#### Sample records for bernoulli law

1. Testing Bernoulli's Law

Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan; Petrova, Hristina

2014-01-01

In this paper we present three different methods for testing Bernoulli's law that are different from the standard "tube with varying cross-section." They are all applicable to high-school level physics education, with varying levels of theoretical and experimental complexity, depending on students' skills, and may even be…

2. Numerical solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using modified Bernoulli's law

Simulations of incompressible flows are important for many practical applications in aeronautics and beyond, particularly in the high Reynolds number regime. The present formulation is based on Helmholtz velocity decomposition where the velocity is presented as the gradient of a potential plus a rotational component. Substituting in the continuity equation yields a Poisson equation for the potential which is solved with zero normal derivative at solid surfaces. The momentum equation is used to update the rotational component with no slip/no penetration surface boundary conditions. The pressure is related to the potential function through a special relation which is a generalization of Bernoulli's law, with a viscous term included. Results of calculations for two- and three-dimensional problems prove that the present formulation is a valid approach, with some possible benefits compared to existing methods. (author)

3. "Bernoulli" Levitation

Waltham, Chris; Bendall, Sarah; Kotlicki, Andrzej

2002-01-01

"Bernoulli" levitation is the basis of many popular counter-intuitive physics demonstrations. However, few of these lend themselves to a quantitative description without recourse to computational fluid dynamics. Levitation of a flat plate is the exception, and we present here a straightforward analysis which illustrates several principles of fluid mechanics in a pedagogically useful way.

4. Bernoulli and Newton in Fluid Mechanics

Smith, Norman F.

1972-01-01

Bernoulli's theorem can be better understood with the aid of Newton's laws and the law of conservation of energy. Application of this theorem should involve only cases dealing with an interchange of velocity and pressure within a fluid under isentropic conditions. (DF)

Bencze, Mihaly; Smarandache, Florentin

2008-01-01

In this article we present a simple proof of Borevich-Shafarevich's method to compute the sum of the first n natural numbers of the same power. We also prove several properties of Bernoulli's numbers.

6. Multivariate Bernoulli distribution

Dai, Bin; Ding, Shilin; Wahba, Grace

2012-01-01

In this paper, we consider the multivariate Bernoulli distribution as a model to estimate the structure of graphs with binary nodes. This distribution is discussed in the framework of the exponential family, and its statistical properties regarding independence of the nodes are demonstrated. Importantly the model can estimate not only the main effects and pairwise interactions among the nodes but also is capable of modeling higher order interactions, allowing for the existence of complex cliq...

7. q-Bernoulli numbers and q-Bernoulli polynomials revisited

Kim Taekyun

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract This paper performs a further investigation on the q-Bernoulli numbers and q-Bernoulli polynomials given by Acikgöz et al. (Adv Differ Equ, Article ID 951764, 9, 2010, some incorrect properties are revised. It is point out that the generating function for the q-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials is unreasonable. By using the theorem of Kim (Kyushu J Math 48, 73-86, 1994 (see Equation 9, some new generating functions for the q-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials are shown. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000 11B68, 11S40, 11S80

8. On Bernoulli Numbers and Its Properties

Cong, Lin

2004-01-01

In this survey paper, I first review the history of Bernoulli numbers, then examine the modern definition of Bernoulli numbers and the appearance of Bernoulli numbers in expansion of functions. I revisit some properties of Bernoulli numbers and the history of the computation of big Bernoulli numbers.

9. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

10. Generalizations of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials

Qiu-Ming Luo; Bai-Ni Guo; Feng Qi; Lokenath Debnath

2003-01-01

The concepts of Bernoulli numbers Bn, Bernoulli polynomials Bn(x), and the generalized Bernoulli numbers Bn(a,b) are generalized to the one Bn(x;a,b,c) which is called the generalized Bernoulli polynomials depending on three positive real parameters. Numerous properties of these polynomials and some relationships between Bn, Bn(x), Bn(a,b), and Bn(x;a,b,c) are established.

11. Potenzsummen, Bernoulli-Zahlen und Eulersche Summenformel

Richter, Helmut; Schiekel, Bernhard

2009-01-01

This is a didactical paper, concerning sums of powers, Bernoulli-numbers and the Euler-sum-fomula. The appendix includes a Perl-program for calculating Bernoulli-numbers and the explicit values of the first 80 Bernoulli-numbers.

