Finite-beta and curvature drift effects on drift waves near the plasmapause
The linear stability of finite-#betta# drift waves, near the plasmapause of the earth, is analysed for the case in which the magnetic field is non-uniform in two dimensions. The coupling of the driftwave to the oscillation of the magnetic field, due to non-zero #betta#, is found to be destabilizing. The spatial structure of the unstable mode is found to be governed by the 'curvature' scale length of the equilibrium magnetic field. (author)
Theory and calculation of finite beta drift wave turbulence
Using numerical techniques, we calculate eigenmodes of the nonlinear universal mode with finite beta in order to determine the scaling of the saturation level of the instability with beta. We use two different renormalizations in the calculations and find that using the appropriate renormalization, we are able to recover Alcator density scaling, as originally found in analytic work by Molvig and Hirshman. We also find that the universal mode should be stable in ohmically heated tokamaks above a critical beta on the order of 0.02
Modulational instability of drift waves
The instability of drift waves against zonal flows and streamers is discussed. Unlike in previous treatments, we do not make the assumption that their frequency is resonant with drift wave packets. In this more general treatment we find at least two unstable roots even in the simple case of a monochromatic pump drift wave, and potentially an infinite multitude of roots for a more complicated drift wave spectrum. One of them is the well known modulational instability in resonance with the drift wave packets; the other is a new instability corresponding to the inelastic refraction of drift waves at the streamer. It is nontrivial which of the many roots is the most unstable one
Collisional drift fluids and drift waves
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. Tν(x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)
Drift waves in general toroidal geometry
A model, based on gyro-kinetic ions and fluid electrons, to study drift waves in low-beta [beta = (kinetic pressure)/(magnetic pressure)] stellarator plasmas is presented. The model equations are written in straight-field-line coordinates and are valid for arbitrary, fully three-dimensional configurations with closed, nested magnetic surfaces. An implicit method, coupled with a subcycling technique for the electrons, is used to solve the time-dependent, along-the-field-line equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for a 3-field-period toroidal heliac. The geometrical effects that enter the model equations are calculated and displayed in physical space using advanced visualization techniques
Clumps in drift wave turbulence
Pecseli, H. L.; Mikkelsen, Torben
1986-01-01
, two-dimensional random flow serves as a particularly simple illustration. For this case particles can be trapped for all times in a local vortex (macro-clump). A small test-cloud of particles (micro-clump) chosen arbitrarily in a realization will on the other hand expand on average. A formulation is...... proposed in terms of conditional eddies, in order to discriminate turbulent flows where macro-clumps may be observed. The analysis is illustrated by results from experimental investigations of strongly turbulent, resistive drift-wave fluctuations. The related problem for electrostatic turbulence in...
The linear stability of the electrostatic drift waves in slab geometry has been studied analytically and numerically. The effects of magnetic field with shear, of the finite Larmor radius, of an electron streaming, of a temperature gradient and of collisions have been retained. The analytical solution has been obtained using the matched asymptotic expansion technique, and an expression for the critical streaming parameter has been derived. Finally, assuming that the transport in the Reversed Field Pinches is dominated by this instability, a scaling law for the temperature in such machine is derived
Counting of discrete Rossby/drift wave resonant triads
Bustamante, Miguel D; Lynch, Peter; Quinn, Brenda
2013-01-01
The purpose of this note is to remove the confusion about counting of resonant wave triads for Rossby and drift waves in the context of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation. In particular, we aim to point out a major error of over-counting of triads in the paper "Discrete exact and quasi-resonances of Rossby/drift waves on beta-plane with periodic boundary conditions", by Kartashov and Kartashova, arXiv:1307.8272v1 [physics.flu-dyn] (2013).
Samiran Ghosh; Nikhil Chakrabarti; Manoranjan Khan; M R Gupta
2013-02-01
The conditions for the existence of low-frequency electrostatic drift wave in pair-ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.
Anomalous bootstrap current due to drift waves
An anomalous parallel current driven by radial flux in tokamak is discussed. Drift waves, which cause an anomalous cross field diffusion, can generate a parallel current in a sheared magnetic field, if the fluctuation level has radial dependence. (author)
Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma
Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.
1968-01-01
A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....
Drift Wave Turbulence and Magnetic Reconnection
Price, L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.
2015-12-01
An important feature in collisionless magnetic reconnection is the development of sharp discontinuities along the separatrices bounding the Alfvenic outflow. The typical scale length of these features is ρs (the Larmor radius based on the sound speed) for guide field reconnection. Temperature gradients in the inflowing plasma (as might be found in the magnetopause and the magnetotail) can lead to instabilities at these separatrices, specifically drift wave turbulence. We present standalone 2D and 3D PIC simulations of drift wave turbulence to investigate scaling properties and growth rates. We specifically consider stabilization of the lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) and the development of this instability in the presence of a sheared magnetic field. Further investigations of the relative importance of drift wave turbulence in the development of reconnection will also be considered.
Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves
The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. Tv(x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)
Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.
1999-01-01
The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....
Drift wave solitons in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma
The shears of electron diamagnetic drift velocity and ExB drift velocity are theoretically verified to give nonlinearities and establish a soliton of drift wave. Experimentally, a drift wave soliton is observed. Both of the propagation velocity of the soliton and the inverse of the soliton width get large with an increase in amplitude. (author)
Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence
We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem
The Absence of Stokes Drift in Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2015-01-01
Stokes drift has been as central to the history of wave theory as it has been distressingly absent from experiment. Neither wave tanks nor experiments in open bodies detect this without nearly canceling "eulerian flows." Acoustic waves have an analogous problem that is particularly problematic in the vorticity production at the edges of beams. Here we demonstrate that the explanation for this arises from subtle end-of-packet and wavetrain gradient effects such as microbreaking events and wave-flow decomposition subtleties required to conserve mass and momentum and avoid fictitious external forces. These losses occur at both ends of packets and can produce a significant nonviscous energy loss for translating and spreading surface wave packets and wavetrains. In contrast, monochromatic sound wave packets will be shown to asymmetrically distort to conserve momentum. This provides an interesting analogy to how such internal forces arise for gradients of electromagnetic wavetrains in media. Such examples show that...
Amplitude modulated drift wave packets in a nonuniform magnetoplasma
Shukla, P.K., E-mail: profshukla@yahoo.de [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-447 80 Bochum (Germany); Misra, A.P., E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)
2012-08-06
We consider the amplitude modulation of low-frequency, long wavelength electrostatic drift wave packets in a nonuniform magnetoplasma with the effects of equilibrium density, electron temperature and magnetic field inhomogeneities. The dynamics of the modulated drift wave packet is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small longitudinal perturbation. It is shown that the drift wave packet is stable (unstable) against the modulation when the drift wave number lies in 0
Drift wave vortices and anomalous transport
Theory and computer simulations are used to describe the inelastic vortex-vortex and vortex-wave interactions that lead to the quasi-coherent transport of plasma across the magnetic field. Monopole and dipole drift wave vortices with radii r0 large compared with the ion inertial scale length /rho//sub s/ are shown to produce transport at the rate un/sub υ/∫dσ(b) ≤ n/sub υ/υ/sub de/r/sub o/ where n/sub υ/ is the vortex line density and dσ(b) is the inelastic collision cross-section for impact parameter b. The transport during collisions and mergings is evaluated from the evolution of a passively convected scalar concentration of test particles. 24 refs., 4 figs
Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes
A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two...
Experiment and theory of a drift wave in the levitated octupole
A very coherent 30 kHz drift wave is observed in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The density and floating potential fluctuations have a well-defined spatial structure in the poloidal magnetic field. Radially the wave has a standing wave structure with amplitude peaked in regions of locally bad magnetic curvature. Poloidally the wave has a standing wave structure with odd symmetry; nodes are located in the regions of locally good magnetic curvature. The wave propagates toroidally in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with a wavelength of 20 centimeters. No changes occur in the wave structure as the plasma is varied over three orders of magnitude in density and beta
Drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus
Huang, T. S.; Hill, T. W.
1991-01-01
A linear normal mode analysis of the drift wave instability in the Io plasma torus was carried out on the basis of the Richmond (1973) and Huang et al. (1990) analyses of drift waves in the vicinity of the earth's plasmapause. Results indicate that the outer torus boundary is linearly unstable to the growth of electrostatic drift waves. It is shown that the linear growth rate is proportional to the ion drift frequency and to the ratio of the flux tube charge content to the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductance. It is also shown that various theoretical models of global radial transport in Jupiter's atmosphere (including corotating convection, interchange diffusion, and transient flux tube convection) can be understood as plausible nonlinear evolutions of electrostatic drift waves.
Strong turbulence of drift-waves in Hamiltonian canonical description
Starting with a Hamiltonian formulation of the Hasegawa-Mima equation, the statistical theory of strong turbulence of nonlinear drift-waves in plasmas is developed. The procedure is based on the direct-interaction-approximation (DIA)
Resistive drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional geometry
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Wakatani model describing resistive drift waves is investigated analytically and numerically in a three-dimensional periodic geometry. After an initial growth of the energy the drift waves couple nonlinearly to convective cells, which eventually dominate the system completely. An app...... approach to include more physical boundary conditions to the system is presented. This changes the results of the simulations significantly. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics.......The Hasegawa-Wakatani model describing resistive drift waves is investigated analytically and numerically in a three-dimensional periodic geometry. After an initial growth of the energy the drift waves couple nonlinearly to convective cells, which eventually dominate the system completely. An...
Drift of Spiral Waves in Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation
无
2006-01-01
The spontaneous drift of the spiral wave in a finite domain in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is investigated numerically. By using the interactions between the spiral wave and its images, we propose a phenomenological theory to explain the observations.
Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners
Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver
2015-06-01
Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.
Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence
Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. 16 refs., 1 tab
Toroidal drift waves with an equilibrium velocity field
The author investigated the effect of a radially sheared poloidal velocity field on the toroidal drift wave which is well known to escape magnetic shear damping through toroidal coupling between different poloidal harmonics centered on individual rational surfaces. He endeavored to model the velocity profile according to that observed at the plasma edge during H-mode shots. The resultant wave formed by the interference of different poloidal harmonics now sees an antiwell created by the H-mode type velocity profile in the radial direction (in contrast to a well formed by the diamagnetic frequency in the absence of velocity fields). The wave, therefore, convects energy outward and hence undergoes damping. Outgoing wave boundary condition then introduces a negative imaginary contribution to the global eigenvalue -- once again confirming the stabilizing role of H-mode type velocity profiles. On the other hand, L-mode type velocity profiles have destabilizing action on toroidal drift waves
Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves
Odd M. Faltinsen
1980-10-01
Full Text Available A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.
Point vortex description of drift wave vortices: Dynamics and transport
Point vortex description for drift wave vortices is formulated based on the Hasegawa-Mima equation to study elementary processes for the interactions of vortices as well as statistical properties like vortex diffusion. Dynamical properties of drift wave vortices known by numerical experiments are recovered. Furthermore a vortex diffusion model discussed by Horton based on numerical simulations is shown to be analytically obtained. A variety of phenomena arising from the short-range nature of the interaction force of point vortices are suggested. 9 refs., 6 figs
Counting of discrete Rossby/drift wave resonant triads (again)
Bustamante, Miguel D; Lynch, Peter; Quinn, Brenda
2013-01-01
The purpose of our earlier note (arXiv:1309.0405 [physics.flu-dyn]) was to remove the confusion over counting of resonant wave triads for Rossby and drift waves in the context of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation. A comment by Kartashov and Kartashova (arXiv:1309.0992v1 [physics.flu-dyn]) on that note has further confused the situation. The present note aims to remove this obfuscation.
Three-dimensional drift chambers of the DCBA experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search
Ishikawa, T., E-mail: ishikawat@hakone.phys.metro-u.ac.j [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Igarashi, H.; Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0398 (Japan); Ishihara, N.; Iwai, G.; Iwase, H.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Inagaki, T.; Makida, Y.; Ohama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Yamada, Y. [High Energy Accel, Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tashiro, E.; Ishizuka, T. [Shizuoka University, Naka, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Kitamura, S. [Nihon Institute of Medical Science, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Teramoto, Y. [Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakano, I. [Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2011-02-01
The aim of the DCBA (Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer) experiment is to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The half-life of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} is expected to give us the information of Majorana nature and the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. A prototype test apparatus DCBA-T2 has the energy resolution of about 150 keV (FWHM) around 1 MeV. In order to check the detector performance, engineering runs detecting double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo started in May 2009 using natural Mo, which contains 9.6% of {sup 100}Mo. Ten candidates of the double beta decay ({beta}{beta}) have been detected so far. It has been found that the background events due to {sup 214}Bi decay are distinguishable from the double beta decays by detecting {alpha}-particles from {sup 214}Po.
Lyapunov exponents and particle dispersion in drift wave turbulence
Pedersen, T.S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1996-01-01
The Hasegawa-Wakatani model equations for resistive drift waves are solved numerically for a range of values of the coupling due to the parallel electron motion. The largest Lyapunov exponent, lambda(1), is calculated to quantify the unpredictability of the turbulent flow and compared to other...
Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma
Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 10 (2014), s. 102309-102309. ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Drift waves * Magnetron sputtering plasma * Spatiotemporal synchronization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898693
Stability criteria for current-driven drift wave eigenmodes
Eigenmodes of current-driven collisionless electrostatic drift waves in a sheared magnetic field are re-examined in the light of the recent discovery that their non-current-driven counterparts are stable. Conditions for instability are determined from numerical finite difference and variational solutions of the slab model differential equation. It is found that three stringent conditions are required for instability: (1) very weak shear, (2) low ion temperature, and (3) very large parallel drift velocity. For L/sub n//L/sub s/=0.02 and T/sub i//T/sub e/=0, the instability threshold is u/sub d//c/sub s/=0.85, where L/sub n/ and L/sub s/ are the density and shear scale lengths, respectively, u/sub d/ is the drift velocity, and c/sub s/ is the sound speed. For larger shear and finite ion temperature the critical drift velocity is even larger. It is concluded that drift wave fluctuations in tokamaks cannot be described in terms of these eigenmodes
Global Theory to Understand Toroidal Drift Waves in Steep Gradient
Xie, Hua-Sheng
2016-01-01
Toroidal drift waves with unconventional mode structures and non-ground eigenstates, which differ from typical ballooning structure mode, are found to be important recently by large scale global gyrokinetic simulations and especially become dominant at strong gradient edge plasmas [cf., Xie and Xiao, Phys. Plasmas, 22, 090703 (2015)]. The global stability and mode structures of drift wave in this steep edge density and temperature gradients are examined by both direct numerical solutions of a model two-dimensional eigen equation and analytical theory employing WKB-ballooning approach. Theory agrees with numerical solutions quite well. Our results indicate that (i) non-ground eigenstates and unconventional mode structures generally exist and can be roughly described by two parameters `quantum number' $l$ and ballooning angle $\\vartheta_k$, (ii) local model can overestimate the growth rate largely, say, $>50\\%$, and (iii) the narrow steep equilibrium profile leads to twisting (triangle-like) radial mode structu...
Wave-like structures within ionospheric drift data series
Kouba, Daniel
Prague: International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2015. A12p-156. [Earth and Environmental Sciences for Future Generations. General Assembly of International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics /26./. 22.06.2015-02.07.2015, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : wave-like structures * ionospheric drift Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.iugg2015prague.com/abstractcd/ data /HtmlApp/main.html#
Simulations of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations
Drift waves are commonly held responsible for anomalous transport in tokamak configurations and in particular for the anomalously high heat loss. The next generation of stellarators on the other hand are hoped to be characterized by a much smaller neo-classical transport and by particle confinement close to that of tokamaks. There is nevertheless a strong interest in the stellarator community to study the properties of drift waves in 3D magnetic configurations. To serve this interest we have developed the first global gyrokinetic code, EUTERPE, aimed at the investigation of linear drift wave stability in general toroidal geometry. The physical model assumes electrostatic waves and adiabatic electrons. EUTERPE is a particle-in-cell (PIC) code in which the gyrokinetic Poisson equation is discretized with the finite element method defined in the PEST -1 system of magnetic coordinates. The magnetic geometry is provided by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium code VMEC. The complete 3D model has been successfully validated in toroidal axisymmetric and straight helical geometries and has permitted the first simulation of unstable global ITG driven modes in non-axisymmetric toroidal configurations. As a first application, two configurations have been studied, the Quasi-Axially symmetric Stellarator with three fields periods (QAS3) currently one system under consideration at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Helically Symmetric experiment (HSX) which has recently started operation at the University of Wisconsin. QAS3 is characterized by a tokamak-Iike field in the outer part of the torus. In this structure the drift waves are mainly affected by the magnetic shear and barely by the shape of the plasma. Also, the results are very close to those obtained for a tokamak. On the other hand, results for the HSX configuration, which is characterized by a dominant helical magnetic field, show a clear 3D effect, namely a strong toroidal variation of the drift wave
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gürcan, O.D.;
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and...... contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean k(parallel to) (
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gurcan, O.E.;
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and non‐resonant off‐diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and...... contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean κ∥(〈κ∥〉) is derived and used to develop a generalized theory of symmetry breaking. The resonant particle momentum flux is calculated, and pinch and residual stress effects are identified. The implications of the theory for intrinsic...
Generation of electromagnetic structures via modulational instability of drift waves
Generation mechanism for large scale electromagnetic structures (blobs) is considered by employing the technique of four-wave interactions (modulational instability). It is shown that primary electrostatic turbulence may generate elongated electromagnetic structures with poloidal modulations. Such structures are principally related to drift-Alfven waves. The analysis fully takes into account finite ion temperature effects and associated diamagnetic contributions to Reynolds stress. The turbulent generation of blobs has instability growth rates which scale similar to the zonal flow instabilities, γ∼, where q is a characteristic wave vector of large scale modes, and V-tilde is a characteristic amplitude of the velocity of turbulent fluctuations. This analysis is shown to be fully consistent with results of an earlier analysis by using the wave kinetic equation.
Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves
Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.
