A VIEW OF THE BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM
Vanina Macowski Durski Silva; Antônio Sérgio Coelho
2007-01-01
The purpose of this article is to verify the available scientific research in one of the prevalent problems associated with port services. Most of the studies about ports focus on strategic and tactical problems, thus, there exists a large volume of papers with operational research applications about container operations. Since the majority of the berths are managed and operated by private shipping companies, few studies have been conducted on berth allocation. Therefore, the m...
The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem: integrated optimization in container terminals
Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
In the context of container terminal operations, the simultaneous optimization of decision problems that are usually solved hierarchically by terminal's planners represents nowadays a promising research trend. In this talk we introduce the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem (TBAP), that deals with the integration of the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP). The objective is to schedule incoming ships over a time horizon, assigning them a berthing position...
Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;
Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time....
Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison
Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...
Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison
Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...
Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison
Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem, improve the performance of one model, and, through extensive numerical tests, compare all models from a computational perspective. The results indicate that a generalized setpartitioning mo...
Solving the dynamic berth allocation problem by simulated annealing
Lin, Shih-Wei; Ting, Ching-Jung
2014-03-01
Berth allocation, the first operation when vessels arrive at a port, is one of the major container port optimization problems. From both the port operator's and the ocean carriers' perspective, minimization of the time a ship spends at berth is a key goal of port operations. This article focuses on two versions of the dynamic berth allocation problem (DBAP): discrete and continuous cases. The first case assigns ships to a given set of berth positions; the second one permits them to be moored anywhere along the berth. Simulated annealing (SA) approaches are proposed to solve the DBAP. The proposed SAs are tested with numerical instances for different sizes from the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed SA can obtain the optimal solutions in all instances of discrete cases and update 27 best known solutions in the continuous case.
Modeling and Solving the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this paper we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objec...
Recursive column generation for the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
Seaport container terminals are source of many interesting large-scale optimization problems, that arise in the management of operations at several decision levels. In this work we study exact methods to solve the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment, an integrated decision problem that occurs in the management of the quayside resources. We reformulate the problem via Dantzig-Wolfe and present an exact solution approach based on column generation that exploits the prob...
Shih-Wei Lin; Kuo-Ching Ying; Shu-Yen Wan
2014-01-01
Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem se...
The berth allocation problem: Optimizing vessel arrival time
Mihalis M Golias; Georgios K Saharidis; Maria Boile; Sotirios Theofanis; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.
2009-01-01
The berth scheduling problem deals with the assignment of vessels to berths in a marine terminal, with the objective to maximize the ocean carriers’ satisfaction (minimize delays) and/or minimize the terminal operator's costs. In the existing literature, two main assumptions are made regarding the status of a vessel: (a) either all vessels to be served are already in the port before the planning period starts, or (b) they are scheduled to arrive after the planning period starts. The latter ca...
Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem
M. Rodriguez-Molins
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proportionally distributing operational buffers among the tasks. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment problem as a representative example of scheduling problems. The dynamism and uncertainty are managed by assessing the robustness of the schedules. The robustness is introduced by means of operational buffer times to absorb those unknown incidences or breakdowns. Therefore, this problem becomes a multiobjective combinatorial optimization problem that aims to minimize the total service time, to maximize the buffer times, and to minimize the standard deviation of the buffer times. To this end, a mathematical model and a new hybrid multiobjective metaheuristic is presented and compared with two well-known multiobjective genetic algorithms: NSGAII and SPEA2+.
Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico
The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.
Lin, Shih-Wei; Ying, Kuo-Ching; Wan, Shu-Yen
2014-01-01
Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295
Shih-Wei Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.
A Contribution to Berth Allocation Problem Solution with Draft Restrictions
Grubišić, Neven; Vilke, Siniša; Barić, Mate
2015-01-01
Models for berth assignments help to solve logistic problems in container terminals and are important decision making tools. This is particularly so where, because of the system complexity and vessels arrival rate, problems cannot be solved empirically. Another issue concerns potential infrastructure and equipment shortcomings, where high utilization of the existing system components is required. In this paper, the authors focus on draft or depth restrictions that may occur alongside a ...
The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with QC Assignment and Transshipment Costs
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this work we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objectiv...
The Berth Allocation Problem with Service Time and Delay Time Objectives
Akio Imai; Jin-Tao Zhang; Etsuko Nishimura; Stratos Papadimitriou
2007-01-01
This study addresses a two-objective berth allocation problem: ship service quality expressed by the minimisation of delay in ships' departure and berth utilisation expressed by the minimisation of the total service time. In this problem, noninferior solutions are expected to be identified. Two heuristics, which are implemented based on two existing procedures of the subgradient optimisation and genetic algorithm, are proposed for solving this problem. Through numerical experiments, it was fo...
An enriched model for the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem
B. RAA; Dullaert, W.; R. VAN SCHAEREN
2009-01-01
Given the increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of container terminals, a lot of research efforts have been devoted to optimizing container terminal operations. Most papers deal with either the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP) or the (Quay) Crane Assignment Problem (CAP). In the literature, handling times are often simplified to be berth dependent or proportional to vessel size to ignore the CAP when scheduling vessels. This is unsatisfactory for real-life applications because the handl...
A two-phase genetic algorithm for the berth and quay crane allocation and scheduling problem
A. PONOMAREV; Dullaert, W.; B. RAA
2010-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid genetic algorithm for a dynamic continuous berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem. In the first phase of the algorithm, vessels are positioned at berthing locations and quay cranes are assigned to vessels using novel crane assignment heuristics. In the second phase, cranes are scheduled to minimize the distance travelled in repositioning the cranes. The solution approach is tested on benchmarks derived from real-life data, with varying levels of capaci...
The berth allocation problem: a formulation reflecting time Window service deadlines
Golias, Mihalis; Boile, Maria; Theofanis, Sotirios
2007-01-01
The berth-allocation problem (BAP) aims to optimally schedule and assign vessels to berthing areas along a quay. The vessels arrive at the port over a period of time and normally request service and departure within a time window. These time windows are usually determined through contractual agreements between the port operator and the carrier, in terms of time of departure after the vessel’s arrival at the port. Formulations presented in the current literature, reduce the time window to a po...
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Allan
2015-01-01
Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the i...
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan;
heavily relies on the efficiency of quay cranes operations, and the usage of the berthing area. Optimizing the allocation of ships to berth and the related assignment of cranes are important problems that are mostly covered as two separate cases in the literature. However, since the handling time of the...
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan;
2015-01-01
Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To...... improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the impact of using a time-variant/invariant quay crane allocation policy. Computational experiments show that...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this work, we focus on the integration of two problems arising in the management of transshipment container terminals: the problem of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions (berth allocation problem), and the problem of assigning quay cranes to incoming ships (quay crane assignment problem). In particular, motivated by the practice in the negotiation process between the terminal management and the shipping liner, the model is based on the concept of quay-crane assign...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In the context of international sea-freight container transport, we study an integrated decision problem arising in container terminal management. We consider the integration of the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the Quay Crane Assignment Problem (QCAP), which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). BAP and QCAP are strictly correlated, since the QC prof...
Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem
2014-01-01
Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proporti...
Basri, Azyanzuhaila Hasan; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-09-01
High efficiency of port operation is required to succeed in the competition between port container terminals. Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Scheduling are the most important part in container terminal operations. The integrated model is formulated as a MIP problem with the objective to minimize the sum of the dwell times, where a vessel's dwell time is measured between arrival and departure including both times waiting to be berthed and servicing time while berthed. The construction of suitable mathematical model is formulated by considering various practical constraints.
2014-01-01
In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling pr...
Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel;
2014-01-01
In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the...... differences in operations between bulk ports and container terminals which highlights the need to devise specific solutions for bulk ports. The objective is to minimize the total service time of vessels berthing at the port. We propose an exact solution algorithm based on a branch and price framework to solve......-shaking neighborhood search is presented. The proposed algorithms are tested and validated through numerical experiments based on instances inspired from real bulk port data. The results indicate that the algorithms can be successfully used to solve instances containing up to 40 vessels within reasonable computational...
Ling Xiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling process was divided into a set of continual scheduling interval according to the dynamic arrival sequences. Meanwhile, rolling-horizon strategies for setting rolling and frozen windows and the parameter updating strategy are designed. The input parameters of the model in the next rolling window are updated according to the optimal results of each time window which have been obtained. The model is solved by choosing appropriate rolling and freezing window lengths that represents the numbers of adjacent vessels in the sequence of calling vessels. The holistic optimal solution is obtained by gradually rolling and combining the results of each window. Finally, a case study indicated that the rolling schedule can solve large-scale scheduling problems, and the efficiency of the proposed approach relates to the size of rolling window, freeze ship quantity, and rolling frequency.
A Simulation based model for the berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem
Abdel Hafez, M.A.; Hubbard, Nick J.; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Eltawil, A.B.
2013-01-01
With the global development of container transport, container terminals have become important nodes in transport networks which serve as hubs for the transshipment of containerized goods from ship to ship or from ship to other transport modes. As the container transport system is capital intensive, the turnaround time of ships at container terminals is an important factor for liner shipping companies to consider in order to decrease their costs. The turnaround time includes berthing, unloadin...
Using Simulation in Evaluating Berth Allocation at a Container Terminal
Henesey, Lawrence; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.
2004-01-01
The operations and decision making at a container terminal have been simulated. A Berth Allocation Management System – (BAMS) has been built which consists of two parts: a container terminal simulator modelling the operations and a management simulator modelling the various actors involved in the allocation of container ships to berths. Together these two parts generate berth schedules for arriving container ships. Two berth assignment policies are evaluated in different scenarios, with vario...
Iris, Cagatay; Røpke, Stefan; Pacino, Dario;
Nowadays, large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the best ways to optimize processing time and deliver high quality, and profitable, services. Most of the operational problems on a container terminal are interconnected. The p...
Berth allocation planning in Seville inland port by simulation and optimisation
Arango Pastrana, Carlos Alberto; Cortés Achedad, Pablo Fabio; Muñuzuri Sanz, Jesús; Onieva Giménez, Luis Gerardo
2011-01-01
We study the problems associated with allocating berths for containerships in the port of Seville. It is the only inland port in Spain and it is located on the Guadalquivir River. This paper addresses the berth allocation planning problems using simulation and optimisation with Arena software. We propose a mathematical model and develop a heuristic procedure based on genetic algorithm to solve non-linear problems. Allocation planning aims to minimise the total service time for ...
A bi-objective berth allocation formulation to account for vessel handling time uncertainty
Mihalis M Golias
2011-01-01
In this article we formulate the berth allocation problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer programming problem with the objective to maximize berth throughput and reliability of the schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters, being a function of other stochastic parameters (that is, quay crane breakdowns, quay-to-yard transport vehicle productivity, yard congestion, and so on). A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms-based heuristic and...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2008-01-01
International sea-freight container transport has grown dramatically over the last years and container terminals play nowadays a key-role in the global shipping network. Increasing competition and competitiveness among terminals require more and more efficiency in container handling operations, both in the quayside and the landside, in order to better utilize limited resources (such as cranes, trucks, berths, storage space, etc.) as well as minimize ship's turnaround time. Operations research...
A genetic algorithm for robust berth allocation and quay crane assignment
Rodríguez Molins, Mario; Ingolotti Hetter, Laura Paola; Barber Sanchís, Federico; Salido Gregorio, Miguel Angel; R. Sierra, María; Puente, Jorge
2014-01-01
Scheduling problems usually obtain the optimal solutions assuming that the environment is deterministic. However, actually the environment is dynamic and uncertain. Thus, the initial data could change and the initial schedule obtained might be unfeasible. To overcome this issue, a proactive approach is presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about the incidences that can occur. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment probl...
Integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling in port container terminals
Lee, Der-Horng; Qiu Wang, Hui
2010-08-01
The integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem studied in this article considers the relationship between them. This article provides a mixed integer programming model for the studied problem that is ?-complete in nature. A genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments are conducted to examine the proposed solution algorithm. The computational results show that the proposed genetic algorithm is effective and efficient in solving the studied problem.
Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation
Chunfang Guo
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.
A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal
Junliang He; Youfang Huang; Daofang Chang; Weimin Zhang
2013-01-01
Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP) from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledg...
Peter Wanke
2011-01-01
The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private co...
Aheuristic Algorithm for Berth Scheduling Problem in Container Ports
张海滨
2011-01-01
In this paper,the berth scheduling problem is transformed into a special two-dimensional packing problem with some constraints.A nonlinear programming model for the problem is established,and a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model.Simulation
Peter Wanke
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private container terminal, where different berth allocation policies and queue priorities have been tested. Results and further analyses conducted via MANOVA indicate that the demurrage cost ratio between large and small ships and the critical waiting time in queue, after which demurrage costs are charged, impact on the choice of most adequate combination of policies and priorities. The analysis presented in this paper may help port authorities in determining a more precise figure for total demurrage costs
Simulation-based evaluation of berth allocation policies of container terminals
Chervyakov, Anatoly
2003-01-01
The aim of this investigation is to test and verify a hypothesis concerning policies for berth allocation to ships in a container terminal. The chosen domain is a rich research area where simulation could be used. Because of the high amount of variables involved and demand for optimal usage of available resources management of a container terminal is a great challenge.
A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal
Junliang He
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledge acquisition for BACP is initially conducted. And then, knowledge sorting process for BACP, including taxonomic tree generation and organization of acquired knowledge, is performed. After that, rules for BACP are extracted using the IF and THEN clause. Furthermore, a knowledge reasoning mechanism is designed. Finally, numerical experiments are used to illustrate the proposed knowledge-based system and verify the effectiveness and reliability.
Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation
Chunfang Guo; Zhongliang Guan; Yan Song
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of ...
The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David;
2016-01-01
berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large......In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...
Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal
Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.
A Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Integrated Port Resource Allocation Problem
Ilati, Gholamreza; Sheikholeslami, Abdorreza; Hassannayebi, Erfan
2014-01-01
Todays, due to the rapid increase in shipping volumes, the container terminals are faced with the challenge to cope with these increasing demands. To handle this challenge, it is crucial to use flexible and efficient optimization approach in order to decrease operating cost. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is proposed to construct a near-optimal berth allocation plan integrated with a plan for tug assignment and for resolution of the quay crane re-allocation problem. ...
乐美龙; 刘秀玲
2014-01-01
Berth and quay crane ( QC) are the most important scarce resource in the container terminal .Reasona-ble berth allocation and quay crane scheduling can improve utilization of the resources and port operation effec -tiveness and efficiency .The paper firstly presents the integrated MILP model of both berth allocation and QC scheduling based on the deviation from the berth preference position and capacity loss of the QC .Then, using the data from a container terminal in Ningbo and Gurobi optimization solver , we solve the model .Finally the computational result is economically analyzed .The computational results show that the mean utilization rate of berth line of this port is 46%.Among them , the berth line from 1000 to 1600 meter is hardly used , and deplo-ying 18 QCs is better than deploying 16 QCs in the terminal .The mean utilization rate of deploying 18 QCs is 80%, so the paper suggests the port should have two more QCs .Meanwhile we find that as vessels increase , the solving time by Gurobi increases quickly .At the same time , our method , so called two stage heuristic method , can still give the quasi-optimal solution in very short time .%泊位和岸桥是集装箱港口资源中最紧缺的资源，合理的泊位分配和岸桥调度可以提高集装箱港口的资源利用率和港口的运作效率和效益。针对泊位偏离和岸桥工作损失两个因素，文章建立了集装箱港口泊位和岸桥的混合整数线性规划模型；运用采集自宁波某典型集装箱港口的数据，用Gurobi优化软件和两阶段启发式算法对模型进行了求解；对计算结果进行了经济性分析。计算结果表明：该港口的岸线资源利用率为46％时，1000m～1600m基本没被利用；18台岸桥要比16台岸桥的目标值更优，求解时间更短，而且18台岸桥的平均利用率为80％，为此，建议该港口再增加两台岸桥。同时发现：随着船舶规模的增加，Gurobi优化求解的时间增长
Allocation Problems and Market Design
Smilgins, Aleksandrs
The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... capital has to be shared among the subunits. The problem is modeled as a TU game based on suitable measures of risk, which are applied to estimate the associated value of any possible coalition. The paper suggests the use of Lorenz undominated core selections for allocation of risk capital. It is argued...... that such a solution satisfies a number of desirable properties violated by the conventional alternatives. The second paper is concerned with computational aspects of determining the set of Lorenz undominated core selections. The paper develops an algorithm. The third paper uses the cooperative game...
Berth Allocation with Service Priority for Container Terminal of Hub Port%集装箱枢纽港泊位分配问题优化研究
代丽利
2014-01-01
通过分析船舶大型化对船公司和码头运营商的影响，文中提出在泊位分配的过程中，码头需站在共赢的角度，箱位大的船舶的服务优先级高于箱位小的船舶。建立了具有优先权的动态泊位分配模型，采用改进的广义遗传算法对模型求解。算例结果证明模型和算法正确有效。%Through analyzing the effects of container ships with larger size to the shipping companies and terminal operators,this paper put forward a view,from a win-win perspective,that container ships with larger Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs)capacity should be given the higher priority in the process of berth allocation.Following the above view,a dynamic berth allocation model considering the service priority was developed and an improved generalized genetic algorithms was used to solve the model.Example application results show that the model and the algorithm are correct and effective.
Game theory and cost allocation problems
Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.
1986-01-01
Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost all
On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem
Xia, Qinglan
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...
Game Theory and Cost Allocation Problems
Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.
1986-01-01
Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost allocation methods based on the nucleolus and the Shapley value, and introduce also a new one, the so-called cost gap allocation method which is based on the \\tau -value. It is shown that for some lar...
Additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems
Gustavo Bergantiños; Luciano Méndez-Naya
2001-01-01
We study the property of additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems. In bankruptcy problems we use this property to characterize the Talmudic rule proposed by Rabbi Ibn Ezra. Moreover we generalize this rule to every bankruptcy problem. Again, using additivity we characterize the rights egalitarian solution in allocation problems.
Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina
2014-09-01
In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.
Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal
Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani
2009-01-01
Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...
Quay crane scheduling for an indented berth
Lee, Der-Horng; Chen, Jiang Hang; Cao, Jin Xin
2011-09-01
This article explores the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth. The indented berth is known as an innovative implementation in the container terminals to tackle the challenge from the emergence of more and more mega-containerships. A mixed integer programming model by considering the non-crossing and safety distance constraints is formulated. A Tabu search heuristic is developed to solve the proposed problem. The computational results from this research indicate that the designed Tabu search is an effective method to handle the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth.
Submodular Cost Allocation Problem and Applications
Chekuri, Chandra; Ene, Alina
2011-01-01
We study the Minimum Submodular-Cost Allocation problem (MSCA). In this problem we are given a finite ground set $V$ and $k$ non-negative submodular set functions $f_1 ,..., f_k$ on $V$. The objective is to partition $V$ into $k$ (possibly empty) sets $A_1 ,..., A_k$ such that the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^k f_i(A_i)$ is minimized. Several well-studied problems such as the non-metric facility location problem, multiway-cut in graphs and hypergraphs, and uniform metric labeling and its generalizations c...
Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail
2013-04-01
Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.
Lorenz and lexicographic maximal allocations for bankruptcy problems
Arin, Javier; Benito Ostolaza, Juan Miguel
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the use of egalitarian criteria to select allocations in bankruptcy problems. In our work, we characterize the sets of Lorenz maximal elements for these problems. We show that the allocation selected by the Proportional Rule is the only allocation that belongs to all these Lorenz maximal sets. We prove that the Talmud Rule selects the lexicographic maximal element within a certain set. We introduce and analyze a new sharing rule for bankruptcy problems that shares stro...
An interactive approach to the stochastic multiobjective allocation problem
Maciej Nowak
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the stochastic multiobjective allocation problem. An assumption is made that a particular resource should be allocated to T projects. The specified level of each goal (along with the known probabilities can be obtained based on the amount of the resources allocated. We will propose an identification strategy procedure that the decision maker can implement. Our technique combines multiobjective dynamic programming and an interactive approach. First, efficient strategies are identified using Bellman's principle applied to the multiobjective problem. Next, a dialog procedure is used to find a solution that is satisfactory for the decision maker. A numerical example is presented to show how the procedure can be applied.
Evolutionary local search for solving the office space allocation problem
Ulker, Ozgur; Landa-Silva, Dario
2012-01-01
Office Space Allocation (OSA) is the task of correctly allocating the spatial resources of an institution to a set of entities by minimising the wastage of space and the violation of additional constraints. In this paper, an evolutionary local search algorithm is presented to tackle this problem. The evolutionary components of the algorithm include standard crossover and mutation operators and a relatively small population of individuals. The offspring produced by the evolutionary operators a...
Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita
2014-07-01
The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.
The Transport Problem utilized for Machines Optimal Allocation
Olga-Ioana Amariei
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The present paper presents an optimal allocation mode of the machines in a manner to maximize the profit. Starting from provided data – time standard, technical itineraries, production volume, working regime and continuing with the determined ones – duration, necessary number of machines, unit profit, the problem became a maximization transport problem
Golias, Mihalis M.
2011-01-01
Berth scheduling is a critical function at marine container terminals and determining the best berth schedule depends on several factors including the type and function of the port, size of the port, location, nearby competition, and type of contractual agreement between the terminal and the carriers. In this paper we formulate the berth scheduling problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer problem with the objective to maximize customer satisfaction and reliability of the berth schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters following a discrete and known probability distribution. A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms based heuristic and a simulation post-Pareto analysis is proposed as the solution approach to the resulting problem. Based on a number of experiments it is concluded that the proposed berth scheduling policy outperforms the berth scheduling policy where reliability is not considered.
Bankruptcy Problem Allocations and the Core of Convex Games
William Olvera-Lopez; Francisco Sanchez-Sanchez; Iván Tellez-Tellez
2014-01-01
A well-known result related to bankruptcy problems establishes that a vector is a bankruptcy allocation if and only if it belongs to the core of the associated O’Neill’s bankruptcy game. In this paper we show that this game is precisely the unique TU-game based on convex functions that satisfies the previous result. In addition, given a bankruptcy problem, we show a way for constructing bankruptcy games such that the set of bankruptcy allocations is a subset of their core or their core is a s...
Resource allocation and performance analysis problems in optical networks
Hyytiä, Esa
2004-01-01
Optical networks pose a rich variety of new design and performance analysis problems. Typically, the static design problems belong to the field of combinatorial optimisation, whereas decision-making and performance analysis problems are best treated using appropriate stochastic models. This dissertation focuses on certain issues in resource allocation and performance evaluation of backbone wavelength-routed (WR) networks and metropolitan area optical burst switching (OBS) networks. The fi...
Convalesce Optimization for Input Allocation Problem Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Mamta Madan; Sushila Madan
2010-01-01
Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to describe categories of hybrid genetic algorithm and validate that the hybrid genetic algorithm converges to the optimal solution rather than a near optimal solution so that Hybrid Genetic algorithms can be used to solve real world problems and receive significant interest. Approach: We implemented the input allocation problem for a manufacturing unit firstly with pure genetic algorithm using Matlab's GA tool and then compared the results wit...