12. q-Bernoulli Matrices and Their Some Properties

Tuglu, Naim; Kuş, Semra

2015-01-01

In this study, we define q-Bernoulli matrix B(q), q-$Bernoulli polynomial matrix B(x,q) and generalized q-Bernoulli matrix by using q-Bernoulli numbers, and q-Bernoulli polynomials. We obtain some properties of B(q) and B( x,q). We study the factorization q-Bernoulli polynomial matrix. Finally, we define shifted q-Bernoulli matrix. 13. A generalization of the Bernoulli polynomials Pierpaolo Natalini; Angela Bernardini 2003-01-01 A generalization of the Bernoulli polynomials and, consequently, of the Bernoulli numbers, is defined starting from suitable generating functions. Furthermore, the differential equations of these new classes of polynomials are derived by means of the factorization method introduced by Infeld and Hull (1951). 14. A generalization of the Bernoulli polynomials Pierpaolo Natalini 2003-01-01 Full Text Available A generalization of the Bernoulli polynomials and, consequently, of the Bernoulli numbers, is defined starting from suitable generating functions. Furthermore, the differential equations of these new classes of polynomials are derived by means of the factorization method introduced by Infeld and Hull (1951. 15. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond Lorz, Alexander 2013-12-17 The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 16. Bernoulli convolutions and 1D dynamics Kempton, Tom; Persson, Tomas 2015-10-01 We describe a family {φλ} of dynamical systems on the unit interval which preserve Bernoulli convolutions. We show that if there are parameter ranges for which these systems are piecewise convex, then the corresponding Bernoulli convolution will be absolutely continuous with bounded density. We study the systems {φλ} and give some numerical evidence to suggest values of λ for which {φλ} may be piecewise convex. 17. Sum of Bernoulli Mixtures: Beyond Conditional Independence Taehan Bae; Ian Iscoe 2014-01-01 We consider the distribution of the sum of Bernoulli mixtures under a general dependence structure. The level of dependence is measured in terms of a limiting conditional correlation between two of the Bernoulli random variables. The conditioning event is that the mixing random variable is larger than a threshold and the limit is with respect to the threshold tending to one. The large-sample distribution of the empirical frequency and its use in approximating the risk measures, value at risk ... 18. Carlitz q-Bernoulli numbers and q-Stirling numbers Kim, Taekyun 2007-01-01 In this paper we consider carlitz q-Bernoulli numbers and q-stirling numbers of the first and the second kind. From these numbers we derive many interesting formulae associated with q-Bernoulli numbers. 19. Bernoulli? Perhaps, but What about Viscosity? Eastwell, Peter 2007-01-01 Bernoulli's principle is being misunderstood and consequently misused. This paper clarifies the issues involved, hypothesises as to how this unfortunate situation has arisen, provides sound explanations for many everyday phenomena involving moving air, and makes associated recommendations for teaching the effects of moving fluids. 20. Sum of Bernoulli Mixtures: Beyond Conditional Independence Taehan Bae 2014-01-01 Full Text Available We consider the distribution of the sum of Bernoulli mixtures under a general dependence structure. The level of dependence is measured in terms of a limiting conditional correlation between two of the Bernoulli random variables. The conditioning event is that the mixing random variable is larger than a threshold and the limit is with respect to the threshold tending to one. The large-sample distribution of the empirical frequency and its use in approximating the risk measures, value at risk and conditional tail expectation, are presented for a new class of models which we call double mixtures. Several illustrative examples with a Beta mixing distribution, are given. As well, some data from the area of credit risk are fit with the models, and comparisons are made between the new models and also the classical Beta-binomial model. 1. Shape optimisation of an underwater Bernoulli gripper Flint, Tim; Sellier, Mathieu 2015-11-01 In this work, we are interested in maximising the suction produced by an underwater Bernoulli gripper. Bernoulli grippers work by exploiting low pressure regions caused by the acceleration of a working fluid through a narrow channel, between the gripper and a surface, to provide a suction force. This mechanism allows for non-contact adhesion to various surfaces and may be used to hold a robot to the hull of a ship while it inspects welds for example. A Bernoulli type pressure analysis was used to model the system with a Darcy friction factor approximation to include the effects of frictional losses. The analysis involved a constrained optimisation in order to avoid cavitation within the mechanism which would result in decreased performance and damage to surfaces. A sensitivity based method and gradient descent approach was used to find the optimum shape of a discretised surface. The model's accuracy has been quantified against finite volume computational fluid dynamics simulation (ANSYS CFX) using the k- ω SST turbulence model. Preliminary results indicate significant improvement in suction force when compared to a simple geometry by retaining a pressure just above that at which cavitation would occur over as much surface area as possible. Doctoral candidate in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. 