Sample records for bihar flood survivors

  1. Risk of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the floods in Bihar, India

    Telles Shirley


    Full Text Available Background: Following a natural disaster, survivors are vulnerable to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and/ or depression. Objectives: (i To screen survivors of the Bihar floods a month after the event to determine their scores in a screening questionnaire for PTSD and/ or depression and (ii to correlate these scores with age and gender. Materials and Methods: One thousand two hundred eighty-nine persons (645 females who had been directly exposed to the floods in Bihar, India, in August 2008 were assessed. The Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health (SQD was used to screen for PTSD and depression. Statistical Analysis: Separate two-factor ANOVAs were used to compare persons of both sexes and 5 different age groups for PTSD and depression scores. This was followed by post-hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results: People over the age of 60 years had significantly higher scores for PTSD and depression compared to all groups (P< 0.05 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Following a natural disaster, older people appear more vulnerable to develop PTSD and depression. This should be taken into account in devising strategies for disaster relief.

  2. Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study

    Joshi Meesha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285

  3. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  4. The colonial state, zamindars and the politics of flood control in north Bihar (1850–1945)

    Praveen Singh


    The colonial dispensation in north Bihar believed that the rivers of the flood plains needed to be controlled. The zamindar became the pivot around which the implementation of these flood control efforts revolved. Along with the railways and roads, the uncontrolled manner in which many zamindary embankments were built led to a deterioration in the flood situation. By the 1930s, there was a strong view among engineers that rivers should not be controlled and embankments should be removed where...

  5. Chemical flooding in a virtual environment - a survivor`s guide to VR development

    Bethel, W.


    Building something which could be called {open_quotes}virtual reality{close_quotes} (VR) is something of a challenge, particularly when nobody really seems to agree on a definition of VR. The author wanted to combine scientific visualization with VR, resulting in an environment useful for assisting scientific research. He demonstrates the combination of VR and scientific visualization in a prototype application. The VR application constructed consists of a dataflow based system for performing scientific visualization (AVS), extensions to the system to support VR input devices and a numerical simulation ported into the dataflow environment. The VR system includes two inexpensive, off-the-shelf VR devices and some custom code. A working system was assembled with about two man-months of effort. The system allows the user to specify parameters for a chemical flooding simulation as well as some viewing parameters using VR input devices, as well as view the output using VR output devices. In chemical flooding, there is a subsurface region that contains chemicals which are to be removed. Secondary oil recovery and environmental remediation are typical applications of chemical flooding. The process assumes one or more injection wells, and one or more production wells. Chemicals or water are pumped into the ground, mobilizing and displacing hydrocarbons or contaminants. The placement of the production and injection wells, and other parameters of the wells, are the most important variables in the simulation.

  6. Preparing to manage injury burden of Bihar

    Vikas Verma


    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma care in Bihar is beset by a number of problems namely lack of funds, one of the highest population densities in the country, far flung flood prone areas that remain inaccessible to healthcare for several months of an year, lack of formal pre-hospital care services and an organized system of trauma care.. EMS services are run by many different organizations such as government, police, fire, hospital or private organizations. There is lack of coordination between these organizations.  First response to the injured is very often provided by the police who tend to transfer the patient to the nearest government health care centre. There is no linkage with hospital trauma services. This paper presents the interim results of a plan developed and being implemented at AIIMS, Patna in collaboration with the government of Bihar and Adams Cowley shock trauma trauma centre, Baltimore, USA. Methods: Participants from the Bihar police and Bihar health services were nominated by the government of Bihar. One hundred fifty one participants were imparted a 3 day training that included basics for managing airway, breathing, circulation, extrication, fractures, and spine injuries. Incident managment, approach to mass casualty and safe transport were also part of the cirriculum. All participants were required to take a pre-test before the training, a post test at the end of the training and another post test after 6 months after the training. Whether participants attended to emergencies before and after the training was also soought.  Paired t tests were used to compare the means of tests. Independent t test was used to compare difference of means in the groups that attended to emergencies in the six months after the training with those that did not attend to emergencies during the 6 months after the training.  Results:One hundred fifty one participants were trained. Of the 151 participants 55 (36.4% belonged to Bihar police and 96 (73

  7. Floods

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  8. Livelihood vulnerability index analysis: An approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar

    Madhuri .


    Full Text Available Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Floods add to the distressed conditions of the poor and vulnerable people in Bihar. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area. The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. However, vulnerability and resilience are not interdependent but discrete entities. The study was conducted in the seven blocks of Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.

  9. Flooding

    ... security and resilience of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure . Green infrastructure for climate resiliency . During flooding State and local ... or damaged and release their contents into the environment, causing soil, surface water, and groundwater contamination. Learn ...

  10. Demography and poverty at the micro-level in bihar.

    Rodgers GB; Gupta, S.; Sharma AN; Sharma B


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper examining interaction between poverty and population dynamics in the Bihar rural area, India - summarizes current mortality, fertility, migration, family size and household characteristics; examines bivariate associations between poverty (land ownership, consumer expenditure, housing, nutrition, health, etc.) and demographic variables (children mortality, fertility, family planning, etc.); presents multivariate models of demographic behaviour and causes of pover...

  11. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

    A Achra


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  12. Traditional Medicinal Flora of the District Buxar (Bihar, India

    Ritesh Singh


    Full Text Available Buxar district (Bihar,India is one of the less floristically studied regions of central Gangetic plain. The district lacks dense forests and its medicinal flora exclusively consists of dicot angiosperms. A total of 84 species belonging to 27 families were reported in this study. Majority of the reported plants were herbs with highest contribution from family Fabaceae (12. The present paper deals with the traditional uses of these plants. Plants and their part thereof were used to treat diseases such as - malaria, small pox, leprosy, diarrhea, diabetes, rheumatisms, hepatitis A, heart problems, elephantiasis, STDs, asthma, dysentery, in pregnancy complications and against snake and scorpion poisons. Findings will help in conservation and cultivation of these plants.

  13. The recurring epidemic of heat stroke in children in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India

    Gopal Shankar Sahni


    Full Text Available Context: Characterization of heat stroke cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Delay in treatment leading to high rate of mortality and poor outcomes so a high index of clinical suspicion in appropriate setting is warranted. Aims: Recurring seasonal(summer outbreak of heat stroke among children from Muzaffarpur district, Bihar was investigated to describe clinico-epidemiological features. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study involving 50 patients of classic heat stroke admitted to Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital (SKMCH Muzaffarpur in June 2005 and June 2011 were carried out. These patients had presented with a rectal temperature of more than 40°C and central nervous system disturbance. The patients were treated with standard regimen of management of heat stroke and sponging in ICU after emergency resuscitation. Results: A total of 50 case records were studied of children below12 years of age. Case fatality ratio was 60% .The disease had peak incidence in June. Previously healthy, rural children (mean age-3.78 yr of very low socio-economic background were found most vulnerable. The main presenting feature ware high fever (100%, convulsion (100%, unconsciousness (100%, decebrate rigidity (50%, tachycardia (80%, and tachypnea (80%. No one had splenomegaly. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was under high pressure but normal otherwise in all cases. Biochemical investigation reveled hyponatremia (50%, hypokalemia (5%, mild raised SGPT (30%, blood urea (40-50mg/dl (40% with normal creatinine. Smear for malarial parasites were negative. CT scan of head done in 20 cases; 10- showed feature of generalized cerebral edema while rest was normal. ECG showed non-specific ST-T changes and tachyarrhythmia. Moderate to severe residual neurologic deficit was observed in 20% of survivors. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1.No infective organism or its antigen or antibody was found in the any of the samples tested




    Full Text Available Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health but vaccines preventable diseases (VPDs are still responsible for significant deaths of under five children . Universal immunization Programme was started in India in 1985 with an aim of achieving at least 85% coverage of Primary immunization of infants with 3 doses of DPT a nd OPV , one dose of BCG and one dose of measles by 1990. At present , vaccines against seven VPDs are being provided free of cost to children in India. Despite this , it has been found during National Family Health Survey (NFHS - 3 that only 44% of infants in India are fully immunized which is much less than desired goal of 85%. Annual Health Survey (2011 - 12 of Bihar reported that while 93.5% of children were given BCG , the full immunization rate was only 65.6% , 4.5% children did not receive any vaccination . It has been reported that in Kishanganj district , even though 69.5% children were having immunization card , full immunization rate was only 26.6% , the lowest in the state. 11.7% children in this district did not receive any vaccine.

  15. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  16. Recasting Culture to Undo Gender: A Sociological Analysis of Jeevika in Rural Bihar, India

    Sanyal,Paromita; Rao, Vijayendra; Majumdar,Shruti


    This paper brings together sociological theories of culture and gender to answer the question – how do large-scale development interventions induce cultural change? Through three years of ethnographic work in rural Bihar, the authors examine this question in the context of Jeevika, a World Bank-assisted poverty alleviation project targeted at women, and find support for an integrative view ...

  17. The makhana value chain and the fast emergence of branding in food retail: Evidence from Bihar (India)

    Minten, Bart; Singh, K.M.; Sutradhar, Rajib


    As part of the National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP), a makhana value chain study was organized in Bihar, in collaboration between the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in Patna, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), as makhana is one of the core crops that the NAIP project in Bihar is focusing on. Primary surveys were fielded with producers, traders, processors, and retailers in 2009 and...

  18. Milk Marketing Chains in Bihar: Implications for Dairy Farmers and Traders

    Kumar, Anjani


    The study has addressed the issues associated with the alternative milk market chains and their implications on dairy farmers and traders. It has been conducted in Bihar, where modern milk market chains especially the milk co-operatives have grown significantly. The study has shown that in spite of growing presence of modern milk supply chains, the traditional milk supply chain is still dominant. The empirical evidence does not appear to support the perceptions of exploitative nature of the t...

  19. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    M.K. Usmani


    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  20. Household-cost-of-illness of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

    Sundar, S.; Arora, R.; Singh, S.P.; Boelaert, M; Varghese, B.


    Summary Objective To determine the cost of kala-azar (KA) to patients in Bihar, India. Method A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect costs of illness - direct (medical; non-medical) and indirect costs (work days lost). After screening the community known to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), households (HHs) with VL were recruited which reported a case of KA who received treatment between September 2005 and September 2006. The total costs were calculated as a summation o...

  1. A Socio-Economic Study on Adoption of Modern Agricultural Technologies in Bihar, India

    Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Kumar, Abhay


    Technology adoption has been the main obstacle in realizing agricultural potential in the country in general and Bihar in particular. The present study focuses on level of adoption, access of farmers to farm technology, quality of modern technology, access to agricultural extension institutions and problems faced by extension officials in transfer of farm technology. It has been observed that the coverage of agricultural development programmes is limited to few villages, however, line departm...

  2. The Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Bihar State, India

    Greenland, K; Dixon, R.; Khan, SA; Gunawardena, K; Kihara, JH; Smith, JL; L. Drake; Makkar, P; Raman, S; Singh, S.; Kumar, S.


    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over a billion individuals worldwide. In India, 241 million children are estimated to need deworming to avert the negative consequences STH infections can have on child health and development. In February-April 2011, 17 million children in Bihar State were dewormed during a government-led school-based deworming campaign. Prior to programme implementation, a study was conducted to assess STH prevalence in the school-age population to direct t...

  3. Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters of the Three Rural Ponds of Sasaram of Bihar

    Jyoti Choudhary


    Full Text Available Physico chemical and biological parameters of the three rural pond of Sasaram,Bihar has been studied to see the present condition for its better utilization. The study revealed that parameters are within permissible limit for fish culture and the stocking should be done as per the productivity of the water. As per the BOD estimation the ponds falls under moderately polluted category.

  4. Evaluation of the Team-Based Goals and Performance-Based Incentives (TBGI) Innovation in Bihar

    Evan Borkum; Anu Rangarajan; Dana Rotz; Swetha Sridharan; Sukhmani Sethi; Mercy Manorajini


    This report summarizes a rigorous randomized evaluation of a teamwork and goal-setting intervention in Bihar, India, that uses incentives and lessons from motivational theory to encourage teams of frontline health workers to improve maternal and child health in their communities. The study found large positive impacts on increased teamwork among frontline health workers and improved frequency of home visits and interactions with program beneficiaries, as well as more modest impacts on health ...