A bat algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem
Talafuse, T. P.; Pohl, E. A.
2016-05-01
This article uses a recently developed bat algorithm (BA) meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP is a well-known NP-hard problem which has been the subject of much prior work, generally of a restricted form where each component must consist of identical components in parallel to make computations tractable. Meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and allow for larger instances to be solved for a more general case where different components can be placed in parallel. The BA has not yet been used in reliability design, as it was a method initially designed for continuous problems. A BA is devised and tested on a well-known suite of problems from the literature. It is shown that the BA is competitive with the best known heuristics for redundancy allocation.
Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market
You Peng-Sheng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.
Problems of priority change in kidney allocation and beyond.
Ahlert, Marlies; Kliemt, Hartmut
2013-06-01
Standardized and transparent priority setting in medicine, desirable as it is, will generally exacerbate inter-temporal equity problems arising from changes in treatment priorities: when can it be fair that the treatment of already waiting patients who would have had priority under an established system should be postponed (withheld) for an extended period of time to advance the treatment of others under a reformed system? The reform of the Eurotransplant system of priority setting in kidney allocation (ETKAS), which is in many respects ideal, is a case in point. To give due weight to new medical knowledge, waiting time after the onset of end state renal failure should change from a priority-enhancing to a priority-reducing factor. Since those who have gained in priority by waiting under the present system would be set back under the new, severe problems of transitional justice must be overcome when responding to advances in medical knowledge. The paper explores conceptually some possible ways of rule change and indicates their general relevance from an ethical and a practical point of view for future problems of medical resource allocation under transparent, standardized priority-setting rules. PMID:22358456
Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads
Park Jong-Yong
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.
Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads
Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan
2014-06-01
The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.
Extreme waves impact on the ship mooring near berth
Leont'ev, Victor; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Pelinovsky, Efim
2013-04-01
Ensuring safe ships berthing and loading-unloading operations at berths need reliable mooring systems. The choice of its parameters corresponds to calculating of the maximum displacements of the boat, which are caused by external impact of extreme waves, winds, and currents. Ship motions are described by system of differential equations, which contain disturbing, inertia, damping, and restoring forces, which magnitude strongly depends on the berth design and configuration of its elements. The major impact on the boat movements is caused by sea waves. In the given paper, an interaction between sea waves and ship located near the berth is studied. The cross-sectional shape of the boat is assumed to be rectangular and under-berth slope profile is approximated by finite number of steps. Different types of berth constructions are taken into account: containing impermeable or partially permeable front vertical wall, wave attenuation camera behind it with or without under-berth slope. The fluid is assumed ideal and incompressible, and its motion is potential. The stated problem is reduced to the determination of the velocity potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; the boundary condition on the free surface; the condition of non-flux through the impermeable bottom, the ship and berth elements; the condition on the surface of the permeable wall that is in proportionality between the wave flow velocity through the wall and pressure drop from its front to back faces. The problem is solved by dividing of the region into sub-domains with conditions of the hydrodynamic pressure and velocity continuity on its boundaries. In each sub-domain the solution is found using Fourier method in the form of functional series with unknown coefficients which are found from the system of linear algebraic equations. Calculated velocity potentials are used to determine different hydrodynamic characteristics of ship motions, such as horizontal and vertical components of disturbing force
46 CFR 108.203 - Berths and lockers.
2010-10-01
... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.203 Berths and lockers. (a) Each sleeping... pipe, ventilating duct, or other overhead installation. (i) Each berth must have a berth light....
ALLOCATION PROBLEM WITH RANDOM RIGHT TO ACCEPT OFFERS
Anna Krasnosielska-Kobos
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper, we analyze a modifi cation of the allocation problem. The problem can be formulated as follows: sellers in trading agency have a right to sell goods at price offered by the buyer. To this aim, they observe offers which appear at jump times of a Poisson process which are at the same time the decision moments. A reward of the seller who accepted the offer is equal to the discounted value of the selected offer. The right to accept or reject the presented offer is given only to one of the sellers at the moment of appearance of the offer. Once rejected, offer cannot be considered again nor can it be considered by other sellers. The right to make the decision concerning the acceptance or rejection of a presented offer is assigned in random way, such that the probability of obtaining this right by each of the sellers is equal. The aim is to fi nd the strategy which allows to maximize the sum of expected rewards of the sellers under the condition that each of them should earn the same amount of money on average
Neural network models for a resource allocation problem.
Walczak, S
1998-01-01
University admissions and business personnel offices use a limited number of resources to process an ever-increasing quantity of student and employment applications. Application systems are further constrained to identify and acquire, in a limited time period, those candidates who are most likely to accept an offer of enrolment or employment. Neural networks are a new methodology to this particular domain. Various neural network architectures and learning algorithms are analyzed comparatively to determine the applicability of supervised learning neural networks to the domain problem of personnel resource allocation and to identify optimal learning strategies in this domain. This paper focuses on multilayer perceptron backpropagation, radial basis function, counterpropagation, general regression, fuzzy ARTMAP, and linear vector quantization neural networks. Each neural network predicts the probability of enrolment and nonenrolment for individual student applicants. Backpropagation networks produced the best overall performance. Network performance results are measured by the reduction in counsellors student case load and corresponding increases in student enrolment. The backpropagation neural networks achieve a 56% reduction in counsellor case load. PMID:18255946
A cuckoo search algorithm by Lévy flights for solving reliability redundancy allocation problems
Valian, Ehsan; Valian, Elham
2013-11-01
A new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, called cuckoo search (CS), was recently developed by Yang and Deb (2009, 2010). This article uses CS and Lévy flights to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem. The redundancy allocation problem involves setting reliability objectives for components or subsystems in order to meet the resource consumption constraint, e.g. the total cost. The difficulties facing the redundancy allocation problem are to maintain feasibility with respect to three nonlinear constraints, namely, cost, weight and volume-related constraints. The redundancy allocation problems have been studied in the literature for decades, usually using mathematical programming or metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is tested on five well-known reliability redundancy allocation problems and is compared with several well-known methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal solutions obtained by CS are better than the best solutions obtained by other methods.
Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals
Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz; Christopher Expósito-Izquierdo; Jesica de Armas; Belén Melián-Batista; J. Marcos Moreno-Vega
2015-01-01
Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and sc...
Harish Garg
2015-01-01
The main goal of the present paper is to present a penalty based cuckoo search (CS) algorithm to get the optimal solution of reliability – redundancy allocation problems (RRAP) with nonlinear resource constraints. The reliability – redundancy allocation problem involves the selection of components' reliability in each subsystem and the corresponding redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits subject to the system's cost, weight, volume and reliability constraints. Numerical results of fi...
Allocating conference delegates to workshops: A special timetabling problem
M. Sinclair
2003-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of assigning delegates to workshops at a conference can be formulated as a timetabling problem. Such an assignment must take into account the preferences of the delegates, as well as the number of participants each workshop can accommodate. This paper will report on a heuristic solution technique for a special case of such a problem. An implementation of the method for the solution of a real world problem will also be reported.
无
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the resource allocation problem based on data envelopment analysis(DEA)which is generally found in practice such as in public services and in production process.In management context,the resource allocation has to achieve the effective-efficient-equality aim and tries to balance the different desires of two management layers:central manager and each sector.In mathematical programming context,to solve the resource allocation asks for introducing many optimization techniques such as multiple-objective programming and goal programming.We construct an algorithm framework by using comprehensive DEA tools including CCR,BCC models,inverse DEA model,the most compromising common weights analysis model,and extra resource allocation algorithm.Returns to scale characteristic is put major place for analyzing DMUs' scale economies and used to select DMU candidates before resource allocation.By combining extra resource allocation algorithm with scale economies target,we propose a resource allocation solution,which can achieve the effective-efficient-equality target and also provide information for future resource allocation.Many numerical examples are discussed in this paper,which also verify our work.
A two-phase linear programming approach for redundancy allocation problems
Hsieh Yi-Chih
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Provision of redundant components in parallel is an efficient way to increase the system reliability, however, the weight, volume and cost of the system will increase simultaneously. This paper proposes a new two-phase linear programming approach for solving the nonlinear redundancy allocation problems subject to multiple linear constraints. The first phase is used to approximately allocate the resource by using a general linear programming, while the second phase is used to re-allocate the slacks of resource by using a 0-1 integer linear programming. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Diamantidis A. C.; Papadopoulos C. T.
2004-01-01
In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP) in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990), for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput) of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production ...
A dynamic programming algorithm for the space allocation and aisle positioning problem
Bodnar, Peter; Lysgaard, Jens
2014-01-01
The space allocation and aisle positioning problem (SAAPP) in a material handling system with gravity flow racks is the problem of minimizing the total number of replenishments over a period subject to practical constraints related to the need for aisles granting safe and easy access to storage...
Emergence of heterogeneity in a noncompetitive resource allocation problem
Matzke, Christina; Challet, Damien
2011-01-01
Tuning one’s shower in some hotels may turn into a challenging coordination game with imperfect information. The temperature sensitivity increases with the number of agents, making the problem possibly unlearnable. Because there is in practice a finite number of possible tap positions, identical agents are unlikely to reach even approximately their favorite water temperature. We show that a population of agents with homogeneous strategies is evolutionary unstable, which gives insights into th...
Emergence of heterogeneity in a noncompetitive resource allocation problem
Matzke, Christina; Challet, Damien
2011-07-01
Tuning one’s shower in some hotels may turn into a challenging coordination game with imperfect information. The temperature sensitivity increases with the number of agents, making the problem possibly unlearnable. Because there is in practice a finite number of possible tap positions, identical agents are unlikely to reach even approximately their favorite water temperature. We show that a population of agents with homogeneous strategies is evolutionary unstable, which gives insights into the emergence of heterogeneity, the latter being tempting but risky.
Kazemian, Iman; Aref, Samin
2015-01-01
In this paper the capacitated hub location problem is formulated by a minimax regret model, which takes into account uncertain setup cost and demand. We focus on capacitated hub location with multiple allocations as a strategic problem requiring one definite solution. Investigating how deterministic models may lead to sub-optimal solutions, we provide an efficient formulation method for the problem. A computational analysis is performed to investigate the impact of uncertainty on the location...
The Fighter Problem: Optimal Allocation of a Discrete Commodity
Bartroff, Jay
2011-01-01
The Fighter problem with discrete ammunition is studied. An aircraft (fighter) equipped with $n$ anti-aircraft missiles is intercepted by enemy airplanes, the appearance of which follows a homogeneous Poisson process with known intensity. If $j$ of the $n$ missiles are spent at an encounter they destroy an enemy plane with probability $a(j)$, where $a(0) = 0 $ and $\\{a(j)\\}$ is a known, strictly increasing concave sequence, e.g., $a(j) = 1-q^j, \\; \\, 0 < q < 1$. If the enemy is not destroyed, the enemy shoots the fighter down with known probability $1-u$, where $0 \\le u \\le 1$. The goal of the fighter is to shoot down as many enemy airplanes as possible during a given time period $[0, T]$. Let $K (n, t)$ be the smallest optimal number of missiles to be used at a present encounter, when the fighter has flying time $t$ remaining and $n$ missiles remaining. Three seemingly obvious properties of $K(n, t)$ have been conjectured: [A] The closer to the destination, the more of the $n$ missiles one should use, ...
On Some Properties of Cost Allocation Rules in Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Problems
BERGANTINOS, Gustavo; Vidal-Puga, Juan
2008-01-01
We consider four cost allocation rules in minimum cost spanning tree problems. These rules were introduced by Bird (1976), Dutta and Kar (2004), Kar (2002), and Feltkamp, Tijs and Muto (1994), respectively. We give a list of desirable properties and we study which properties are satisfied by these rules.