2. The shape function of a free-falling laminar jet: Making use of Bernoulli's equation Massalha, Taha; Digilov, Rafael M. 2013-10-01 The shape function of a laminar liquid jet issuing from a circular orifice and falling vertically in air under gravity is analyzed. The diameter of the jet is observed to decrease with the axial distance from the nozzle. The governing equation for variation of the jet radius with the axial coordinate is derived from a modified Bernoulli's law, including the interfacial energy density and viscous losses. The analytical solution found in terms of dimensionless group numbers agrees well with experimental data. 3. Bernoulli Numbers: from Ada Lovelace to the Debye Functions Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina 2016-01-01 Jacob Bernoulli owes his fame for the numerous contributions to calculus and for his discoveries in the field of probability. Here we will discuss one of his contributions to the theory of numbers, the Bernoulli numbers. They were proposed as a case study by Ada Lovelace in her analysis of Menabrea's report on Babbage Analytical Engine. It is probable that it was this Lovelace's work, that inspired Hans Thirring in using the Bernoulli numbers in the calculus of the Debye functions. 4. Dynamic Euler-Bernoulli Beam Equation: Classification and Reductions R. Naz 2015-01-01 Full Text Available We study a dynamic fourth-order Euler-Bernoulli partial differential equation having a constant elastic modulus and area moment of inertia, a variable lineal mass density g(x, and the applied load denoted by f(u, a function of transverse displacement u(t,x. The complete Lie group classification is obtained for different forms of the variable lineal mass density g(x and applied load f(u. The equivalence transformations are constructed to simplify the determining equations for the symmetries. The principal algebra is one-dimensional and it extends to two- and three-dimensional algebras for an arbitrary applied load, general power-law, exponential, and log type of applied loads for different forms of g(x. For the linear applied load case, we obtain an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra. We recover the Lie symmetry classification results discussed in the literature when g(x is constant with variable applied load f(u. For the general power-law and exponential case the group invariant solutions are derived. The similarity transformations reduce the fourth-order partial differential equation to a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. For the power-law applied load case a compatible initial-boundary value problem for the clamped and free end beam cases is formulated. We deduce the fourth-order ordinary differential equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. 5. Generalizations of Poly-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials Jolany, Hassan; Darafsheh, M. R.; Alikelaye, R. Eizadi 2012-01-01 The Concepts of poly-Bernoulli numbers$B_n^{(k)}$, poly-Bernoulli polynomials$B_n^{k}{(t)}$and the generalized poly-bernoulli numbers$B_{n}^{(k)}(a,b)$are generalized to$B_{n}^{(k)}(t,a,b,c)$which is called the generalized poly-Bernoulli polynomials depending on real parameters \\textit{a,b,c}. Some properties of these polynomials and some relationships between$B_n^{k}$,$B_n^{(k)}(t)$,$B_{n}^{(k)}(a,b)$and$B_{n}^{(k)}(t,a,b,c)$are established 6. Bernoulli equation and flow over a mountain Sun, Wen-Yih; Sun, Oliver M. 2015-12-01 The Bernoulli equation is applied to an air parcel which originates at a low level at the inflow region, climbs adiabatically over a mountain with an increase in velocity, then descends on the lee side and forms a strong downslope wind. The parcel departs from hydrostatic equilibrium during its vertical motion. The air parcel can be noticeably cooler than the temperature calculated from adiabatic lapse rate, which allows part of enthalpy to be converted to kinetic energy and produces a stronger wind at mountain peak and a severe downslope wind on the lee side. It was found that the hydrostatic assumption tends to suppress the conversion from enthalpy to kinetic energy. It is also shown that the Froude number defined in the atmosphere is equal to the ratio of kinetic energy to the potential energy, same as in Boussinesq fluid. But in the atmosphere, the Froude number cannot be used to determine whether a parcel can move over a mountain or not, unless the vertical motion is weak and the system is near hydrostatic equilibrium. Numerical simulations confirm that except in highly turbulent areas, the potential temperature and Bernoulli function are almost conserved along the streamline, as well as the change of kinetic energy comes from the change of enthalpy instead of potential energy. 