  5. Recasting culture to undo gender : a sociological analysis of Jeevika in rural Bihar, India

    Sanyal,Paromita; Rao, Vijayendra; Majumdar,Shruti


    This paper brings together sociological theories of culture and gender to answer the question ? how do large-scale development interventions induce cultural change? Through three years of ethnographic work in rural Bihar, the authors examine this question in the context of Jeevika, a World Bank-assisted poverty alleviation project targeted at women, and find support for an integrative view of culture. The paper argues that Jeevika created new ?cultural configurations? by giving economically a...

  6. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among Urban Adolescents in Bihar, India

    Ghosh, Ayan; Sarkar, Deblina; Pal, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Bijoy


    Background: For better perception of adolescent overweight and obesity as a global public health problem, systematic collection of baseline data is urgently needed in India. Objective: A community-based study was undertaken for better perception of the prevalence and correlates of obesity in an adolescent urban community in Katihar, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among urban adolescents in the eastern part of India to find out prevalence of overweight and ...

  7. The Economic Value of a Visceral Leishmaniasis Vaccine in Bihar State, India

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Shah, Mirat; Kitchen, Sara Beth; Connor, Diana L.; Slayton, Rachel B.


    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality and current available treatments have many limitations. The ability of VL infection to generate life-long immunity offers promise for the development of a VL vaccine. A VL vaccine candidate has recently completed phase I clinical trials. We constructed a computer simulation model to determine the potential economic value of a VL vaccine in the endemic region of Bihar state, India. Results found a potential vacc...

  8. Population dynamics and identification of efficient strains of Azospirillum in maize ecosystems of Bihar (India)

    Verma, Rinkee; Chourasia, S. K.; Jha, M. N.


    Information on inoculum load and diversity of native microbial community is an important prerequisite for crop management of microbial origin. Azospirillum has a proven role in benefiting the maize (Zea mays) crop in terms of nutrient (nitrogen) supply as well as plant growth enhancement. Bihar state has highest average national maize productivity although fertilizer consumption is minimum, indicating richness of Azospirillum both in terms of population and diversity in soils. An experiment w...

  9. Progress and issues in rural electrification in Bihar, India : a preliminary analysis

    Oda, Hisaya


    Rural electrification has been an important part of government policy since India gained independence. However, despite the number of electrified villages expanding rapidly in recent years, there are many that still remain un-electrified. This paper addresses the issue of intra-state disparity in access to electricity and examines the determinants of electrification at the village level using data from a survey conducted in rural Bihar, one of the underdeveloped states in India. An econometri...

  10. Optimal Cost of a Solar Photovoltaic System for a Remote House in Bihar

    Sujit Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role for the growth of a country. Solar energy is the most important renewable energy resources that can play vital role in the replacement of fossil resources to generate clean energy. Due to technological developments in solar power technologies, solar energy can be used for cooling, heating, and daily electricity demand of the world and emerged as viable alternative to produce clean energy in future. The paper describes the technological development of PV model, its present status and future opportunities in the context of Bihar, India. The study was carried out in Bihar, global solar radiation data is required for the calculation and assessment of the working principles of PV system installed at remotely located house to provide adequate power backup. The case study has been based on the solar radiation data available in Bihar, India, the cost of a suitable PV model for a house has been computed based on the analysis of power requirement of a houses in a day.

  11. Flooding, flood sources and flood defences

    Blanksby, J.R.


    The EU Flood Directive defines “flood” as the temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. This shall include floods from rivers, mountain torrents, Mediterranean ephemeral water courses, and floods from the sea in coastal areas, and may exclude floods from sewerage systems. The exclusion of floods from sewerage systems is concerned with operational or managerial failures, often in dry weather, but sewer flooding caused by rainfall is not excluded. “Flood risk” is define...

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011

    Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poché, David; Poché, Richard


    India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the dise...

  13. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri


    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  14. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri


    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  15. Promising Findings from the Frontline Health Worker Team-Based Goals and Incentives Intervention in Bihar

    Dana Rotz; Anu Rangarajan; Evan Borkum Swetha Sridharan; Sukhmani Sethi; Mercy Manoranjini


    The Team-Based Goals and Performance-Based Incentives (TBGI) intervention—conceptualized, designed, and implemented by CARE—leverages both the power of incentives and lessons from motivational theory on teamwork and goal-setting. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation created the Ananya program in 2011 to address some of the important family health challenges in Bihar, one of India's most populous and poorest states. This issue brief explores the effect of adding the TBGI intervention to the...

  16. Social Development Indicators and their Association with Crime: A Case of Bihar, India

    Rashmi Kumari


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the time-series evidence of the effects of changing social development factors on crime for different types of crime. The study area of Bihar, a state in India, has been chosen for the present investigation. The correlation and regression analysis has been performed for establishing the fact that the crime shows relation with the social development factors; specific violent crime, such as murder and robbery, also display sensitivity to the development indicators over time. The paper concludes with a unified interpretation of the time-series data.

  17. Economic influences on child migration decisions: evidence from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

    Edmonds, Eric V.; Salinger, Philip


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that children migrate without a parent. Design/methodology/approach – The economic components of the answer to this question are considered by examining the correlates of out-migration for children under 15 whose mothers reside in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India. Findings – In this data 1 million children appear to have migrated away from home. On average 3 per cent of living children aged 5-14 in the communities are away from home,...

  18. Quantitative determination of uranium in soil samples of Bihar using fission track method

    Soil samples collected from Barharwa region of Bihar have been analysed for trace uranium concentration using the fission track method. Lexan polycarbonate was used as detector for fission tracks. The uranium in the soil samples were found to vary from 107.11 ng/g to 998.70 ng/g. The data were also compared with the data of soil samples of other Indian states. As reactor neutron spectra is associated with both thermal and fast neutron fluxes, corrections to the uranium data due to fast neutron fission of 232Th present in soil were also applied. (author)

  19. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Cohen, Tamar


    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  20. Estimation of under-reported visceral Leishmaniasis (Vl cases in Bihar: a Bayesian approach

    A Ranjan


    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major health problem in the state of Bihar and adjoining areas in India. In absence of any active surveillance mechanism for the disease, there seems to be gross under-reporting of VL cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate extent of under-reporting of VL cases in Bihar using pooled analysis of published papers. Method: We calculated the pooled common ratio (RRMH based on three studies and combined it with a prior distribution of ratio using inverse-variance weighting method. Bayesian method was used to estimate the posterior distribution of the “under-reporting factor” (ratio of unreported to reported cases. Results: The posterior distribution of ratio of unreported to reported cases yielded a mean of 3.558, with 95% posterior limits of 2.81 and 4.50. Conclusion: Bayesian approach gives evidence to the fact that the total number of VL cases in the state may be nearly more than three times that of currently reported figures. 

  1. High Arsenic contamination in drinking water Hand-Pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India

    Siddharth eBhatia


    Full Text Available This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb , in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15-35m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5-10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.

  2. Conducting ethical clinical trials for L. donovani in the Bihar region of India

    Tiffany Crawford


    Full Text Available Tiffany Crawford, Brian VeselyGlobal Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe disease that disproportionally afflicts the Bihar state in India with 40% of the worldwide disease burden. Drug resistance, poor adherence, extreme poverty, malnutrition and certain living conditions have made control and treatment of the disease difficult. There is a great need for new drugs and control programs to reduce the disease burden of this debilitating and potentially fatal disease. Drug discovery research on leishmaniasis is being conducted in the USA and this raises issues concerning the ethical conduct of international clinical trials. Ethical principles dictate that the Bihari who need these drugs should be included in clinical trials. Additional safeguards for the ethical conduct of clinical trials on developing countries by developed countries have been formulated elsewhere. These include collaborative partnership, social value, scientific validity, fair selection of study population, favorable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for recruited participants and study communities. These principles are applied to the Bihari context, and issues of ancillary care and post-trial access are also addressed. The socio-cultural context of the region is discussed in order to give researchers the tools to obtain meaningful informed consent. A description of the Bihari context and relevant ethical considerations should facilitate the design and conduct of ethical clinical trials for L. donovani.Keywords: L. donovani, ethics, clinical trials, Bihar

  3. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India


    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Flash floods

    Grubač, Jovana


    The thesis presents flash floods phenomenon and the differences between flash floods and other types of floods. Flooding is usually caused by intense or long-lasting rainfall event. These kinds of events are more often in the last years and climate changes could cause even more natural disasters. Flash floods are quite known phenomenon in Slovenia which is situated in many upper parts of river basins. Flash floods and erosion are most common in northwestern hilly landscape of ...


    Mahalakshmi Kumari


    Full Text Available Water is the important component for life and for rural development. The Katihar district of Bihar is one of the important districts from Agricultural point of view. The Harwa Jabbar Jheel is a natural depression of 180 ha and depth 40ft. the present study was made to study the physico-chemical status of the Jheel from fisheries point of view. The study revealed that air temperature 28.05± 4.32 water temperature25.06±4.67 the pH 7.09±0.26 dissolved oxygen 6.35±1.18 free carbon dioxide 20.75±10.11 and total alkalinity 127.16±11.62. It is concluded that above parameters of the Jheel is within favorable range for fish culture.




    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the fish species richness of the Shershah Suri pond. Ichthyofaunal diversity of aquatic systems reflects their nature and potential. Present work has been conducted on a historical and oldest pond of India (Sasaram, Bihar constructed by Shershah Suri in 1538 AD. There is no documentary record available tilldate regarding its aquatic fauna. In the course of investigation 33 fish species were encountered belonging to 6 different orders and 14 families. Out of the total 33 species recorded from Shershah Suri pond, 14 species belonged to family Cyprinidae, 3 species each to Bagridae and Channidae, 2 species each to Siluridae and Paleomonidae, and 1specie each to Notopteridae, Clariidae, Heteropneustidae, Cobitidae, Nandidae, Belonidae, Tetradontidae, Anabantidae and Mastacembelidae. The pond under consideration has deteriorated considerably. There is important need for future strategies toprotect this water body from further degradation as well as evelopment, conservation and management aspects.

  7. Prevalence and risk correlates of hypertension among adult rural population in Bihar

    Ayan Ghosh


    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases will be prime cause of morbidity by 2020 in India. Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension in an adult rural community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine of tertiary care teaching institute of Bihar among adult population to find out the prevalence of hypertension with the sociodemographic correlates from October 2009 to September 2010. A pretested predesigned questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographics data by interview technique from 997 study participants. The blood pressure was assessed and classified using recent JNC 7 and WHO criteria to grade hypertension. Results: Majority of the study participants were Muslims (89% and in 40-49 age group (21.26%. In males and females, the overweight and obese combined were, respectively, 13%. In the dietary habit, 85.36% were non-vegetarian; 8.83% consumed salt more than 10 grams per day; 26.78% reported themselves as alcoholics; tobacco smokers were 58.28%, highest in 40-49 age group (23.58%. Overall, 11.43% were hypertensive and 16% were prehypertensive. Among hypertensive, majority were male (61%; and in 60-69 age group (27.27%, overweight and obese (56.14%, smokers (75.44%, non-vegetarian (67.54%. There was a significant linear trend between age and salt intake with prevalence of hypertension (P<0.0001. Conclusions: Hypertension in the rural population of Bihar was lower than previous estimates.

  8. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Bradwell, Moira


    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  9. School Bullying in the Primary School: Report of a Research in Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary)

    Mariann Buda; Erika Szirmai


    Bullying has long been researched in different communities and cultures and has proven to be a phenomenon that seriously endangers individuals and communities as well. Among its consequences are different psychosomatic symptoms, deteriorating study or work performance, depression, suicidal ideation, unhealthy social climate or acts of crime. The present study presents some of the findings of a research carried out in 24 schools of Hajdú-Bihar County in 2008. The 1006 large sample of 5th and 7...

  10. The Bihar Pollution Pool as observed from MOPITT (version 4), CALIPSO (version 3) and tropospheric ozone residual data

    Kar, J.; M. N. Deeter; Fishman, J.; Z. Liu; Omar, A.; Creilson, J. K.; Trepte, C. R.; M. A. Vaughan; Winker, D. M.


    The Bihar pollution pool is a large wintertime increase in pollutants over the eastern parts of the Indo Gangetic basin. We use improved carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals from the recent Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) version 4 data along with the aerosol data from the latest version 3 of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar instrument and the tropospheric ozone residual products from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (...