Light-Gradient-Induced Spiral Wave Drifts in a Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction
ZHANG Hui-Jie; WANG Peng-Ye; ZHAO Ying-Ying
2005-01-01
@@ The dynamic behaviour of spiral tip in the light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction under the influence of an externally applied light gradient was experimentally studied. The gradient causes different drifts for different spiral patterns. The centre of the spiral wave moved toward the region of lower light intensity. The direction of an additional perpendicular drift depended on the chirality of the spiral wave. The dependences of the drifting angle and the drifting velocity on light gradient have been measured.
Nonlinear trapped electron response for drift wave turbulence in tokamaks
The nonlinear trapped electron response to drift wave fluctuations is calculated using the coherent approximation to the DIA in action-angle variables appropriate for toroidal geometry. The bounce-averaged nonlinear response to low frequency electrostatic fluctuations is computed. Employing a spectrum of Pearlstein-Berk structure modes satisfying the symmetry of the ballooning representation, the nonlinear terms are evaluated explicitly. Nonlinear effects do not significantly modify the trapped electron response. Quasineutrality and the nonlinear ion response can then be used in a sheared slab to obtain the turbulence level at saturation level. The level of trapped electron diffusion is calculated
Dust gravitational drift wave in complex plasma under gravity
The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate parallel to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of microparticles. The numerical results show that, in the low pressure complex plasma under gravity, a low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. The stability state of this wave is switched at a certain critical wavenumber in such a way that the damped mode is transformed into a growing one. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the wave instability is essentially due to the electrostatic streaming of plasma particles. It is also found that by increasing the electric field strength, the stability switching occurs at smaller wavenumbers
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-15
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence
We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)
Design of a self-triggered liquid xenon drift chamber for double-beta decay experiments
Nuclear double-beta decay is one of the rarest processes in nature with the half life of 1019 - 1024 years. Such process takes place only when a nucleus cannot undergo ordinary beta decay due to energy conservation, or the very strong suppression of energetically allowed transition exists. This process proceeds through the channels of standard second order weak decay (two neutrinos double-beta decay) and lepton number nonconserving, neutrinoless double-beta decay. An isotope of 136Xe possesses attractive properties for the studies on the nuclei subjected to nutrinoless mode. Gaseous or liquid xenon is an excellent working medium for drift chambers, and it can act as both source and detector providing so called active source technique of experiment. In order to search for the neutrinoless mode of 136Xe, the liquid xenon drift chamber was designed, which is composed of three electrodes and four photomultipliers. This drift chamber is described. Th gas handling and vacuum system consisting of a xenon gas purifier, a high vacuum pumping facility and gas storage reservoirs is explained. Event identification, charge division method, the estimation of signal rate and the present state of this study are reported. (K.I.)
Drift-wave spectra in plasmas with magnetic shear
The nonlinear radial eigenmode equation governing the evolution of drift waves in a weakly turbulent state is obtained under the assumption that ion nonlinear scattering (nonlinear ion Landau damping) is the dominant saturation mechanism. The poloidal spectrum is to be derived from the eigenvalue equation. The local character of the interaction in frequencies allows the transformation of the otherwise integral wave kinetic equation (i.e., the eigenvalue equation) into a system of two first-order differential equations coupling the spectra I(k/sub theta/) and I(k/sup dagger//sub theta/) if ω(k/sup dagger//sub theta/) = ω(k/sub theta/). The density fluctuation spectrum is obtained analytically in the limit of the small temperature ratio T/sub i//T/sub e/. Some features are: (i) the spectral index at high mode numbers agrees well with experimental values; (ii) the long-wavelength spectrum peaks at k/sub theta/a/sub s/approx. =0.62 (a/sub s/ equivalentsound Larmor radius), (iii) the cross-field diffusion is mostly induced by the high-mode-number fluctuations, whereas the major contribution to the density fluctuations is in the long wavelengths; (iv) the frequency spectrum of the beat waves peaks at ω = 0 (they then have a convective cell character); and (v) the turbulence level is a factor L/sub n//L/sub s/ (ratio of density and shear lengths) smaller than with former theories
Properties of drift waves in a filamentary density depletion
This analytical and numerical study explores the properties of electrostatic, drift-wave eigenmodes trapped within a magnetic field-aligned depletion in plasma density and temperature whose transverse dimension is on the order of the electron skin depth. The dependence of the complex eigenfrequencies on key parameters is investigated for collisionless and collisional plasma. The collisional description is based on the Lorentz model of electron pitch-angle scattering. The separate roles of the gradients in density and temperature are illustrated for the collisional and collisionless regimes. The predictions are compared to experimental observations [J. E. Maggs and G. J. Morales, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 633 (1996); Phys. Plasmas 4, 290 (1997)] of a controlled striation in the laboratory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Formation of convective cells by modulational instability of drift Alfven waves
A model equation describing drift Alfven wave with E X B nonlinearity is derived. For a special ordering a nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived, which governs modulational instability of the drift Alfven wave. Translational invariance is assumed along the magnetic field. The relation between the characteristic scale lengths parallel and perpendicular to the drift flow for the onset of cell formation has been found. The influence of perpendicular ion viscosity is also discussed. (Auth.)
Drift wave transport and origin of the disruption phenomenon
Nonlinear ion Landau damping of drift waves yields a splitting of the spectrum into a long and a short wavelength branch. The latter contributes most (> 90%) of the transport and permits to explain the observed relaxation of Tokamak plasma profiles to a weakly unstable state, in the occurence with regard to the dissipative trapped electron mode. The fluxes indeed increase much more rapidly than the linear growth rates. This result and surprising coincidences between the linear theory and empirical laws concerning the high density limit lead us to propose that the slow rise of the sawtooth pulsations of the core occurs whilst the transport in the surrounding layer is insufficient to evacuate the power deposited. The sudden relaxation takes place once the released heat pulses are capable - much as in collisionless shock waves - of exciting the trapped electron mode to a sufficient level to ensure adequate transport. The model explains many experimental features associated with these sawteeth as well as with the related plasma disruptions: contraction of the current channel, high density limit (both the scaling and the order of magnitude are predicted), etc. ... (orig.)
Drift-Kinetic Alfven Waves Observed near a Reconnection X Line in the Earth's Magnetopause
We identify drift-kinetic Alfven waves in the vicinity of a reconnection X line on the Earth's magnetopause. The dispersive properties of these waves have been determined using wavelet interferometric techniques applied to multipoint observations from the Cluster spacecraft. Comparison of the observed wave dispersion with that expected for drift-kinetic Alfven waves shows close agreement. The waves propagate outwards from the X line suggesting that reconnection is a kinetic Alfven wave source. Energetic O+ ions observed in these waves indicate that reconnection is a driver of auroral ion outflow
Physical mechanism behind zonal-flow generation in drift-wave turbulence.
Manz, P; Ramisch, M; Stroth, U
2009-10-16
The energetic interaction between drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows is studied experimentally in two-dimensional wave number space. The kinetic energy is found to be transferred nonlocally from the drift waves to the zonal flow. This confirms the theoretical prediction that the parametric-modulational instability is the driving mechanism of zonal flows. The physical mechanism of this nonlocal energetic interaction between and zonal flows and turbulent drift-wave eddies in relation to the suppression of turbulent transport is discussed. PMID:19905704
Effect of a Dissipative Term in the Drift Waves Hamiltonian System
Oyarzabal, Ricardo S; Batista, Antonio M; Caldas, Iberê L; Viana, Ricardo L; Iarosz, Kelly C
2015-01-01
This paper analyses the Hamiltonian model of drift waves which describes the chaotic transport of particles in the plasma confinement. With one drift wave the system is integrable and it presents stable orbits. When one wave is added the system may or may not be integrable depending on the phase of each wave velocity. If the two waves have the same phase velocity, the system is integrable. When the phase velocities between the two waves are different, the system shows chaotic behaviour. In this model we add a small dissipation. In the presence of a weak dissipation, for different initial conditions, we observe transient orbits which converge to periodic attractors.
Statistical theory of resistive drift-wave turbulence and transport
Resistive drift-wave turbulence in a slab geometry is studied by statistical closure methods and direct numerical simulations. The two-field Hasegawa endash Wakatani (HW) fluid model, which evolves the electrostatic potential and plasma density self-consistently, is a paradigm for understanding the generic nonlinear behavior of multiple-field plasma turbulence. A gyrokinetic derivation of the HW model is sketched. The recently developed Realizable Markovian Closure (RMC) is applied to the HW model; spectral properties, nonlinear energy transfers, and turbulent transport calculations are discussed. The closure results are also compared to direct numerical simulation results; excellent agreement is found. The transport scaling with the adiabaticity parameter, which measures the strength of the parallel electron resistivity, is analytically derived and understood through weak- and strong-turbulence analyses. No evidence is found to support previous suggestions that coherent structures cause a large depression of saturated transport from its quasilinear value in the hydrodynamic regime of the HW model. Instead, the depression of transport is well explained by the spectral balance equation of the (second-order) statistical closure when account is taken of incoherent noise. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure, collisional plasma
The hydromagnetic drift mode of the coupled drift-Alfven wave is destabilized as a standing wave in a dense, current-free plasma in the presence of a density gradient. When an axial electron current is drawn, a localized Alfven mode propagating against the current is destabilized, in addition to the unstable drift mode now propagating along the current. The measured wave properties, dispersion, and dependence on plasma parameters are found to agree with the theory derived for a finite β, collisional plasma
Comparison of drift wave models with fluctuation data from the interior of the TEXT tokamak
Experimental evidence for and against drift waves as the origin of the observed fluctuations and anomalous transport in the plasma interior is reviewed. Fluctuation spectra observed by far-infrared scattering and a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) are compared. The FIR system observes broad S(k,ω), which are spatially resolved at large k and readily identified with electron drift waves. At higher densities a clear feature, which may be associated with ion temperature gradient modes, appears as well. A quasi-coherent feature in the drift wave range of phase velocities is also found at the inner mid-plane. But interior HIBP measurements using a thallium beam have, by a two-point correlation method, measured wave numbers far too small to be those of drift waves of either variety. Some recent measurements with a cesium beam have produced phase velocities more closely in accord with drift waves at low frequencies. It is suggested that a new mode may be present, which is not drift waves at low frequencies. It is suggested that a new mode may be present, which is not drift wave-like. However, the phase velocity and coherence of the HIBP data exhibit qualitative features that suggest possible instrumental effects. Several of these are investigated, which individually do not appear to reconcile the data with a pure drift wave model. They are sample volume size, common mode effects such as cross talk or path integrals of beam attenuation, and two-stream instabilities. Reconciliation of these measurements is important to transport studies. That is, calculated particle and energy fluxes depend sensitively on the frequency and wave number spectrum employed. The theoretical considerations about two-point correlations and possible instrumental effects are also relevant to other diagnostics using this technique
Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma
Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.;
2004-01-01
In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...
Transport driven by G modes and resistive drift waves based on scale invariance
Scale transformation introduced by Connor and Taylor is applied to the model equations for the resistive interchange mode (g mode) and the resistive drift wave in a high shear helical system. The electron pressure gradient term in Ohm's law is essential in deriving the present results. Scaling of collisionless transport along stochastic fields due to the g modes coincides with the result based on the mixing length theory. When the resistive drift waves are dominant, the predicted transport is κ2/s2 times the pseudo-classical transport, where κ is the characteristic length of density gradient and s is the shear parameter. The transport coefficient which results from the g mode and/or the resistive drift wave turbulence increases towards the edge. The density fluctuation for the resistive drift wave turbulence scales as (Te/n)1/2κ which also increases toward the edge in most toroidal plasmas. (author)
Drift kinetic Alfvén wave in temperature anisotropic plasma
By using the gyrokinetic theory, the kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) are discussed to emphasize the drift effects through the density inhomogeneity and the temperature anisotropy on their dispersion characteristics. The dependence of stabilization mechanism of the drift-Alfvén wave instability on the temperature anisotropy is highlighted. The estimate of the growth rate and the threshold condition for a wide range of parameters are also discussed
Analysis of zonal flow bifurcations in 3D drift wave turbulence simulations
The main issue of experimental magnetic fusion devices lies with their inherently high turbulent transport, preventing long-term plasma confinement. A deeper understanding of the underlying transport processes is therefore desirable, especially in the high-gradient tokamak edge which marks the location of the drift wave regime as well as the outer boundary of the still badly understood high confinement mode. One of the most promising plasma features possibly connected to a complete bifurcation theory for the transition to this H-mode is found in large-scale phenomena capable of regulating radial transport through vortex shearing - i.e. zonal flows, linearly stable large-scale poloidal vector E x vector B-modes based on radial flux surface averages of the potential gradient generated through turbulent self-organization. Despite their relevance, few detailed turbulence studies of drift wave-based zonal flows have been undertaken, and none of them have explicitly targeted bifurcations - or, within a resistive sheared-slab environment, observed zonal flows at all. In this work, both analytical means and the two-fluid code NLET are used to analyze a reduced set of Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, describing a sheared collisional drift wave system without curvature. The characteristics of the drift waves themselves, as well as those of the drift wave-based zonal flows and their retroaction on the drift wave turbulence are examined. The single dimensionless parameter ρs proposed in previous analytical models is examined numerically and shown to divide the drift wave scale into two transport regimes, the behavioral characteristics of which agree perfectly with theoretical expectations. This transport transition correlates with a transition from pure drift wave turbulence at low ρs into the high-ρs zonal flow regime. The associated threshold has been more clearly identified by tracing it back to a tipping of the ratio between a newly proposed frequency gradient length at the
Theoretical studies of coherent nonlinear drift wave-zonal flow interactions
Full text: We have, employing a slab model, carried out in-depth theoretical studies on the coherent nonlinear interactions between drift waves (DW) and zonal flows (ZF). In this talk, we will first review the four-wave modulational mechanism for the spontaneous excitation of zonal flow by coherent drift waves. As the amplitude of the primary (pump) drift wave attains spatial localization due to plasma non-uniformities and/or initial localized perturbations, the excited zonal flows become localized structures; leading to cascading of drift waves toward shorter (radial) wave numbers.This nonlinearly generated normal cascading and accompanied enhanced (radial) dispersiveness leads to the new novel result that, time asymptotically, coherent drift waves can be trapped by the self-induced zonal flows; similar to the Langmuir wave-density cavity soliton physics. Indeed, both analytical theories and direct numerical calculations demonstrate the formation and, consequently, radial propagation of DW-ZF solitary structures. Additional effects such as linear growth, dissipations, equilibrium non-uniformities and soliton dynamics could further lead to interesting physics; e.g., generation, destruction, collision, and reflection of solitons, as well as turbulence bursting. The propagation of DW-ZF solitons causes significant radial spreading of DW turbulence and ,hence, could qualitatively modify the transport processes. Generalization to the toroidal geometries will also be presented. Research supported by U.S. DoE. (author)
Measurement of coherent drift-wave ion-fluid velocity field when ion dynamics are stochastic
In order to test the validity of the fluid drift approximation when ion dynamics are stochastic, the time-dependent ion-fluid velocity field in a coherent, drift-Alfven wave has been measured in Caltech's Encore tokamak using plasma planar laser induced fluorescence. Many measured parameters of the wave are well described by the drift approximation above a threshold for stochastic ion dynamics, including the flow pattern in the single measured component of the ion-fluid velocity field. Surprisingly, the theory fails at a fundamental level by predicting flow speeds 10 times larger than those measured (|umax|∼105 cm/s)
Effects of Periodic Forcing Amplitude on the Spiral Wave Resonance Drift
WU Ning-Jie; LI Bing-Wei; YING He-Ping
2006-01-01
@@ We study dynamics of spiral waves under a uniform periodic temporal forcing in an excitable medium. With a specific combination of frequency and amplitude of the external periodic forcing, a resonance drift of a spiral wave occurs along a straight line, and it is accompanied by a complicated ‘flower-like’ motion on each side of this bifurcate boundary line. It is confirmed that the straight-line drift frequency of spiral waves is not locked to the nature rotation frequency as the forcing amplitude expends the range of the spiral wave frequency. These results are further verified numerically for a simplified kinematical model.