7. Whole analogy between Daniel Bernoulli solution and direct kinematics solution Filipović Mirjana 2010-01-01 Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between the original Euler-Bernoulli's rod equation and contemporary knowledge is established. The solution which Daniel Bernoulli defined for the simplest conditions is essentially the solution of 'direct kinematics'. For this reason, special attention is devoted to dynamics and kinematics of elastic mechanisms configuration. The Euler-Bernoulli equation and its solution (used in literature for a long time should be expanded according to the requirements of the mechanisms motion complexity. The elastic deformation is a dynamic value that depends on the total mechanism movements dynamics. Mathematical model of the actuators comprises also elasticity forces. 8. Bernoulli-like polynomials associated with Stirling Numbers Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C.; BERNHARD K. MEISTER 2005-01-01 The Stirling numbers of the first kind can be represented in terms of a new class of polynomials that are closely related to the Bernoulli polynomials. Recursion relations for these polynomials are given. 9. Theoretical study on a Miniature Joule-Thomson & Bernoulli Cryocooler Xiong, L. Y.; Kaiser, G.; Binneberg, A. 2004-11-01 In this paper, a microchannel-based cryocooler consisting of a compressor, a recuperator and a cold heat exchanger has been developed to study the feasibility of cryogenic cooling by the use of Joule-Thomson effect and Bernoulli effect. A set of governing equations including Bernoulli equations and energy equations are introduced and the performance of the cooler is calculated. The influences of some working conditions and structure parameters on the performance of coolers are discussed in details. 10. Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Tracking for Industrial Mobile Platform Safety Rathnayake, Tharindu; Hoseinnezhad, Reza; Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza 2016-01-01 This paper presents a track-before-detect labeled multi-Bernoulli filter tailored for industrial mobile platform safety applications. We derive two application specific separable likelihood functions that capture the geometric shape and colour information of the human targets who are wearing a high visible vest. These likelihoods are then used in a labeled multi-Bernoulli filter with a novel two step Bayesian update. Preliminary simulation results show that the proposed solution can successfu... 11. Beltrami–Bernoulli equilibria in plasmas with degenerate electrons Berezhiani, V. I., E-mail: vazhab@yahoo.com [Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, TSU, Tbilisi 0177, Georgia and School of Physics, Free University of Tbilisi, Tbilisi 0131, Georgia (United States); Shatashvili, N. L., E-mail: shatash@ictp.it [Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, TSU, Tbilisi 0177, Georgia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (TSU), Tbilisi 0179, Georgia (United States); Mahajan, S. M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States) 2015-02-15 A new class of Double Beltrami–Bernoulli equilibria, sustained by electron degeneracy pressure, is investigated. It is shown that due to electron degeneracy, a nontrivial Beltrami–Bernoulli equilibrium state is possible even for a zero temperature plasma. These states are, conceptually, studied to show the existence of new energy transformation pathways converting, for instance, the degeneracy energy into fluid kinetic energy. Such states may be of relevance to compact astrophysical objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc. 12. Beltrami-Bernoulli Equilibria in Plasmas with Degenerate Electrons Berezhiani, V I; Mahajan, S M 2014-01-01 A new class of Double Beltrami-Bernoulli equilibria, sustained by electron degeneracy pressure, are investigated. It is shown that due to electron degeneracy, a nontrivial Beltrami-Bernoulli equilibrium state is possible even for a zero temperature plasma. These states are, conceptually, studied to show the existence of new energy transformation pathways converting, for instance, the degeneracy energy into fluid kinetic energy. Such states may be of relevance to compact astrophysical objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars etc. 13. Theory of The Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers for The Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type and The Universal Bernoulli Numbers Ônishi, Yoshihiro 2004-01-01 Hurwitz numbers are the Laurent coefficients of an elliptic function$\\wp(u)$of cyclotomic type, and they are natural generalization of the Bernoulli numbers. This paper gives new generalization of Bernoulli and Hurwitz numbers for higher genus cases. They satisfy