  11. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  12. Questioning Psychosocial Resilience After Flooding and the Consequences for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Crabtree, Andrew


    , Bihar following the 2008 Kosi River flooding, it documents, 18 months post flood, that flood onset gave rise to symptoms related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (primarily re-experiencing). The villagers’ primary concern was livelihood loss which, together with their lack of hope for the future, led......This paper questions George Bonanno’s concept of resilience as “relatively stable, healthy levels of psychological and physiological functioning” (Bonanno in Am Psychol 59(1):20–28, 2004) following potentially traumatic events (PTE). It agrees with Bonanno’s claim that significant numbers of people...... may suffer from mental disorders following a PTE, but disagrees that the majority of people are resilient. Furthermore it argues that we should not see PTEs as one event, but as involving a number of stressors and having a variety of consequences. Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Rajni village...

  13. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu


    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  14. Palaeobiology of Mesoproterozoic Salkhan Limestone, Semri Group, Rohtas, Bihar, India: Systematics and significance

    Mukund Sharma


    Mesoproterozoic (∼1600 Ma old) Salkhan Limestone (Semri Group)of the Vindhyan Supergroup, exposed in Rohtas district of Bihar,India,preserves an abundant and varied ancient microbial assemblage.These microfossils are recorded in three distinctly occurring cherts viz.,bedded chert, stromatolitic chert and cherty stromatolites.27 morphoforms belonging to 14 genera and 21 species have been recognized.Six unnamed forms are also described. The microbial assemblage,almost exclusively composed of the remnants of cyanobacteria,is dominated by entophysalidacean members and short trichomes and can be termed as ‘typical Meso-proterozoic microbiotas ’.The assemblage includes characteristic mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria. Eoentophysalis is the dominant organism in the assemblage. Ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeollipsoides) and spherical unicells also occur;both are distinct from mat forming assemblage,allochthonous and possibly planktic.Co-occurrence of the microbiotas and precipitates is related to the depositional environment of the Mesoproterozoic tidal flats with high carbonate saturation.


    Jitendra Bahadur


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal diseases are very important cause of malnutrition in children under five years old. Diarrhoea can lead to malnutrition and malnutrition can predispose to diarrhoea. Each episode of diarrhoea deprives the child of the nutrition necessary for growth. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to study the association of diarrhoea and malnutrition in children of one of the rural area of Kishanganj district, Bihar. MATERIALS & METHODS: Target sample size of approximate 3742 children, upto 12 years of age were selected for the study. The survey consisted of 30 clusters and each cluster consists of about 125 children. The association of diarrhoea in children were studied in relation to malnutrition. OBSERVATION: It was observed in our study that the number of children suffering from diarrhoea in each of the nutritional status group, i.e.; Normal, 1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree & 4th degree was 43(5.9%, 79(8.7%, 308(22.3%, 187(28.9% and 31(39.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of diarrhoea was found to be high in children suffering from 3rd and 4th degree of malnutrition. RECOMMENDATION: Strategies should be made to reduce child undernutrition, more effectively, by using experiences gained from successful nutrition programmers. Nutrition education, particularly of the mothers should be made an integral part of health education programs to prevent protein energy malnutrition (PEM, leading to diarrhoea in children


    BORMA Afrodita


    Full Text Available This research has in sight the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion located at the border between Romania (in the north-western part and Hungary (in the east. The research methodology that was used consisted in the statistical data collection in order to gather representative information on the evolution of tourism for the 2008 - 2011, in Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion. In the first part of the research is presented an analysis regarding the evolution of the number of tourists within the tourist accommodation establishments in the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion. The analysis is based on the following aspects: the evolution of the number of tourists within the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion is presented; a comparison regarding the number of national tourists registered in the two counties belonging to the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion and finally an analysis based on the number of foreign tourists registered within the two counties belonging to the Bihor – Hajdú-Bihar Euroregion. In the second part of the research, the study continues with the analysis of the activities of the hotel units from Bihor and Hajdú-Bihar starting from the data obtained from the Bihor County Statistics Department, for Bihor County, and from the Debrecen Central Statistics Office, for the Hajdú-Bihar data. The research covers the period from 2008 - 2011, following the indicators regarding: the number of active units, turnover, and employee related expenses, staff and gross investments in tangible assets. This statistical and economic analysis presents on one hand the centralization of the indicators used within a table, (initially, in a rough form and subsequently in a shaped form based on the annual average exchange rates of the leu and forint compared to the euro during 2008-2011 and on the other the evolution of each indicator in chart form. Due to the fact that a part of the analyzed indicators are expressed in the national currency of the two


    Droj Laurentiu


    Full Text Available This paper will be later used within the Doctoral thesis: “The Mechanism of Financing Investment Projects by Usage of European Structural Funds”, which is currently under development at the University Babeș Bolyai Cluj Napoca, Faculty of Economics and Business Management, under the coordination of the prof. univ. dr. Ioan Trenca. This paper comes also as a result of the European Funded project PERINPRO “Cross-Border Research Programme - Performance Indicators of the Economic Entities from Bihor-Hajdu Bihar Euroregion”. The goal of the project was to identify of a set of common indicators that characterizes companies in the Bihor-Hajdu Bihar Euroregion and which will be used to analyze the financial health of the economic entities in the Euroregion of Hajdu-Bihar- Bihor. The first chapter of the paper will introduce the research and also will present the literature review and the methodological framework: by establishing a common set of indicators for the financial analysis of the companies located in the Bihor-Hajdu Bihar Euroregion. Seven of these indicators considered to be highly important will also briefly described and defined. Some of these indicators are used for the first time in a trans-national analysis over companies located in the Romanian-Hungarian cross border area. In the second chapter the research will be focused over establishing a common ground for usage of the financial reporting documents as basis for the analysis. Several characteristics which differentiate the financial reporting documents from Romania and Hungary will be identified and measures for correction of the values of the indicators will be proposed. This comparative study can be considered an innovation, as well, in the cross-border area since in the past no other studies of this types were performed between Romania and Hungary. The third chapter will be focused over the application of seven identified common indicators to companies based

  18. preliminary study of a Water, Hygiene and Ecological Sanitation project in a rural village in Bihar state of India.

    Salimath, Abhilash


    There are 2.6 billion people who have no access to "improved sanitation" all over the world, of which 814 million people live in India. As a result of this, people resort to open defecation and this causes serious damage to the people‟s health and also pollutes the surrounding environment. This thesis explores the sanitation situation in a village called Mohaddipur in the Bind Block of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar, India. This SIDA financed project will provide this village with a p...

  19. Influence of Older Generation's Fertility Behaviours on Daughter's Desired Family Size in Bihar, India. VID Working Paper 04/2014

    Kumar, A; Bordone, V.; Muttarak, R.


    This paper investigates the associations between preferred family size of married women aged 16-34 in rural Bihar (India) and the fertility behaviours of their biological mother and mother-in-law. This information is based on scheduled interviews of 450 pairs of index women (i.e. women central in our analysis) and their mother-in-laws conducted in 2011. Preferred family size is first measured by Coombs scale, allowing us to capture latent desired number of children, and then categorized into ...

  20. Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Chodoff, Paul


    Presents psychiatric evidence regarding immediate and long-term effects of concentration camp internment. Many survivors exhibit a concentration camp syndrome which somewhat resembles combat stress reaction; adaptive behavior of survivors is viewed as less important than luck. Language is considered inadequate to describe the psychological impact…

  1. Who are the cancer survivors?

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H;


    Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity was...




    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Unwanted pregnancy places a women at additional risk, if she seeks abortion and safe services are not available. Poverty, ignorance and non-availability of trained personnel are important causes of septic abortion in India. OBJECTIVE: To study the knowledge and practices of septic abortion in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Longitudinal study was conducted in the indoor of obstetrics and gynaecology department of M.G.M. Medical College & L.S.K Hospital, Kishanganj, Bihar from the period of Feb-2014 to April-2014. A total of 100 cases of septic abortion were selected by simple randomization. Informations of these cases about their knowledge and practices of septic abortion was obtained by conducting interview and studied. OBSERVATIONS: Out of the 100cases studied, majority (i.e 60% were having no knowledge of contraceptive devices. Rural women were having lesser knowledge of contraception than urban women. Majority of the cases got the knowledge of contraception through media, like television (20%, radio (25%, stage drama (15%, nautankee (12.5%. Urban population of women had a greater knowledge of MTP Act than rural population. In majority of the cases (i.e 65%, there was a history of dai intervention. Among 100cases studied, in 51cases (i.e 51%, instrumentation was used for procuring the septic abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study shows that poor knowledge of contraception and MTP Act particularly in rural women and conduction of abortion by untrained personnel like dais, quacks, local practitioners are important contributing factors for high incidence of septic abortion in India. So, there is the need to strengthen good quality abortion services.

  3. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep


    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is




    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a common and preventable disease, but unfortunately in India and other developing countries of the world diarrhoea continues to cause serious problems in infants and children. It is among the topmost causes of morbidity and mortality in children. OBJECTIVE: To study different factors responsible for the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases among children of Kishanganj district of Bihar. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was conducted from July 2013 to Sep. 2013. The sample size has been collected using standard method in CDD household survey manual. To ensure reasonable limit of precision target sample size of approximate 3742 children upto 12 years of age was selected for study. The survey consisted of 30 clusters and each cluster consists of about 125 children. The association of diarrhoea in children in relation to some factors like literacy level of parents, housing condition, socio-economic status and sanitary condition of the house, were studied. OBSERVATION: The percentage of diarrhoea cases in children of both illiterate parents, only father literate, only mother literate and both literate parents, were 20.3%, 16.01%, 10.8%, & 8.6% respectively. The incidence of diarrhoea in good and poor housing was 15.1% & 17.6% respectively. The incidence of diarrhoea in low, middle and poor socio-economic group was 17.8%, 14.1% and 50.0 % respectively. The incidence of diarrhoea among children, living in poor and good sanitary condition was 18.5% and 8.9% respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of diarrhoea was low among children belonging to literate families, living in good housing condition, belonging to middle socio-economic group, and living in good sanitary condition

  5. Latent infection with Leishmania donovani in highly endemic villages in Bihar, India.

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We describe patterns of markers of Leishmania donovani infection and clinical VL in relation to age in Bihar, India. METHODS: We selected eleven villages highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. During a 1-year interval we conducted two house to house surveys during which we collected blood samples on filter paper from all consenting individuals aged 2 years and above. Samples were tested for anti-leishmania serology by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT and rK39 ELISA. Data collected during the surveys included information on episodes of clinical VL among study participants. RESULTS: We enrolled 13,163 persons; 6.2% were reactive to DAT and 5.9% to rK39. Agreement between the tests was weak (kappa = 0.30. Among those who were negative on both tests at baseline, 3.6% had converted to sero-positive on either of the two tests one year later. Proportions of sero-positives and sero-converters increased steadily with age. Clinical VL occurred mainly among children and young adults (median age 19 years. DISCUSSION: Although infection with L. donovani is assumed to be permanent, serological markers revert to negative. Most VL cases occur at younger ages, yet we observed a steady increase with age in the frequency of sero-positivity and sero-conversion. Our findings can be explained by a boosting effect upon repeated exposure to the parasite or by intermittent release of parasites in infected subjects from safe target cells. A certain proportion of sero-negative subjects could have been infected but below the threshold of antibody abundance for our serologic testing.

  6. Spatial variability of groundwater quality of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district (Bihar, India)

    Verma, D. K.; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Shit, Pravat Kumar; Kumar, S.; Mandal, Jajati; Padbhushan, Rajeev


    This paper examines the quality of groundwater of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district of Bihar state, which lies on the southern region of Indo-Gangetic plains in India. Fifty-nine samples from different sources of water in the block have been collected to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes. From the samples electrical conductivity (EC), pH and concentrations of Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), carbonate ion (CO{3/2-}), Bicarbonate ion (HCO{3/-}), Chloride ion (Cl-), and Fluoride (F-) were determined. Surface maps of all the groundwater quality parameters have been prepared using radial basis function (RBF) method. RBF model was used to interpolate data points in a group of multi-dimensional space. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is employed to scrutinize the best fit of the model to compare the obtained value. The mean value of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and F- are found to be 7.26, 0.69, 38.98, 34.20, 16.92, 1.19, 0.02, and 0.28, respectively. Distribution of calcium concentration is increasing to the eastern part and K+ concentrations raise to the downstream area in the southwestern part. Low pH concentrations (less than 6.71) occur in eastern part of the block. Spatial variations of hardness in Sabour block portraying maximum concentration in the western part and maximum SAR (more than 4.23) were recorded in the southern part. These results are not exceeding for drinking and irrigation uses recommended by World Health Organization. Therefore, the majority of groundwater samples are found to be safe for drinking and irrigation management practices.