Electron motion in a single electrostatic wave in a sheared magnetic field is shown to become stochastic in the presence of a second wave at an amplitude well below that obtained from the overlapping pendulum resonance approximation. The enhanced stochasticity occurs for low parallel velocity electrons for which the parallel trapping motion from eE/sub parallel//m interacts strongly with the E x B trapping motion due to the presence of magnetic shear. The guiding-center equations for single particle electron orbits in given fields are investigated using both analytical and numerical techniques. The model assumes a slab magnetic field geometry with shear and two electrostatic plane waves propagating at an angle with respect to each other. Collisions and the self-consistent effect of the electron motion upon the fields are ignored. The guiding-center motion in an inertial reference frame moving in phase with the two waves is given by a two degree-of-freedom, autonomous Hamiltonian system. The single wave particle motion may be reduced to a two parameter family of one degree-of-freedom Hamiltonians which bifurcate from a pendulum phase space to a topology with three chains of elliptic and hyperbolic fixed points separated in radius about the mode-rational surface. In the presence of a perturbing wave with a different helicity, electrons in the small parallel velocity regime become stochastic at an amplitude scaling as the fourth root of the wave potential. The results obtained for stochastic motion apply directly to the problem of electron diffusion in drift waves occurring in toroidal fusion confinement devices. The effect of an adiabatically changing radial electric field upon guiding-center orbits in tokamaks is also investigated. This perturbation causes a radial polarization drift of trapped particle tokamak orbits
Nonlinear drift wave instability due to nonlinear structures
A nonlinear instability due to zonal flows and magnetic islands has been found. The instability has the character of a dissipative drift instability due to an anomalous resistivity. The anomalous resistivity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the classical at the edge. (author)
Thermal-wave balancing flow sensor with low-drift power feedback
A control system using a low-drift power-feedback signal was implemented applying thermal waves, giving a sensor output independent of resistance drift and thermo-electric offset voltages on interface wires. Kelvin-contact sensing and power control is used on heater resistors, thereby inhibiting the influence of heater resistance drift. The thermal waves are detected with a sensing resistor using a lock-in amplifier and are mutually cancelled by a thermal-wave balancing controller. Offset due to thermal gradient across the chip and resistor drift are eliminated by the lock-in amplifier and power controller, and therefore do not influence the sensor output signal. A microchannel thermal-wave balancing flow sensor with integrated Al resistors has successfully been fabricated. The thermal flow sensor is capable of measuring water flow rates with nl ⋅ min−1 precision, up to about 500 nl ⋅ min−1 full scale. Measurement results are in good agreement with a dynamic model of the flow sensor. Drift measurements show the sensor output signal to be compensated for resistance drift and thermal gradient across the chip. (paper)
Experimental investigation of the nonlinear evolution of an impurity-driven drift wave
An impurity-driven drift wave is observed to be destabilized by the reversed density gradient of a singly-ionized heavy-impurity-ion population in a Q-machine plasma. The evolution of the instability is investigated as it progresses from the initial linear exponential growth phase, into a nonlinear saturated state, whereupon strong radially outward anomalous diffusion is observed. The relationship between the anomalous diffusion coefficient and the wave amplitude is in agreement with estimates obtained from the nonlinear drift-wave turbulence theory of Dupree
Ion waves generated by ion loss-cone distributions or drifting particles
Electrostatic ion waves may be generated by ion loss-cone distributions, even when cool electrons are present. Although the propagation and stability properties of these waves are well described by a dispersion relation obtained in the electrostatic approximation, they may have a significant wave magnetic field. The emissions may be resonant or non-resonant in nature, and can occur between multiples of the gyrofrequencies of the ion species in the plasma, or as broadband waves near the lower hybrid frequency. Alfven waves may also be destabilized by ion loss-cone distributions. The ratio of the electric and magnetic fields of these waves is not always equal to the Alfven speed. These theoretical considerations are favourably compared with observations by the GEOS satellites of ion loss-cone distributions and ion waves. Particles drifting along the ambient magnetic field may generate ion waves, but knowledge of the current density only is not sufficient to determine the stability of these waves. The importance of non-drifting particle distributions which may damp the waves and the destabilizing effects of drifting, low-density particle components are discussed in connection with current structures observed by the GEOS spacecraft. (Author)
Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation
We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)
Filament tension and phase-locked drift of meandering scroll waves
Dierckx, Hans; Biktasheva, Irina V.; Verschelde, Henri; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Biktashev, Vadim N.
2016-01-01
Rotating scroll waves are self-organising patterns which are found in many oscillating or excitable systems. Here we show that quasi-periodic (meandering) scroll waves, which include the rotors that organise cardiac arrhythmias, exhibit filament tension when averaged over the meander cycle. With strong filament curvature or medium thickness gradients, however, scroll wave dynamics are governed by phase-locked drift instead of filament tension. Our results are validated in computational models...
Modulation of drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma
Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India)
2014-04-15
We study the amplitude modulation of low-frequency, long-wavelength electrostatic drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma consisting of cold ions and degenerate electrons. The effects of tunneling associated with the quantum Bohm potential and the Fermi pressure for nonrelativistic degenerate electrons, as well as the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities are taken into account. Starting from a set of quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations, we derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) that governs the dynamics of the modulated quantum drift-wave packets. The NLSE is used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. It is shown that the quantum tunneling effect as well as the scale length of inhomogeneity plays crucial roles for the MI of the drift-wave packets. Thus, the latter can propagate in the form of bright and dark envelope solitons or as drift-wave rogons in degenerate dense magnetoplasmas.
Jo, Young Hyun; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladimir V.; Mikhailenko, Vladimir S.
2016-01-01
It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows. The levels of the drift--Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of the scattering of ions by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same effect of the scattering of ions by electromagnetic turbulence, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating, resulted from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence. In the same way, the phenomena of the ion cyclotron turbulence and anomalous anisotropic heating of ions by ion cyclotron plasma turbulence has numerous practical applications in physics of the near-Earth space plasmas. Using the methodology of the shearing modes, the kinetic theory of the ion cyclotron turbulence of the plasma with transverse current with strong velocity shear has been developed.
In this paper the stability of a drift wave in a plasma with dissipation due to ion viscosity is examined. If the wave amplitude exceeds a threshold value, determined by ion--ion collisions, large-scale perturbations (i.e., with scales much greater than the drift wavelength) grow. Maximum growth rate belongs to perturbations that are periodical along plasma inhomogeneity and constant in transverse directions, i.e., azimuthal direction in cylindrical geometry (zonal dissipative structures). The analysis of nonlinear stage of large-scale instability shows that the solitonlike large-scale structures of the electric field and vorticity are possible (dissipative solitons)
Ponderomotive force of the low-frequency field and modulational instability of drift waves
A study is made of the processes that occur in an inhomogeneous nonisothermal plasma in a strong external magnetic field and whose characteristic frequencies are lower than the ion Langmuir frequency but higher than the collision frequency. An expression for the ponderomotive force of the low-frequency field is derived. The excitation of a long-wavelength low-frequency drift wave during the development of the modulational instability of a drift pump wave is investigated. The growth rates of the instability are obtained, and the conditions for its onset are determined. The possible relation of the modulational instability to the formation of structures in the plasma is discussed
Held, M
2015-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) approach to the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model for adiabatic drift wave turbulence in magnetised plasmas, is implemented. The CHM-LBM model contains a barotropic equation of state for the potential, a force term including a cross-product analogous to the Coriolis force in quasigeostrophic models, and a density gradient source term. Expansion of the resulting lattice Boltzmann model equations leads to cold-ion fluid continuity and momentum equations, which resemble CHM dynamics under drift ordering. The resulting numerical solutions of standard test cases (monopole propagation, stable drift modes and decaying turbulence) are compared to results obtained by a conventional finite difference scheme that directly discretizes the CHM equation. The LB scheme resembles characteristic CHM dynamics apart from an additional shear in the density gradient direction. The occuring shear reduces with the drift ratio and is ascribed to the compressible limit of the underlying LBM.
Kartashov, A
2013-01-01
Analysis of resonance clustering in weakly nonlinear dispersive wave systems, also called discrete wave turbulent systems, is a new methodology successfully used in the last years for characterizing energy transport due to exact and quasi-resonances. Quite recently this methodology has been used in the paper by M. D. Bustamante, U. Hayat "Complete classification of discrete resonant Rossby/drift wave triads on periodic domains", \\cite{BH13}, in order to show that resonance clustering is very sparse and quasi-resonances (that is, resonances with small enough detuning) play major role in the energy transport in this specific wave system. On the other hand, in the paper by M. Yamada, T. Yoneda "Resonant interaction of Rossby waves in two-dimensional flow on $\\beta$-plane", \\cite{YaYo13}, the same physical system is studied and a mathematically rigorous theorem is proven: at high $\\b$, the flow dynamics is governed exclusively by resonant interactions. In our present paper we demonstrate that this seeming contrad...
Models for electrostatic drift waves with density variations along magnetic field lines
Garcia, O. E.; Pécseli, H. L.
2013-11-01
Drift waves with vertical magnetic fields in gravitational ionospheres are considered where the unperturbed plasma density is enhanced in a magnetic flux tube. The gravitational field gives rise to an overall decrease of plasma density for increasing altitude. Simple models predict that drift waves with finite vertical wave vector components can increase in amplitude merely due to a conservation of energy density flux of the waves. Field-aligned currents are some of the mechanisms that can give rise to fluctuations that are truly unstable. We suggest a self-consistent generator or "battery" mechanism that in the polar ionospheres can give rise to magnetic field-aligned currents even in the absence of electron precipitation. The free energy here is supplied by steady state electric fields imposed in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field in the collisional lower parts of the ionosphere or by neutral winds that have similar effects.
High harmonic fast waves in high beta plasmas
High harmonic fast magnetosonic wave in high beta/high dielectric plasmas is investigated. including the finite-Larmor-radius effects. In this regime, due to the combination of group velocity slow down and the high beta enhancement, the electron absorption via electron Landau and electron magnetic pumping becomes significant enough that one can expect a strong (∼ 100%) single pass absorption. By controlling the wave spectrum, the prospect of some localized electron heating and current drive appears to be feasible in high beta low-aspect-ratio tokamak regimes. Inclusion of finite-Larmor-radius terms shows an accessibility limit in the high ion beta regime (βi = 50% for a deuterium plasma) due to mode-conversion into an ion Bernstein-wave-like mode while no beta limit is expected for electrons. With increasing ion beta, the ion damping can increase significantly particularly near the beta limits. The presence of energetic ion component expected during intense NBI and α-heating does not appear to modify the accessibility condition nor cause excessive wave absorption
Drift wave shear damping annulment due to parametric coupling and magnetic field variation
Nonlinear suppression of the drift wave shear damping by the simultaneous action of a strong standing pump wave and of the magnetic field variation along the magnetic field line is studied using a version of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. The threshold for the parametric destabilization is calculated as a function of the plasma parameters. Destabilization occurs due to the elimination of the energy convection towards the dissipative layer, by both the linear toroidal coupling and nonlinear parametric coupling
Theory of particle and energy flux from the magnetic flutter of drift waves
A quasi-linear theory of particle and energy flux by magnetic flutter associated with drift waves is presented. It is shown that magnetic flutter can enhance the energy flux. However, particle diffusion is ambipolar and runaway electrons do not escape along the field lines
Dust magneto-gravitational drift wave in g×B configuration
The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a magnetized complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate perpendicular to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of magnetized microparticles. The numerical results show that an unstable low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. This unstable mode is transformed into an aperiodic stationary structure at a cut-off wavenumber. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the instability is essentially due to the E×B drift motion of plasma particles. However, in the absence of weak electric field, the g×B drift motion of microparticles can cause the instability in a wide range of wavenumbers. It is also found that by increasing the magnetic field strength, the wave frequency is first increased and then decreased. This behaviour is explained by the existence of an extremum point in the dust magneto-gravitational drift velocity
The Entropy and Complexity of Drift waves in a LAPTAG Plasma Physics Experiment
Birge-Lee, Henry; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Thomas, Sam; Buckley-Bonnano, Samuel
2015-11-01
Drift waves grow from noise on a density gradient in a narrow (dia = 3 cm, L = 1.5 m) magnetized (Boz = 160G) plasma column. A two-dimensional probe drive measured fluctuations in the plasma column in a plane transverse to the background magnetic field. Correlation techniques determined that the fluctuations were that of electrostatic drift waves. The time series data was used to generate the Bandt-Pompe/Shannon entropy, H, and Jensen-Shannon complexity, CJS. C-H diagrams can be used to tell the difference between deterministic chaos, random noise and stochastic processes and simple waves, which makes it a powerful tool in nonlinear dynamics. The C-H diagram in this experiment, reveal that the combination of drift waves and other background fluctuations is a deterministically chaotic system. The PDF of the time series, the wave spectra the spatial dependence of the entropy wave complexity will be presented. LAPTAG is a university-high school alliance outreach program, which has been in existence for over 20 years. Work done at BaPSF at UCLA and supported by NSF and DOE.
Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth
We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.
Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath
A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T-/sub perpendicular//T-/sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B2/8πN, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ω/sub max/ = A-Ω-/(A-+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated
Beta Distribution of Surface Elevation of Random Waves
张军; 徐德伦
2001-01-01
A probability density function (PDF) is derived of beta distribution with both λ3 (skewness) and λ4 (kurtosis) as parameters for weakly nonlinear wave surface elevation by use of a method recently proposed by Srokosz. This PDF not only has a simpler form than the well-known Gram-Charlier Series PDF derived by Longuet-Higgins, but also overcomes an obvious shortcoming of the latter that when the series is unsuitably truncated, the resulting PDF is locally negative. To test the derived beta PDF, laboratorial experiments of wind waves are conducted. The experimental data indicate that the theoretical requirements of the parameters in the beta PDF are fulfilled. The experimental results show that the present PDF is in better agreement with the measured data than the beta PDF only including parameter λ3, and also than the Gram-Charlier Series PDF truncated up to the term of H6.
Wave interactions with EBT plasmas in the magnetic drift frequency range
We calculate the particle and energy transport and heating that results from the resonant, quasilinear interaction of EBT plasma particles with waves in the magnetic drift frequency range. Substantial transport can occur even for relatively small wave field amplitudes. For example, for flute perturbations of relative amplitude deltaB/B, the wave induced diffusion can exceed neoclassical diffusion in the collisionless regime for deltaB/B approx. (nu/ωdel)/sup 1/2/ A-1, where A-1 is the inverse aspect ratio and nu, ωdel are the collision and thermal grad B drift frequencies, respectively. The diffusion is selective and can cause preferential transport of a single sign of charge or energy component. Possible applications include plasma pressure and ambipolar potential profile modification, instability induced transport arising from curvature or drift modes and α-ash removal. In addition, this type of wave-particle interaction may play a role in the observed changes in EBT-S electron ring parameters during ICH experiments
The nonlinear dynamics of the modulational instability of drift waves and the associated zonal flows
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of zonal flows and their interactions with drift wave turbulence is considered in the simple but illuminating generalized Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model due to Smolyakov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 7, 1349 (2000)]. Two positive definite, exact, integral invariants associated with the full generalized Charney-Hasegawa-Mima system are derived. For an initial monochromatic drift wave pump with small but finite amplitude, a modulational instability can occur, characterized by growing zonal flow and sideband perturbations (i.e., a four-wave interaction). The pump threshold for instability is readily satisfied, depending on the zonal flow wave number. The fully nonlinear Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equations are solved with a numerical scheme which is validated by demonstrating the conservation of the two exact invariants. The simulations show that the validity of the four-wave model is limited to approximately three instability growth times. The radial structure of the zonal flow can be 'jet-like' or highly oscillatory depending upon the ratio of the system size to the density scale length and initial conditions. It is found that zonal flows can be dramatically reduced if the most unstable zonal flow wave number does not fit into the system
Convective cell formation and anomalous diffusion due to electromagnetic drift wave turbulence
Convective cell formation and spectral cascade processes due to gravitational drift Alfven waves are studied using a new type of model equation. Conservation relations are derived and explosive instability is found for systems near marginal finite β stability. This instability also remains when the effects of poor as well as favorable curvature regions are included, i.e., for ballooning modes. The anomalous diffusion due to convective cells and quasi-linear effects are compared
Complete classification of discrete resonant Rossby/drift wave triads on periodic domains
Bustamante, Miguel D
2013-01-01
We consider the set of Diophantine equations that arise in the context of the barotropic vorticity equation on periodic domains, when nonlinear wave interactions are studied to leading order in the amplitudes. The solutions to this set of Diophantine equations are of interest in atmosphere (Rossby waves) and Tokamak plasmas (drift waves), because they provide the values of the spectral wavevectors that interact resonantly via three-wave interactions. These come in "triads", i.e., groups of three wavevectors. We provide the full solution to the Diophantine equations in the case of infinite Rossby deformation radius. The method is completely new, and relies on mapping the unknown variables to rational points on quadratic forms of "Minkowski" type. Classical methods invented centuries ago by Fermat, Euler, Lagrange and Minkowski, are used to classify all solutions to our original Diophantine equations, thus providing a computational method to generate numerically all the resonant triads in the system. Our method...
The Frequency Drift of the Envelope Solitary Waves Near ωcH+ in Observations of Freja
Guang-Li, H.; Le Quéau, D.; Wang, De-yu
1995-01-01
In this paper, the ion cyclotron envelope solitary waves with a "cigar" shape observed by Freja satellite are reported and studied, especially, the drift of the frequency of the waves is contributed to the non-linear effects on the resonance frequency, which predicts that the frequency drift is directly proportional to the squaire of the amplitude of the oscillations. This result is comparable with the observations of the Freja satellite.
Numerical simulation of drift wave turbulence in fluid models with Landau damping
Following the work of Hammett and Perkins, the authors construct a nonlinear electrostatic fluid-like model for collisionless circulating ions and electrons containing Landau damping. Six-field perturbations (density, electric potential, ion and electron parallel velocity, and ion and electron pressure) are advanced in time. Both density and temperature gradients are considered. Polarization drift as well as FLR effects are included and the system may be generalized to include curvature effects. Apart from artificial viscosity at large perpendicular wave numbers, the only dissipative element is a collisionless parallel heat diffusivity (Vth/kparallel) for both ions and electrons. (There is no parallel viscosity.) This corresponds to a three-pole approximation of the plasma dispersion (Z-) function. A similar six-field set can be written for hydrogen and impurity ions with Boltzmann electrons. The equations of motion are encoded in an (m,n,r) representation with a sheared and curved magnetic field. There are several motivations for treating such complex systems. In addition to the ion temperature gradient mode, the electron-ion set contains the universal drift mode which may have nonlinear instability properties similar to the collisional drift wave. Both sets contain mass ratios (Ami/me or Ami/mI, respectively) which may be a key to the mysterious atomic number (A-) scaling in tokamak confinement. Preliminary studies of linear stability of the models in comparison to the true kinetic response are discussed and some initial single helicity nonlinear simulations are presented. 3 refs
Drift wave excitation in the THETA-pinch high pressure plasma
Excitation of low-frequency (LF) drift waves has been experimentally investigated in a high-pressure plasma in a gas discharge of the direct THETA-pinch type. The electrodeless inductive gas discharge is produced in an alundum tube of 150 cm length and 6.5 cm internal diameter filled with hydrogen at the pressure of (1-20).10-3 mm Hg. The discharge magnetic field (MF) has been investigated by a system of five magnetic probes both oriented along the radius and the length of the discharge chamber. The longitudinal temperature of electrons reaches 4 keV at the 6 kV voltage on the coil. Successive development of two types of instability has been observed: HF ''starting'' and LF ones. The LF oscillations observed have been identified as drift waves in a system with large β. The amplitude of the MF oscillations for the given instability may be compared with the value of the main MF, and the transverse wave lengths for these oscillations are of the order of the plasma filament radius. The longitudinal wave lengths are comparable with the magnetic system length
Wave Grouping of a Drifting Spiral Wave in the Presence of an External Field
YANG Hu-Jiang; YANG Jun-Zhong; HU Gang
2007-01-01
The phenomenon of wave grouping, in which the dense waves and the sparse waves can form groups in front of the spiral tip when the spiral wave is meandering, has been reported in a chemical reaction system recently. We present a method to realize the phenomenon of wave grouping by applying an external field to the system. The numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations.