completely von Staudt-Clausen type theorem, an extension of von Staudt second theorem, and Kummer type congruence relation. The present paper is revised and combined version of math.NT/0304377 and math.NT/0312178 containing many nu... 14. Quantum Markov semigroups constructed from quantum Bernoulli noises Wang, Caishi; Chen, Jinshu [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China) 2016-02-15 Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBNs) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which can describe a two-level quantum system with infinitely many sites. In this paper, we consider the problem to construct quantum Markov semigroups (QMSs) directly from QBNs. We first establish several new theorems concerning QBNs. In particular, we define the number operator acting on Bernoulli functionals by using the canonical orthonormal basis, prove its self-adjoint property, and describe precisely its connections with QBN in a mathematically rigorous way. We then show the possibility to construct QMS directly from QBN. This is done by combining the general results on QMS with our new results on QBN obtained here. Finally, we examine some properties of QMS constructed from QBN. 15. q-Bernoulli Numbers Associated with q-Stirling Numbers Taekyun Kim 2008-01-01 We consider Carlitz q-Bernoulli numbers and q-Stirling numbers of the first and the second kinds. From the properties of q-Stirling numbers, we derive many interesting formulas associated with Carlitz q-Bernoulli numbers. Finally, we will prove ÃŽÂ²n,q=Ã¢ÂˆÂ‘m=0nÃ¢ÂˆÂ‘k=mn1/(1-q)n+m-kÃ¢ÂˆÂ‘d0+Ã¢Â‹Â¯+dk=n-kqÃ¢ÂˆÂ‘i=0kidis1,q(k,m)(-1)n-m((m+1)/[m+1]q), where ÃŽÂ²n,q are called Carlitz q-Bernoulli numbers. 16. Quantum walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noises Wang, Caishi; Ye, Xiaojuan 2016-05-01 Quantum Bernoulli noises are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which satisfy a canonical anti-commutation relation in equal time. In this paper, we first present some new results concerning quantum Bernoulli noises, which themselves are interesting. Then, based on these new results, we construct a time-dependent quantum walk with infinitely many degrees of freedom. We prove that the walk has a unitary representation and hence belongs to the category of the so-called unitary quantum walks. We examine its distribution property at the vacuum initial state and some other initial states and find that it has the same limit distribution as the classical random walk, which contrasts sharply with the case of the usual quantum walks with finite degrees of freedom. 17. Quantum Markov semigroups constructed from quantum Bernoulli noises Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBNs) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which can describe a two-level quantum system with infinitely many sites. In this paper, we consider the problem to construct quantum Markov semigroups (QMSs) directly from QBNs. We first establish several new theorems concerning QBNs. In particular, we define the number operator acting on Bernoulli functionals by using the canonical orthonormal basis, prove its self-adjoint property, and describe precisely its connections with QBN in a mathematically rigorous way. We then show the possibility to construct QMS directly from QBN. This is done by combining the general results on QMS with our new results on QBN obtained here. Finally, we examine some properties of QMS constructed from QBN 18. Colour Texture Representation Based on Multivariate Bernoulli Mixtures Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2010, s. 578-581. ISBN 978-1-4244-7166-9. [10th International Conference on Information Sciences, Signal Processing and their Applications. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 10.05.2010-13.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Texture modeling * Bernoulli mixture * EM algorithm Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/haindl-colour texture representation based on multivariate bernoulli mixtures.pdf 19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MARKOV-BERNOULLI GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION RELATED TO RANDOM SUMS Mohamed Gharib; Ramadan, Mahmoud M.; Khaled A.H. Al-Ajmi 2014-01-01 The Markov-Bernoulli geometric distribution is obtained when a generalization, as a Markov process, of the independent Bernoulli sequence of random variables is introduced by considering the success probability changes with respect to the Markov chain. The resulting model is called the Markov- Bernoulli model and it has a wide variety of application fields. In this study, some characterizations are given concerning the Markov-Bernoulli geometric distribution as the distribution of the summati... 20. Exceptional Zeros of$L$-series and Bernoulli-Carlitz Numbers Anglès, Bruno; Dac, Tuan Ngo; Ribeiro, Floric Tavares 2015-01-01 Bernoulli-Carlitz numbers were introduced by L. Carlitz in 1935, they are the analogues in positive characteristic of Bernoulli numbers. We prove a conjecture formulated by F. Pellarin and the first author on the non-vanishing modulo a given prime of families of Bernoulli-Carlitz numbers. We then show that the "exceptional zeros" of certain$L$-series are intimately connected to the Bernoulli-Carlitz numbers. 