  7. Identification of New Antigens in Visceral Leishmaniasis by Expression Cloning and Immunoblotting with Sera of Kala-Azar Patients from Bihar, India†

    Theinert, Stephan M.; Basu, Rajatava; Forgber, Michael; Roy, Syamal; Sundar, Shyam; Walden, Peter


    Sera of kala-azar patients from Bihar, India, were used to identify Leishmania donovani antigens encoded by a phage expression library. Ten antigens were identified, five of which have not been described as leishmania antigens before. The antigens specifically react with sera of leishmania-infected patients but not of toxoplasma- or plasmodium-infected patients.

  8. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.


    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  9. Rehabilitating torture survivors

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Kastrup, Marianne; Montgomery, Edith;


    Refugees have often been exposed to torture in their countries of origin. A core issue is the resulting multifaceted presentation of somatic, psychological and social problems in the same individual, leading to severe activity limitations and participation restrictions. An international conference......, "Rehabilitating Torture Survivors", was organized by the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (a rehabilitation clinic and global knowledge and research centre with government support) in collaboration with the Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, in...... December 2008. The main topics were: the context of torture; mental problems including psychotherapy; internet-based therapy and pharmaco-therapy; chronic pain; social integration and family; and functioning and rehabilitation. Available evidence highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary approach...




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic protozoa and helminths are responsible for some devastating and prevalent diseases of humans. Intestinal parasitic infections are a major health problem in India. While little study has been carried out regarding the problem in India, almost no study on the burden of intestinal infections has been done in Bihar. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI in the patients attending outdoor patient department in Katihar Medical College & Hospital. Fecal samples were examined for intestinal parasites by direct microscopy, and by microscopy following modified acid fast staining in HIV infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out from June 2011 to February 2013. The study population consisted of individuals of all age groups, belonging to both the sexes, including children, pregnant woman and elderly individuals. A total of 2780 samples were examined by saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation. The negative samples were examined by formol ether concentration technique. Modified acid fast staining of fecal samples in HIV infected patients was also done. RESULTS: The result showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.71%. Out of this ,86.6% were single infections, 12.8% were double infections and 0.67% showed triple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides (28.5% and Giardia lamblia (18.5% were the most common intesitinal helminthes and protozoans isolated. A single patient with HIV infection was co-infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. The infected cases were more in the age group between 1-10years, more commonly among the male population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the helminthic infections is more than the prevalence of protozoal infections in this geographic region. Clinical microbiologists must follow standard laboratory procedures when screening stool samples so as to improve the chances of finding the parasites. An integrated

  11. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008.

    Paritosh Malaviya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes. To understand the VL seasonality, annual and monthly variations of VL incidence and its relationship to meteorological variables, the numbers of VL cases reported in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008 were studied. METHODS: Annual VL incidence per 10,000 and the total number of annual VL cases reported at block Community Health Centres (CHC, Public Hospitals or Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008 as well as the monthly average of cases for 2000-08, 2000-04 and 2005-08 periods along with the monthly averages of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were plotted. VL Standardised Incidence Ratios per block were computed for the periods of 1990-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2004 and 2005-2008 and month wise from 2002 to 2008. A negative binomial regression model was used to evaluate the association between meteorological variables and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008. RESULTS: A total of 68,358 VL cases were reported in Muzaffarpur district from 1990 to 2008, ranging from 1,2481 in 1992 to 1,161 in 2001. The blocks with the highest number of cases shifted from East (1990-98 to West (1999-2008. Monthly averages of cases ranged from 149 to 309, highest peak in March-April and another one in July. Monthly VL incidence was associated positively to rainfall and negatively to relative humidity and the numbers of VL cases in the previous month. INTERPRETATION: The number of cases reported to the public health sector allowed the describing of the spatial distribution and temporal variations in the Muzaffarpur from 1990 to 2008. However, to assess the actual VL burden, as well as the efficacy of the control measures applied in the district, reporting from private practices and NGOs should be encouraged.

  13. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny


    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience. PMID:21401461

  14. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth


    AIM: This paper reports a study to explore how cancer survivors talk about, experience and manage time in everyday life. BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in specific physical and psychosocial aspects of life after cancer diagnosis and treatment, but hardly any research follows cancer...... survivors over time to explore how perceptions and experiences change. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 2002-2004 with a purposive sample of adults who had experienced various forms of cancer. Data collection included 9 weeks of participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre and...... prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors...

  15. Flooding On



    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  16. Study of Faunal Diversity of Laxmipur Pond at Raxaul Area of Indo-Himalayan Range of Bihar

    Mandip Kumar Roy


    Full Text Available North Bihar exhibits a wide range of wet lands and net of water bodies due to its geographical distribution and climatic condition and has become a good source of income through fish culture and variety of important cultivable crops. The fish collected from water body are represented by 8 orders and 12 families, 18 genera and 23 species. During the entire period of investigation, altogether 32 genera of phytoplankton consisting of chlorophyceae, cyanophyceae, euglenophyceae and bascillariophyceae, etc. In the present study, Zooplankton are represented by 05 genera of 7 copepoda, 06 genera of ostracoda. The density of phytoplankton was found to be higher than Zooplankton. The population of plankton was observed to be low during rainy season.

  17. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    Sanjeev Kumar


    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs, providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success.

  18. Unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate pregnancy among women seeking first trimester abortion at registered facilities in Bihar and Jharkhand, India.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Zavier, A J Francis; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J


    Many abortion seekers in India attempt to induce abortion on their own, by accessing oral medication/preparations from a chemist without a prescription or from an unauthorized provider, and present at registered facilities if these attempts fail. However, little is known about those whose efforts fail or the ways in which programmes and policies may address the needs of such women. This paper explores the experiences of women whose efforts failed, including their socio-demographic profile, the preparations they used, and the extent to which they experienced serious complications, delayed seeking care from an authorized provider, or delayed abortion until the second trimester of pregnancy. Data come from a larger study assessing the feasibility of the provision of medical abortion by non-physicians; a total of 3394 women who sought medical abortion from selected clinical settings in Bihar and Jharkhand between 2008 and 2010 constitute the sample. Prior to visiting the clinic, nearly a third of these women (31%) had made at least one unsuccessful attempt to terminate the unwanted pregnancy by using a range of oral medications/preparations available over-the-counter in medical shops. Logistic regression analysis suggests that educated women (OR 1.6-1.7), those from urban areas (OR 6.2) and those from Bihar (OR 1.6) were significantly more likely than women with no education, rural women and those from Jharkhand to have used such medication. Also notable is that the average gestational age of women who had made a previous attempt to terminate their pregnancy was almost identical to that of women who had not done so when they presented at the registered facility. These findings may inform policies and programmes that seek to identify and reduce the potential risks associated with unauthorized abortion-seeking practices, and highlight the need to fully inform women, chemists and providers about oral medications, what works and what does not, and how effective medication

  19. Combating Floods


    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  20. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S


    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, phealth disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors. PMID:26577277

  1. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  2. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  3. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

    Gouri S. Bhunia; Shreekant Kesari; Nandini Chatterjee; Rakesh Mandal; Vijay Kumar; Pradeep Das


    Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on data from the thematic mapper (TM) sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with t...

  4. Flooding On


    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  5. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini


    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  8. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther


    needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual......INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...

  9. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Jennifer S. Ford


    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  10. Integrated Flood Management in Urban Flooding

    V R Sawant


    Full Text Available Flood Hazards are most common and destructives of all natural disaster. The study has major objectives of evaluating flood risk mitigation strategies in Mumbai, which has suffered perennial flooding and needs establishment of coastal management zoning authority, Land use zoning , legislation Building codes, flood fore casting and warning system. Flood insurance based on concept of Vulnerability index, Standards of preparedness and Integrated Water Resource management techniques presented in this paper.

  11. Prevalence ofEdwardsiella tarda in commercially important finfish and shellfish of Bihar and West Bengal, India

    Pankaj Kumar; Harresh Adikesavalu; Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham


    Objective:To study the prevalence ofEdwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) in finfish and shellfish of West Bengal and Bihar, India and their antibiogram. Methods:Fish samples were enriched overnight inEdwardsiella ictaluri broth and plated onto Edwardsiella ictaluri agar. Typical colonies were identified conventionally and byVITEK 2 compact system. Antibiogram was done by agar disc diffusion assay. Results:Of the 118 fish samples screened, only 14.41% hadE. tarda. The incidence was marginally high in wild fish (15.30%) than in cultured fish (13.26%). Maximum incidence was in intestine (12.98%) followed by gills (6.60%) and skin (2.38%). AllE. tarda strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and exhibited varying degrees of resistance to other antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic resistance was seen in 84.00%–87.50% of theE. tarda strains. Majority of them had high minimal inhibitory concentration values (200µg/mL) for oxytetracycline and gentamycin. Conclusions:The results suggested that considerable proportions of commercially important finfish are carriers of multiple antibiotic resistanceE. tarda. This calls for proper sanitary measures to eliminate this pathogen in fish and fishery products.

  12. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    Christa L. Fischer Walker


    Full Text Available In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3% compared to baseline (38.4% but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS, increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93 and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10 compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care.

  13. Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India.

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra


    We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological samples and its health effects such as dermatological, neurological and obstetric outcome in some villages. We collected 1365 hand tube-well water samples and analyzed for As by the flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 61% and 44% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1466 μg/l. Our medical team examined 712 villagers and registered 69 (9.7%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 9 children of 312 screened. We analyzed 176 biological samples (hair, nail and urine). Out of these, 69 people had arsenical skin lesions and rest without skin lesions. We found 100% of the biological samples had As above the normal levels (concentrations of As in hair, nail and urine of unexposed individuals usually ranges from 20 to 200 μg/kg, 20-500 μg/kg and situation in affected areas, villagers urgently need (a) provision of As-safe water for drinking and cooking, (b) awareness about the danger of As toxicity, and (c) nutritious food. PMID:27011321

  14. Geophysical exploration for coal-bearing Gondwana basins in the states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India

    Saha, S.N.; Roy, A.K.; Brahman, C.V.; Sastry, C.B.K.; De, M.K.


    The states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India are known to bear 'A' grade coal seams within Gondwana basins. An alluvium-covered area to the north of the Ajay river was considered to be prospective for the exploration of coal. Gravity and magnetic surveys were mainly carried out over an area of 1900 km[sup 2] with resistivity soundings taken at selected places. Gondwana sediments lying over basement subbasins are prospective areas for the exploration of coal. The gravity survey interpreted an 8-km wide and 20-km long depression known as the Pachami basin. This basin was drilled at several places and thick 'A' grade coal seams were intersected. The gravity survey broadly outlined the Pachami basin and several other basement depressions through gravity low contour closures. A forward modelling of a profile across the Pachami basin indicated a maximum depth of about 1.3 km to the basement at its deepest part. The magnetic map was vitiated through the presence of fluctuating high amplitude and high wavenumber anomalies due to a thick blanket of trap lying above the Gondwana sediments. Selected resistivity soundings could approximately interpret the shallow-basement depths, and the thickness and depths of the overlying trap.

  15. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer


    BACKGROUND: Today more and more people survive cancer. Cancer survivors need help to recover both from the cancer and the treatment. Rehabilitative interventions have been set up to meet their needs. However, there are studies that report no major effects following careful, targeted intervention...... parameters in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on an ethnographic fieldwork with participant observation at nine week-long courses, on in-depth interviews and on written sources. Fieldwork is well-suited for studying interventions in context, such as social...... surroundings and the scheduling of the courses. The behavioural environment, which comprised work commitment and the care provided by the staff. The language environment insofar as it facilitated a sense of community. DISCUSSION: The results demonstrate the influence of contextual parameters not formalised in...

  16. Implementing the Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors

    WOLIN, KATHLEEN Y.; Schwartz, Anna L; Matthews, Charles E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.


    In 2009, the American College of Sports Medicine convened an expert roundtable to issue guidelines on exercise for cancer survivors. This multidisciplinary group evaluated the strength of the evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise as a therapeutic intervention for survivors. The panel concluded that exercise is safe and offers myriad benefits for survivors including improvements in physical function, strength, fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and possibly recurrence and survival. Rec...

  17. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.


    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  18. Employment discrimination against cancer survivors: multidisciplinary interventions.