A Decision Support Method for Truck Scheduling and Storage Allocation Problem at Container
CAO Jinxin; SHI Oixin; Der-Horng Lee
2008-01-01
Truck scheduling and storage allocation, as two separate subproblems in port operations, have been deeply studied in past decades. However, from the operational point of view, they are highly interde-pendent. Storage allocation for import containers has to balance the travel time and queuing time of each container in yard. This paper proposed an integer programming model handling these two problems as a whole. The objective of this model is to reduce congestion and waiting time of container trucks in the termi-nal so as to decrease the makespan of discharging containers. Due to the inherent complexity of the prob-lem, a genetic algorithm and a greedy heuristic algorithm are designed to attain near optimal solutions. It shows that the heuristic algorithm can achieve the optimal solution for small-scale problems. The solutions of small- and large-scale problems obtained from the heuristic algorithm are better than those from the ge-netic algorithm.
Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying
2014-01-01
Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.
A dynamic programming algorithm for the space allocation and aisle positioning problem
Peter Bodnar; Jens Lysgaard
2014-01-01
The space allocation and aisle positioning problem (SAAPP) in a material handling system with gravity flow racks is the problem of minimizing the total number of replenishments over a period subject to practical constraints related to the need for aisles granting safe and easy access to storage locations. In this paper, we develop an exact dynamic programming algorithm for the SAAPP. The computational study shows that our exact algorithm can be used to find optimal solutions for numerous SAAP...
2014-01-01
Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units), satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different respo...
Inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming for conjunctive water allocation problems.
Lu, Hongwei; Huang, Guohe; He, Li
2009-10-01
An inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming (IRTSP) method is developed for conjunctive water allocation problems. Rough intervals (RIs), as a particular case of rough sets, are introduced into the modeling framework to tackle dual-layer information provided by decision makers. Through embeding upper and lower approximation intervals, rough intervals are capable of reflecting complex parameters with the most reliable and possible variation ranges being identified. An interactive solution method is also derived. A conjunctive water-allocation system is then structured for characterizing the proposed model. Solutions indicate a detailed optimal allocation scheme with a rough-interval form; a total of [[1048.83, 2078.29]:[1482.26, 2020.60
Diamantidis A. C.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.
Artificial Fish School Algorithm Applied in a Combinatorial Optimization Problem
Yun Cai
2010-01-01
An improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) for solving a combinatorial optimization problem—a berth allocation problem (BAP), which was formulated. Its objective is to minimize the turnaround time of vessels at container terminals so as to improve operation efficiency customer satisfaction. An adaptive artificial fish swarm algorithm was proposed to solve it. Firstly, the basic principle and the algorithm design of the AFSA were introduced. Then, for a test case, computational experim...
Application of goal programming to decision problem on optimal allocation of radiation workers
This paper is concerned with an optimal planning in a multiple objective decision-making problem of allocating radiation workers to workplaces associated with occupational exposure. The model problem is formulated with the application of goal programming which effectively followed up diverse and conflicting factors influencing the optimal decision. The formulation is based on the data simulating the typical situations encountered at the operating facilities such as nuclear power plants where exposure control is critical to the management. Multiple goals set by the decision-maker/manager who has the operational responsibilities for radiological protection are illustrated in terms of work requirements, exposure constraints of the places, desired allocation of specific personnel and so on. Test results of the model are considered to indicate that the model structure and its solution process can provide the manager with a good set of analysis of his problems in implementing the optimization review of radiation protection during normal operation. (author)
Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf
2014-04-21
The survival and proliferation of cells and organisms require a highly coordinated allocation of cellular resources to ensure the efficient synthesis of cellular components. In particular, the total enzymatic capacity for cellular metabolism is limited by finite resources that are shared between all enzymes, such as cytosolic space, energy expenditure for amino-acid synthesis, or micro-nutrients. While extensive work has been done to study constrained optimization problems based only on stoichiometric information, mathematical results that characterize the optimal flux in kinetic metabolic networks are still scarce. Here, we study constrained enzyme allocation problems with general kinetics, using the theory of oriented matroids. We give a rigorous proof for the fact that optimal solutions of the non-linear optimization problem are elementary flux modes. This finding has significant consequences for our understanding of optimality in metabolic networks as well as for the identification of metabolic switches and the computation of optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks. PMID:24295962
Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion
Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton
2014-01-01
The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...
Lombardi, Michele
2010-01-01
This work presents exact, hybrid algorithms for mixed resource Allocation and Scheduling problems; in general terms, those consist into assigning over time finite capacity resources to a set of precedence connected activities. The proposed methods have broad applicability, but are mainly motivated by applications in the field of Embedded System Design. In particular, high-performance embedded computing recently witnessed the shift from single CPU platforms with application-specific accele...
A methodology to assess vessel berthing and speed optimization policies
J Fernando Alvarez; Tore Longva; Erna S Engebrethsen
2010-01-01
Standard ocean shipping contracts stipulate that a chartered vessel must sail at ‘utmost despatch’, with no consideration for the availability of berths at the destination port. The berthing policies used at many ports, which admit vessels on a first-come, first-served basis, provide an additional incentive for the master to sail at full speed. These legacy contracts and berthing policies constitute a major driver of harbour congestion and marine fuel consumption, with adverse economic, safet...
A genetic algorithm approach to optimization for the radiological worker allocation problem
The worker allocation optimization problem in radiological facilities inevitably involves various types of requirements and constraints relevant to radiological protection and labor management. Some of these goals and constraints are not amenable to a rigorous mathematical formulation. Conventional methods for this problem rely heavily on sophisticated algebraic or numerical algorithms, which cause difficulties in the search for optimal solutions in the search space of worker allocation optimization problems. Genetic algorithms (GAB) are stochastic search algorithms introduced by J. Holland in the 1970s based on ideas and techniques from genetic and evolutionary theories. The most striking characteristic of GAs is the large flexibility allowed in the formulation of the optimal problem and the process of the search for the optimal solution. In the formulation, it is not necessary to define the optimal problem in rigorous mathematical terms, as required in the conventional methods. Furthermore, by designing a model of evolution for the optimal search problem, the optimal solution can be sought efficiently with computational simple manipulations without highly complex mathematical algorithms. We reported a GA approach to the worker allocation problem in radiological facilities in the previous study. In this study, two types of hard constraints were employed to reduce the huge search space, where the optimal solution is sought in such a way as to satisfy as many of soft constraints as possible. It was demonstrated that the proposed evolutionary method could provide the optimal solution efficiently compared with conventional methods. However, although the employed hard constraints could localize the search space into a very small region, it brought some complexities in the designed genetic operators and demanded additional computational burdens. In this paper, we propose a simplified evolutionary model with less restrictive hard constraints and make comparisons between
Carrie Ka Yuk Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.
The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm
In this paper, a new dynamic self-adaptive multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DSAMOPSO) method is proposed to solve binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems (MORAPs). A combination of penalty function and modification strategies is used to handle the constraints in the MORAPs. A dynamic self-adaptive penalty function strategy is utilized to handle the constraints. A heuristic cost-benefit ratio is also supplied to modify the structure of violated swarms. An adaptive survey is conducted using several test problems to illustrate the performance of the proposed DSAMOPSO method. An efficient version of the epsilon-constraint (AUGMECON) method, a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) method, and a customized time-variant multi-objective particle swarm optimization (cTV-MOPSO) method are used to generate non-dominated solutions for the test problems. Several properties of the DSAMOPSO method, such as fast-ranking, evolutionary-based operators, elitism, crowding distance, dynamic parameter tuning, and tournament global best selection, improved the best known solutions of the benchmark cases of the MORAP. Moreover, different accuracy and diversity metrics illustrated the relative preference of the DSAMOPSO method over the competing approaches in the literature. - Highlights: ► A meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the redundancy allocation problems. ► The proposed method is statistically evaluated using multi-objective metrics. ► The proposed method outperforms the selected competing methods in the literature.
Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal Testing Effort Allocation Problem for Modular Software
Gurjeet Kaur
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Software reliability growth models (SRGM are used to assess modular software quantitatively and predict the reliability of each of the modules during module testing phase. In the last few decades various SRGM’s have been proposed in literature. However, it is difficult to select the best model from a plethora of models available. To reduce this difficulty, unified modeling approaches have been proposed by many researchers. In this paper we present a generalized framework for software reliability growth modeling with respect to testing effort expenditure and incorporate the faults of different severity. We have used different standard probability distribution functions for representing failure observation and fault detection/ correction times. The faults in the software are labeled as simple, hard and complex faults. Developing reliable modular software is necessary. But, at the same time the testing effort available during the testing time is limited. Consequently, it is important for the project manager to allocate these limited resources among the modules optimally during the testing process. In this paper we have formulated an optimization problem in which the total number of faults removed from modular software is (which include simple, hard and complex faults maximized subject to budgetary and reliability constraints. To solve the optimization problem we have used genetic algorithm. One numerical example has been discussed to illustrate the solution of the formulated optimal effort allocation problem.
Meier, P.M.; Mubayi, V.
1979-01-04
The interregional allocation of, and competition for, natural resources for energy development is assuming increasing importance in many large developing countries, particularly in countries such as India that are in the more advanced stages of industrialization, and where state governments and regional agencies have significant planning powers. This paper explores the applicability of optimal resource allocation models designed primarily for already-developed economies, such as that of the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe, to the emerging problems of such developing countries. In particular, the potential application of electric-utility-siting models is discussed in the context of electric grid expansion in the State of Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. Specific topics addressed include the degree to which models can be effectively used in the rather different conditions and priorities of industrializing countries; the requirements for basic-model reformulations to account for unique factors of geography (climate, hyydrology, the extant conditions of the infrastructure within which any development must occur); and the ability to include and quantify environmental impacts of energy deveelopment as well as policy considerations relevant in the context of developing countries. The paper identifies desirable research directions, indicates data needs, and assesses those aspects of subnational energy-planning problems that should receive better emphasis in national and international energy-plannng efforts.
Fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problems for coal allocation planning of Taipower
Taipower, the official electricity authority of Taiwan, encounters several difficulties in planning annual coal purchase and allocation schedule, e.g. with multiple sources, multiple destinations, multiple coal types, different shipping vessels, and even an uncertain demand and supply. In this study, these concerns are formulated as a fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problem. Furthermore, an effective and interactive algorithm is proposed which combines reducing index method and interactive fuzzy multi-objective linear programming technique to cope with a complicated problem which may be prevalent in other industries. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that this model can not only satisfy more of the actual requirements of the integral system but also offer more information to the decision makers (DMs) for reference in favor of exalting decision making quality. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Md. Ashraful Babu,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Basic feasible solution is the initial solution of transportation problem. There are several transportation algorithms to determine feasible solution. These algorithms are only way to get optimal solution because optimal solution obtains from the initial basic feasible solution using some optimality test methods such as MODIModified Distribution Method and Stepping Stone Method where MODI is the most efficient method to determine optimal solution. Before applying MODI on feasible solution we have to resolve degeneracy if it occurs and also make sure that allocations (non-negative basic variable are should not form a closed loop when we draw horizontal and vertical paths from allocated cells to allocated cells. Degeneracy occurs when supply and demand are satisfied simultaneously it can be resolved if one row or column of them is crossed out and another remains with zero supply or demand. Difficulty arise when if all uncrossed out rows or column have (remaining zero supply or demand. In that case, Vogel‟s Approximation Method (VAM and some other methods solve that by allocating these zero supply or demand using Least Cost Method (LCM. But in some problem when we make allocation by LCM in that particular case then closed loop is formed and not possible to apply any optimality test method. So that optimal solution is not possible to determine in that case. In this paper we resolve this particular problem and find a new approach to allocate zero supply or demand so that closed loop will not be formed.