1. A study on the integral of the product of several Bernoulli polynomials Kim, Dae San; Kim, Taekyun 2014-01-01 The purpose of this paper is to give some properties of several Bernoulli polynomials to express the integral of those polynomials from 0 to 1 in terms of beta and gamma functions. From those properties, we derive some relations on the integral of the product of Bernoulli polynomials and new identities on the Bernoulli numbers. 2. The Bernoulli Equation in a Moving Reference Frame Mungan, Carl E. 2011-01-01 Unlike other standard equations in introductory classical mechanics, the Bernoulli equation is not Galilean invariant. The explanation is that, in a reference frame moving with respect to constrictions or obstacles, those surfaces do work on the fluid, constituting an extra term that needs to be included in the work-energy calculation. A… 3. Generalized Bernoulli numbers on the KO-theory IMAOKA, MITSUNORI 1996-01-01 The Bernoulli number defined on the generalized cohomology theory is studied, mainly focusing it on complex unoriented theories. We give a concrete formula about it on the KO-theory for the stunted quaternionic quasi-projective space, and apply the formula to represent a factorization of the double transfer map concerning such projective spaces. 4. The Bernoulli or Coanda Conundrum and Other Classical Demonstration Myths Stille, Dale 2009-11-01 Lecture Demonstration professionals have recently taken a closer look at demonstrations that were traditionally labeled Bernoulli Demonstrations'' in most textbooks. This examination has shown that in most cases the Coanda Effect, Magnus Effect, and Entrainment may be better explanations for most of these classic demonstrations. A discussion of other similarly classic demonstrations and some of their problems or misconceptions will also be presented. 5. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.; 2011-01-01 In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found for... 6. The influence of inertia on the efflux velocity: From Daniel Bernoulli to a contemporary theory Malcherek, Andreas 2015-11-01 In 1644 Evangelista Torricelli claimed that the outflow velocity from a vessel is equal to the terminal speed of a body falling freely from the filling level h, i.e. v =√{ 2 gh } . Therefore the largest velocities are predicted when the height in a vessel is at the highest position. As a consequence the efflux would start with the highest velocity directly from the initiation of motion which contradicts the inertia principle. In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli derived a much more sophisticated and instationary outflow theory basing on the conservation of potential and kinetic energy. As a special case Torricelli's law is obtained, when inertia is neglected and the cross section of the opening is small compared to the vessel's cross section. To the Authors knowledge, this theory was never applied or even mentioned in text books although it is superior to the Torricelli theory in many aspects. In this paper Bernoulli's forgotten theory will be presented. Deriving this theory using the state of the arts hydrodynamics results in a new formula v =√{ gh } . Although this formula contradicts Torricelli's principle, it is confirmed by all kind of experiments stating that a discharge coefficient of about β = 0 . 7 is needed in Torricelli's formula v = β√{ 2 gh } . 7. MODIFIED BERNOULLI ITERATION METHODS FOR QUADRATIC MATRIX EQUATION Zhong-Zhi Bai; Yong-Hua Gao 2007-01-01 We construct a modified Bernoulli iteration method for solving the quadratic matrix equation AX2+BX+C=0,where A,B and C are square matrices.This method is motivated from the Gauss-Seidel iteration for solving linear systems and the ShermanMorrison-Woodbury formula for updating matrices.Under suitable conditions, we prove the local linear convergence of the Dew method.An algorithm is presented to find the solution of the quadratic matrix equation and some numerical results are given to show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the algorithm.In addition,we also describe and analyze the block version of the modified Bernoulli iteration method. 8. General Convolution Identities for Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials Dilcher, K.; Vignat , C. 2015-01-01 Using general identities for difference operators, as well as a technique of symbolic computation and tools from probability theory, we derive very general kth order (k \\ge 2) convolution identities for Bernoulli and Euler polynomials. This is achieved by use of an elementary result on uniformly distributed random variables. These identities depend on k positive real parameters, and as special cases we obtain numerous known and new identities for these polynomials. In particular we show that ... 