    Hoffman, B


    Approximately 25% of the five million cancer survivors in the United States encounter barriers to employment solely because of their cancer histories. This discrimination is primarily rooted in erroneous stereotypes about cancer. Because cancer-based employment discrimination has legal, social, emotional, and economic impact on survivors, interventions must encompass legal and psychosocial resources. While state and federal laws prohibit certain actions that deprive survivors of job opportunities and health insurance, legal and psychosocial resources must be developed and made available to cancer survivors to help them overcome barriers to equal employment opportunities. PMID:10293296

  19. Flooding and Schools

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011


    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  20. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies

    Gouri Sankar Bhunia


    Full Text Available The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave- infrared (SWIR bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI calculated as follows: (Green – SWIR I/(Green + SWIR I. Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001, while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (X2 = 26.3; P <0.001. The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (X2 = 26.0; P <0.001. The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission.

  1. School Bullying in the Primary School. Report of a Research in Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary

    Mariann Buda


    Full Text Available Bullying has long been researched in different communities and cultures and has proven to be a phenomenon that seriously endangers individuals and communities as well. Among its consequences are different psychosomatic symptoms, deteriorating study or work performance, depression, suicidal ideation, unhealthy social climate or acts of crime. The present study presents some of the findings of a research carried out in 24 schools of Hajdú-Bihar County in 2008. The 1006 large sample of 5th and 7th grade students (age 11 and 13 answered questions on their bullying-related experiences and attitudes. Data were collected in a questionnaire on types of bullying, prevalence, students’ mood, feeling of well-being and their social environment. Findings show that similarly to results of earlier research a large number of students are involved in bullying. In the sample the most common types are name-calling and ostracism, whereas beating and threatening are less frequent. Correlations with age, gender and academic performance show that the younger age-group is more involved in beating and spreading gossip, girls in relational bullying, and academically weaker students are most often involved in bullying events. Variables of mood, feelings of well-being, social and study climate are analyzed with a focus on studying correlations between feelings and relations within the smaller communities. Victims appear to be in the worst position on all measures, including number of friends, stress, emotions towards school or social climate. However, they show a more positive attitude for studying than bullies or bully-victims.

  2. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its induced health effects in Shahpur block, Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India: risk evaluation.

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra


    The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India and its health effects such as dermal, neurological, obstetric effects, and cancer risk. The School of Environmental Studies (SOES) collected 4704 tube-well water samples from all 88 villages of Shahpur, which were analyzed for arsenic. We found 40.3 and 21.1 % of the tube-wells had arsenic above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1805 μg/l. The study shows that 75,000, 39,000, and 10,000 people could be exposed to arsenic-contaminated water greater than 10, 50, and 300 μg/l, respectively. Our medical team examined 1422 villagers from Shahpur and registered 161 (prevalence rate, 11.3 %) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 29 children of 525 screened. We analyzed 579 biological samples (hair, nail, and urine) from Shahpur and found that 82, 89, and 91 % of hair, nail, and urine, respectively, had arsenic above the normal levels, indicating many people in the study area are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 48 % of 102 arsenicosis patients. The study also found that arsenic exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated based on the generated data. Safe drinking water supply is urgently required to combat arsenic situation in affected villages of Shahpur. PMID:26838039

  3. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;


    cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio......AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence...

  4. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.


    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  5. Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture.

    Hanscom, Karen L.


    Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors…

  6. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda;


    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  7. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.


    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  8. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  9. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a) Type of benefits. A former spouse who meets the eligibility requirements of § 20.3 is entitled...

  10. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.


    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  11. Flood risk management

    Blanksby, J.R.


    The EU Flood Directive requires member states to develop flood risk management plans by 22nd December 2015. Along the way, member states are required to carry out preliminary flood risk assessments by 22nd December 2011, and detailed flood risk and hazard maps by 22nd December 2013. Following these initial submissions, the assessments, maps and plans will be reviewed and updated in six yearly cycles. Many countries have already carried out preliminary assessments and produced flood risk and h...

  12. Dialectical tensions in stroke survivor relationships.

    Brann, Maria; Himes, Kimberly Leezer; Dillow, Megan R; Weber, Keith


    Stroke is an unpredictable and life-altering medical occurrence that causes immediate change in survivors' relationships. This study unearthed dialectical tensions expressed by spouses of stroke survivors and examined how those dialectical tensions compare to those experienced by stroke survivors themselves. Sixteen spouses of stroke survivors participated in interviews, and four tensions ultimately emerged: self-orientation-partner-orientation, realism-idealism, uncertainty-acceptance, and emotional release-emotional reservation. Three dialectical tensions (i.e., uncertainty-acceptance, realism-idealism, self-orientation-partner-orientation) were similar to those communicated by stroke survivors. Recognizing dialectical tensions experienced and shared can open communication lines and ultimately improve the health of individuals and their relationships. PMID:20512714

  13. Obstacles, Realities and Opportunities in Human Resources Management in Public Administration Institutions From Bihor County (Romania and Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary

    Maria-Madela ABRUDAN


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the par-ticularities of human resources management in the public institutions from Bihor County (Ro-mania and Hajdu-Bihar County (Hungary. The comparative dimension of our study is framed in Hofstede’s categories of cultural differences in organizational culture. The data presented is derived from a broader study conducted on the implementation of New Public Management at local public administration institutions in Ro-mania and Hungary. The project entitled ‘Es-tablishment of R&D programmes in the f eld of new public management between economic faculties of higher education in Hajdu-Bihar and Bihor Counties’ (HURO/0901/277/2.2.2 was developed in partnership between Faculties of Economics from the Universities of Oradea and Debrecen. Our results on public human resour-ces provide relevant insight in the processes re-garding personnel in the public institutions in this region and propose solutions for improvement of the observed weaknesses. The employees of the 60 public institutions included in this research consider themselves participants in the decision-al process, yet the evaluation process needs to be reshaped in order to provide a better balance between performances and the rewards system.

  14. Groundwater flood or groundwater-induced flood?

    Robins, N.S.; Finch, J. W.


    A number of ‘groundwater flood’ events have been recorded over the Chalk aquifer in southern England since the 1994 occurrence at Chichester, Sussex. Reporting of this event and subsequent groundwater floods indicates that there are two types of groundwater flood event. Type 1 is the true groundwater flood in which the water table elevation rises above the ground elevation, and Type 2 occurs when intense groundwater discharge via bourne springs and highly permeable shallow horizons discharges...

  15. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca


    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  16. South China Flooded


    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.


    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring.

  18. Flood Hazard Area

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  19. Base Flood Elevation

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Repairing Your Flooded Home

    ... offer reduced prices, but be wary of “flood sales” that are sell- ing flood damaged items. Some insurance companies and lenders may let you delay your monthly payments. Sometimes banks will make lower interest loans available for reconstruction. ...

  1. EmergencyFlood_DFIRMT

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  3. EmergencyFlood_DFIRMC

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  4. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    Lendering, K.T.


    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  5. Estimating extreme flood probabilities

    Estimates of the exceedance probabilities of extreme floods are needed for the assessment of flood hazard at Department of Energy facilities. A new approach using a joint probability distribution of extreme rainfalls and antecedent soil moisture conditions, along with a rainfall runoff model, provides estimates of probabilities for floods approaching the probable maximum flood. This approach is illustrated for a 570 km2 catchment in Wisconsin and a 260 km2 catchment in Tennessee

  6. The Survivor Syndrome: Aftermath of Downsizing.

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Delage, Claude; Labib, Nadia; Gault, George


    Downsizing can result in remaining staff developing "survivor syndrome," experiencing low morale, stress, and other psychosocial problems. If downsizing is necessary, precautions include managing perceptions and communications and empowering employees to take career ownership. (SK)

  7. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C


    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor. PMID:25537694

  8. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C


    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and...... welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive...... focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor....

  9. U.S. Cancer Survivors Living Longer

    ... page: U.S. Cancer Survivors Living Longer Likelihood of other chronic ... conditions that will burden the health care system, U.S. government health officials report. "Increasingly, we are seeing ...

  10. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    Colleen Galambos


    Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supp...

  11. Sexuality of child sexual abuse survivors

    Cantón-Cortés, David


    The aim of this research was to analyse the possible differences in sexuality among female survivors of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence and non-survivors of the same age, family structure and parental educational level. In order to assess sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasmic ability, and negative sexual affect, the “Brief Sexual Functioning Questionnaire” (BSFQ; Meston, Rellini & Heiman 2006) was employed. An additional question was used to assess anxiety, fear, and disgust...

  12. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda;


    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer....... Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor...... survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls...

  13. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  14. Severe Flooding in India


    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  15. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi


    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  16. Individual and facility-level determinants of iron and folic acid receipt and adequate consumption among pregnant women in rural Bihar, India.

    Amanda Wendt

    Full Text Available In Bihar, India, high maternal anemia prevalence and low iron and folic acid supplement (IFA receipt and consumption have continued over time despite universal IFA distribution and counseling during pregnancy.To examine individual and facility-level determinants of IFA receipt and consumption among pregnant women in rural Bihar, India.Using District Level Household Survey (2007-08 data, multilevel modeling was conducted to examine the determinants of two outcomes: IFA receipt (any IFA receipt vs. none and IFA consumption (≥90 days vs. <90 days. Individual-level and facility-level factors were included. Factor analysis was utilized to construct antenatal care (ANC quality and health sub-center (HSC capacity variables.Overall, 37% of women received any IFA during their last pregnancy. Of those, 24% consumed IFA for 90 or more days. Women were more likely to receive any IFA when they received additional ANC services and counseling, and attended ANC earlier and more frequently. Significant interactions were found between ANC quality factors (odds ratio (OR: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.25, 0.56 and between ANC services and ANC timing and frequency (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.82. No HSC factors were significantly associated with IFA receipt. Women were more likely to consume IFA for ≥90 days if they attended at least 4 ANC check-ups and received more ANC services. IFA supply at the HSC (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82 was also significantly associated with IFA consumption.Our findings indicate that individual and ANC factors (timing, frequency, and quality play a key role in facilitating IFA receipt and consumption. Although HSC capacity factors were not found to influence our outcomes, significant variation at the facility level indicates unmeasured factors that could be important to address in future interventions.

  17. Tendency of socio-psychological aftereffects on aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors home

    Psychosomatic status at the time of A-bomb explosion, behavior and impression immediately after the explosion, aftereffects on life, and mental changes were sought through interview for 80 aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivor home by psychiatric social workers. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C


    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  19. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose- responses. (authors)

  20. Soil flooding affects the survival, growth and metabolism of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham. (Lamiaceae)?
    O alagamento do solo afeta a sobrevivência, o crescimento e o metabolismo de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham. (Lamiaceae)?

    Sandra Sayhun; Eduardo Augusto Ruas; Luiz Antônio de Souza; José Antônio Pimenta; Cristiano Medri; Paulo Souza Medri; Moacyr Eurípedes Medri; Edmilson Bianchini


    In order to elucidate aspects of tolerance to hypoxia, Aegiphila sellowiana Cham. (Lamiaceae) plants were submitted to different periods of flooding. The survival, growth, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were evaluated. There was 33,3% of mortality of flooded plants. Among the 66,7% of survivors, the relative growth rate (RGR) of roots, stems, leaves and whole plant was lower than the RGR of plants cultivated in drained soil. Flooded plants presented diageotrophic root production, inc...

  1. Health Management of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Min Li; Juan Chen; Zhendong Chen


    Breast cancer is defined as a chronic disease.Increasing amounts of attention have been paid to the health management of breast cancer survivors. An important issue is how to find the most appropriate method of follow-up in order to detect long-term complications of treatment, local recurrence and distant metastasis and to administer appropriate treatment to the survivors with recurrence in a timely fashion. Different oncology organizations have published guidelines for following up breast cancer survivors. However, there are few articles on this issue in China. Using the published follow-up guidelines,we analyzed their main limitations and discussed the content,follow-up interval and economic benefits of following up breast cancer survivors in an effort to provide suggestions to physicians.Based on a large number of clinical trials, we discussed the role of physical examination, mammography, liver echograph, chest radiography, bone scan and so on. We evaluated the effects of the above factors on detection of distant disease, survival time,improvement in quality of life and time to diagnosis of recurrence.The results of follow-up carried out by oncologists and primary health care physicians were compared. We also analyzed the correlation factors for the cost of such follow-up. It appears that follow-up for breast cancer survivors can be carried out effectively by trained primary health care physicians. If anything unusual arises, the patients should be transferred to specialists.