E. E. Tsiropoulou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a joint resource allocation problem is studied in a multi-service Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA wireless network. Mobile users request various services with different Quality of Service (QoS characteristics and they determine in a distributed and non-cooperative manner a joint subcarrier and power allocation towards fulfilling their QoS prerequisites. Initially, a well-designed utility function is formulated to appropriately represent users’ diverse QoS prerequisites with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers allocation problem is solved based on a multilateral bargaining model, where users are able to select different discount factors to enter the bargaining game, thus better expressing their different needs in system resources with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers mapping is realized based either on the localized SC-FDMA method where the subcarriers are sequentially allocated to the users or the distributed SC-FDMA via considering the maximum channel gain policy, where each subcarrier is allocated to the user with the maximum channel gain. Given the subcarriers assignment, an optimization problem with respect to users’ uplink transmission power is formulated and solved, in order to determine the optimal power allocation per subcarrier assigned to each user. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via modeling and simulation and extensive numerical results are presented.
Tabu search for the redundancy allocation problem of homogenous series-parallel multi-state systems
Ouzineb, Mohamed [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Departement d' informatique et derecherche operationnelle, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: ouzineb@crt.umontreal.ca; Nourelfath, Mustapha [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite Laval, Mechanical Engineering Department, QC (Canada)], E-mail: Mustapha.Nourelfath@gmc.ulaval.ca; Gendreau, Michel [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Departement d' informatique et derecherche operationnelle, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: michelg@crt.umontreal.ca
2008-08-15
This paper develops an efficient tabu search (TS) heuristic to solve the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems. The system has a range of performance levels from perfect functioning to complete failure. Identical redundant elements are included in order to achieve a desirable level of availability. The elements of the system are characterized by their cost, performance and availability. These elements are chosen from a list of products available in the market. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand, which is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A universal generating function technique is applied to evaluate system availability. The proposed TS heuristic determines the minimal cost system configuration under availability constraints. An originality of our approach is that it proceeds by dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, and then by applying TS to each subset. The design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs). Numerical results for the test problems from previous research are reported, and larger test problems are randomly generated. Comparisons show that the proposed TS out-performs GA solutions, in terms of both the solution quality and the execution time.
Tabu search for the redundancy allocation problem of homogenous series-parallel multi-state systems
This paper develops an efficient tabu search (TS) heuristic to solve the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems. The system has a range of performance levels from perfect functioning to complete failure. Identical redundant elements are included in order to achieve a desirable level of availability. The elements of the system are characterized by their cost, performance and availability. These elements are chosen from a list of products available in the market. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand, which is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A universal generating function technique is applied to evaluate system availability. The proposed TS heuristic determines the minimal cost system configuration under availability constraints. An originality of our approach is that it proceeds by dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, and then by applying TS to each subset. The design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs). Numerical results for the test problems from previous research are reported, and larger test problems are randomly generated. Comparisons show that the proposed TS out-performs GA solutions, in terms of both the solution quality and the execution time
Heuristic for solving capacitor allocation problems in electric energy radial distribution networks
Maria A. Biagio
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of the capacitor allocation problem in radial distribution networks is to minimize technical losses with consequential positive impacts on economic and environmental areas. The main objective is to define the size and location of the capacitors while considering load variations in a given horizon. The mathematical formulation for this planning problem is given by an integer nonlinear mathematical programming model that demands great computational effort to be solved. With the goal of solving this problem, this paper proposes a methodology that is composed of heuristics and Tabu Search procedures. The methodology presented explores network system characteristics of the network system reactive loads for identifying regions where procedures of local and intensive searches should be performed. A description of the proposed methodology and an analysis of computational results obtained which are based on several test systems including actual systems are presented. The solutions reached are as good as or better than those indicated by well referenced methodologies. The technique proposed is simple in its use and does not require calibrating an excessive amount of parameters, making it an attractive alternative for companies involved in the planning of radial distribution networks.
Allocation of resources in the presence of indivisibilities: Scarf's problem revisited
In his article ''The Allocation of Resources in the Presence of Indivisibilities,'' Scarf points out that the major problem presented to economic theory by the presence of indivisibilities is the impossibility of detecting optimality at the level of the firm, or the economy as a whole, using the creation of profitability based on competitive linear prices. In the absence of such competitive prices, Scarf instead introduces a quantity test. Further development of the quantity test idea has lead to algorithms that are used to solve parametric integer programming problems. However, the quantity test is not a fully acceptable replacement of prices to analyse markets with indivisibilities. Recently, O'Neill et al. have suggested a new scheme that generates discriminatory equilibrium prices in markets with non-convexities- In this paper we elaborate this idea even further and use it to generate non-linear price functions that can be interpreted as a non-linear pricing scheme for markets with non-convexities. (Author)
This paper proposes a new swarm intelligence method known as the Particle-based Simplified Swarm Optimization (PSSO) algorithm while undertaking a modification of the Updating Mechanism (UM), called N-UM and R-UM, and simultaneously applying an Orthogonal Array Test (OA) to solve reliability–redundancy allocation problems (RRAPs) successfully. One difficulty of RRAP is the need to maximize system reliability in cases where the number of redundant components and the reliability of corresponding components in each subsystem are simultaneously decided with nonlinear constraints. In this paper, four RRAP benchmarks are used to display the applicability of the proposed PSSO that advances the strengths of both PSO and SSO to enable optimizing the RRAP that belongs to mixed-integer nonlinear programming. When the computational results are compared with those of previously developed algorithms in existing literature, the findings indicate that the proposed PSSO is highly competitive and performs well. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a particle-based simplified swarm optimization algorithm (PSSO) to optimize RRAP. • Furthermore, the UM and an OA are adapted to advance in optimizing RRAP. • Four systems are introduced and the results demonstrate the PSSO performs particularly well
Giordano, Nils; Mairet, Francis; Gouzé, Jean-Luc
2016-01-01
Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment. PMID:26958858
Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas
2016-01-01
Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems. PMID:27588254
Fu-Kwun Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional cutting stock problem (CSP in which the stock widths are not used to fulfill the order but kept for use in the future for the industrial-use paper production. We present a new model based on the flexible stock allocation and trim loss control to determine the production quantity. We evaluate our approach using a real data and show that we are able to solve industrial-size problems, while also addressing common cutting considerations such as aggregation of orders, multiple stock widths, and cutting different patterns on the same machine. In addition, we compare our model with others, including trim loss minimization problem (TLMP and cutting stock problem (CSP. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the other two models regarding total flexibility and trim loss ratio.
The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions
Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers
Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.
Heuristics for the Buffer Allocation Problem with Collision Probability Using Computer Simulation
Eishi Chiba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The standard manufacturing system for Flat Panel Displays (FPDs consists of a number of pieces of equipment in series. Each piece of equipment usually has a number of buffers to prevent collision between glass substrates. However, in reality, very few of these buffers seem to be used. This means that redundant buffers exist. In order to reduce cost and space necessary for manufacturing, the number of buffers should be minimized with consideration of possible collisions. In this paper, we focus on an in-line system in which each piece of equipment can have any number of buffers. In this in-line system, we present a computer simulation method for the computation of the probability of a collision occurring. Based on this method, we try to find a buffer allocation that achieves the smallest total number of buffers under an arbitrarily specified collision probability. We also implement our proposed method and present some computational results.
Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals
Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and scheduling incoming vessels into berthing positions along the quay and the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem, whose objective is to schedule the loading and unloading tasks associated with a container vessel. For solving them, two Migrating Birds Optimization (MBO approaches are proposed. The MBO is a recently proposed nature-inspired algorithm based on the V-formation flight of migrating birds. In this algorithm, a set of solutions of the problem at hand, called birds, cooperate among themselves during the search process by sharing information within a V-line formation. The computational experiments performed over well-known problem instances reported in the literature show that the performance of our proposed MBO approaches is highly competitive and presents a better performance in terms of running time than the best approximate approach proposed in the literature.
SCADA is an essential system to control critical facilities in big cities. SCADA is utilized in several sectors such as water resource management, power plants, electricity distribution centers, traffic control centers, and gas deputy. The failure of SCADA results in crisis. Hence, the design of SCADA system in order to serve a high reliability considering limited budget and other constraints is essential. In this paper, a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is proposed to design Tehran's SCADA water resource management control center. Reliability maximization and cost minimization are concurrently considered. Since the proposed RAP is a non-linear multi-objective mathematical programming so the exact methods cannot efficiently handle it. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is designed to solve it. Several features such as dynamic parameter tuning, efficient constraint handling and Pareto gridding are inserted in proposed MOPSO. The results of proposed MOPSO are compared with an efficient ε-constraint method. Several non-dominated designs of SCADA system are generated using both methods. Comparison metrics based on accuracy and diversity of Pareto front are calculated for both methods. The proposed MOPSO algorithm reports better performance. Finally, in order to choose the practical design, the TOPSIS algorithm is used to prune the Pareto front. - Highlights: • Multi-objective redundancy allocation problem (MORAP) is proposed to design SCADA system. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is proposed to solve MORAP. • Efficient epsilon-constraint method is adapted to solve MORAP. • Non-dominated solutions are generated on Pareto front of MORAP by both methods. • Several multi-objective metrics are calculated to compare the performance of methods
Application of multi attribute decision making methods to resources allocation problems
Mianabadi, H.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Mostert, E.; Sheikhmohammady, M.
2012-01-01
Operation of over shared resources (water, gas, oil, and mineral reserves) has been one the most significant challenges of states. “Fair” and “efficient” national resources reallocation among stakeholders and states is a complex conflict problem that faces this fundamental question: which criteria a
2011-06-29
... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in... context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\11\\ \\11\\ See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). In order to be... operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (``At-Berth Regulation''). The...
Zoulfaghari, Hossein; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali; Abouei Ardakan, Mostafa
2014-01-01
Traditionally, in the redundancy allocation problem (RAP), two general classes of optimization problems are considered; reliability optimization and availability optimization. Contrary to reliability optimization, fewer researchers have studied availability optimization to find out the optimal combination of components type and redundancy levels for each subsystem in a system for maximizing (or minimizing) the objectives. In each problem it is assumed that either the entire components are repairable or they are non-repairable. However, in real world situations, systems usually consist of both repairable and non-repairable components. In this paper a new Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model is presented to analyze the availability optimization of a system with a given structure, using both repairable and non-repairable components, simultaneously. To find the solution of the introduced MINLP, an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also developed. Furthermore, to show the efficiency of the proposed GA, a numerical example is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed GA has a better performance compared to one of the most recommended algorithm in the literature. PMID:23998944
Allocating operating funding in the public sector and the newsvendor problem
Jack Brimberg; William J Hurley
2015-01-01
Public sector managers, particularly those at the highest level of government, tend to view lapsed (or unused) funds at the end of a fiscal year as a consequence of poor management and/or inadequate financial controls. The aim of this paper is to challenge this view. We show that the planning environment in the public sector is in essence the classical Newsvendor Problem. This simple model argues that lapsed funds are a direct consequence of a manager doing his job properly; that is, lapsed f...
A Multi-Objective Model to Single-Allocation Ordered Hub Location Problems by Genetic Algorithm
Amir Tajbakhsh
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Most of supply chain and Hub location problems involve several conflicting objectives hence requiring a multi-objective formulation. Normally, Multi-objective approaches lead to the maximization of a weighted sum of score functions. Since normalizing these functions and quantifying the weights is not a straightforward process, such approaches are poor in practice. In this research, this difficulty is overcome by using a modified genetic algorithm for evaluation of solutions. Several qualitative and quantitative objectives are considered referring to layout model that also allows practical constraints take into account. Due to these constraints, many of strings in the population resulting from this model may be in infeasible reigns; the common approach to solve such problems is to omit infusible solutions. However, as these solutions my have useful criteria that can improve the average fitness of the population, they can be used to achieve better solutions. The proposed model uses a graded penalty term to penalize infeasible solutions to pressure the search towards feasible regions and subsequently uses their useful criteria.