Full text: Excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) by both energetic particles (EPs) and drift wave (DW) turbulences taking into account plasma nonuniformities are investigated in this work. The global radial mode structures of EP induced GAM (EGAM) are systematically studied and their properties are found to depend on the nonuniformities of both the GAM continuous spectrum and EP radial profile. For a radially broad EP drive, the eigenmode equation valid for arbitrary EP drift orbit width is derived, and then solved using a Fourier transformation technique. The excited EGAM is shown to strongly couple to the GAM continuous spectrum; resulting in a finite drive threshold in EP density. The cross-scale couplings between micro-, meso- and macro-scales, discussed in this work, are mediated by the EP dynamics and have many interesting similarities with complex behaviors, expected in burning plasmas of fusion interest. The excitation of GAM by DW turbulence accounting for various kinetic dispersiveness and nonuniformities is also investigated, with the paradigm of three-wave resonant parametric decay instability. Considering the scale length of linear DW eigenmode envelope is much smaller than that of particle diamagnetic drift frequency L*, in the linear growth phase, the parametric instability is convective for typical tokamak parameters, when the finite group velocities of GAM and DW sideband are taken into account. This is a case of less practical interest. However, if we look at longer time scales, and finite L* effects are taken into account, the convectively amplified GAM-DW wave-packet pair is reflected at the DW linear turning points, resulting in a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability. DW turbulence spreading with the excitation of GAM is also investigated, with emphasis on quantitative understanding of the dispersiveness associated with kinetic GAM. (author)
Transport analysis of JT-60 plasma by drift wave turbulence model
Characteristics of JT-60 plasma in both ohmic and neutral beam heating phase are numerically studied by using the one dimensional tokamak transport code with thermal conductivities based on the drift wave turbulence model. The numerical results show good agreement with experimental data in the medium electron density range n-bare ∼ 4 x 1019 m-3 both for ohmic and neutral beam heating cases. On the contrary, the model underestimates the plasma temperatures in the low electron density range because of the strong dependence of thermal conductivities on electron temperature, and can not reproduce high temperature plasmas. (author)
Dispersion relation of drift-wave instability in a collisionless plasma with sheared magnetic field
Detailed measurements are performed on drift-wave instability in a collisionless plasma column under a sheared magnetic field. The instability is found to be destabilized by the small magnetic shear and has a maximum amplitude at the shear length, where the electron thermal speed is nearly equal to the axial phase velocity (controlled by the shear) of the instability. The dispersion relation of the instability agrees with the local theory, which yields almost the same results as the non-local theory taking into account the measured radial density profile of a slender plasma column. (author)
Two-dimensional aspects of toroidal drift waves in the ballooning representation
By systematically doing the higher-order theory, the predictions of the conventional ballooning theory (CBT) are examined for nonideal systems. For the complex solvability condition to be satisfied, radial variation of the lowest-order mode amplitude needs to be invoked. It turns out, however, that even this procedure with its concomitant modifications of eigenvalues and eigenstructures, is not sufficient to justify the predictions of many CBT solutions; only a small set of the CBT solutions could be put on firm footing. To demonstrate this work's general conclusions, theoretical and numerical results are presented for a system of fluid drift waves with nonadiabatic electron response
Two dimensional aspects of toroidal drift waves in the ballooning representation
By systematically doing the higher order theory, the predictions of the conventional ballooning theory (CBT) are examined for non-ideal systems. For the complex solvability condition to be satisfied, radial variation of the lowest order mode amplitude needs to be invoked. It turns out, however, that even this procedure with its concomitant modifications of eigenvalues and eigenstructures, is not sufficient to justify the predictions of many CBT solutions; only a small set of CBT solutions could be put on a firm footing. To demonstrate our general conclusions, theoretical and numerical results are presented for system of fluid drift waves non-adiabatic electron response
The investigation of the scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations arising from drift waves in tokamaks is distinguished by the presence in the wave equation of a large, random, derivative-coupling term. The propagation of the lower-hybrid waves is well represented by a radiative transfer equation when the scale size of the density fluctuations is small compared to the overall plasma size. The radiative transfer equation is solved in two limits: first, the forward scattering limit, where the scale size of density fluctuations is large compared to the lower-hybrid perpendicular wavelength, and second, the large-angle scattering limit, where this inequality is reversed. The most important features of these solutions are well represented by analytical formulas derived by simple arguments. Based on conventional estimates for density fluctuations arising from drift waves and a parabolic density profile, the optical depth tau for scattering through a significant angle, is given by tauroughly-equal(2/N2/sub parallel/) (#betta#/sub p/i0/#betta#)2 (m/sub e/c2/2T/sub i/)/sup 1/2/ [c/α(Ω/sub i/Ω/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ ], where #betta#/sub p/i0 is the central ion plasma frequency and T/sub i/ denotes the ion temperature near the edge of the plasma. Most of the scattering occurs near the surface. The transmission through the scattering region scales as tau-1 and the emerging intensity has an angular spectrum proportional to cos theta, where sin theta = k/sub perpendicular/xB/sub p//(k/sub perpendicular/B/sub p/), and B/sub p/ is the poloidal field
Spontaneous profile self-organization in a simple realization of drift-wave turbulence
Cui, L.; Ashourvan, A.; Thakur, S. C.; Hong, R.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-05-01
We report the observation of a transport bifurcation that occurs by spontaneous self-organization of a drift-wave and shear flow system in a linear plasma device. As we increase the magnetic field above a threshold ( BC r = 1200 G), a global transition occurs, with steepening of mean density and ion pressure profiles, onset of strong E ×B shearing, a reduction of turbulence, and improved turbulent radial particle transport. An abrupt transition appears in the graph of turbulent particle flux versus density gradient. Hysteresis in the density gradient further confirms this transport bifurcation. The total Reynolds work on the flow sharply increases above threshold. This correlates with the increase of density steepness, which suggests the Reynolds stress-driven flow that plays an essential role in density steepening and transport bifurcation. A change in turbulence feature from drift waves (DWs) to a mix of DWs and ion temperature gradients also coincides with the transport bifurcation. Interesting phenomena related to the transport bifurcation are also reported; a local inward particle flux, the co-existence of ion and electron features, and a self-sustained axial flow absent momentum input.
Simulating the coupled evolution of drift-wave turbulence and the tearing mode
James, S. D.; Brennan, D. P.; Izacard, O.; Holland, C.
2015-11-01
Numerical simulations of turbulence and MHD instabilities such as the tearing mode can be computationally expensive and only recently have simulations begun to address their coupled, self-consistent interactions. The disparate scales involved in simulating the coupled evolution of small-scale turbulence and the larger-scale tearing mode make this a challenging numerical problem. Using the newly developed code, TURBO, we have performed nonlinear simulations of Hasegawa-Wakatani drift-wave turbulence coupled to Ohm's law. An equilibrium with prescribed stability properties and turbulent drives is used to examine the impact of drift-wave turbulence on the stability of the tearing mode and the energy transport between them in the context of a turbulent resistivity and turbulent viscosity. We find that the spatial structure of the density flux and these transport coefficients are asymmetric in the poloidal direction and peaked away from the X-point in the presence of an island in a poloidal flow. Similar effects are seen in simulations of ITG turbulence in the presence of a magnetic island and we discuss the connections to our work. Supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0007851.
Drift wave spectra and enhanced transport in plasmas with magnetic shear
We investigate the potentialities of nonlinear scattering of waves off ions as a stabilizing mechanism of drift turbulence in plasmas with magnetic shear. The failure of the random phase averaging procedure and the local character of the interaction in frequency space are the starting point of a reformulation of weak turbulence theory. In particular, the usual integral equation is transformed into a system of two first order differential equations coupling the spectra I(ksub(theta)) and I(ksub(theta)-1). The density fluctuation spectrum, which is obtained analytically, has some desirable features in reference to experiment. Firstly, |eta tilde|ksub(theta)2 behaves asymptotically (ksub(theta) → infinity) as ksub(theta)-4; secondly, the high mode numbers (ksub(theta)asub(s) >1) contribute about 80% to the cross field diffusion while the low mode numbers (ksub(theta)asub(s) <1) provide about 80% of the squared density fluctuation. In discussing the transport properties we emphasize the possible role of anomalous heat transfer from electrons to ions. The spectrum of convective cells formed in the interaction of drift waves is obtained; their contribution to the diffusion is found to be negligible, at least in the plasma core. (author)
Kartashov, A.; E. Kartashova
2013-01-01
Analysis of resonance clustering in weakly nonlinear dispersive wave systems, also called discrete wave turbulent systems, is a new methodology successfully used in the last years for characterizing energy transport due to exact and quasi-resonances. Quite recently this methodology has been used in the paper by M. D. Bustamante, U. Hayat "Complete classification of discrete resonant Rossby/drift wave triads on periodic domains", \\cite{BH13}, in order to show that resonance clustering is very ...
Non-Linear Drift Waves in a Plasma with a Temperature Gradient
In a low-β plasma slab we consider stationary drift waves with an electrostatic potential of the type φ(y-ut, x, z), where x is the co-ordinate in the direction of the equilibrium gradients, and z is the co-ordinate along the magnetic field. We assume the x-dependence of the varying quantities to be small, the ion temperature to be much smaller than the electron temperature, and make use of the two-fluid theory neglecting the dissipative effects. We take into account the electron temperature gradient as was done previously, but add the dispersive effects due to the ion inertia perpendicular to B. The final equation is similar to the Korteweg-de Vries equation. It has as solutions a general non-linear wave, a solitary wave and an exact sinus wave. The two last solutions are due to the temperature gradient. In the dissipative case, resistivity alone does not allow periodic solutions if solutions of the type φ(y-ut + az) are considered. The x-dependence of potential and density fluctuations seems to be essential for the calculation of the diffusion averaged over one period of oscillation. (author)
Collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied using a linear water-bag kinetic model [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. An efficient spectral method, already validated in the case of drift waves instabilities [E. Gravier et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 7 (2013)], allows a fast solving of the global linear problem in cylindrical geometry. The comparison between the linear ITG instability properties thus computed and the ones given by the COLUMBIA experiment [R. G. Greaves et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 34, 1253 (1992)] shows a qualitative agreement. Moreover, the transition between collisional drift waves and ITG instabilities is studied theoretically as a function of the ion temperature profile.
Diffusive and drift regimes of propagation of a plane ionization wave in a microwave field
The simplest one-dimensional model including the electron-impact ionization of a gas in the electric field, electron attachment, mobility and diffusion is used to show that (a) in a supercritical microwave (MW) field, an ionization wave with a steady-state profile is formed, which can propagate through a gas in the absence of preionization; (b) two substantially different regimes of propagation of the discharge can occur--diffusive and drift ones; (c) in the diffusive regime, the ion mobility is almost insignificant, and only electron (rather than ambipolar) diffusion is important; (d) in the drift regime, the velocity of the ionization front depends only slightly on the electron diffusion coefficient, depends on the ratio of the ionization frequency to the MW field frequency, and can considerably (by several orders of magnitude) exceed the velocity of the ionization front corresponding to the diffusive regime. The dependences of the velocity, shape and length of the ionization front on the gas pressure and on the ratio of the MW field amplitude to the critical value of electric field are found
Small scale coherent vortex generation in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence
Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com; Hahm, T. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)
2015-12-15
We present a paradigm for the generation of small scale coherent vortex (SSCV) in drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. We demonstrate that phases of DWs can couple coherently, mediated by the ZF shearing. A SSCV is formed when the phases of the DWs are “attracted” to form a stable “phase cluster.” We show that the ZF shearing induces asymmetry between “attractive” and “repulsive” phase couplings, so that a net attractive phase coupling results. The turbulent DWs will (partially)synchronize into a stable SSCV at locations, where the attractive phase coupling induced by the ZF shearing exceeds the “detuning” effects by the DW dispersion and random phase scattering. We also discuss the “self-binding” effect of the newly formed SSCV.
Small scale coherent vortex generation in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence
We present a paradigm for the generation of small scale coherent vortex (SSCV) in drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. We demonstrate that phases of DWs can couple coherently, mediated by the ZF shearing. A SSCV is formed when the phases of the DWs are “attracted” to form a stable “phase cluster.” We show that the ZF shearing induces asymmetry between “attractive” and “repulsive” phase couplings, so that a net attractive phase coupling results. The turbulent DWs will (partially)synchronize into a stable SSCV at locations, where the attractive phase coupling induced by the ZF shearing exceeds the “detuning” effects by the DW dispersion and random phase scattering. We also discuss the “self-binding” effect of the newly formed SSCV
Non-perturbative statistical theory of intermittency in ITG drift wave turbulence with zonal flows
The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of momentum flux and zonal flow formation in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence are investigated in two different models. The first is a general five-field model (ni, φ, Ti, Te, vi||) where a reductive perturbation method is used to derive dynamical equations for drift waves and a zonal flow. The second is a reduced two-field model (φ, Ti) that has an exact non-linear solution (bipolar vortex soliton). In both models the exponential tails of the zonal flow PDFs are found with the same scaling (PDF ∼ exp {- cZFφZF3}), but with different coefficients cZF. The PDFs of momentum flux is, however, found to be qualitatively different with the scaling (PDF ∼ exp{-cMRs}), where s = 2 and s = 3/2 in the five and two-field models, respectively.
The effects of a poloidally asymmetric ionization source on both dissipative toroidal drift wave stability and the generation of mean sheared parallel flow are examined. The first part of this work extends the development of a local model of ionization-driven drift wave turbulence [Phys. Fluids B 4, 877 (1992)] to include the effects of magnetic shear and poloidal source asymmetry, as well as poloidal mode coupling due to both magnetic drifts and the source asymmetry. Numerical and analytic investigation confirm that ionization effects can destabilize collisional toroidal drift waves. However, the mode structure is determined primarily by the magnetic drifts, and is not overly effected by the poloidal source asymmetry. The ionization source drives a purely inward particle flux, which can explain the anomalously rapid uptake of particles which occurs in response to gas puffing. In the second part of this work, the role poloidal asymmetries in both the source and turbulent particle diffusion play in the generation of sheared mean parallel flow is examined. Analysis indicates that predictions of sonic parallel shear flow [vparallel(r)∼cs] are an unphysical result of the assumption of purely parallel flow (i.e., vperpendicular=0) and the neglect of turbulent parallel momentum transport. Results indicate that the flow produced is subcritical to the parallel shear flow instability when diamagnetic effects are properly considered
The mechanism of self-sustainment in collisional drift-wave turbulence
Although collisional drift waves in a sheared slab configuration are linearly damped, it is found that the corresponding turbulence is self-sustaining if initialized at nonlinear amplitude. The influence of the free energy source represented by the temperature and density gradients on the turbulent system involving bi-directional spectral energy transfer is responsible for this change of regime, manifested through an indetifiably self-organized mode structure. Fluctuation mode widths are determined by a competition between turbulent advective broadening and parallel dissipation. All of the features of nonlinear mode structure are thereby determined by nonlinear processes, divesting linear stability criteria of their relevance to that structure, or its amplitude. Detailed study with the computations suggests: (a) The threshold amplitude for nonlinear self-sustainment is somewhat less than ρs/Ln, weakly dependent on parameters. (b) In the 2D slab, increasingly strong temperature gradient relative to density exacerbates collisional dissipation, introducing a nonlinear stability boundary. (c) Effects of neighboring rational surfaces are judged through the overlap criterion, which shows that the self-organized part does not overlap, but the free-energy tapping part does, leading to the expectation that gradients can be maintained in the tokamak, and that much of the small-scale side of collisional dissipation should be suppressed, enhancing the turbulence in the tokamak edge. (d) The introduction of rvec Ex rvec B shear flows with gradients as large as cs/Ln does not suppress this turbulence, but nonlinearly enhances it for strong enough shear (cs/Ln). Many important features of experimentally observed tokamak edge fluctuations are reproduced by these single-rational-surface nonlinear dynamics. Consequently, one must continue to consider drift-wave turbulence as a plausible mechanism behind such observations
A kinetic theory of trapped electron driven drift wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field
A kinetic theory of collisionless and dissipative trapped electron driven drift wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field is presented. Weak turbulence theory is employed to calculate the nonlinear electron and ion responses and to derive a wave kinetic equation that determines the nonlinear evolution of trapped electron mode turbulence. Saturated fluctuation spectrum is calculated using the condition of nonlinear saturation. The turbulent transport coefficients are in turn calculated using saturated fluctuation spectrum. Due to the disparity in the three different radial scale lengths of the slab-like eigenmode: Δ (trapped electron layer width), xt (turning point width) and xi (Landau damping point), Δ t i, we find that ion Compton scattering rather than trapped electron Compton scattering is the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism. Ion Compton scattering transfers wave energy from short to long wavelengths where the wave energy is shear damped. As a consequence, a saturated fluctuation spectrum |φ|2(kθ) ∼ kθ-α (α = 2 and 3 for the dissipative and collisionless regime, respectively) occurs for kθρs θρs > 1. The predicted fluctuation level and transport coefficients are well below the ''mixing length'' estimate. This is due to the contribution of radial wavenumbers xt-1 r ≤ ρi-1 to the nonlinear couplings, the effect of radial localization of trapped electron response to a layer of width, Δ, and the weak turbulence factor left-angle(γel)/(ωrvecκ)right-angle rveck < 1, which enters the saturation level. 18 refs., 1 tab
Abdu, Mangalathayil; Sobral, José; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas
2016-07-01
The characteristics of large-scale wave structure in the equatorial bottomside F region that are present during daytime as precursor to post sunset development of the spread F/plasma bubble irregularities are investigated in this paper. Digisonde data from three equatorial sites in Brazil (Fortaleza, Sao Luis and Cachimbo) for a period of few months at low to medium/high solar activity phases are analyzed. Small amplitude oscillations in the F layer true heights, representing wave structure in polarization electric field, are identified as upward propagating gravity waves having zonal scale of a few hundred kilometers. Their amplitudes undergo amplification towards sunset, and depending on the amplitude of the prereversal vertical drift (PRE) they may lead to post sunset generation of ESF/plasma bubble irregularities. On days of their larger amplitudes they appear to occur in phase coherence on all days, and correspondingly the PRE vertical drift velocities are larger than on days of the smaller amplitudes of the wave structure that appear at random phase on the different days. The sustenance of these precursor waves structures is supported by the relatively large ratio (approaching unity) of the F region-to- total field line integrated Pedersen conductivities as calculated using the SUPIM simulation of the low latitude ionosphere. This study examines the role of the wave structure relative to that of the prereversal vertical drift in the post sunset spread F irregularity development.
Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions
Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda
2015-12-01
A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from
Rossby and Drift Wave Turbulence and Zonal Flows: the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions
Connaughton, Colm; Quinn, Brenda
2014-01-01
A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and also drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form survive in more realistic and complicated models, and as such form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence -zonostrophy and the invariant cascades are shown to be characterised...
Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.
Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert
2016-04-01
Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we
For more than 60 years, fusion scientists try to confine a plasma by means of external magnetic fields in order to achieve appropriately high densities and temperatures for the ignition of nuclear fusion. Despite of great progress in the design of confinement concepts, which are considered for the confinement of burning plasmas in the near future, theoretical plasma physics promises further confinement improvements using novel magnetic field geometries. Therefor, the key is the minimization of turbulent transport by choosing appropiate magnetic field geometries, which necessitates a fundamental understanding of the influence of magnetic field geometry on plasma turbulence. There are several theoretical works on turbulent plasma dynamics in three-dimensional geometries, but only a few experimental studies for validation of the theoretical results exist. Hence, the present work aims at providing experimental data for comparison with theory and to gain insights into the interplay between drift-wave turbulence and magnetic field geometry. By means of two multi-probe arrays, local density and potential fluctuations are measured in low-temperature plasmas at 128 positions on a single flux surface of the stellarator TJ-K with high temporal resolution. Using methods of statistical timeseries analysis structure sizes and dynamic properties of the drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K are determined. Thereby, it is shown that the size of turbulent structures perpendicular to the magnetic field is reduced in regions of high absolute local magnetic shear. In addition, a poloidal displacement with respect to the magnetic field lines and a complex propagation pattern of parallelly extended turbulent structures is found. Also, poloidal profiles of turbulent transport are calculated from the probe data. The maximum transport is found to be poloidally localized in a region of negative normal curvature (unfavourable curvature). In addition, the results point to an influence of geodesic
Lithium-Drifted Germanium Detectors for High Resolution Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy
Two types of germanium detectors have been fabricated using the lithium-ion drift technique. The first type have active volumes in excess of 6 cm3 and are primarily intended for high-energy (> 1.0 MeV) y-ray spectroscopy. The second type are large area, low capacity, windowless detectors intended for very high-resolution 6-ray and low-energy y-ray spectroscopy. Both types are operated in a vacuum at liquid nitrogen temperature (77°K). The large-volume detectors have areas greater than 6 cm2 with depletion depths in excess of 1 cm. The experimental resolution (FWHM) obtainable with these detectors is limited at low energies by the noise level of the pre-amplifier, while at high energies (>1MeV) the 1 imitation is due to amplifier instability. Typical resolutions are 3,6, and 12 keV for 0,122, 1,333and 5.0 MeV γ-rays respectively, while the photopeak efficiency ranges from approximately 75% at 122 keV to 1% at 1.333 MeV and 0. % at 5 MeV. At 5 MeV the pair-peak efficiency is ∼5%. Typical low-capacity detectors are slices (less than 5 mm thick) from the large volume detectors and have an area of 3 x 1 cm (the depletion depth). This gives a reduction in detector capacitance which results in a significant improvement in the resolution compared to that obtained with the large-volume detectors for a given pre-amplifier. At 0.122 and 1.333 MeV, resolutions of 1.9 keV and 4.1 keV respectively have been observed. Since these are essentially windowless detectors they make excellent small β-ray spectrometers. Typical resolution for the 625-keV K conversion electrons of 137Cs is less than 6 keV. These detectors are finding an increasingly wider application in both nuclear decay scheme work and in identifying the isotopic content of samples containing many isotopes. A more detailed evaluation of the properties and various applications of these two types of germanium detectors is described. (author)
Complete classification of discrete resonant Rossby/drift wave triads on periodic domains
Bustamante, Miguel D.; Hayat, Umar
2013-09-01
We consider the set of Diophantine equations that arise in the context of the partial differential equation called "barotropic vorticity equation" on periodic domains, when nonlinear wave interactions are studied to leading order in the amplitudes. The solutions to this set of Diophantine equations are of interest in atmosphere (Rossby waves) and Tokamak plasmas (drift waves), because they provide the values of the spectral wavevectors that interact resonantly via three-wave interactions. These wavenumbers come in "triads", i.e., groups of three wavevectors. We provide the full solution to the Diophantine equations in the physically sensible limit when the Rossby deformation radius is infinite. The method is completely new, and relies on mapping the unknown variables via rational transformations, first to rational points on elliptic curves and surfaces, and from there to rational points on quadratic forms of "Minkowski" type (such as the familiar space-time in special relativity). Classical methods invented centuries ago by Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, Minkowski, are used to classify all solutions to our original Diophantine equations, thus providing a computational method to generate numerically all the resonant triads in the system. Computationally speaking, our method has a clear advantage over brute-force numerical search: on a 10,0002 grid, the brute-force search would take 15 years using optimised C codes on a cluster, whereas our method takes about 40 min using a laptop. Moreover, the method is extended to generate so-called quasi-resonant triads, which are defined by relaxing the resonant condition on the frequencies, allowing for a small mismatch. Quasi-resonant triads' distribution in wavevector space is robust with respect to physical perturbations, unlike resonant triads' distribution. Therefore, the extended method is really valuable in practical terms. We show that the set of quasi-resonant triads form an intricate network of connected triads, forming
The effect of a high-frequency pumping wave on ionic-sound drift oscillations, whose frequency exceeds the ionic cyclotron one, is experimentally studied. A cylinder pinch was produced in a homogeneous magnetic field by a beam of low-energy electrons. The strength of a stationary magnetic field oriented along the plasma cylinder axis amounted to 400-600 Oe. The concentration of plasma was approximately 1010 cm3, the temperature of electrons approximately 6 eV, the pressure of a neutral gas (argon) was approximately 2-3x10-4 Tor. Low-frequency drift oscillations were recorded by single probes operating in a regime of saturation ionic current, and also by a photomultiplier tube according to integral luminous radiation of plasma. It is shown that threshold-less modificatjon of frequency spectrum of ionic-sound drift oscillations takes place with increasing high-frequency pumping field, and that they are incompletely suppressed from the side of hjgher frequencies. Displacement of peaks in the spectra of drift oscillations to the side of high values of frequency was observed at the values of a high-frequency pumping field Esub(0) <= 3 V/cm. It is shown that the less is the frequency of a pumping wave the sharper is the decrease in the drift oscillation intensity with increasing Esub(0). A comparison of experimental and theoretical data shows that the HF-field component normal to the magnetic fjeld may produce an essential influence upon the dynamics of drift-dissipative instability
Simulation of drift wave turbulence: Trapped structures and a new nonadiabatic electron model
The development of trapped structures in decaying and saturated drift wave turbulence is studied via computer simulation. A two-dimensional electrostatic fluid model is used. The turbulence which evolves in the pure decay runs (no nonadiabatic electrons) is characterized by tightly bound monopole vortices and a very narrow frequency spectrum. These results are qualitatively similar to results found in two dimensional Navier-Stokes simulations. For the studies of saturated turbulence, rather than simply introducing the linear growth rate, a new nonadiabatic electron model is used. This model takes into account the effects of broadening and shifting of the frequency spectrum which results from the strongly nonlinear character of the problem--effects which are found to be very important in the turbulent states which are studied. These states are characterized by broadened frequency spectra, with strong damping on the nonadiabatic electrons at high-k and along the kx-axis. Trapped structures are observed in many of the saturated simulations, even in the presence of moderately broad frequency spectra. The extent of the trapping varied dramatically, becoming a much stronger effect as the RMS electric field increased. 71 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs
Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E
2012-10-16
There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state. PMID:22974196
D. Yu. Klimushkin
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The paper employs the frame of a 1-D inhomogeneous model of space plasma,to examine the spatial structure and growth rate of drift mirror modes, often suggested for interpreting some oscillation types in space plasma. Owing to its coupling with the Alfvén mode, the drift mirror mode attains dispersion across magnetic shells (dependence of the frequency on the wave-vector's radial component, k_{r}. The spatial structure of a mode confined across magnetic shells is studied. The scale of spatial localization of the wave is shown to be determined by the plasma inhomogeneity scale and by the azimuthal component of the wave vector. The wave propagates across magnetic shells, its amplitude modulated along the radial coordinate by the Gauss function. Coupling with the Alfvén mode strongly influences the growth rate of the drift mirror instability. The mirror mode can only exist in a narrow range of parameters. In the general case, the mode represents an Alfvén wave modified by plasma inhomogeneity.
For drift wave turbulence, due to charge conservation, the divergence of the parallel current is coupled to the divergence of the perpendicular polarization current, which determines the effective radial momentum flux, i.e., the Reynolds stress. Changes in the current flow patterns also affect the nonlinear energy transfer from smaller to larger scales. Here, we show that by changing the end plate boundary conditions in a cylindrical plasma device, the radial currents through the plasma and hence the net momentum transport and the nonlinear coupling for the inverse energy transfer are strongly modified. The transition to drift wave turbulence and the formation of low frequency zonal flows can be either suppressed with conducting boundaries or enhanced with insulating boundaries.
Li, Hongli; Giles, Kevin; Bendiak, Brad; Kaplan, Kimberly; Siems, William F.; Hill, Herbert H.
2012-01-01
Monosaccharide structural isomers including sixteen methyl-D-glycopyranosides and four methyl-N-acetylhexosamines were subjected to ion mobility measurements by electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. Two ion mobility-MS systems were employed: atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry and a Synapt G2 HDMS system which incorporates a low pressure traveling wave ion mobility separator. All the compounds were investigated as [M+Na]+ ions in the positive m...
A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport
da Fonseca, J D; Sokolov, M; Caldas, I L
2016-01-01
A statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic drift-waves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, $K_0$, becomes $K_0 J_0(\\hat{\\rho})$, where $J_0$ is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $\\hat{\\rho}$ is the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $\\hat{\\rho}$, we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturbation amplitude $K_0 J_0(\\hat{\\rho})$. Using these results we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), $P_{c}$, and the probability of trapping in the main drift-wave resonance, $P_{t}$. It is sho...
V H Kulkarni; Shobha Kadam
2012-07-01
The role of added electrons on the drift dissipative instability in a nonuniform collisional plasma is analysed. We observe the presence of a drift wave that depends entirely on the added electrons through the collision frequency coupling and there is an additional damping. The present study is applied to the density irregularities caused by meteor ionization in the ionosphere.
Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians
Hunter Gentry
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo increased. Genre had no effect on beta waves. Thefindings of this study indicate that genre preference and artificially modified tempo do affectalpha and beta wave activation in non-musicians listening to preselected songs.
Nonlinear correlations in phase-space resolved fluctuations at drift wave frequencies
In an effort to better understand plasma transport, we measure fluctuations associated with drift instabilities resolved in the ion phase-space. Primary attention is given to fluctuations near the electron drift frequency where there are two general components to the observed fluctuations. From two (spatial) point measurements of the ion distribution function with a variable separation along the magnetic field, a number of statistical measures of the fluctuations are calculated including cross-correlation and cross-bicoherence. Both fluid (ω/k >> vti) and kinetic (ω/k ∼ vti) components are observed in the fluctuations. The nonlinear interactions are found to depend strongly on the ion particle velocity
L. J. Baddeley
Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m
Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities
The local character, in poloidal mode-number space, of the resonant nonlinear interaction of drift waves with ions in a sheared magnetic field permits an analytical determination of the spectrum. Important processes underlying the stabilization are energy cascade and transfer, respectively, in ''close'' (k'/sub Theta/approx. =k/sub Theta/) and ''distant'' (k'/sub Theta/a/sub s/approx. =1/k/sub Theta/a/sub s/) interactions. The spectral index n = 4 of the high-mode-number tail is independent of the excitation mechanism
Effect of parallel ion motion in three-drift-wave interaction
The nonlinear interaction of three drift modes, including parallel ion motion, is discussed analytically and numerically. An intrinsic stochastic interaction between the fluctuating electric field and the parallel ion current is observed and the saturation level is of the expected magnitude. (orig.)
Two corrections to the drift-wave kinetic equation in the context of zonal-flow physics
Ruiz, D E; Shi, E L; Dodin, I Y
2016-01-01
The drift-wave (DW) kinetic equation, that is commonly used in studies of zonal flows (ZF), excludes the exchange of enstrophy between DW and ZF and also effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Using the quasilinear approximation of the generalized Hasegawa--Mima model, we propose a modified theory that accounts for these effects within a wave kinetic equation (WKE) of the Wigner--Moyal type, which is commonly known in quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this theory features additional terms beyond the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the \\textit{total} enstrophy and energy in the DW-ZF system. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed theory can be viewed as a reformulation of the second-order cumulant expansion (also known as the CE2) in a more intuitive manner, namely, in terms of canonical phase-space variables.
Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas
Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.
2016-06-01
The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability is exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3 × 107 s‑1.
Nakouzi, Elias; Totz, Jan Frederik; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver; Engel, Harald
2016-02-01
Dissipative patterns in excitable reaction-diffusion systems can be strongly affected by spatial heterogeneities. Using the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we show a hysteresis effect in the transition between free and pinned spiral rotation. The latter state involves the rotation around a disk-shaped obstacle with an impermeable and inert boundary. The transition is controlled by changes in light intensity. For permeable heterogeneities of higher excitability, we observe spiral drift along both linear and circular boundaries. Our results confirm recent theoretical predictions and, in the case of spiral drift, are further reproduced by numerical simulations with a modified Oregonator model. Additional simulations with a cardiac model show that orbital motion can also exist in anisotropic and three-dimensional systems.
Wang, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Joung, M.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kwak, J. G.; Wi, H. H.; Kim, H.-S.
2015-11-01
Helicon wave current drive has been suggested for efficient off-axis current drive in high electron beta tokamak plasmas. Fast wave drives centrally peaking current in the frequency range up to several ion cyclotron harmonics in the present tokamaks, such as KSTAR. Increasing fast wave frequency up to LH resonance frequency at the plasma edge, the spiral propagation of wave at the outer region of plasma lengthens the wave path to the plasma center. Also, optical thickness increases with frequency. It is expected that these effects produce efficient off-axis power deposition depending on the electron beta and magnetic field pitch. A low power TWA for helicon wave was installed and tested in KSTAR tokamak which is aiming for the steady-state high beta plasma requiring off-axis current drive. The power coupling properties of TWA at various plasma conditions will be presented. In addition to the coupling efficiency, issues such as load sensitivity and unwanted slow wave coupling will be addressed. Also, the simulation of plasma performance with the combination of helicon wave current drive and other conventional heating and current drive power in KSTAR will be discussed. This work was supported by the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and by R&D Program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.
Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal
Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten
2015-01-01
We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited in the...... normal dispersion regime of BBO through a negative cascaded quadratic nonlinearity. Using pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 μm, dispersive waves are found from 1.9 to 2.2 μm, agreeing well with calculated resonant phasematching wavelengths due to degenerate four-wave mixing to the soliton. We also...
Absorption of magnetoacoustic waves in high beta plasmas
The oscillations of a radially inhomogeneous high-β plasma column are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The high-β plasma is produced by a theta pinch discharge. The waves are launched during the post implosion phase in the frequency range of about 1 MHz. The spatial distribution of the wave fields is determined and a high absorption is observed. The absorption of magnetoacoustic waves is an efficient mechanism to heat a plasma. It was investigated under various conditions in the past. In this paper we present theoretical and experimental investigations in the transition region from the collision dominated to the collisionless regime. In the theoretical treatment the linearised MHD-equations are used where viscous and resistive effects are included. (orig./HT)
A comparison of drift wave stability in stellarator and tokamak geometry
The influence of plasma geometry on the linear stability of electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient driven drift modes (ITG or ηi=Ln/LTi modes) is investigated. An advanced fluid model is used for the ions together with Boltzmann distributed electrons. The derived eigenvalue equation is solved numerically. A comparison is made between an H-1NF [Fusion Technol. 17, 123 (1990)] like stellarator equilibrium, a numerical tokamak equilibrium and the analytical s-α equilibrium. The numerical and the analytical tokamak are found to be in good agreement in the low inverse aspect ratio limit. The growth rates of the tokamak and stellarator are comparable whereas the modulus of the real frequency is substantially larger in the stellarator. The threshold in ηi for the stellarator is found to be somewhat larger. In addition, a stronger stabilization of the ITG mode growth is found for large εn(=Ln/R) in the stellarator case
Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal.
Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten
2015-09-15
We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited in the normal dispersion regime of BBO through a negative cascaded quadratic nonlinearity. Using pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 μm, dispersive waves are found from 1.9 to 2.2 μm, agreeing well with calculated resonant phase-matching wavelengths due to degenerate four-wave mixing to the soliton. We also observe resonant radiation from nondegenerate four-wave mixing between the soliton and a probe wave, which was formed by leaking part of the pump spectrum into the anomalous dispersion regime. We confirm the experimental results through simulations. PMID:26371910
Studies of waves and instabilities using increased beta, warm ion plasmas in LAPD
Carter, Troy; Dorfman, Seth; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve; van Compernolle, Bart; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; Pribyl, Pat; Morales, George
2015-11-01
A new plasma source based on a Lanthanum Hexaboride (LAB6) emissive cathode has been developed and installed on the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The new source provides a much higher discharge current density (compared to the standard LAPD Barium Oxide source) resulting in a factor of ~ 50 increase in plasma density and a factor of ~ 2 - 3 increase in electron temperature. Due to the increased density the ion-electron energy exchange time is shorter in the new plasma, resulting in warm ions (measured spectroscopically to be ~ 5 - 6 eV, up from unity. Topics under investigation include the physics of Alfvén waves in increased β plasmas (dispersion and kinetic damping on ions), electromagnetic effects and magnetic transport in drift-Alfvén wave turbulence, and the excitation of ion-temperature-anisotropy driven modes such as the mirror and firehose instabilities. The capabilities of the new source will be discussed along with initial experimental resuls on electromagnetic drift-Alfvén wave turbulence and Alfvén wave propagation with increased plasma β. Supported by NSF and DOE.
Analysis of stochastic particle behavior in a magnetic island due to electrostatic drift waves
Stochastic particle motion in the magnetic island in the presence of electrostatic perturbations has been studied both numerically and analytically. By evaluating the K-S entropy, it was shown that particle orbits can be stochastic by the simultaneous effects of magnetostatic perturbation and electrostatic ones with amplitude which are not large enough to induce the orbit stochasticity alone. The generation of orbit stochasticity is due to the overlapping of sub-island formed by the E B drift driven by electrostatic perturbations and is consistent with Chirikov criterion. For the given perturbed energy, the wide region in the particle orbit can be stochastic by the electrostatic perturbations with adjacent resonance surfaces and successive mode numbers, rather than the single perturbation with large amplitude. The particle diffusion process was also analysed by evaluating the cummulants of particle displacement in time and it was shown that the process is basically the Gauss one and the higher order cummurants that the second one are appeared due to the spatial inhomogeneity of the local diffusion coefficient. (author)
Mechanical design and analysis for a low beta squeezed half-wave resonator
He, Shoubo; Zhang, Shenghu; Yue, Weiming; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Ruoxu; Xu, Mengxin; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Jiang, Tiancai; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shengxue; Zhao, Hongwei
2013-01-01
A superconducting half-wave resonator (HWR) of frequency=162.5 MHz and {\\beta}=0.09 has been developed at Institute of Modern Physics. Mechanical stability of the low beta HWR cavity is a big challenge in cavity design and optimization. The mechanical deformations of a radio frequency superconducting cavity could be a source of instability, both in continues wave(CW) operation or in pulsed mode. Generally, the lower beta cavities have stronger Lorentz force detuning than that of the higher beta cavities. In this paper, a basic design consideration in the stiffening structure for the detuning effect caused by helium pressure and Lorentz force has been presented. The mechanical modal analysis has been investigated with finite element method(FEM). Based on these considerations, a new stiffening structure has been promoted for the HWR cavity. The computation results concerning the frequency shift show that the low beta HWR cavity with new stiffening structure has low frequency sensitivity coefficient, Lorentz for...
Phase dependent advection-diffusion in drift wave - zonal flow turbulence
Moradi, Sara
2016-01-01
In plasma turbulence theory, due to the complexity of the system with many non-linearly interacting waves, the dynamics of the phases is often disregarded and the so-called random-phase approximation (RPA) is used assuming the existence of a Chirikov-like criterion for the onset of wave stochasticity. The dynamical amplitudes are represented as complex numbers, $\\psi = \\psi_r + i\\psi_i = ae^{i\\theta}$, with the amplitudes slowly varying whereas the phases are rapidly varying and, in particular, distributed uniformly over the interval $[0;2\\pi)$. However, one could expect that the phase dynamics can play a role in the self-organisation and the formation of coherent structures. In the same manner it is also expected that the RPA falls short to take coherent interaction between phases into account. In this work therefore, we studied the role of phase dynamics and the coupling of phases between different modes on the characteristic time evolution of the turbulent. We assume a simple turbulent system where the so-...
Effect of shock wave reapplication on urinary n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in canine kidney
Marco A.Q.R. Fortes
2004-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Renal tubular damage can be assessed with the aid of urinary dosing of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG and it is possible to demonstrate a significant correlation between shock wave and damage to renal parenchyma. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of shock wave reapplication over urinary NAG in canine kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors submitted 10 crossbred dogs to 2 applications of 2000 shock waves in a 24-hour interval in order to assess urinary NAG values after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Twelve hours following the first shockwave application there was an increase in NAG of 6.47 ± 5.44 u/g creatinine (p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Shock wave reapplication with a 24-hour interval did not cause any increase in urinary NAG.
Low-frequency waves in a high-beta collisionless plasma Polarization, compressibility and helicity
Gary, S. P.
1986-01-01
This paper considers the linear theory of waves near and below the ion cyclotron frequency in an isothermal electron-ion Vlasov plasma which is isotropic, homogeneous and magnetized. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation for the magnetosonic/whistler and Alfven/ion cyclotron modes at beta(i) = 1.0 are presented, and the polarizations, compressibilities, helicities, ion Alfven ratios and ion cross-helicities are exhibited and compared. At sufficiently large beta(i) and theta, the angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, the real part of the polarization of the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave changes sign, so that, for such parameters, this mode is no longer left-hand polarized. The Alfven/ion cyclotron mode becomes more compressive as the wavenumber increases, whereas the magnetosonic/whistler becomes more compressive with increasing theta.
Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians
Hunter Gentry; Ethan Humphries; Sebastian Pena; Aldijana Mekic; Nicole Hurless; David F Nichols
2013-01-01
This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz) and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened) were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo incre...
Wypych, M; Wang, C; Nagy, A; Benedek, G; Dreher, B; Waleszczyk, W J
2012-11-01
The magnitude of spike-responses of neurons in the mammalian visual system to sine-wave luminance-contrast-modulated drifting gratings is modulated by the temporal frequency of the stimulation. However, there are serious problems with consistency and reliability of the traditionally used methods of assessment of strength of such modulation. Here we propose an intuitive and simple tool for assessment of the strength of modulations in the form of standardized F1 index, zF1. We define zF1 as the ratio of the difference between the F1 (component of amplitude spectrum of the spike-response at temporal frequency of stimulation) and the mean value of spectrum amplitudes to standard deviation along all frequencies in the spectrum. In order to assess the validity of this measure, we have: (1) examined behavior of zF1 using spike-responses to optimized drifting gratings of single neurons recorded from four 'visual' structures (area V1 of primary visual cortex, superior colliculus, suprageniculate nucleus and caudate nucleus) in the brain of commonly used visual mammal - domestic cat; (2) compared the behavior of zF1 with that of classical statistics commonly employed in the analysis of steady-state responses; (3) tested the zF1 index on simulated spike-trains generated with threshold-linear model. Our analyses indicate that zF1 is resistant to distortions due to the low spike count in responses and therefore can be particularly useful in the case of recordings from neurons with low firing rates and/or low net mean responses. While most V1 and a half of caudate neurons exhibit high zF1 indices, the majorities of collicular and suprageniculate neurons exhibit low zF1 indices. We conclude that despite the general shortcomings of measuring strength of modulation inherent in the linear system approach, zF1 can serve as a sensitive and easy to interpret tool for detection of modulation and assessment of its strength in responses of visual neurons. PMID:23000273
Curcic, Milan; Chen, Shuyi S.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.
2016-03-01
Hurricane Isaac induced large surface waves and a significant change in upper ocean circulation in the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall at the Louisiana coast on 29 August 2012. Isaac was observed by 194 surface drifters during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). A coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model was used to forecast hurricane impacts during GLAD. The coupled model and drifter observations provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the impacts of hurricane-induced Stokes drift on ocean surface currents. The Stokes drift induced a cyclonic (anticyclonic) rotational flow on the left (right) side of the hurricane and accounted for up to 20% of the average Lagrangian velocity. In a significant deviation from drifter measurements prior to Isaac, the scale-dependent relative diffusivity is estimated to be 6 times larger during the hurricane, which represents a deviation from Okubo's (1971) canonical results for lateral dispersion in nonhurricane conditions at the ocean surface.
R.P. Rogoli
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura.Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota plants. The herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to
Design study of a beta=0.09 high current superconducting half wave resonator
Zhong, Hu-Tan-Xiang; Fan, Pei-Liang; Quan, Sheng-Wen; Liu, Ke-Xin
2016-01-01
There's presently a growing demand for high current proton and deuteron linear accelerators based on superconducting technology to better support various fields of science. A \\b{eta}=0.09 162.5 MHz high current superconducting half wave resonator (HWR) has been designed at Peking University to accelerate 100 mA proton beam or 50 mA deuteron beam after the RFQ accelerating structure. The detailed electromagnetic design, multipacting simulation, mechanical analysis of the cavity will be given in this paper.
Lu, Z. X.
2015-05-01
The complex mixed Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB)-full-wave approach is applied to the 2D mode structure analysis of ion temperature gradient/collisionless trapped electron mode drift waves in tokamak plasmas. The parallel mode structure is calculated with the full-wave approach, while the radial envelope is calculated with the complex WKB method. The tilting of the global mode structure along radius is demonstrated analytically. The effects of the phase and amplitude variation of the radial envelope on the parallel mode structure are included in terms of a complex radial wave vector in the parallel mode equation. It is shown that the radial equilibrium non-uniformity leads to the asymmetry of the parallel mode structure not only in configuration space but also in spectrum space. The mixed approach provides a practical way to analyze the asymmetric component of the global mode structure due to radial equilibrium non-uniformity.
The complex mixed Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB)-full-wave approach is applied to the 2D mode structure analysis of ion temperature gradient/collisionless trapped electron mode drift waves in tokamak plasmas. The parallel mode structure is calculated with the full-wave approach, while the radial envelope is calculated with the complex WKB method. The tilting of the global mode structure along radius is demonstrated analytically. The effects of the phase and amplitude variation of the radial envelope on the parallel mode structure are included in terms of a complex radial wave vector in the parallel mode equation. It is shown that the radial equilibrium non-uniformity leads to the asymmetry of the parallel mode structure not only in configuration space but also in spectrum space. The mixed approach provides a practical way to analyze the asymmetric component of the global mode structure due to radial equilibrium non-uniformity
Drift stabilization of ballooning modes in a high-(β) LHD configuration
Ideal MHD yields at best inconclusive predictions about the stability of the LHD heliotron for (β) ≥ 3%. We investigate the impact of the drift stabilization of ballooning modes for the inward-shifted LHD configuration (vacuum magnetic axis R0 ∼ 3.5 m). The background equilibrium is considered anisotropic in which the neutral beam ions contribute about 1/4 fraction of the total diamagnetic beta, (βdia). A drift corrected ballooning mode equation obtained from the linearized gyrokinetic equation is expanded assuming that the hot particle drifts are much larger than the mode frequency. The fast particle pressure gradients contribute weakly to both the instability drive and the diamagnetic drift stabilization (which is dominated by the thermal ion diamagnetic drifts) for (βdia) in [0, 4.8]%. In the single-fluid limit (diamagnetic drifts ignored), the thermal pressure gradients drive ballooning modes in a broad region encompassing the outer 60-90% of the plasma volume at (βdia) ∼ 4.8%. To stabilize these modes, we find that diamagnetic drift corrections must be invoked (mainly due to the thermal ions). The energetic ion diamagnetic drifts play a role only for low wave number values, kα ≤ 8. It has been verified that the fast particle drift ordering imposed by the model is amply satisfied for on-axis hot particle to thermal density Nh0/Ni0 ∼ 1% even at high (βdia).
Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.
2010-01-01
Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.
Ram, P.S.; Rao, S.A.; Sadhuram, Y.
at 12 o N takes about 96 days to cross the Bay, while same Rossby waves takes about 184 days to cross the Bay at 18 o N. These calculations are based on long- wave theory (e.g. Philander, 1990) C r =g533c 2 /ƒ 2 cm.s -1 , where C r is Rossby wave.... This is either due to the simplicity of the linear theory or due to the fact that observed waves are composed of first and second baroclinic Rossby waves (Rao et al., 2002). The cyclonic eddy appeared between 18 o N and 19 o N in late May to late June...
Design Study on Medium beta SC Half-Wave Resonator at IMP
Wu, An-Dong; Yue, Wei-Ming; Li, Yong-Ming; Jiang, Tian-Cai; Wang, Feng-Feng; Zhang, Sheng-Xue; Huang, Ran; He, Yuan; Zhao, Hong-Wei
2015-01-01
A superconducting half-wave resonator has been designed with the frequency of 325 MHz and beta of 0.51. Different geometry parameters and shapes of inner conductors (racetrack, ring-shape and elliptical-shape) were optimized to decrease the peak electromagnetic fields to obtain higher accelerating gradients and minimize the dissipated power on the cavity walls. To suppress the operation frequency shift caused by the helium pressure fluctuations and maximize the tuning ranges, the frequency shifts and mechanical properties were studied on the electric and magnetic areas separately. At the end, the helium vessel was also designed to keep the mechanical structure as robust as possible. The fabrication and test of the prototype will be completed in the beginning of 2016.
Half-Wave, beta=0.43 Cavity Prototyping for a Heavy Ion Linac
Popielarski, John [Michigan State University; Compton, Chris C. [Michigan State University; Hartung, Walter [Michigan State University; Johnson, Mat [Michigan State University; Oliva, John [Michigan State University; York, R. C. [Michigan State University; Marti, Felix [Michigan State University
2008-04-01
A medium velocity half wave resonator has been designed and prototyped at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) for use in a heavy ion linac. The cavity is designed to provide 3.7 MV of accelerating voltage at an optimum beta = v/c = 0.53, with peak surface electric and magnetic fields of 32.5 MV/m and 79 mT, respectively. The cavity was designed for stiffness and tunability, as well as straightforward fabrication, assembly and cleaning. Measurements were performed to confirm Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions for modal analysis, bath pressure sensitivity, tuner stiffness and tuning range. A copper cavity prototype has been fabricated to confirm tolerances and formability. A tuner prototype has been built. The helium vessel and power coupler have been designed.
Influence of Ion Nonlinear Polarization Drift and Warm Ions on Solitary Kinetic Alfvén Wave
DUAN Su-Ping; LI Zhong-Yuan
2003-01-01
Considering the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions, we adopt two-fluid model to results derived in this paper indicate that dip SKAW and hump SKAW both exist in a wide range in magnetosphere(for the pressure parameter β ~ 10-5 ~ 0.01, where βis the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, i.e.region 1 > β > me/mi. These results are different from previous ones. That indicates that the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions are important and they cannot be neglected. The SKAW has an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, which makes the SKAW take an important role in the acceleration and energization of field-aligned charged particles in magnetic plasmas. And the SKAW is also important for the heating of a local plasma.So it makes a novel physical mechanism of energy transmission possible.
Before the generation of steady state, dynamo-free RFP configuration by rf current driving scheme, it is necessary to find an optimum configuration into high stability beta limit against m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes and reducing nonlinearly turbulent level with less rf power. As first step to the optimization study, we are interested in partially relaxed state model (PRSM) RFP configuration, which is considered to be closer to a relaxed state at finite beta since it has force-free fields for poloidal direction with a relatively shorter characteristic length of relaxation and a relatively higher stability beta limit to m=1 resonant ideal MHD modes. The stability beta limit to m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes can be predicted to be relatively high among other RFP models and to be enhanced by the current density profile control using fast magnetosonic waves (FMW), which are accessible to high density region with strong absorption rate. (author)
Multipacting Simulation on Half Wave Resonantor for Beta 0.53
Ge, Lixin; Li, Zenghai; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC; Popielarski, John; Hartung, Walter; Holzbauer, Jeremiah; /Michigan State U., NSCL
2011-08-12
In the driver linac of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), multipacting is an issue of concern for the superconducting resonators, which must accelerate the ion beams from 0.3 MeV per nucleon to 200 MeV per nucleon. While most of the multipacting bands can be conditioned and eliminated with RF, hard multipacting barriers may prevent the resonators from reaching the design voltage. Using the ACE3P code suite, multipacting bands can be computed and analysed with the Track3P module to identify potential problems in the resonator design. This paper will present simulation results for multipacting in half-wave resonators for the FRIB driver linac. The driver linac for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will use superconducting cavities to accelerate the heavy-ion beam to a minimum energy of 200 MeV/u. The first part of the driver linac utilizes two types of Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) accelerating cavities operating at a frequency of 80.5 MHz to increase the beam energy to 17.5 MeV/u. The second part of the driver linac uses two types of Half Wave Resonators (HWR) cavities operating at a frequency of 322 MHz, with {beta} = 0.285 and 0.53 respectively to accelerate the beam to the final energy of 200 MeV/u. Multipacting (MP) is an issue of concern for superconducting resonators which may cause prolonged processing time or limit the achievable design gradient. While most of the MP bands may be conditioned and eliminated with RF, hard multipacting barriers may prevent the resonators from reaching the design voltage. Elimination of potential MP conditions in the cavity design could significantly reduce time and cost of conditioning and commissioning the driver linac. We have utilized the Track3P code, a module of ACE3P code suite, to analyze and identify the potential MP bands in the QWR and HWR cavities for the FRIB linacs. Due to space limitations, we will present the simulation results for the beta53 HWR cavity in this paper. The MP study for the QWR
Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a {beta}-plane in solar system atmospheres
McKenzie, J.F. [KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences; Alabama Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Physics, CSPAR; King' s College, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2009-07-01
This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a {beta}-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of {beta}-, the stratification characterized by the Vaeisaelae-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude {theta}{sub c} versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. ''Supersonic'' fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example {theta}{sub c}{proportional_to}12 for Jupiter. On the other hand slow ''subsonic'' rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona) are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the {beta}- effect vanishes. ''Transonic'' rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34 and 39 , respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26 about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics. (orig.)