  2. Flood potential in Albania

    The most important floods in the rivers of Albania are caused mainly from the intensive rainfall during the period December-March. Occasionally snow melts have some contribution on flood magnitude. Based on the observed data in 54 hydrologic stations, the parameters of floods are calculated, using Gumbel and Pearson III distribution. Using these parameters and the floods factors, a multiple regional correlation between them is estimated. The specific discharge (module) of the peak, corresponding to a return period of 100 years and a surface of the catchment area of 100 km2 , was computed for other 50 small basins by means of the multiple regression aquation. This module was chosen as an indicator of the flood potential. A map of this indicator was established for the Albanian territory, serving as a flood potential indicator but also as a certain risk of inundation. (Author)

  3. RASOR flood modelling

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje


    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  4. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S


    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes. PMID:22472482

  5. Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors in Groups for Incest Survivors.

    Wheeler, Inese; And Others


    Investigated member-perceived curative factors in an incest-survivor group, comparing therapeutic factors reported in closed, time-limited incest survivor group to those in Bonney et al.'s open, long-term survivor group and to Yalom's therapy groups. Findings suggest that relative importance of curative factors may be related to group stages.…

  6. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.645 Elections between survivor... Fund. (b) A current spouse is entitled to a current spouse annuity based on an election under §...

  7. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline


    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures. PMID:26721902

  8. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    Colleen Galambos


    Full Text Available Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supportive of others and to be supported themselves. Family members attend to obtain information about rape. This article explores practice implications from a service planning and implementation perspective.

  9. Preventive Care in Older Cancer Survivors

    Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Ouellet, Jennifer Andreozzi; Dale, William; Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya Gupta


    Objective To study factors that influence receipt of preventive care in older cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 12,458 older adults from the 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Factors associated with non-receipt of preventive care were explored among cancer and non-cancer survivors, using logistic regression. Results Among cancer survivors, 1,883 were diagnosed >one year at survey completion. A cancer history was independently associated with receipt of mammogram (AOR=1.57, 95%CI=1.34–1.85), flu shot (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.16–1.53), measurement of total cholesterol in the previous six months (AOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07–1.34), pneumonia vaccination (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.18–1.49), bone mineral density (BMD) testing (AOR=1.38, 95%CI=1.21–1.56) and lower endoscopy (AOR=1.46, 95%CI=1.29–1.65). However, receipt of preventive care was not optimal among older cancer survivors with only 51.2% of female cancer survivors received a mammogram, 63.8% of all cancer survivors received colonoscopy, and 42.5% had BMD testing. Among cancer survivors, factors associated with non-receipt of mammogram included age ≥85 years (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26–0.74) and scoring ≥three points on the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (AOR=0.94, 95%CI=0.80–1.00). Factors associated with non-receipt of colonoscopy included low education (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.68) and rural residence (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.34–0.77). Factors associated with non-receipt of BMD testing included age ≥70 (AOR=0.59, 95%CI=0.39–0.90), African American race (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.27–0.95), low education (AOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.14–0.38) and rural residence (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.70). Conclusion Although older cancer survivors are more likely to receive preventive care services than other older adults, the prevalence of receipt of preventive care services is low. PMID:25547206

  10. Long-term adverse outcomes in survivors of childhood bone sarcoma: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Fidler, M M; Frobisher, C; Guha, J; K. Wong; Kelly, J; Winter, D. L.; Sugden, E; Duncan, R.; Whelan, J; Reulen, R C; Hawkins, M. M.


    Background: With improved survival, more bone sarcoma survivors are approaching middle age making it crucial to investigate the late effects of their cancer and its treatment. We investigated the long-term risks of adverse outcomes among 5-year bone sarcoma survivors within the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: Cause-specific mortality and risk of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs) were investigated for 664 bone sarcoma survivors. Use of health services, health and marital st...


    Pandi Gavril


    The floods are an important phase of the hydrologic regime. Based on both genetically and influential factors, it can be identified several types of floods. The main criterion of analysis is the identification of flood that can be achieved using many methods. The type of flood, the morphology and the goal of analysis are taken into account for the identification of the flood. Then, parameters of the flood hydrograph can be specified, those parameters characterizing the laws of maximum water f...

  12. Mortality among atomic bomb survivors

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have conducted a long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 120,000 atomic bomb survivors and non-exposed controls since 1950. The most recent findings regarding cancer mortality during the period 1950-85 in this cohort, based on the DS86 doses are as follows: The dosimetry change does not alter the list of radiation-related cancers. Some city differences in dose-response previously thought to be real are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. Assuming a linear dose-response, and using estimated organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar. If larger RBE values are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65 dosimetry. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also have been demonstrated increases in cancers of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which cancer is normally prone to develop (the so-called 'cancer age'), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality in the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher generally for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) than for those who were older ATB. Non-cancer mortality in the period 1950-78, based on the T65 doses, which is the most recent published report, did not show an increase with dose, but now, with the accumulation of seven more years of follow-up, there seems to be an excess in the very high dose range, particularly for the younger age ATB cohort. (author)

  13. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Project WET Foundation, 2009


    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  14. On Flood Alert


    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  15. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    Lendering, K.T.


    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an extensive water storage and drainage system to discharge excess water to the surrounding ‘outside water’. Through a large system of ditches water is pumped onto large storage canals which in turn drai...

  16. Survivors Versus Non-Survivors Postburn: Differences In Inflammatory and Hypermetabolic Trajectories

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kraft, Robert; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.


    Objective To evaluate whether a panel of common biomedical markers can be utilized as trajectories to determine survival in pediatric burn patients. Summary Background Data Despite major advances in clinical care, of the more than 1 million people burned in the United States each year, more than 4,500 die as a result of their burn injuries. The ability to predict patient outcome or anticipate clinical trajectories using plasma protein expression would allow personalization of clinical care to optimize the potential for patient survival. Methods Two-hundred thirty severely burned children with burns exceeding 30% of the total body surface, requiring at least one surgical procedure were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Demographics, clinical outcomes, as well as inflammatory and acute-phase responses (serum cytokines, hormones, and proteins) were determined at admission and at 11 time points for up to 180 days postburn. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests where appropriate. Results Survivors and non-survivors exhibited profound differences in critical markers of inflammation and metabolism at each time point. Non-survivors had significantly higher serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, c-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and bilirubin (p<0.05). Furthermore, non-survivors exhibited a vastly increased hypermetabolic response that was associated with increases in organ dysfunction and sepsis when compared with survivors (p<0.05). Conclusions Non-survivors have different trajectories in inflammatory, metabolic, and acute phase responses allowing differentiation of non-survivors from survivors and now possibly allowing novel predictive models to improve and personalize burn outcomes. PMID:23579577

  17. Insurance flood maps

    Dear Client, in half an hour you will be hit by a flood, please get ready. Your insurance company. Such a phone call or SMS could only mean two things: drunk friends or an insurance company using a flood map. In the second case, the best thing to do on receiving such a message is to act quickly. The advantage of flood maps do not necessarily have to start at the moment a flood becomes an immediate threat. The primary role of flood maps is to allow for a fairer calculation of insurance rates. Insurance companies can save on re-insurance costs as if the risk level is predictable re-insurance companies may offer better rates. The three largest insurance companies: Allianz - Slovenska poistovna, Kooperativa and Ceska poistovna Slovensko have begun introducing flood maps. These three companies control about 75% of the market. And if competition does not force other market participants to adopt the same approach, re-insurance companies certainly will. They will charge more for a less specifically defined risk level. So far insurance companies have not encountered this pressure, re-insurance companies are helping them set up the flood maps and in the coming years flood maps will become a common tool. Then the pressure will be there: if a insurance company uses a different calculation method, the final price may differ greatly from the competition's. If the price is higher, the company will lose clients and if the price is much lower, the risk has probably not been calculated correctly and the insurance company may suffer substantial losses in the event of a major flood. In short, the investment of several million Sk in a flood map is essential

  18. Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor.

    Noonan, Erika M; Farrell, Timothy W


    This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated. Prostate cancer survivors should be screened regularly for urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Patients with predominant urge incontinence symptoms, which can occur after surgical and radiation treatments, may benefit from an anticholinergic agent. If there is difficulty with bladder emptying, a trial of an alpha blocker may be considered. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can effectively treat sexual dysfunction following treatment for prostate cancer. Osteoporosis screening should occur before initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy should be monitored for anemia, metabolic syndrome, and vasomotor symptoms. Healthy lifestyle choices should be encouraged, including weight management, regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and smoking cessation. Primary care physicians should be vigilant for psychosocial distress, including depression, among prostate cancer survivors, as well as the potential impact of this distress on patients' family members and partners. PMID:27175954

  19. Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.; Jordan, Sharalyn; Erlebach, Anne C.


    Thirty-one downsizing survivors from both the private and public sector were interviewed to determine incidents that either helped or hindered their transition through 1 or more organizational downsizings. A critical incident technique was used to analyze and organize the data around themes that emerged, themes were represented by both positive…

  20. Childhood cancer survivors: cardiac disease & social outcomes

    E.A.M. Feijen


    The thesis is divided in two parts; Cardiac health problems and healthcare consumption & social outcomes in CCS. The general aims of part 1 creates optimal conditions for the evaluation of cardiac events in 5-year childhood cancer survivors, evaluation of the long term risk of cardiac events, and to

  1. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in Polio Survivors

    Han, Soo Jeong; Lim, Jae-Young


    Objective To examine the correlation between obesity and pulmonary function in polio survivors. Methods This study was conducted based on a questionnaire survey and physical examination. The questionnaire included gender, age, paralyzed regions, physical activity levels, and accompanying diseases. The physical examination included measuring body mass index, waist circumference, muscle power, total fat amount, body fat percentage, and lean body mass. In addition, pulmonary function was tested based on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to FVC, and chest circumference. Five university hospitals and a local health clinic participated in this study. Results Pearson and partial correlation coefficients that used data collected from 73 polio survivors showed that obesity had a negative correlation with pulmonary function. Conclusion This study found that pulmonary function has a negative correlation with obesity for polio survivors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop specialized exercise programs to help polio survivors reduce their weight and strengthen their respiratory muscles. PMID:26798602

  2. Tonic immobility among survivors of sexual assault.

    TeBockhorst, Sunda Friedman; O'Halloran, Mary Sean; Nyline, Blair N


    While tonic immobility (TI) is a phenomenon well known and documented in the animal world, far less is known about its manifestation in humans. Available literature demonstrates that TI is significantly associated with less hopeful prognoses when compared with survivors who did not experience TI (Fiszman et al., 2008; Heidt et al., 2005). If survivors who experience TI are at increased risk for "depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and peritraumatic dissociation" (Heidt et al., 2005, p. 1166) and respond more poorly "to standard pharmacological treatment for PTSD" (Fiszman et al., 2008, p. 196), the implications for treatment are significant, suggesting that TI "should be routinely assessed in traumatized patients" (Fiszman et al., 2008, p. 193). Literature indicates that "TI is thought to be particularly relevant to survivors of rape and other sexual assault" and that "sexual assault is a trauma that appears to entail virtually all of the salient elements associated with the induction of TI in nonhuman animals, namely, fear, contact, and restraint" (Marx et al., 2008, p. 79). Describing the phenomenon as it is experienced by survivors is especially important because the ability to accurately understand and describe the nature of the phenomenon is the first step toward accurately identifying, diagnosing, and treating the sequelae of such a response. This study examines the experience of TI from the perspective of 7 women who survived a sexual assault accompanied by tonic immobility using qualitative phenomenological methodology, and yields a description of the core defining themes of the experience of TI. PMID:25793694

  3. 31 CFR 29.344 - Survivor benefits.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Survivor benefits. 29.344 Section 29.344 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Split Benefits Calculation of the Amount of...

  4. A Spiritual Framework in Incest Survivors Treatment

    Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit


    Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…

  5. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe


    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  6. Health Practice in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Purpose: To compare the health practice of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors and their siblings, and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status and disease history on health practice of HL survivors. Methods and Materials: We conducted a questionnaire study on long-term HL survivors and their siblings on health care utilization, health habits, and screening behavior. Results: A total of 511 HL survivors (response rate of 50%, including survivors lost to contact) and 224 siblings (response rate, 58%) participated. Median time from HL diagnosis was 15 years. Significantly more survivors than siblings had a physical examination in the past year (63% vs. 49%, p = 0.0001). Male survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to perform monthly self-testicular examinations (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). Among survivors, higher household income (p = 0.01) independently predicted for having had a physical examination in the past year. Lower educational level (p = 0.0004) and history of relapsed HL (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, and/or physical inactivity. Conclusions: Compared with siblings, long-term HL survivors have a higher level of health care utilization and better screening practice. Survivors from lower socioeconomic background had lower adherence to routine health care and greater report of unhealthy habits. Survivors with history of relapsed HL were also more likely to engage in unhealthy habits

  7. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    George E. Dzyacky


    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  8. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Oulahen, Greg


    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  9. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman


    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  10. Flood Damage Mitigation in Utah

    James, L. Douglas; Larson, Dean T.; Hoggan, Daniel H.; Glover, Terrence L.