Hossein Zoulfaghari
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Reliability is one of the most important characteristics of the electrical and mechanical systems with applications in the space communication industries, internet networks, telecommunication systems, power generation systems, and productive facilities. What adds to the importance of reliability in these systems are system complications, nature of competitive markets, and increasing production costs due to failures. This paper investigates availability optimization of a system using both repairable and non-repairable components, simultaneously. The availability-redundancy allocation problems involve the determination of component availability (i.e., life time and repair time of the components and the redundancy levels that produce maximum system availability. These problems are often subject to some constraints on their components such as cost, weight, and volume. To maximize the availability and to minimize the total cost of the system, a new Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP model is presented. To solve the proposed model, an improved version of the genetic algorithm is designed as an efficient meta-heuristic algorithm. Finally, in order to verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a numerical example of a system is presented that consists of both repairable and non-repairable components.
This paper proposes a practical approach, combining bare-bones particle swarm optimization and sensitivity-based clustering for solving multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems (RAPs). A two-stage process is performed to identify promising solutions. Specifically, a new bare-bones multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (BBMOPSO) is developed and applied in the first stage to identify a Pareto-optimal set. This algorithm mainly differs from other multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithms in the parameter-free particle updating strategy, which is especially suitable for handling the complexity and nonlinearity of RAPs. Moreover, by utilizing an approach based on the adaptive grid to update the global particle leaders, a mutation operator to improve the exploration ability and an effective constraint handling strategy, the integrated BBMOPSO algorithm can generate excellent approximation of the true Pareto-optimal front for RAPs. This is followed by a data clustering technique based on difference sensitivity in the second stage to prune the obtained Pareto-optimal set and obtain a small, workable sized set of promising solutions for system implementation. Two illustrative examples are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach
Sea wave impact on a ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool
K.K. Semenov
2015-04-01
Full Text Available When designing berths and ship mooring systems near berths, it is necessary to protect ships from dangerous displacements. To make a well-reasoned choice, it is necessary to make estimates of the characteristics of sea wave impact on the ship (with respect to the steady-wave mode in the waters. The results of numeric calculations are better suited for engineering purposes. This paper presents a mathematical model to estimate hydrodynamic characteristics of wave impact on the ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool. To derive this mathematical model, the analytical method using eigenfunction expansion was employed. Also, the article shows the calculation data to demonstrate the influence of berth characteristics on loads experienced by the ship.
Sea wave impact on a ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool
K.K. Semenov; V.A. Leontiev; I.S. Nudner
2015-01-01
When designing berths and ship mooring systems near berths, it is necessary to protect ships from dangerous displacements. To make a well-reasoned choice, it is necessary to make estimates of the characteristics of sea wave impact on the ship (with respect to the steady-wave mode in the waters). The results of numeric calculations are better suited for engineering purposes. This paper presents a mathematical model to estimate hydrodynamic characteristics of wave impact on the ship moored...
Analysis of berth allocation and inspection operations in a container terminal
Yongpei Guan; Kang-hung Yang
2010-01-01
Nowadays, approximately 90 per cent of the world's cargoes are moved by vessels, and the majority of general cargoes are transported in containers. Accordingly, a container terminal becomes one of the important nodes in the global supply chain network and it is important to make container terminals operate efficiently. Meanwhile, after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the US Government has proposed and implemented several approaches to improve security systems, including container ...
Experimental Study on Allowable Berthing and Mooring Conditions of An Oil Tanker
张日向; 刘忠波; 张宁川; 韩丽华
2003-01-01
When an oil tanker under the combined action of wind, waves and tidal current and is berthed or moored to a platform, the impact forces on the fenders and the tensile force in the mooring lines are important factors in the studies of berthing and mooring conditions. Based on the experiment of a berthing and mooring tanker model under the action of wind, wave and tidal current in the same direction, this paper studies the allowable berthing and mooring conditions by considering the tensile forces of mooring lines and impact forces on the fenders, as well as the impact energy on the fenders. And a method has been proposed here for motion amplitude analysis. A successful method to decrease impact forces on the fenders is put forward. Blowing-in wind and blowing-off wind and different angles between waves and the fenders are considered in the experimental study. In the berthing tests of the tanker model, the impact forces are measured and the impact energy is calculated, then the berthing conditions are determined. In the mooring tests of the tanker model, the mooring line tensile forces and impact forces are measured, and the allowable mooring conditions are given that will be useful to engineering design.
Csóka, Péter; Herings, Jean-Jacques; Kóczy, László Á.
2007-01-01
The measurement and the allocation of risk are fundamental problems of portfolio management. Coherent measures of risk provide an axiomatic approach to the former problem. In an environment given by a coherent measure of risk and the various portfolios’ realization vectors, risk allocation games aim at solving the second problem: How to distribute the diversification benefits of the various portfolios? Understanding these cooperative games helps us to find stable, efficient, and fair allocati...
Apolinar Velarde Martinez; Eunice Ponce de León Sentí; Juan Antonio Nungaray Ornelas; Juan Alejandro Montañez de la Torre
2016-01-01
the use of Linux-based clusters is a strategy for the development of multiprocessor systems. These types of systems face the problem of efficiently executing the planning and allocation of tasks, for the efficient use of its resources. This paper addresses this as a multi-objective problem, carrying out an analysis of the objectives that are opposed during the planning of the tasks, which are waiting in the queue, before assigning tasks to processors. For this, we propose a method that avoids...
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths. 1999
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1999. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1999 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 1996
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1996. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRIPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1996 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 1993
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1993. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1993 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (UK)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2000
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2000. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2000 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
HERMES docking/berthing system pilot study. Quantitative assessment
This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)
Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control
Y.A. Ahmed
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.
Artificial Fish School Algorithm Applied in a Combinatorial Optimization Problem
Yun Cai
2010-11-01
Full Text Available An improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA for solving a combinatorial optimization problem—a berth allocation problem (BAP, which was formulated. Its objective is to minimize the turnaround time of vessels at container terminals so as to improve operation efficiency customer satisfaction. An adaptive artificial fish swarm algorithm was proposed to solve it. Firstly, the basic principle and the algorithm design of the AFSA were introduced. Then, for a test case, computational experiments explored the effect of algorithm parameters on the convergence of the algorithm. Experimental results verified the validity and feasibility of the proposed algorithm with rational parameters, and show that the algorithm has better convergence performance than genetic algorithm (GA and ant colony optimization (ACO.
Masoud Rabbani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the existing literature, there are a huge number of studies focused on p-hub median problems and inventing heuristic or metaheuristic algorithms for solving them. But such analogous body of literature does not exist for its counterpart problem; p-hub center problem. In fact, since p-hub center has been lately introduced and has a particular objective function, minimizing the maximum cost between origin-destination nodes, there are few studies investigating the problem and the challenges for solving it. In this study, after presenting a complete definition of the uncapacitated multiple allocation p-hub center problem (UMApHCP two well-known metaheuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem for small scale and large scale standard data sets. These two algorithms are one single solution-based algorithm, Simulated Annealing (SA, and one population-based metaheuristic, Genetic Algorithm (GA. Because of the particular nature of the problem, Dijkstra’s algorithm has been incorporated in the fitness function calculation part of the proposed methods. The numerical results of running the GA and SA for standard test problems show that for smaller scale test problems, single solution-based SA shows greater performance versus GA but for larger scales of data sets the GA generally yield more desirable solutions.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set of......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than the...... new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....
Kalsom Yusof, Umi; Nor Akmal Khalid, Mohd
2015-05-01
Semiconductor industries need to constantly adjust to the rapid pace of change in the market. Most manufactured products usually have a very short life cycle. These scenarios imply the need to improve the efficiency of capacity planning, an important aspect of the machine allocation plan known for its complexity. Various studies have been performed to balance productivity and flexibility in the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Many approaches have been developed by the researchers to determine the suitable balance between exploration (global improvement) and exploitation (local improvement). However, not much work has been focused on the domain of machine allocation problem that considers the effects of machine breakdowns. This paper develops a model to minimize the effect of machine breakdowns, thus increasing the productivity. The objectives are to minimize system unbalance and makespan as well as increase throughput while satisfying the technological constraints such as machine time availability. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed model, results for throughput, system unbalance and makespan on real industrial datasets were performed with applications of intelligence techniques, that is, a hybrid of genetic algorithm and harmony search. The result aims to obtain a feasible solution to the domain problem.
Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.
2010-03-01
A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.
Kazuki Inoue
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Use of the ship maneuvering simulator (SMS is at the core of pilot trainees education and training, so it is desirable to have an evaluation method that can be completed shortly after each berthing training session. There are basically two methods of docking maneuvering that pilot trainees learn: one in which the ship enters from outside the port and is berthed directly at the target quay, and a second method in which the vessel carries out a turn in front of the target quay before berthing. The authors suggested an evaluation index in a previous study concerning the first docking method. In the present study, the authors propose an evaluation method for the case of berthing the vessel using the turning maneuver. Since the index obtained by this method offers a single numerical benchmark, it is an easy–to-understand result of the training exercise. The authors carried out experiments using a SMS and confirmed that the proposed evaluation method is effective and helpful to improve the effectiveness of SMS training.
Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall: fender forces and ship motion
Fontijn, H.L.
1983-01-01
In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of govern
14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.
2010-01-01
... shoulder harnesses. 23.785 Section 23.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... belts, and shoulder harnesses. There must be a seat or berth for each occupant that meets the following... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...
Bolat, Berna; Cortés Achedad, Pablo Fabio
2011-01-01
The most common problem in vertical transportation using elevator group appears when a passenger wants to travel from a floor to other different floor in a building. The passenger makes a hall call by pressing a landing call button installed at the floor and located near the cars of the elevator group. After that, the elevator controller receives the call and identifies which one of the elevators in the group is most suitable to serve the person having issued the call. In this ...
Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens
2009-01-01
. The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the...... test instances. The main contribution of this article is the addition of synchronization between teams in an exact optimization context....
Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens
. The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the...... test instances. The main contribution of this article is the addition of synchronization between teams in an exact optimization context....
Cost allocation in distribution planning
This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs
Cost allocation in distribution planning
Engevall, S.
1996-12-31
This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs
李浩; 汪杰; 王公宝
2014-01-01
针对我国目前在地震现场搜索救援中存在的兵力配置问题，提出运用动态规划方法对其问题进行研究。简述建立动态规划模型的基本策略和步骤，建立地震现场搜索救援中兵力配置问题的静态数学与动态规划模型，并通过求解动态规划模型，得出地震现场搜索救援中兵力配置的最优策略。结果表明：该模型结构简单，计算难度小，优化配置能力强，易于电脑操作，可有效解决兵力配置等非线性数学问题。%In view of the search and rescue force allocation problems that exist currently in the earthquake site, put forwards the dynamic programming method to solve the problem. Briefly introduce the basic methods and steps of the dynamic programming model, establishes a static mathematical and dynamic programming model about the force allocation problem of rescue and search in earthquake site, and finds optimal strategy about rescue and search in earthquake site by solving the dynamic programming model. The results show that, the model has the advantages of simple structure, small computational difficulty, optimal allocation ability, easy computer operation, can effectively solve the force allocation problem and other nonlinear mathematical problems.