9. CHARACTERIZATION OF MARKOV-BERNOULLI GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION RELATED TO RANDOM SUMS Mohamed Gharib 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The Markov-Bernoulli geometric distribution is obtained when a generalization, as a Markov process, of the independent Bernoulli sequence of random variables is introduced by considering the success probability changes with respect to the Markov chain. The resulting model is called the Markov- Bernoulli model and it has a wide variety of application fields. In this study, some characterizations are given concerning the Markov-Bernoulli geometric distribution as the distribution of the summation index of independent randomly truncated non-negative integer valued random variables. The achieved results generalize the corresponding characterizations concerning the usual geometric distribution. 10. Fast computation of Bernoulli, Tangent and Secant numbers Brent, Richard P.; Harvey, David 2011-01-01 We consider the computation of Bernoulli, Tangent (zag), and Secant (zig or Euler) numbers. In particular, we give asymptotically fast algorithms for computing the first n such numbers in O(n^2.(log n)^(2+o(1))) bit-operations. We also give very short in-place algorithms for computing the first n Tangent or Secant numbers in O(n^2) integer operations. These algorithms are extremely simple, and fast for moderate values of n. They are faster and use less space than the algorithms of Atkinson (f... 11. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines A. B. Hu 2006-01-01 Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories. 12. Frecuencias propias de vigas Euler-Bernoulli no uniformes Non-uniform Euler-Bernoulli beams’ natural frequencies Zhevandrov Petr; Aya Hugo; Cano Ricardo 2011-01-01 En el presente trabajo se estudia el problema de frecuencias propias de la viga Euler-Bernoulli de sección no uniforme; se comparan las soluciones del ... 13. A Substitution to Bernoulli Numbers in easier computation of (\\zeta(2k)) Arunachalam, Srinivasan 2011-01-01 An alternative formulae for the evaluation of (\\zeta(2k)) without the need for Bernoulli numbers. This formula is a recursive formula and helps in the calculation with lesser mathematical computation of large value of zeta function with huge Bernoulli numbers. 14. Who Solved the Bernoulli Differential Equation and How Did They Do It? Parker, Adam E. 2013-01-01 The Bernoulli brothers, Jacob and Johann, and Leibniz: Any of these might have been first to solve what is called the Bernoulli differential equation. We explore their ideas and the chronology of their work, finding out, among other things, that variation of parameters was used in 1697, 78 years before 1775, when Lagrange introduced it in general. 15. Chaotic dynamics of flexible Euler-Bernoulli beams Awrejcewicz, J., E-mail: awrejcew@p.lodz.pl [Department of Automation, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Lodz University of Technology, 1/15 Stefanowski St., 90-924 Lodz, Poland and Department of Vehicles, Warsaw University of Technology, 84 Narbutta St., 02-524 Warsaw (Poland); Krysko, A. V., E-mail: anton.krysko@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Systems Analysis, Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya 77, 410054 Saratov (Russian Federation); Kutepov, I. E., E-mail: iekutepov@gmail.com; Zagniboroda, N. A., E-mail: tssrat@mail.ru; Dobriyan, V., E-mail: Dobriy88@yandex.ru; Krysko, V. A., E-mail: tak@san.ru [Department of Mathematics and Modeling, Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya 77, 410054 Saratov (Russian Federation) 2013-12-15 Mathematical modeling and analysis of spatio-temporal chaotic dynamics of flexible simple and curved Euler-Bernoulli beams are carried out. The Kármán-type geometric non-linearity is considered. Algorithms reducing partial differential equations which govern the dynamics of studied objects and associated boundary value problems are reduced to the Cauchy problem through both Finite Difference Method with the approximation of O(c{sup 2}) and Finite Element Method. The obtained Cauchy problem is solved via the fourth and sixth-order Runge-Kutta methods. Validity and reliability of the results are rigorously discussed. Analysis of the chaotic dynamics of flexible Euler-Bernoulli beams for a series of boundary conditions is carried out with the help of the qualitative theory of differential equations. We analyze time histories, phase and modal portraits, autocorrelation functions, the Poincaré and pseudo-Poincaré maps, signs of the first four Lyapunov exponents, as well as the compression factor of the phase volume of an attractor. A novel scenario of transition from periodicity to chaos is obtained, and a transition from chaos to hyper-chaos is illustrated. In particular, we study and explain the phenomenon of transition from symmetric to asymmetric vibrations. Vibration-type charts are given regarding two control parameters: amplitude q{sub 0} and frequency ω{sub p} of the uniformly distributed periodic excitation. Furthermore, we detected and illustrated how the so called temporal-space chaos is developed following the transition from regular to chaotic system dynamics. 