    Utah is subjected to flash flooding in mountain canyons, mudflows and shallow water flooding on lowlands at the canyon outlets, storm water flooding after thunderstorms in urban areas, and prolonged periods of inundation in certain lowland areas during snowmelt periods. In response to these problems, individuals are making private land use and flood proofing decisions, larger communities have storm water collectio...

  11. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

    Gouri S. Bhunia


    Full Text Available Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI based on data from the thematic mapper (TM sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with the concurrent incidence of kala-azar and the vector density. Maximum and mean NDVI values (R2 = 0.55 and R2 = 0.60, respectively, as well as the season likelihood ratio (X2 = 17.51; P <0.001, were found to be strongly associated with kala-azar, while the correlation with between minimum NDVI values and kala-azar was weak (R2 = 0.25. Additionally, a strong association was found between the mean and maximum NDVI values with seasonal vector abundance (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.55, respectively but there was only a marginal association between minimum NDVI value and the spatial distribution of kala-azar vis-à-vis P. argentipes density.

  12. Initial external events: floods

    The initial external event, specifically flood in a Nuclear power plant, and the calculation necessary to determine the contribution of this type of event in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis, are presented. (M.I.)

  13. Flood-proof motors

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...


    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy


    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  16. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team


    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  17. The Terrible Flood

    Dorine; Houston


    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  18. How wetlands affect floods

    M. Acreman; J. Holden


    It is widely recognised that wetlands play an important role in the hydrological cycle, influencing groundwater recharge, low flows, evaporation and floods. This has led to policies being formulated world-wide to conserve and manage wetlands to deliver these key services, especially flood risk reduction. Generic statements have often been published about wetland hydrological services but the term “wetlands” covers many land types, including wet woodlands, reedbeds, peat bogs, fens, and salt m...

  19. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.


    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  20. Mass cancer survey of atomic bomb survivors

    This is an outcome of mass screening for breast and uterine cancers performed in A-bomb survivors during the period from August 1988 through March 1990. Among 1,770 participants in mass screening for breast cancer, detailed examination was judged to be necessary in 6.1%. The rate of participation in the subsequent examination was 81.5%. Breast cancer was detected in 6 patients, which was all invasive ductal carcinoma. The estimated detection rate for breast cacer was 0.47%. There were 1,648 participants in mass screening for uterine cancer. The rate of detailed examination required was 2.0%, and the rate of participation was 66.7%. Uterine cancer was detected in 5 A-bomb survivors, one of whom had metastasis of rectal cancer. The estimated detection rate was 0.45%. (N.K.)

  1. Care of the Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivor

    Thompson, Carrie A.; Mauck, Karen; Havyer, Rachel; Bhagra, Anjali; Kalsi, Henna; Hayes, Sharonne N.


    Of those individuals diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, 85% will survive and may be affected by residual effects of their cancer and its therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation). Hodgkin lymphoma survivors are at risk of developing secondary malignancies, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, thyroid disease, infertility, premature menopause, chronic fatigue, and psychosocial issues. These conditions usually have a long latency and therefore present years or dec...

  2. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P.; Kernahan, J


    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for m...

  3. Survivors of Organizational Change: A Resource Perspective

    Yu-Chin Lee; Pei-Chuan Mao


    The failure rate of organizational change and studies regarding personal turmoil resulting from organizational change indicate that even employees survive layoff, merger, or any forms of changes, they still develop symptoms of distress, cynicism, and work withdrawal. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model based on the conservation of resources theory to examine the effect of organizational change on survivors¡¯ organizational identification and well-being. Moreover, we suggest that orga...

  4. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references

  6. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Mojca Čižek Sajko


    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.


    Korobeynikov G.V.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  8. Suicide Loss Survivors' Experiences with Therapy: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Sanford, Rebecca; Cerel, Julie; McGann, Vanessa; Maple, Myfanwy


    Over two-thirds of suicide loss survivors, those who have lost a loved one to suicide, seek individual therapy following their loss. However, nothing is known about what survivors find helpful about therapy or how therapy impacts their grief. An online survey was conducted June 2012-March 2013 with a convenience sample of 197 survivors primarily from the USA and Australia to develop a better understanding of treatment seeking loss survivors and their experiences in therapy. Questions explored the experience of the suicide death, the therapy received after the loss, and insights about improving therapy for loss survivors. Participants were generally positive about their therapy experiences. However, respondents endorsed symptoms of PTSD, though many did not report a formal diagnosis from a provider, suggesting a discrepancy that could lead to inadequate treatment of symptoms. The findings provide an understanding of treatment seeking loss survivors, along with implications for therapists treating this population. PMID:27074845

  9. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo; Hansen, Dorte Gilså


    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......, 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types and...

  10. The children of atomic bomb survivors: A genetic study

    In this volume, many of the most important publications that appeared over the years on the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been collected. Studies on health effects reached some important conclusions. Irradiation of gonads with moderately high dosage of ionizing irradiation as received by atomic bomb survivors did not lead to any statistically recognizable increase of health hazards among the survivors offspring. Constitutional aberrations and genetic variants recognizable at the protein level were not enhanced either

  11. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    Jae Hoon Chung; Ki Woong Sung; Keon hee Yoo; Soo Hyun Lee; Sung-Yoon Cho; Se-Hwa Kim; Sung Won Park; Su Jin Kim; Young Bae Sohn; Hong Hoe Koo; Dong-Kyu Jin


    Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and c...

  12. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment


    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  13. Religious Coping and Psychological Distress in Military Veteran Cancer Survivors

    Archambault, Elizabeth; Schuster, Jennifer; Richardson, Peter; Moye, Jennifer


    Research on the relationship between religious coping and psychological well-being in cancer survivors is limited. Forty-eight veteran cancer survivors completed measures of psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, and positive and negative religious coping. Negative religious coping was associated with greater distress and growth. Positive religious coping was associated with greater growth. Gender, race, and religious affiliation were significant predictors of positive and negative religious coping. Veteran cancer survivors who utilize negative religious coping may benefit from referral to clergy or a mental health professional. Assessment of religious coping may be particularly important for female, non-White, and Christian cancer survivors. PMID:21822744

  14. Nutritional status and physical activity of childhood leukemia survivors

    Conny Tanjung


    Full Text Available Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, the most common malignancy of childhood, has an overall cure rate of approximately 80%. Long-term survivors of childhood ALL are at increased risk for obesity and physical inactivity that may lead to the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular diseases, and related mortality in the years following treatment. Objective To evaluate the physical activity and the propensity for developing obesity longer term in ALL survivors. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all ALL survivors from Pantai Indah Kapuk (PIK Hospital. We assessed their physical activity and nutritional status at the first time of ALL diagnosis and at the time of interview. Results Subjects were 15 ALL survivors aged 7 to 24 years. The median follow up time was 6.4 years (range 3 to 10 years. Only 2 out of 15 survivors were overweight and none were obese. All survivors led a sedentary lifestyle. Most female subjects had increased BMI, though most were not overweight/obese. Steroid therapy in the induction phase did not increase the risk of developing obesity in ALL survivors. Conclusion Long-term survivors of childhood ALL do not meet physical activity recommendations according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control. However, steroid therapy do not seem to lead to overweight/obesity in ALL survivors

  15. Genetic instability in leukemic cells from atomic bomb survivors

    MSI (Micro Satellite Instability) analysis was enforced for 29 patients with AML (atomic bomb survivors 13 cases, unexposed persons 16 cases) who developed from 1986 to 1994. When the cases that alterations at two or more parts were recognized in micro-satellite analyses of leukemic cell were defined as MSI, 2 of 16 unexposed persons and 10 of 13 survivors were positive, and significant high rate was recognized (p<0.01) among survivors. This result suggest genetic instability in leukemic cell of atomic bomb survivors. (K.H.)

  16. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad


    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  17. Morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Castellino, Sharon M.; Geiger, Ann M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Goodman, Pam; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M


    The contribution of specific cancer therapies, comorbid medical conditions, and host factors to mortality risk after pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is unclear. We assessed leading morbidities, overall and cause-specific mortality, and mortality risks among 2742 survivors of HL in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Excess absolute risk for leading causes of death and cumulative incidence and standardi...

  18. Invisible Survivors: NGO-workers Reflections on Male and Female Survivors of Sexual Violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda

    Häll, Sara Linnéa Margaretha


    The objective of this thesis is to map out the NGO-practitioners reflections on male and female survivors of sexual gender based violence (SGBV), in violent “peace” post conflict Gulu, Northern Uganda. To better understand how the NGO-practitioners make sense of sexual violence, perceive its survivors and how they address the survivors’ needs. The empirical data is analysed through a gender lens, with a particular focus on masculinity and gender hierarchy. The survivors addressed are particul...

  19. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao


    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  20. hunting for the Traces of Great Himalayan Earthquakes: Surface Break of the M ≈ 8.1, 1934 Bihar Nepal event?

    Tapponnier, P.; Sapkota, S.; Klinger, Y.; Bollinger, L.; Perrier, F.; Gaudemer, Y.; Tiwari, T.; Siwakoti, S.


    The Main Himalayan Frontal Thrust (MHT/MFT), largest and fastest-slipping continental mega-thrust, poses a major threat to Nepal, India, and adjacent countries, but seismic hazard along it is still poorly quantified. Based on historical descriptions of the two main 20th century earthquakes (1905, 1934), a consensus emerged that neither produced surface ruptures, a view recently reinforced by paleo-seismological investigations in which only faulting much older than 1900 was found. This leaves us with fundamental, unanswered questions (recurrence times, rupture lengths, geomorphic signature of large events), and the ominous perspective of even greater earthquakes with displacements in excess of 15m, potentially on par with M ≈ 9 oceanic subduction events. Our survey of the area between the Bhanke Khola and Arun/Sun Khosi valleys challenges this consensus, suggesting instead the presence of a very young earthquake trace on outcrop and in the surface geomorphology at several sites. In the Sirkhola valley, 14C calibrated dates from a strath terrace uplifted ≈ 3m by one shallow thrust indicate emplacement less than 250 years ago, and thus require the occurrence of a large earthquake in the 19th or 20th century, most likely the 1934 event. Towards the east, free-faced scarps also imply that the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake was not blind, and hanging-wall terraces perched 4 to 25 m due to uplift by distinct, young events may be used to constrain recurrence times. The Sir Khola discovery fosters hope that other great earthquakes along the Himalayas were not blind either. Adapting paleo-seismological techniques to the scale of mega-thrust events should thus help unravel fully the seismic behavior of the MFT and its role in the uplift of Southern Tibet in the last ten thousand years.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  2. Probable maximum flood control

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  3. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.


    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  4. The Global Flood Model

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.


    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  5. Cultural heritage and floods

    Nedvědová, Klára; Pergl, R.

    Milano: Politecnico di Milano, Centro per la Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali, 2013 - (Boriani, B.; Gabaglio, R.; Gulotta, D.), s. 858-863 ISBN 978-88-908961-0-1. [Built Heritage 2013 - Monitoring Conservation Management. International conference. Milano (IT), 18.11.2013-20.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : flood risk * cultural heritage * flood protection Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  7. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  8. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  9. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  10. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  11. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  12. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Area

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Chieko Matsubara

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors.A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2.Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively, the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67, being female (odds ratio, 1.47, middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53 and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively.The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  14. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)


    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  15. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  16. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J


    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  17. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken


    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure. PMID:23658214

  18. Patient Education Among Stroke Survivor Patients

    Martin, Ruth


    Stroke is one of the most serious health problems in the world, cited as being the second leading cause of death. After stroke, there is a greater risk of suffering second and further subsequent stroke-events. Given the heavy burden of disease present by stroke, there is a great need to improve patient education for stroke survivors, who are at an increased risk of another cerebrovascular accident. The purpose of this thesis is to develop the quality of patient education in nursing care o...