Resource Allocation using Virtual Clusters
Stillwell, Mark; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri
2010-01-01
In this report we demonstrate the potential utility of resource allocation management systems that use virtual machine technology for sharing parallel computing resources among competing jobs. We formalize the resource allocation problem with a number of underlying assumptions, determine its complexity, propose several heuristic algorithms to find near-optimal solutions, and evaluate these algorithms in simulation. We find that among our algorithms one is very efficient and also leads to the best resource allocations. We then describe how our approach can be made more general by removing several of the underlying assumptions.
Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
2016-01-01
This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set of...... assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....
Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen
This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...
Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling
Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;
different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...
2011-12-13
... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in... increased risk of burn or fire) associated with compliance with the California standard. \\11\\ See 59 FR... EPA review of the State decision to be a narrow one.'' \\16\\ \\16\\ See, e.g., 40 FR 21102-103 (May...
Selcuk Nas
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...
Optimal allocation of inspection resources
Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references
Telescope Time Allocation Tool
Alves, J.
2005-03-01
TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988
This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)
Nonlinear and Adaptive Dynamic Control Allocation
Tjønnås, Johannes
2008-01-01
This work addresses the control allocation problem for a nonlinear over-actuated time-varying system where parameters a¢ ne in the actuator dynamics and actuator force model may be assumed unknown. Instead of optimizing the control allocation at each time instant, a dynamic approach is considered by constructing update-laws that represent asymptotically optimal allocation search and adaptation. A previous result on uniform global asymptotic stability (UGAS) of the equilibrium of cascaded time...
Water allocation mechanisms : principles and examples
Dinar, Ariel; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth
1997-01-01
From the earliest times, water resources have been allocated on the basis of social criteria -maintaining the community by ensuring that water is available for human consumption, for sanitation, and for food production. Societies have invested capital in infrastructure to maintain this allocation. Yet social change, including changes in (and more understanding of) how goods are distributed, has produced new issues in water allocation. Population growth has made water scarcity a major problem ...
The allocation of attention: theory and evidence
Gabaix, Xavier; Laibson, David Isaac; Moloche, Guillermo; Stephen, Weinberg
2003-01-01
A host of recent studies show that attention allocation has important economic consequences. This paper reports the first empirical test of a cost-benefit model of the endogenous allocation of attention. The model assumes that economic agents have finite mental processing speeds and cannot analyze all of the elements in complex problems. The model makes tractable predictions about attention allocation, despite the high level of complexity in our environment. The model successfully predicts th...
Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations
Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru
2007-01-01
We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig
冯海荣; 李军; 曾银莲
2011-01-01
在激烈的市场竞争中,如何降低成本以及保证产品的新鲜度对于销售易腐性产品的零售商来说具有至关重要的意义.企业间通过实施联合采购可以降低采购成本,增加与供应商的谈判议价能力,因此联合采购受到越来越多的企业以及学者的关注.考虑了在非瞬时补货情况下多零售商向同一供应商联合采购某种易腐品的订货决策及费用分配问题.以易腐品联合采购过程中产生的订货费用作为分配的对象,应用合作博弈理论,将非瞬时补货情况下易腐品联合采购的费用分配问题构造成易腐品的联合采购博弈,证明了该博弈的核心非空且为子模博弈,并给出了核心中的一个分配方案,同时还讨论了补货速率对零售商分担的订货费用的影响.论文最后对几种典型的比例分配解的效率进行了模拟分析.%It is important for the retailer to reduce the operating cost and to keep the freshness of the product in the supply chain with perishable products under the fierce market competition. By means of placing their ordering simultaneously, the firms can reduce their cost and strengthen negotiation abilities to their supplier, hence it has received tremendous attention from enterprises and scholars. This paper studies the joint replenishment problem and cost allocation problem for multi-retailers when they form a purchasing alliance in the EPQ framework. The cost allocation problem for the ordering setup cost is considered, and formulated as the cost allocation game with perishable products. It is proved that the cost allocation game is submodular, and its core is nonempty, then an allocation rule is defined and proved to be a core allocation. We also discuss the effect of the replenishment rate on the allocation rule. Finally, the efficiency of several proportional rules is studied by simulation.
Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes
Wang, Shaowei
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off
Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare
Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd
2009-01-01
Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met by...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1990
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1990. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1990 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors
Bordignon, Kenneth A
1996-01-01
Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...
Kaminsky, Andrew D.
2003-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...
Samie Amidou
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.
Selcuk Nas; Y. Zorba; E. Ucan
2014-01-01
Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management t...
Inamura, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sritharan, S.; Villamor, N.
1991-07-15
This study describes methods for optimal crane allocation and the corresponding trailer allocation using dynamic programming with Lagrangian relaxation approach, taking the container terminal at Bangkok Port as an example. The developed system can be applied to any container terminal in any country regardless of number of berth, kind of container ship or kind of crane and trailer. This system may be used practically because the required solution can be derived from a personal computer operation for about ten minutes. The dynamic programming system relating to optimal crane allocation has been verified for its reasonability after 1000 repetitions of the simulation. Differences in the result were 1 TEU for the mean value, 12 TEU for the standard deviation, and {minus}30 to {plus}30 for the range. The standard deviation is sufficiently small at little less than 7% against a handling volume of 186 TEU. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.
A new analysis of a simple model of fair allocation
Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
2012-01-01
In a recent article, Fragnelli and Gagliardo [Cooperative models for allocating an object, Economics Letters 117 (2012) 227-229] propose several procedures to solve a basic problem of fair allocation. We scrutinize their proposal and contextualize it into recent developments of the literature on bankruptcy problems. Our analysis supports two of the procedures they propose; namely, the Shapley and Talmud rules.
Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.
Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh
2014-01-15
Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant...
Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.
Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh
2008-10-01
The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571
Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems
Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.
2011-12-01
Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.
Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
2016-01-01
Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three...
Supplier asset allocation in a pool-based electricity market
Zhong, J.; Ni, Y; Feng, D.; Gan, D
2007-01-01
A power supplier in a pool-based market needs to allocate his generation capacities to participate in contract and spot markets. In this paper, the optimal portfolio selection theory is introduced for this purpose. A model applying this theory is proposed to solve the supplier asset allocation problem. Real market data are used in a numerical study to test the proposed model. The results show that different asset allocation solutions can yield very different risk-return tradeoffs for a suppli...
Online Stochastic Packing Applied to Display Ad Allocation
Feldman, Jon; Henzinger, Monika; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S.; Stein, Cliff
2010-01-01
Inspired by online ad allocation, we study online stochastic packing linear programs from theoretical and practical standpoints. We first present a near-optimal online algorithm for a general class of packing linear programs which model various online resource allocation problems including online variants of routing, ad allocations, generalized assignment, and combinatorial auctions. As our main theoretical result, we prove that a simple primal-dual training-based algorithm achieves a (1 - o(...
Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness
Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff
2010-01-01
We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...
LiVecchi, Albert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-12-01
The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.
Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search
Andy M. Connor
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.
4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management
Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming
2013-01-01
This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation.
Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport
Justesen, Tor Fog
Operating an airport is a very complex task involving many stakeholders. The primary role of airport management is to ensure that the airport provides sufficient capacity in all operational areas and that all the companies carrying out business at the airport have the best possible working...... knowledge to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University...... processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...
Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes
Slikker, M.
1999-01-01
A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo
Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D
2011-01-01
The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.
Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;
2011-01-01
Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...
Flexible resources allocation techniques: characteristics and modelling
Attia, El-Awady; Edi, Kouassi Hilaire; Duquenne, Philippe
2012-01-01
International audience At the interface between engineering, economics, social sciences and humanities, industrial engineering aims to provide answers to various sectors of business problems. One of these problems is the adjustment between the workload needed by the work to be realised and the availability of the company resources. The objective of this work is to help to find a methodology for the allocation of flexible human resources in industrial activities planning and scheduling. Thi...
Modeling Word Relatedness in Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Wang, Xun
2014-01-01
Standard LDA model suffers the problem that the topic assignment of each word is independent and word correlation hence is neglected. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a model called Word Related Latent Dirichlet Allocation (WR-LDA) by incorporating word correlation into LDA topic models. This leads to new capabilities that standard LDA model does not have such as estimating infrequently occurring words or multi-language topic modeling. Experimental results demonstrate the ef...
许新宜; 杨丽英; 王红瑞; 高媛媛
2011-01-01
As population and economy grow, demands for water will escalate.In most countries,demands for water are initially met by engineering, supply-side solutions.Based on reviewing international and domestic practices on water resources allocation within river basins, a comparison of a variety of methodologies and models of water resources allocation and documentation of the best practices were systematically performed.There are many general lessons and key issues that can be learned from the review.This review explains the relationship between water allocation schemes within river basins and policies regarding water resources management.There are many cases in China and around the world that water resources allocation only concentrates on surface water resources.Theoretically, the total demands for water within a river basin are generally supplied from a combination of surface water and groundwater resources, so reasonably integrated water resources allocation schemes are preferable.Once conditions are suitable, certain demands may be supplied from either surface water or groundwater resources, i.e., conjunctive use.Conjunctive use is advantageous over other utilization ways as it provides an opportunity to rely on surface water resources when conditions are good, resulting in renewal of the groundwater resources.When surface flows are below the average, groundwater resources can be drawn upon more heavily, even temporarily at rates greater than the sustainable yield.Prudent management is required to ensure that the long-term average rates of exploitation are within sustainable limits, and joint allocation of surface water and groundwater resources is desirable for these situations.The study integrates responsibility, entitlements, and benefits as the principles for water resources allocation in China.Two concepts of water use stocks and incremental water use were proposed to reflect the efficiency and equity of water allocation schemes.Assessment indicators for the
Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.
Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Ebbers, Johnathan [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Price, Nicholas W. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Swank, Matthew [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Feer, Stefan P. [3M Health Information Systems, Inc., Wallingford, CT; Rhodes, Zachary D. [Allstate Corporation, Northbrook, IL
2013-02-01
This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.
Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.
McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius
2010-10-01
Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844
A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints
Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc
2010-01-01
Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.
Cognitive allocation and the control room
One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design
Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families
Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas;
2016-01-01
Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...
Aid allocation and fragile states
McGillivray, Mark
2006-01-01
This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...
Operator allocation model and scheduling algorithm for flexible job-shop problem%柔性生产中人员配置模型及其调度算法
高丽; 徐克林; 朱伟; 童科娜
2012-01-01
为减少柔性生产企业的劳务费用,提高运营效益,以合理的人工分配方案和最佳作业排序为目标建立了数学模型,并设计一种多目标混合算法.将作业分解为子作业层和父作业层,采用遗传算法和动态规划法获取最佳的人工分配方案.在人工优化模型的基础上利用模拟退火遗传算法,将搜索空间限制在第一工位工件投产序列的置换向量空间内,并采用交叉算子和变异算子对选择算子进行了重新设计,生成最优作业排序计划.一组测试问题的求解结果表明了所提出方法的有效性及鲁棒性.%To reduce crew expenses and raise operation profits of flexible production enterprises,a mathematical model was constructed on the basis of reasonable operator allocation scheme and optimal sequence of operations,and a multi-objective mixed algorithm was used for solving the problem.The operation is divided into two layers,and the man-hour optimization scheme can be acquired by genetic algorithm and dynamic programming method.A simulated annealing genetic algorithm was proposed to optimize the sequence of operations,in which the search was limited to the space of permutation vectors of the order,and a given set of jobs were performed in the first stage using a hybrid crossover operators and mutation operators to redesign the selection operators.A set of test results show that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation
Inoue, Jun-ichi
2014-01-01
We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.
Marty M; Toselli A; Vincke B
2000-01-01
The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM) in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study...
Market-based task allocation in distributed satellite systems
van der Horst, Johannes
2012-01-01
This thesis addresses the problem of task allocation in a distributed satellite system. These spacecraft specialise in different functions, and must collaborate to complete the mission objectives. The energy available for task execution and communication is, however, extremely limited, which poses a challenging design problem. I propose the use of a market-based, multi-agent approach to achieve the necessary macro-level behaviour. The development and verification of this allocation mechanism ...