Linear theory of drift instability
Drift wave instability was studied theoretically. Low frequency waves are influenced by plasma inhomogeneity when the phase velocity of the waves perpendicular to magnetic field is comparable to the drift velocity. The low-ν plasma in a homogeneous magnetic field B parallel to z-axis was considered for the analysis, and it was assumed that the plasma density varies along X-axis. Electrostatic fluctuations were assumed. The dispersion relation of drift waves was derived from the continuity equation of ions. If Coulomb collisions or resonant particles prevent electrons from following the Boltzmann distribution, various free energy sources make the drift waves unstable. The effects of resonant particles and finite Larmor radii were examined with the Vlasov equation. The stability analysis of the drift mode in a sheared magnetic field has been one of the important objects of thermonuclear fusion researches. A model magnetic field was considered and analyzed. The stability of the drift mode in toroidal systems was studied. (Kato, T.)
Xia, Hong; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming
2016-04-01
The Doppler effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon observed for waves propagating in vacuum or various media, commonly gaseous or liquid. Here, we report on the occurrence of a Doppler effect in a solid medium. Instead of a real object, a topological soliton, i.e., a magnetic domain wall (DW) traveling in a current-carrying ferromagnetic nanowire, plays the role of the moving wave source. The Larmor precession of the DW in an external field stimulates emission of monochromatic spin waves (SWs) during its motion, which show a significant Doppler effect, comparable to the acoustic one of a train whistle. This process involves two prominent spin-transfer-torque effects simultaneously, the current-driven DW motion and the current-induced SW Doppler shift. The latter gives rise to an interesting feature, i.e., the observed SW Doppler effect appears resulting from a stationary source and a moving observer, contrary to the laboratory frame.
Zhang, Wogong; Yamamoto, Yuji; Oehme, Michael; Matthies, Klaus; Raju, Ashraful I.; Senthil Srinivasan, V. S.; Körner, Roman; Gollhofer, Martin; Bechler, Stefan; Funk, Hannes; Tillack, Bernd; Kasper, Erich; Schulze, Jörg
2016-04-01
Five silicon (Si) p++-n--n++ samples were grown at various doping concentrations (1.0 × 1017-2.2 × 1017 cm-3) in an n- layer by using the reduced-pressure CVD technique. By using these samples, 30 × 2 µm2 single-drift (SD) impact-ionization avalanche transit-time (IMPATT) diodes were processed with Si-based monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (SIMMWIC) technology.1 , 2 ) The samples within a small process window exhibited a large negative differential resistance at approximately the avalanche frequency, as confirmed by small-signal S-parameter characterization. A model based on depletion width was given to explain the conditions for the appearance of the negative differential IMPATT resistance, which is the basis of millimeter-wave amplifier and oscillator applications. Furthermore, a measurement-based small-signal lumped-element model was established to describe the IMPATT functionality from the circuit component aspect. This lumped-element model shows a negative differential resistance within a well-defined range in the given element parameters, which can explain the experimental observations.
Comment to the note "Counting of discrete Rossby/drift wave resonant triads", arXiv:1309.0405
Kartashov, A
2013-01-01
The main purpose of this note is clarify the following misunderstanding apparent in the note arXiv:1309.0405 by M. Bustamante, U. Hayat, P. Lynch, B. Quinn; [1]: the authors erroneously assume that in the manuscript arXiv:1307.8272 by A. Kartashov and E. Kartashova, [2], resonant triads with real amplitudes are counted whereas it can be seen explicitly from the form of dynamical system that wave amplitudes are complex.
Drift of Scroll Wave Filaments in an Anisotropic Model of the Left Ventricle of the Human Heart
Pravdin, Sergei; Dierckx, Hans; Markhasin, Vladimir S.; Panfilov, Alexander V.
2015-01-01
Scroll waves are three-dimensional vortices which occur in excitable media. Their formation in the heart results in the onset of cardiac arrhythmias, and the dynamics of their filaments determine the arrhythmia type. Most studies of filament dynamics were performed in domains with simple geometries and generic description of the anisotropy of cardiac tissue. Recently, we developed an analytical model of fibre structure and anatomy of the left ventricle (LV) of the human heart. Here, we perform a systematic study of the dynamics of scroll wave filaments for the cases of positive and negative tension in this anatomical model. We study the various possible shapes of LV and different degree of anisotropy of cardiac tissue. We show that, for positive filament tension, the final position of scroll wave filament is mainly determined by the thickness of the myocardial wall but, however, anisotropy attracts the filament to the LV apex. For negative filament tension, the filament buckles, and for most cases, tends to the apex of the heart with no or slight dependency on the thickness of the LV. We discuss the mechanisms of the observed phenomena and their implications for cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26539486
3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations
Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.
Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.
A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex
The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)
Pracht, G; Weckler, B; Lutz, H D
2003-10-01
Diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra of the hydroxides Mg(OH)2 and Zn(OH)F and the iodate hydrates beta-Ni(IO3)2.4H2O and Ni(IO3)2.2H2O have been recorded at ambient and high temperature. Spectra without shifts of the band maxima compared to those of conventional infrared transmission spectra and without inversion of the bands were obtained by dilution of the compounds to about 2-10% with an appropriate embedding material. alpha-Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, PbF2, MgO, BaO, ZnO, Na2SiO3, SiO2 (aerosil), and powdered copper, aluminum, and magnesium were tested as diluents for hydrates and hydroxides, especially at elevated temperatures, as alternatives for the commonly used KBr. Thus, alpha-Al2O3, PbF2, and powdered copper were established as the most favorable diluents. Using these novel embedding materials, high-temperature DRIFT spectra are obtainable at temperatures not accessible with KBr discs. Dehydration and decomposition of the iodate hydrates under study were shown by change or disappearance of the respective water bands. PMID:14639754
Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.
2008-01-01
Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).
Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. III. Leaky Waves in Zero-Beta Plasma
Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.
2016-01-01
In this article, we evaluate the time-dependent wave properties and the damping rate of propagating fast magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves when energy leakage into a magnetised atmosphere is considered. By considering a cold plasma, initial investigations into the evolution of MHD wave damping through this energy leakage will take place. The time-dependent governing equations have been derived previously in Williamson and Erdélyi (2014a, Solar Phys. 289, 899 - 909) and are now solved when the assumption of evanescent wave propagation in the outside of the waveguide is relaxed. The dispersion relation for leaky waves applicable to a straight magnetic field is determined in both an arbitrary tube and a thin-tube approximation. By analytically solving the dispersion relation in the thin-tube approximation, the explicit expressions for the temporal evolution of the dynamic frequency and wavenumber are determined. The damping rate is, then, obtained from the dispersion relation and is shown to decrease as the density ratio increases. By comparing the decrease in damping rate to the increase in damping for a stationary system, as shown, we aim to point out that energy leakage may not be as efficient a damping mechanism as previously thought.
Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma
Nilakshi Das
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.
Study of high-beta supra-thermal plasma events in the vicinity of magneto-hydrodynamic shock-waves
P. K. Marhavilas
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The ratio value – known as plasma parameter “beta” (β - of the interplanetary-plasma pressure (thermal pressure to themagnetic field’s (magnetic pressure or of their energy densities, is critical for the space plasmas and has important consequencesto their properties. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the supra-thermal particles to the plasmapressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurementsrecorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the supra-thermal tail of theparticle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions ofhigh-beta plasma. In particular, in this paper we analyze Ulysses measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter βep ofthe supra-thermal (20 keV to ~5 MeV ions’ (by the HI-SCALE instrument to the magnetic field’s (by the VHM/FGM instrumentin order to find occurrences of high-beta (βep >1 supra-thermal plasma conditions in the vicinity of interplanetaryshock-waves. These high-beta ion events are associated with energetic particle intensity enhancements which have beenproduced by reacceleration at the shock fronts.
A Korteweg--de Vries equation that is applicable to both the nonlinear magnetosonic fast and slow waves is derived from a two-fluid model with finite ion and electron pressures. As in the cold plasma theory, the fast wave has a critical angle theta/sub c/. For propagation angles greater than theta/sub c/ (quasiperpendicular propagation), the fast wave has a positive soliton, whereas for angles smaller than theta/sub c/, it has a negative soliton. Finite β effects decrease the value of theta/sub c/. The slow wave has a positive soliton for all angles of propagation. The magnitude of resonant ion acceleration (the v/sub p/ x B acceleration) by the nonlinear fast and slow waves is evaluated. In the fast wave, the electron pressure makes the acceleration stronger for all propagation angles. The decrease in theta/sub c/ resulting from finite β effects results in broadening of the region of strong acceleration. It is also found that fairly strong ion acceleration can occur in the nonlinear slow wave in high β plasmas. The possibility of unlimited acceleration of ions by quasiperpendicular magnetosonic fast waves is discussed
R.P. Rogoli; L.C. Fontana; S.S. Figueredo; J.A. Noldin
2008-01-01
Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota), em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbi...
The Alfven wave spectrum of analytic high-beta tokamak equilibria
This thesis addresses a number of problems regarding the equilibrium and stability of a tokamak plasma under fusion conditions. To get insight into the geometric effects on the behaviour of the most prominent global modes, a spectral study was carried out on a class of analytic, noncircular plasma equilibria. Parallel to this work, extending a previous high-beta energy principle a variational principle is developed for the numerical determination of the Alfven spectrum of a high-beta tokamak with arbitrary cross-section. Based on the Lagrangian formalism, representations were derived for the potential and kinetic energy in terms of arbitrary, non-orthogonal flux coordinates, which can be readily implemented in a numerical programme. The method is then tested by using the analytic equilibrium as input. 85 refs.; 32 figs.; 2 tabs
Rossby wave radiation by an eddy on a beta-plane: Experiments with laboratory altimetry
Results from the laboratory experiments on the evolution of vortices (eddies) generated in a rotating tank with topographic β-effect are presented. The focus of the experiments is on the far-field flow which contains Rossby waves emitted by travelling vortices. The surface elevation and velocity fields are measured by the altimetric imaging velocimetry. The experiments are supplemented by shallow water numerical simulations as well as a linear theory which describes the Rossby wave radiation by travelling vortices. The cyclonic vortices observed in the experiments travel to the northwest and continuously radiate Rossby waves. Measurements show that initially axisymmetric vortices develop a dipolar component which enables them to perform translational motion. A pattern of alternating zonal jets to the west of the vortex is created by Rossby waves with approximately zonal crests. Energy spectra of the flows in the wavenumber space indicate that a wavenumber similar to that introduced by Rhines for turbulent flows on the β-plane can be introduced here. The wavenumber is based on the translational speed of a vortex rather than on the root-mean-square velocity of a turbulent flow. The comparison between the experiments and numerical simulations demonstrates that evolving vortices also emit inertial waves. While these essentially three-dimensional non-hydrostatic waves can be observed in the altimetric data, they are not accounted for in the shallow water simulations
Rossby wave radiation by an eddy on a beta-plane: Experiments with laboratory altimetry
Zhang, Y.; Afanasyev, Y. D., E-mail: afanai@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada)
2015-07-15
Results from the laboratory experiments on the evolution of vortices (eddies) generated in a rotating tank with topographic β-effect are presented. The focus of the experiments is on the far-field flow which contains Rossby waves emitted by travelling vortices. The surface elevation and velocity fields are measured by the altimetric imaging velocimetry. The experiments are supplemented by shallow water numerical simulations as well as a linear theory which describes the Rossby wave radiation by travelling vortices. The cyclonic vortices observed in the experiments travel to the northwest and continuously radiate Rossby waves. Measurements show that initially axisymmetric vortices develop a dipolar component which enables them to perform translational motion. A pattern of alternating zonal jets to the west of the vortex is created by Rossby waves with approximately zonal crests. Energy spectra of the flows in the wavenumber space indicate that a wavenumber similar to that introduced by Rhines for turbulent flows on the β-plane can be introduced here. The wavenumber is based on the translational speed of a vortex rather than on the root-mean-square velocity of a turbulent flow. The comparison between the experiments and numerical simulations demonstrates that evolving vortices also emit inertial waves. While these essentially three-dimensional non-hydrostatic waves can be observed in the altimetric data, they are not accounted for in the shallow water simulations.
Drift reversal capability in helical systems
The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)
S N Paul; S Chattopadhyaya; S K Bhattacharya; B Bera
2003-06-01
Using the pseudopotential method, theoretical investigation has been made on the ﬁrst-order Korteweg-deVries ion-acoustic solitons in a multicomponent plasma consisting of warm positive ions, negative ions and isothermal electrons. The effects of electron-inertia and drift motion of the ions on the amplitudes and widths of the solitons have been studied in a plasma having (H+, Cl-), (H+, O-), (He+, H-) and (He+, O-) ions. Ion-acoustic double-layers have also been investigated for such plasmas. It has been found that drift velocity and electron-inertia have signiﬁcant contribution on the formation of double-layers in multicomponent plasma.
Low-frequency waves in a high-beta collisionless plasma: polarization, compressibility and helicity
The linear theory of waves near and below the ion cyclotron frequency in an isothermal electron-ion Vlasov plasma which is isotropic, homogeneous and magnetized is considered. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation for the magnetosonic whistler and Alfven/ion cyclotron modes at βsub(i)=1.0 are presented, and the polarizations, compressibilities, helicities, ion Alfven ratios and ion cross-helicities are exhibited and compared. At sufficiently large βsub(i) and theta, the angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, the real part of the polarization of the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave changes sign, so that, for such parameters, this mode is no longer left-hand polarized. The Alfven/ion cyclotron mode becomes more compressive as the wavenumber increases, whereas the magnetosonic/whistler becomes more compressive with increasing theta. At oblique propagation, the helicity of both modes approaches zero in the long-wavelength limit; in contrast, the ion cross-helicity is of order unity for the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave and decreases as theta increases for the magnetosonic/whistler mode. (author)
With the STARE radar system it is possible to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution the electron drift velocity V/sub D/ and the relative amplitude of electron density fluctuations of 1-m wavelength in the auroral electrojet. These density fluctuations are generated by the combined effects of the two-stream and the gradient drift instabilities. We have determined the angular dependence of the backscatter intensity (which is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations) on the angle theta betweeen the electron drift direction and the direction from the scattering volume to the radar in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find a fluctuation minimum for theta = 900 and an increase towards theta = 00 over the whole velocity range up to 1000 m/s. This increase is small for velocities below the ion acoustic velocity C/sub N/ but reaches over 20 dB gain in the backscatter intensity (corresponding to a density fluctuation more than 10 times as great) for higher velocities. We explain that the backscatter is caused mainly by two-stream instability in the range cos theta>C/sub S//V/sub d/ and by secondary gradient drift instability elsewhere
Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters
We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.
The Tuning System for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator
Zhang, P; Arnaudon, L; Artoos, K; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; D'Elia, A; Kadi, Y; Mondino, I; Renaglia, T; Valuch, D; Delsolaro, W Venturini
2014-01-01
A new linac using superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWR) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made of niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W on cavity walls. A tuning system is required in order to both minimize the forward power variation in beam operation and to compensate the unavoidable uncertainties in the frequency shift during the cool-down process. The tuning system has to fulfil a complex combination of RF, structural and thermal requirements. The paper presents the functional specifications and details the tuning system RF and mechanical design and simulations. The results of the tests performed on a prototype system are discussed and the industrialization strategy is presented in view of final production.
Drift of dislocation tripoles under ultrasound influence.
Murzaev, R T; Bachurin, D V; Nazarov, A A
2016-01-01
Numerical simulations of dynamics of different stable dislocation tripoles under influence of monochromatic standing sound wave were performed. The basic conditions necessary for the drift and mutual rearrangements between dislocation structures were investigated. The dependence of the drift velocity of the dislocation tripoles as a function of the frequency and amplitude of the external influence was obtained. The results of the work can be useful in analysis of motion and self-organization of dislocation structure under ultrasound influence. PMID:26278625
Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion
Oyarzabal, R. S.; Szezech, J. D.; Batista, A. M.; de Souza, S. L. T.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.; Sanjuán, M. A. F.
2016-04-01
We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.
A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)
The Copper Substrate Developments for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator
Alberty, L; Aviles, I; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Foffano, G; Kadi, Y; Moyret, P; Schirm, K-M; Tardy, T; Venturini Delsolaro, W; D'Elia, A
2013-01-01
A new Linac using superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators (QWRs) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made by niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W. The properties of the cavity substrate have a direct impact on the final cavity performance. The copper substrate has to ensure an optimum surface for the niobium sputtered layer. It has also to fulfil the required geometrical tolerances, the mechanical stability during operation and the thermal performance to optimally extract the RF dissipated power on cavity walls. The paper presents the mechanical design of the high β cavities. The procurement process of the copper raw material is detailed, including specifications and tests. The manufacturing sequence of the complete cavity is then explained and the structural and thermo-mechanical behaviour...
Evolution with Drifting Targets
Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman
2010-01-01
We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...
Hydrodynamic drift ratchet scalability
Herringer, James; Dorrington, Graham E; Mitchell, James G; Rosengarten, Gary
2016-01-01
The rectilinear "drift" of particles in a hydrodynamic drift ratchet arises from a combination of diffusive motion and particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions, and is therefore dependent on particle diffusivity, particle size, the amplitude and frequency of fluid oscillation and pore geometry. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the drift velocity relative to the pore size is constant across different sized drift ratchet pores, if all the relevant non-dimensional groups (Peclet number, Strouhal number and ratio of particle to pore size) remain constant. These results clearly indicate for the first time the scaling parameters under which the drift ratchet achieves dynamic similarity, and so facilitates design, fabrication and testing of drift ratchets for experiments and eventually as commercial micro/nano fluidic separation devices.
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)
E. Gaffiney
2004-11-23
This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).
Avset, B.S.; Evensen, L.; Ellison, J.A.; Hall, G.; Roe, S.; Wheadon, R.; Hansen, T.E.
1989-02-01
A low capacitance photodiode based on the principle of the solid state drift chamber has been constructed and tested. The device is based on a cellular design with an anode at the centre of each of five cells allowing electrons liberated by ionisation to drift up to 1mm to the read out strip. Results on the performance of the detector, including leakage current, capacitance and drift properties, are presented and compared with simulations.