  19. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H;


    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  20. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik


    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support ...

  1. A Model Psychoeducational Group for Survivors of Organizational Downsizing.

    Foley, Pamela F.; Smith, John E.


    Describes a one-day psychoeducational group for survivors of a recent organizational downsizing. Principal goal of the group is to prevent "Layoff Survivor Syndrome" through instruction and group exercises designed to normalize common responses and increase awareness of positive coping strategies. Provides descriptions of group structure,…

  2. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca


    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  3. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Barkon, Beverly


    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  4. The Psychospiritual Dynamics of Adult Survivors of Abuse.

    Lemoncelli, John; Carey, Andrew


    Discusses challenges in treating adult survivors of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and how the relationship with God can either psychologically promote healing or maintain an abusive cycle. Argues that clinicians must understand the dynamic bonding process between abuser and survivor and how this relationship is typically transferred to…

  5. Health Information Needs of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Their Family

    S.L. Knijnenburg; L.C. Kremer; C. Bos; K.I. Braam; M.W.M. Jaspers


    Background. Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants fo

  6. On Being a Survivor: According to Jim Gallagher

    Gallagher, James J.


    The text from this article, by Jim Gallaghar, is adapted from an address given to Talent Identification Program (TIP) awardees at Duke University May 17, 2004. He discusses being a survivor in public schools. The overall message he is trying to get across, is be a survivor, be a problem finder, it will energize and might find some results that…

  7. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... spouse annuity based on an election under § 842.612 only upon electing this current spouse...

  8. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  9. After the Flood

    Stanistreet, Paul


    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  10. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges.

    Juni, Samuel


    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors. PMID:26178616

  11. Unusual MRI Findings in a Polio Survivor.

    Sakamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takeshi


    A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors. PMID:27069705

  12. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  13. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    The relationship between multiple myeloma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the estimated exposure dose is discussed. From October 1950 to December 1976 multiple myeloma was observed in 22 of 72,802 a-bomb survivors (54,116 in Hiroshima; 18,686 in Nagasaki) who were examined periodically in a life span survey by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The incidence per 1,000 was roughly 0.97 in a group exposed to over 100 rad, 0.30 in a group exposed to 1 to 99 rad, and 0.21 in a group exposed to less than 1 rad. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in relative risk which standardized city, sex, and age according to the controls exposed to less than 1 rad. An increase in risk in a group exposed to a large dose was marked in survivors aged 20 to 59 at the time of exposure. Multiple myeloma was not observed in those under 20 or over 60 years. An increase in risk in the group exposed to a large dose became marked 15 years after exposure. It is believed that the age factor, in addition to radiation, specifically influenced the occurrence of disease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François


    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users to...... retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  15. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.


    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  16. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species.

    Angelov, M N; Sung, S J; Doong, R L; Harms, W R; Kormanik, P P; Black Jr, C C


    About 95% of swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings survived continuous root flooding for more than two years, whereas none of the swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.) seedlings survived one year of flooding. Death of oak seedlings occurred in phases associated with periods of major vegetative growth, e.g., after bud burst in spring, after summer stem elongation, and during the winter deciduous stage, suggesting that stored reserves and sources were inadequate to maintain the seedlings when vegetative sinks were forming. Additional evidence that flooding induced a source deficiency in oak was that leaves of flooded oak were 65 to 75% smaller than leaves of nonflooded oak. Flooded swamp tupelo seedlings had a normal leaf size and patchy stomatal opening compared with nonflooded seedlings. Flooding caused increases in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) specific activity in taproot cambial tissues and increases in starch concentrations of swamp tupelo seedlings that were reversed when seedlings were removed from flooding. Flooding had little effect on soluble sugar concentrations in swamp tupelo or sweetgum. In the long-term flood-dry-flood treatment, in which all species had survivors, upper canopy leaf photosynthetic rates were higher in all species during the dry period than in nonflooded controls, whereas their starch and soluble sugars concentrations were similar to those of nonflooded controls. Based on seedling survival and the sink-source relationships, the order of flood tolerance was: swamp tupelo > sweetgum > swamp chestnut oak > cherrybark oak. PMID:14871716

  17. Observed variability and trends in extreme temperature indices and rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India—a case study

    Subash, N.; Singh, S. S.; Priya, Neha


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trends and variability in extreme temperature indices and its impact on rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India, which is part of the middle Indo-Gangetic Basin. Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was employed for detection of trend and Sen slope was determined to quantify the magnitude of such trends. We have analyzed 10 extreme temperature indices for monthly and seasonally. The influence of extreme temperature indices on rice-wheat productivity was determined using correlation analysis. As far as Patna is concerned, if the number of cool days during September ≥10, the rice productivity will increase due to the availability of sufficient duration to fill up the grain. However, higher warm days during all the months except June will affect the productivity. A significant negative correlation was noticed between maximum value of minimum temperature during September and rice productivity. Highly significant positive correlation was noticed between number of cool days during September with rice productivity while it was highly significant negative correlation in the case of number of warm days during the same month. As far as Samastipur is concerned, a negative correlation was noticed between wheat productivity and maximum value of maximum temperature (TXx) during February, but not statistically significant. The higher temperature may affect the kernel weight and thereby yield. It is seen that a critical value of TXx ≥29.2 °C will be harmful to wheat crop during February. A significant positive correlation of number of cool nights with wheat productivity also supports the above relationship. The critical values of extreme temperature indices during rice and wheat growing months provide an indicator to assess the vulnerability of rice-wheat productivity to temperature for Patna and Samastipur districts and there is a need to prepare an adaptive strategy and also develop thermo-insensitive rice

  18. Risk Zone Modelling and Early Warning System for Visceral Leishmaniasis Kala-Azar Disease in Bihar, India Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Jeyaram, A.; Kesari, S.; Bajpai, A.; Bhunia, G. S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.


    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) commonly known as Kala-azar is one of the most neglected tropical disease affecting approximately 200 million poorest populations 'at risk in 109 districts of three endemic countries namely Bangladesh, India and Nepal at different levels. This tropical disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. The analysis of disease dynamics indicate the periodicity at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scale which forms the basis for development of advanced early warning system. Study area of highly endemic Vaishali district, Bihar, India has been taken for model development. A Systematic study of geo-environmental parameters derived from satellite data in conjunction with ground intelligence enabled modelling of infectious disease and risk villages. High resolution Indian satellites data of IRS LISS IV (multi-spectral) and Cartosat-1 (Pan) have been used for studying environmentally risk parameters viz. peri-domestic vegetation, dwelling condition, wetland ecosystem, cropping pattern, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), detailed land use etc towards risk assessment. Univariate analysis of the relationship between vector density and various land cover categories and climatic variables suggested that all the variables are significantly correlated. Using the significantly correlated variables with vector density, a seasonal multivariate regression model has been carried out incorporating geo-environmental parameters, climate variables and seasonal time series disease parameters. Linear and non-linear models have been applied for periodicity and interannual temporal scale to predict Man-hour-density (MHD) and 'out-of-fit' data set used for validating the model with reasonable accuracy. To improve the MHD predictive approach, fuzzy model has also been incorporated in GIS environment combining spatial geo-environmental and climatic variables using fuzzy membership

  19. Telomerase-null survivor screening identifies novel telomere recombination regulators.

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available Telomeres are protein-DNA structures found at the ends of linear chromosomes and are crucial for genome integrity. Telomeric DNA length is primarily maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Cells lacking telomerase will undergo senescence when telomeres become critically short. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a very small percentage of cells lacking telomerase can remain viable by lengthening telomeres via two distinct homologous recombination pathways. These "survivor" cells are classified as either Type I or Type II, with each class of survivor possessing distinct telomeric DNA structures and genetic requirements. To elucidate the regulatory pathways contributing to survivor generation, we knocked out the telomerase RNA gene TLC1 in 280 telomere-length-maintenance (TLM gene mutants and examined telomere structures in post-senescent survivors. We uncovered new functional roles for 10 genes that affect the emerging ratio of Type I versus Type II survivors and 22 genes that are required for Type II survivor generation. We further verified that Pif1 helicase was required for Type I recombination and that the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex greatly affected the emerging frequency of Type I survivors. Finally, we found the Rad6-mediated ubiquitination pathway and the KEOPS complex were required for Type II recombination. Our data provide an independent line of evidence supporting the idea that these genes play important roles in telomere dynamics.

  20. Persistent altered spermatogenesis in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    López Andreu, J A; Fernández, P J; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; Navarro, I; Rodríguez-Ineba, A; Antonio, P; Muro, M D; Romeu, A


    This study evaluated male gonadal function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer and assessed the suitability of offering sperm analysis to all those patients independently of the diagnosis and treatment received. A total of 43 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (21), acute myeloid leukemia (1), neuroblastoma (8), ganglioneuroblastoma (1), ganglioneuroma (2), Wilms' tumor (9), and mesoblastic nephroma (1) underwent sperm analysis at a mean age of 20.2 years, after a mean time off treatment of 13.6 years. Eight of the patients (19%) were azoospermic, 2 (5%) were severely oligo-asthenozoospermic, and only 16 (37%) were normozoospermic. A control group of healthy volunteers aged FSH) levels were identified as independent factors associated with azoospermia or severe oligo-asthenozoospermia. Azoospermic and severely oligo-asthenozoospermic survivors had significantly smaller mean testicular volume and higher basal FSH levels than the other survivors, but small testicles (sum of both testicular volume abnormally high basal FSH (> 10 mIU/mL) were present in only half of the azoospermic survivors. Male long-term survivors of childhood cancer constitute a high-risk subpopulation for altered sperm analysis. It seems justified to offer sperm analysis to all long-term survivors. PMID:10689712

  1. Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors

    Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak


    Full Text Available Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and
    during treatment after remission induction. The control group consisted of 22 healthy children. Serum concentrations
    of TAS, glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen and insulin were measured. In
    cancer survivors, independently of diagnosis and kind of treatment (radiotherapy anthracyclines administration,
    the mean serum TAS did not differ significantly from the control group. No correlations were observed
    with age at the time of diagnosis or interval after the end of treatment. TAS values did not correlate with traits of
    the metabolic syndrome. In a group of eight patients with ALL at diagnosis and after induction of remission,
    TAS values were lower than in the control and cancer survivor groups. Antioxidant status was not found to be
    deteriorated in children after anticancer treatment, irrespective of diagnosis or kind of treatment, which might
    indicate sufficient antioxidant prevention. However, the possibility of the development of MS and cardiovascular
    disease in adulthood indicates the need for future studies.Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and

  2. Cultural heritage and floods

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Prague: Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 15-17 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * damage * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. Cultural heritage and flood

    Nedvědová, Klára; Pergl, R.

    Prague: Grada, 2013 - (Hájek, P.; Tywoniak, J.; Lupíšek, A.; Sojková, K.), s. 737-740 ISBN 978-80-247-5015-6. [CESB13 - Central Europe towards sustainable building 2013. Praha (CZ), 26.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : flood risk * risk mitigation * knowledge software * knowledge map Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. After the flood

    Slížková, Zuzana; Siedel, H.; Binda, L.; Cardani, G.

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 66-74 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * damage * restoration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.


    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  6. Some aspects of readaptation of atomic survivors in Hiroshima

    An overview of some aspects of psycho social readaptation of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima is presented. Reports from 31 survivors, 8 men and 23 women, were used as data for the analysis. The reports were collected individually through a structured interview, in one of the two hospitals in Hiroshima which deliver services to the survivors. The data were grouped according to the following areas: family, work, health and psychological readaptation. These data were analysed considering the psycho social aspects of disasters and the characteristics of the japanese culture. (M.A.C.)

  7. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)


    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  8. The psychosocial needs of gynaecological cancer survivors

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Hansson, Helena; Ottesen, Bent;


    sheets for patients and advanced professional communication skills. The GSD method was adapted to women in a follow-up program after gynaecologic cancer treatment (GSD-GYN-C). Phase 2 involved primary pilot testing of the intervention and the findings were used to modify the intervention in phase 3. This......PURPOSE: To develop and pilot test an intervention targeting the women's psychosocial needs during the follow-up period after surgical treatment for gynaecological cancer. METHODS: The project consisted of four phases. Phase 1 involved development of an intervention on the basis of meetings with...... survivors of gynaecological cancer. CONCLUSION: GSD-GYN-C was developed and validated and is now ready for evaluation in an RCT....

  9. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  10. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)