Samuel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Kennefick, Daniel; Markovic, Dragoljubov M.; Ori, Amos; Poisson, Eric; Sussman, Gerald Jay; Thorne, Kip S.
1993-01-01
Gravitational-wave interferometers are expected to monitor the last three minutes of inspiral and final coalescence of neutron star and black hole binaries at distances approaching cosmological, where the event rate may be many per year. Because the binary's accumulated orbital phase can be measured to a fractional accuracy $\\ll 10^{-3}$ and relativistic effects are large, the waveforms will be far more complex, carry more information, and be far harder to model theoretically than has been expected. Theorists must begin now to lay a foundation for extracting the waves' information.
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Guo, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhongcheng; Li, Xiu; Li, Qin; You, Jane
2014-01-01
Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8), image patch (Statistical_Joint) and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal) are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor. PMID:24520346
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Zhenhua Guo
Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.