Tactical Assets Allocation: Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Industry
Adedoyin Isola Lawal
2014-01-01
The core of portfolio selection theory centers on striking a balance between risk-return trade-off of a given investment layout so as to maximize benefits. Literature reveals that portfolio selection or asset allocation problems often involve the use of mathematical programming in propounding solution. This paper uses a blend of simultaneous equation and graphical approach to linear programming algorithm to help solve investors‘ problem in allocating assets among various alternatives when fac...
Attention allocation before antisaccades.
Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner
2016-01-01
In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843
A new network losses allocation method in deregulated environment
WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-jian
2005-01-01
Network losses allocation is one of the major problems in the market environment. The quadric function of the injected nodal power is used in this paper as a representation for network losses, which are allocated fairly using the called market equilibrium principle while the bidding curves are corrected. The power market equilibrium is simulated as three different models that can be solved simply by the optimal power flow algorithm combining the generation scheduling problem with network losses allocation. The case study is made at an IEEE-30 nodes system and a perfect result is proved in this paper.
Cost allocation with limited information
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen
This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....
Resource Allocation Among Agents with MDP-Induced Preferences
Dolgov, D A; 10.1613/jair.2102
2011-01-01
Allocating scarce resources among agents to maximize global utility is, in general, computationally challenging. We focus on problems where resources enable agents to execute actions in stochastic environments, modeled as Markov decision processes (MDPs), such that the value of a resource bundle is defined as the expected value of the optimal MDP policy realizable given these resources. We present an algorithm that simultaneously solves the resource-allocation and the policy-optimization problems. This allows us to avoid explicitly representing utilities over exponentially many resource bundles, leading to drastic (often exponential) reductions in computational complexity. We then use this algorithm in the context of self-interested agents to design a combinatorial auction for allocating resources. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by showing that it can, in minutes, optimally solve problems for which a straightforward combinatorial resource-allocation technique would require the ag...
[Organ allocation. Ethical issues].
Cattorini, P
2010-01-01
The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677
Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;
Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains on a rai......Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...
Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks
Qiufen Ni
2013-03-01
Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.
Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district
Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;
2015-01-01
The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The...... progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...
Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems
Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed
Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks
Sakander, Zeeshan
2006-01-01
Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...
Stability and resource allocation in project planning
Leus, Roel; Herroelen, Willy
2002-01-01
The majority of resource-constrained project scheduling efforts assumes perfect information about the scheduling problem to be solved and a static deterministic environment within which the pre-computed baseline schedule is executed. In reality, project activities are subject to considerable uncertainty, which generally leads to numerous schedule disruptions. In this paper, we present a resource allocation model that protects a given baseline schedule against activity duration variability. A ...
Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres
D. Mocková
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers.
Optimal allocation of trend following strategies
Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy
2015-09-01
We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.
Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions
When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)
Ground data systems resource allocation process
Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.
1989-01-01
The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.
How should INGOs allocate resources?
Wisor, Scott
2012-01-01
International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs) face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophe...
Dynamic Rate Allocation in Fading Multiple-access Channels
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation in a fading Gaussian multiple-access channel (MAC) with fixed transmission powers. Our goal is to maximize a general concave utility function of transmission rates over the throughput capacity region. In contrast to earlier works in this context that propose solutions where a potentially complex optimization problem must be solved in every decision instant, we propose a low-complexity approximate rate allocation policy and analyze the effect of temporal channel variations on its utility performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies the tracking capabilities of an approximate rate allocation scheme under fading channel conditions. We build on an earlier work to present a new rate allocation policy for a fading MAC that implements a low-complexity approximate gradient projection iteration for each channel measurement, and explicitly characterize the effect of the speed of temporal channel variations on the tracking neighborhood of our p...
Marty M
2000-03-01
Full Text Available The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study of the numerous correlations between the cost of an ISA point and various calculated indicators in these structures proves that the scale does not succeed in adjusting this cost as a function of the patient population requesting care. The findings indicate that certain types of patients are more “profitable” than others. We must be careful not to allow this new method for determining budgets to induce patient selection or to a diverted use of PMSI data.
Multi-product allocation and distribution
D.C. Currin
2003-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes techniques used by a beer company to optimise the allocation and distribution of their beer. These techniques are also applicable to other manufacturing and distribution environments. Of particular interest is a two-phase model that allows a "look-ahead" to future sales, the decomposition of the problem into a large number of sub-problems (to reduce solution time, and the equitable distribution of material when stocks are over- or undersupplied. The optimisation is part of an interactive planning system, and the relationship between the optimisation module and the rest of the system is briefly described.
Resource allocation in multiuser multicarrier wireless systems
Wong, Ian C
2007-01-01
Many algorithms have already been proposed in the past to solve the problem of allocating resources in a multi-user multicarrier wireless system. Due to the difficulty of the problem, most of the previous work in this area has focused on developing suboptimal heuristics without performance guarantees. This book proposes a unified algorithmic framework based on dual optimization techniques that have complexities that are linear in the number of subcarriers and users, and that achieve negligible optimality gaps in standards-based numerical simulations. Adaptive algorithms based on stochastic app
Business Analytics for Flexible Resource Allocation Under Random Emergencies
Angalakudati, Mallik; Balwani, Siddharth; Calzada, Jorge; Chatterjee, Bikram; Perakis, Georgia; Raad, Nicolas; Uichanco, Joline
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe both applied and analytical work in collaboration with a large multistate gas utility. The project addressed a major operational resource allocation challenge that is typical to the industry. We study the resource allocation problem in which some of the tasks are scheduled and known in advance, and some are unpredictable and have to be addressed as they appear. The utility has maintenance crews that perform both standard jobs (each must be done before a specified de...
On the Complexity of Buffer Allocation in Message Passing Systems
Brodsky, Alex; Pedersen, Jan B.; Wagner, Alan
2003-01-01
Message passing programs commonly use buffers to avoid unnecessary synchronizations and to improve performance by overlapping communication with computation. Unfortunately, using buffers makes the program no longer portable, potentially unable to complete on systems without a sufficient number of buffers. Effective buffer use entails that the minimum number needed for a safe execution be allocated. We explore a variety of problems related to buffer allocation for safe and efficient execution ...
Resource Allocation Algorithms for Virtualized Service Hosting Platforms
Stillwell, Mark; Schanzenbach, David; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri
2010-01-01
Commodity clusters are used routinely for deploying service hosting platforms. Due to hardware and operation costs, clusters need to be shared among multiple services. Crucial for enabling such shared hosting platforms is virtual machine (VM) technology, which allows consolidation of hardware resources. A key challenge, however, is to make appropriate decisions when allocating hardware resources to service instances. In this work we propose a formulation of the resource allocation problem in ...
Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.
Chakroun, Fatma; Fathi ABID
2014-01-01
This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...
Ties matter: improving efficiency in course allocation by introducing ties
Chen, Ning; Li, Mengling
2013-01-01
We study the course allocation system at Nanyang Technological University, where students submit strict preferences for courses and courses have implicit preferences for students. This formulates a many-to-many matching problem. We show the inefficiencies of the current mechanism and propose new competing mechanisms called Pareto-improving draft and dictatorship mechanisms, which introduce ties into students' preferences. Our mechanisms generate (group) stable and Pareto-efficient allocations...
Zhu, Xiaoqing; Agrawal, Piyush; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Alpcan, Tansu; Girod, Bernd
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation among multiple simultaneous video streams sharing multiple heterogeneous access networks. We develop and evaluate an analytical framework for optimal rate allocation based on observed available bit rate (ABR) and round-trip time (RTT) over each access network and video distortion-rate (DR) characteristics. The rate allocation is formulated as a convex optimization problem that minimizes the total expected distortion of all video streams. We present a...
A cross-layer resource allocation scheme for spatial multiplexing-based MIMO-OFDMA systems
Al-Shatri Hussein; Akbudak Tarik; Czylwik Andreas
2011-01-01
Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for the downlink of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) system. The sum rate maximization itself cannot cope with fairness among users. Hence, we address this problem in the context of the utility-based resource allocation presented in earlier papers. This resource allocation method allows to enhance the efficiency and guarantee fairness among users by exploiting multiuser diversity...
Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios
P. Giacomelli
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.
Sensing Task Allocation for Heterogeneous Channels in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
Qihui Wu
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the traditional centralized cooperative spectrum sensing, all secondary users sense the same channel. But, for a given channel, there exists detection performance diversity among all the users, due to the different signal-fading process. Involving the user with poor performance in cooperative sensing will not only deteriorate the detection correctness but also waste the sensing time. In the heterogeneous channels, the problem is even severe. A novel idea is to allocate the secondary users to sense different channels. We analyze the allocation problem before formulate it to be an optimization problem, which is a NP-hard problem. Then we propose the declined complexity algorithm in equal secondary user case and the two-hierarchy approach algorithm in unequal case. With the simulation, we verify the near optimality of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of the task allocation.
Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions
Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions
Risk allocation under liquidity constraints
Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.
2013-01-01
Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that
Register-allocated paging for big data calculations
David Thomas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Software to support the Monte Carlo method generates large vectors of pseudo-random numbers and uses these as operands in complex mathematical expressions. When such software is run on standard PC-based hardware, the volume of data involved often exceeds the physical RAM available. To address this problem, vectors must be paged out to disk and paged back in when required. This paging is often the performance bottleneck limiting the execution speed of the software. Because the mathematical expressions are specified in advance of execution, predictive solutions are possible – for instance, by treating the problem similarly to register allocation. The problem of allocating scalar variables to processor registers is a widely studied aspect of compiler implementation. A register allocation algorithm decides which variable is held in which register, when the value in a register can be overwritten, and when a value is stored in, or later retrieved from, main memory. In this paper, register allocation techniques are used to plan the paging of vectors in Monte Carlo software. Two register allocation algorithms are applied to invented vector programs written in a prototype low-level vector language and the results are compared. Keywords: Big Data, Compiler, Monte Carlo, Paging, Performance, Register Allocation.
Utility-based bandwidth allocation algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks
CHAI Rong; WANG XiuJuan; CHEN QianBin; SVENSSON Tommy
2013-01-01
In next generation wireless network （NGWN）, mobile users are capable of connecting to the core network through various heterogeneous wireless access networks, such as cellular network, wireless metropolitan area network （WMAN）, wireless local area network （WLAN）, and ad hoc network. NGWN is expected to provide high-bandwidth connectivity with guaranteed quality-of-service to mobile users in a seamless manner; however, this desired function demands seamless coordination of the heterogeneous radio access network （RAN） technologies. In recent years, some researches have been conducted to design radio resource management （RRM） architectures and algorithms for NGWN; however, few studies stress the problem of joint network performance optimization, which is an essential goal for a cooperative service providing scenario. Furthermore, while some authors consider the competition among the service providers, the QoS requirements of users and the resource competition within access networks are not fully considered. In this paper, we present an interworking integrated network architecture, which is responsible for monitoring the status information of different radio access technologies （RATs） and executing the resource allocation algorithm. Within this architecture, the problem of joint bandwidth allocation for heterogeneous integrated networks is formulated based on utility function theory and bankruptcy game theory. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme comprises two successive stages, i.e., service bandwidth allocation and user bandwidth allocation. At the service bandwidth allocation stage, the optimal amount of bandwidth for different types of services in each network is allocated based on the criterion of joint utility maximization. At the user bandwidth allocation stage, the service bandwidth in each network is optimally allocated among users in the network according to bankruptcy game theory. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of
On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance
Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986
2011-01-01
With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.
24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...