This paper discusses induced axial current studies in a hardcore Theta-Pinch; nonaxisymmetric RF heating of a high-Beta plasma column; formation of Axisymmetric hardcore theta pinches with notched hardcore current; and externally driven till made experiments on the high-beta Q machine field reversed configuration
This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report
J.T. Birkholzer
2004-11-01
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package
Ion tails and lower-hybrid-drift turbulence in the ELMO Bumpy Torus
It is demonstrated that a low level of lower-hybrid-drift waves could explain the hot-ion tails observed in EBT; the tail temperature is related to the lower-hybrid-drift wave energy. The effect of these waves on the bulk ion distribution is also analyzed
The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])
Borchani, Hanen; Fernandez, Ana Maria Martinez; Masegosa, Andrés R.;
2015-01-01
An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic...... graphical models, that explicitly represents concept drift using latent variables. To ensure efficient inference and learning, we re- sort to a variational Bayes inference scheme. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate and analyze the proposed framework using synthetic data sets as well as a real financial...
This paper discusses experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators. Experiments considered are: formation of linear high beta heliac plasma configurations; Alfven wave heating in a straight tube and in a linear high beat stellarator; shifted hardcore heliac studies; a system for measuring the timing of high-current switches in a pulsed high voltage fusion experiment; HBQM general refurbishment; and proposed experiment on excitation of the m = 1 tilt mode in field-reversed configurations
J. Rutqvist
2004-10-07
This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because
Ionospheric vertical drift response at a mid-latitude station
Kouba, Daniel; Koucká Knížová, Petra
2016-07-01
equinox. In general, the detected values of the observed vertical drift are of lower magnitudes compare to low latitudes. Drift data in midlatitudes seems to be more influenced by the atmospheric waves than data in lower latitudes.
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA
D. Kicker
2004-09-16
Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal
SAA drift: Experimental results
Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.
According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.
Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters
The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)
The new operational oil drift model at DNMI
The conference paper deals with an new operational oil drift model developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI). A feature which the earlier oil drift models had in common, is that the drift velocity was a set equal to a percentage of the observed or predicted wind (typically 3%); slightly deflected to the right of the direction of the wind due to the effect of earth's rotation (typically 15 degrees). The potential for improving drift predictions was realized from the experience that was drawn after the spill from the stranded oil tanker ''M/V Braer'' on the coast of one of the Shetland Islands in January 1993. Further experience from the Braer spill suggests that the computation of the mass budget for the oil was inaccurate in the previous model for oil drift at DNMI, at least for some types of oil. For this reason, an improved algorithm for calculation of the oil mass budget was developed. Thr new oil drift model, which has been operational since June 1, 1994, profits from information produced by three different types of models such as wind from atmospheric models, surface current and sea temperature from the ocean model, and Stokes' drift, significant wave height and mean wave period from the wave model. 16 refs., 6 figs
Squire, J.P.
1993-01-01
High poloidal beta plasma equilibria have been produced by both toroidally asymmetric and symmetric lower-hybrid rf injection in the Versator II tokamak. (Here [beta][sub p] is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure, and [epsilon] = a/R[sub 0] is the inverse aspect ratio). In both cases the plasma current was fully sustained by the rf, with the loop voltage negligibly small. The rf-created high energy electron distribution function, which provides a large fraction of plasma current and pressure in these plasmas, is studied by means of X-ray spectroscopy of the electron-ion perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field and emission measurements at a full range of angles to the toroidal magnetic field have been carried out. For low plasma current equilibria, [beta][sub p] is enhanced, and an outward shift in major radius of the X-ray emission profile peak was observed, corresponding to a Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. The LHCD equilibrium current profiles was determined from the X-ray emission profile. The LHCD X-ray data indicate a highly anisotropic energetic electron distribution function with a density approximately 1% of the bulk electron density at the center. The stored energy of this distribution is much larger than the bulk energy and the global energy confinement time scales in agreement with the Kaye-Goldston L-mode scaling. At high values of [beta][sub p] [approximately] 3, LHH generates nearly the same plasma current as LHCD. The LHH equilibria has a reduction of up to a factor of four in the high energy X-ray emission flux, as compared to LHCD. Modeling of the electron distribution function in the LHH case indicates that only one third of the current is carried by the high energy electrons. At lower values of [beta][sub p] [approximately] 1.5, LHH requires the assistance of a small applied loop voltage to maintain the plasma current and the high energy electrons carry a majority of the plasma current.
Toroidal electron temperature gradient drive drift modes
The electron temperature gradient in tokamak geometry is shown to drive a short wavelength lower hybrid drift wave turbulence due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature on the outside of the torus. Ballooning mode theory is used to determine the stability regimes and the complex eigenfrequencies. At wavelengths of order the electron gyroradius the polarization is electrostatic and the growth rate is greater than the electron transit time aroud the torus. At longer wavelengths of order the collisionless skin depth the polarization is electromagnetic with electromagnetic vortices producing the dominant transport. The small scale electrostatic component of the turbulence produces a small by (m/sub e/m/sub i/)/sup 1/2/ drift wave anomalous transport of both the trapped and passing electrons while the c/ω/sub pe/ scale turbulene produces a neo-Alcator type transport from the stochastic diffusion of the trapped electrons. 15 refs., 5 figs
On plasma density blobs in drift turbulence
Krasheninnikov, S I
2016-01-01
By keeping nonlinear Boltzmann factor in electron density dependence on electrostatic potential it is demonstrated that large plasma density blobs, often seen in experiment inside separatrix, can exist within the framework of drift wave dynamics. The estimates show that plasma density in a blob can be ~3 times higher that average plasma density, but hardly exceeds this limit, which in a ball park is in agreement with experimental observations.
Theoretical Studies of Drift-Alfven and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas
Liu Chen
2005-07-06
Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift-wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent four-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7, 3129 (2000)]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients.
High resolution drift chambers
High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs
D.M. Jolley
1999-12-02
As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.
Lehre, Per Kristian
2011-01-01
An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report
NA
2002-03-04
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.
Effect of magnetic field on light-induced ion drift
Paper is devoted to theoretical study of the force aspect of magnetic field effect on the light-induced ion drift. One studied three-component (electrons, single-charge positive ions and neutral atoms) slightly ionized gas in the constant homogeneous magnetic field. One derived formulae describing ion drift under the effect of mobile monochromatic light wave. It was determined that in slightly ionized gas at superposition of the external magnetic field a component of light-induced ion drift speed that was transverse to the radiation propagation direction might occur. One estimates the magnetic field value when the projection of ion drift speed on radiation direction should change its sign. In this case, one may observe anomalous light-induced ion drift
D. Cumming; G. Fleming; A. Schwienbacher
2009-01-01
We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less
Narrowband frequency-drift structures in solar type IV bursts
Nishimura, Yukio; Ono, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Misawa, Hiroaki; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Katoh, Yuto; Masuda, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi
2013-12-01
We have established the Zao Solar Radiospectrograph (ZSR), a new solar radio observation system, at the Zao observatory of Tohoku University, Japan. We observed narrowband fine structures with type IV bursts with ZSR on 2 and 3 November 2008. The observed fine structures are similar to fiber bursts in terms of the drift rates and the existence of emission and absorption stripes. Statistical analysis of the drift rates, however, shows that the observed fine structures are different from the ordinary fiber bursts as regards the sense and the magnitude of their drift rates. First, the observed drift rates include both positive and negative rates, whereas ordinary fiber bursts are usually characterized by negative drift rates. Second, the absolute values of the observed drift rates are tens of MHz s-1, whereas the typical drift rate of fiber bursts at 325 MHz is approximately -9 MHz s-1. In addition, all fine structures analyzed have narrow emission bands of less than 17 MHz. We also show that the observed narrowband emission features with drift rates of approximately 40 MHz s-1 can be interpreted as the propagation of whistler-mode waves, which is the same process as that underlying fiber bursts.
Curvature-drift instability fails to generate pulsar radio emission
Kaganovich, Alexander; Lyubarsky, Yuri
2010-01-01
The curvature drift instability has long been considered as a viable mechanism for pulsar radio emission. We reconsidered this mechanism by finding an explicit solution describing propagation of short-wave electro-magnetic waves in a plasma flow along curved magnetic field lines. We show that even though the waves could be amplified, the amplification factor remains very close to unity therefore this mechanism is unable to generate high brightness temperature emission from initial weak fluctu...
The Impact of Defects on Q0 for HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter-Wave Resonators
Zhang, P; Venturini Delsolari, W
2014-01-01
Superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs) will be used in the SC linac for the HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN. The QWRs will be working at 4.5 K with an operating frequency of 101.28 MHz. The maximum dissipated power in the cavity is required to be 10 W at a gradient of 6 MV/m. The QWRs are niobium coated on copper substrates, thus the niobium film quality has a direct impact on the cavity performance. This note calculates the impact of defects on cavity Q0 at different locations on the cavity inner surface.
... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...
Emplacement Drift System Description Document
The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for t...
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Non-Neutral Drift Resonance in Magnetrons
Kaup, D. J.
2005-04-01
We study the features of the RF fields in a magnetron, when the RF amplitude has saturated, in the nonrelativistic, electrostatic limit. In this saturated stage, the linear RF equations can be reduced to a fifth-order set of ordinary differential equations. Two modes of which are fast cyclotron modes, one mode is a fast drift wave, and the other two modes are the usual, well-known, slow magnetron modes. Here, we will study the interaction between the fast drift mode (diocotron mode) and the slow magnetron modes, at the diocotron resonance. We will also show that the fast cyclotron modes can be ignored at this resonance, and thereby can reduce the system to a third- order set of ordinary differential equations. Using multiscale techniques, we will then obtain solutions for the inner and the outer regions at the diocotron resonance, and thereby obtain the conversion and transmission rates between these three modes at the diocotron resonance.
Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing
Drift in toroidal configurations
Evangelidis, E. A.
1990-12-01
This paper considers possible mechanisms involved in amplifying the drift velocity of plasma particles, under conditions of toroidal geometry. It is shown that particles constrained to move on an axisymmetric circular spheroidal surface, develop a sinusoidal motion with a characteristic frequency which depends on the energy of the particles, the value of the isoflux surface, and the value of the general momentum. It is also shown that the incorporation of the effects of toroidal geometry in the Lorentz equation produces a nonambipolar charge-dependent particle flux amplified by a factor 2(q/epsilon) squared.
The DRIFT Dark Matter Experiments
Daw, E; Fox, J R; Gauvreau, J -L; Ghag, C; Harmon, L J; Harton, J L; Gold, M; Lee, E R; Loomba, D; Miller, E H; Murphy, A St J; Paling, S M; Landers, J M; Phan, N; Pipe, M; Pushkin, K; Robinson, M; Sadler, S W; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Walker, D; Warner, D
2011-01-01
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks) experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2 and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world's first 10 m3-scale directional Dark Matter detector.
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
J. Houseworth
2004-09-22
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water
Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport
The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the
Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures
Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-01-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.
沈奚海莉
2001-01-01
The growth and movement of sea ice cover are influenced by the presence of wave field. Inturn, the wave field is influenced by the presence of ice cover. Their interaction is not fully understood.In this paper, we discuss some current understanding on wave attenuation when it propagates through frag-mented ice cover, ice drift due to the wave motion, and the growth characteristics of ice cover in wave field.
Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P. E-mail: paolo.valente@lnf.infn.it; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y
2001-04-01
The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K{sub L} produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm{sup 2} in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm{sup 2} in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.
The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy KL produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented
Large cooling tower drift deposition
A model for the determination of drift deposition around natural-draft cooling towers is presented. An application of the model in actual operating conditions indicates the effect of drift rate at the cooling tower outlet and weather conditions on the size and shape of wetted area. (author)
Three-dimensional computation of drift Alfven turbulence
A transcollisional, electromagnetic fluid model, incorporating the parallel heat flux as a dependent variable, is constructed to treat electron drift turbulence in the regime of tokamak edge plasma at the L-H transition. The resulting turbulence is very sensitive to the plasma beta throughout this regime, with the scaling with rising beta produced by the effect of magnetic induction to slow the Alfvenic parallel electron dynamics and thereby leave the turbulence in a more robust, non-adiabatic state. Magnetic flutter and curvature have a minor quantitative effect is strong. Transport by magnetic flutter is small compared to that by the E x B flow eddies. Fluctuation statistics show that while the turbulence shows no coherent structure, it is coupled strongly enough so that neither density nor temperature fluctuations behave as passive scalars. Both profile gradients drive the turbulence, with the total thermal energy transport varying only weakly with the gradient ratio, d log T/d log n. Scaling with magnetic shear is pronounced, with stronger shear leading to lower drive levels. Scaling with either collision frequency or magnetic curvature is weak, consistent with their weak qualitative effect. The result is that electron drift turbulence at L-H transition edge parameters is drift Alfven turbulence, with both ballooning and resistivity in a clear secondary role. The contents of the drift Alfven model will form a significant part of any useful first-principles computation of tokamak edge turbulence. (Author)
DRIFT EFFECTS IN HGCDTE DETECTORS
B. PAVAN KUMAR
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The characteristics of temporal drift in spectral responsivity of HgCdTe photodetectors is investigated and found to have an origin different from what has been reported in literature. Traditionally, the literature attributes the cause of drift due to the deposition of thin film of ice water on the active area of the cold detector. The source of drift as proposed in this paper is more critical owing to the difficulties in acquisition of infrared temperature measurements. A model explaining the drift phenomenon in HgCdTe detectors is described by considering the deep trapping of charge carriers and generation of radiation induced deep trap centers which are meta-stable in nature. A theoretical model is fitted to the experimental data. A comparison of the model with the experimental data shows that the radiation induced deep trap centers and charge trapping effects are mainly responsible for the drift phenomenon observed in HgCdTe detectors.
Kinetic Alfven solitons in a low-beta plasma
Kinetic Alfven solitons with hot electrons and finite electron inertia in a low beta (β=8πnoT/B2G, the ratio of the kinetic to the magnetic pressure) plasma is studied analytically, with the ion motion being considered dominant through the polarization drift. Both compressive and rarefactive kinetic Alfven solitons are found to exist within a definite range of kz (the direction of propagation of the kinetic Alfven solitary waves with respect to the direction of the magnetic field) for each pair of assigned values of β and M (Mach number). Unlike in previous theoretical investigations, β appears as an explicit parameter for the kinetic Alfven solitons in this case. In addition, consideration of the electron pressure gradient is found to suppress the speed of both the Alfven solitons considerably for A (=2QM2 / βk2z, with Q the electron-to-ion mass ratio) less than unity. (Author)
Surface Wave Propagation in non--ideal plasmas
Pandey, B P
2015-01-01
The properties of surface waves in a partially ionized, compressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in this work. The waves are affected by the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects which causes finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the magnetic field drift is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the fully ionized ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization as well as on the compressibility of the medium. The phase velocity of the sausage and kink waves increases marginally (by a few percent) due to the compressibility of the medium in both ideal as well as Hall diffusion dominated regimes. However, unlike ideal regime, only waves below certain cut off frequency can propagate in the medium in Hall dominated regime. This cut off for a thin slab has a weak dependence on the plasma beta whereas for thick slab no such dependence exists. More importantly, since the cut off is introduce...
Error sensitivity analysis of drift tube linac
The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) is used for acceleration of protons and ions in beta range of 0.04 to 0.4. It is a RF resonating cavity excited in TM0.10 mode wherein E-field is along the axis and H-field is along azimuth. The DTL consists of array of Drift tubes which performs dual function of shielding the accelerating beam from negative RF phase and for housing the magnetic lenses for transverse focusing of the beam. The axial gaps between DTs are called acceleration gaps as particle sees E-field in this gap. The accelerating beam profile is dependent on high frequency E-field and H-field spatial distribution and static magnetic field generated by the PMQs. However the Electromagnetic fields (both static and dynamic) are expected to deviate from ideal due to fabrication tolerances and will vary during operations due to temperature fluctuations which results in mechanical deformation in the RF structures, The static magnetic field generated by PMQs will vary from PMQ to PMQ due to variation in properties of permanent magnets. This paper describes the results of sensitivity analysis on accelerating charged particle beam in Drift Tube linac due to mechanical deformations in the RF structures, variations of amplitude and phase of RF power, variation of ∫G.dl and uniformity of ∫G.dl, roll angle of PMQs and misalignment of magnetic lenses. Results obtained from simulations carried out using COMSOL, CST, Super fish and Tracewin are used to conclude effective deviations in the beam phase space and energy gain due to above mentioned factors. This analysis is carried out on 10 MeV to 20 MeV section of DTL for LEHIPA. (author)
Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy
We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.
Outer Belt Radial Transport Signatures in Drift Phase Structure - Case Studies
O'Brien, Paul; Green, Janet; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Roeder, James; Kwan, Betty; Mulligan Skov, Tamitha
2016-07-01
During geomagnetic storms, the Earth's outer radiation belt experiences enhanced radial transport. Different modes of radial transport have different temporal signatures in the particle phase-space density on timescales shorter than a drift period. We use such drift phase structure in time series particle flux observations to identify transport signatures of impulsive and oscillatory drift resonant transport. We perform multiple case studies of geomagnetic storms using particle flux taken near geostationary orbit. We estimate the radial diffusion coefficients from the drift phase structures. We show how these radial diffusion coefficients derived from particle data compare to transport coefficients deduced from wave observations.
Castoldi, A; Guazzoni, C; Longoni, A; Rehak, P; Strüder, L
2000-01-01
A new position-sensing X-ray detector is presented. The novel device is called Controlled-Drift Detector (CDD). The detector is fully depleted and is operated by switching between integration and drift modes. The relevant details of the detector design are discussed. A complete experimental characterization of the fast readout of the integrated signal charges achievable with static drift fields in the range 100-400 V/cm has been carried out. Preliminary measurements to evaluate the charge-handling capacity are also shown. The CDD can provide unambiguous two-dimensional position measurement, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time resolution below 1 ms.
First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei
Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.
1984-01-01
Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.