16. Euler-Bernoulli beams from a symmetry standpoint-characterization of equivalent equations Soh, C. Wafo 2007-01-01 We completely solve the equivalence problem for Euler-Bernoulli equation using Lie symmetry analysis. We show that the quotient of the symmetry Lie algebra of the Bernoulli equation by the infinite-dimensional Lie algebra spanned by solution symmetries is a representation of one of the following Lie algebras:$2A_1$,$A_1\\oplus A_2$,$3A_1$, or$A_{3,3}\\oplus A_1$. Each quotient symmetry Lie algebra determines an equivalence class of Euler-Bernoulli equations. Save for the generic case corres... 17. q-Bernstein polynomials, q-Stirling numbers and q-Bernoulli polynomials Kim, T. 2010-01-01 In this paper, we give new identities involving Phillips q-Bernstein polynomials and we derive some interesting properties of q-Berstein polynomials associated with q-Stirling numbers and q-Bernoulli polynomials. 18. A new class of generalized polynomials associated with Hermite and Bernoulli polynomials M. A. Pathan 2015-05-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new class of generalized polynomials associated with the modified Milne-Thomson's polynomials Φ_{n}^{(α}(x,ν of degree n and order α introduced by Derre and Simsek.The concepts of Bernoulli numbers B_n, Bernoulli polynomials B_n(x, generalized Bernoulli numbers B_n(a,b, generalized Bernoulli polynomials B_n(x;a,b,c of Luo et al, Hermite-Bernoulli polynomials {_HB}_n(x,y of Dattoli et al and {_HB}_n^{(α} (x,y of Pathan are generalized to the one {_HB}_n^{(α}(x,y,a,b,c which is called the generalized polynomial depending on three positive real parameters. Numerous properties of these polynomials and some relationships between B_n, B_n(x, B_n(a,b, B_n(x;a,b,c and {}_HB_n^{(α}(x,y;a,b,c are established. Some implicit summation formulae and general symmetry identities are derived by using different analytical means and applying generating functions. These results extend some known summations and identities of generalized Bernoulli numbers and polynomials 19. Bernoulli numbers and polynomials from a more general point of view Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM(Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Cesarano, C. [Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Lonzellutta, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche E. Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata 2000-07-01 In this work it is applied the method of generating function, to introduce new forms of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, which are exploited to derive further classes of partial sums involving generalized many index many variable polynomials. Analogous considerations are developed for the Euler numbers and polynomials. [Italian] Si applica il metodo della funzione generatrice per introdurre nuove forme di numeri e polinomi di Bernoulli che vengono utilizzati per sviluppare e per calcolare somme parziali che coinvolgono polinomi a piu' indici ed a piu' variabili. Si sviluppano considerazioni analoghe per i polinomi ed i numeri di Eulero. 20. A pilot inference study for a beta-Bernoulli spatial scan statistic Read, S.; Bath, P.A.; Willett, P.; Maheswaran, R. 2012-01-01 The Bernoulli spatial scan statistic is used to detect localised clusters in binary labelled point data, such as that used in spatial or spatio-temporal case/control studies. We test the inferential capability of a recently developed beta-Bernoulli spatial scan statistic, which adds a beta prior to the original statistic. This pilot study, which includes two test scenarios with 6,000 data sets each, suggests a marked increase in power for a given false alert rate. We suggest a more extensi... 1. Bernoulli numbers and polynomials from a more general point of view In this work it is applied the method of generating function, to introduce new forms of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, which are exploited to derive further classes of partial sums involving generalized many index many variable polynomials. Analogous considerations are developed for the Euler numbers and polynomials 2. The equivalence problem for the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation via Cartan's method We completely solve the local point equivalence problem for the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation using Cartan's method of equivalence. We obtain five equivalence classes. For each equivalence class, we establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for similarity, and derive a basis of differential invariants as well as operators of invariant differentiation 3. Theory of Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers in the Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type Ônishi, Yoshihiro 2003-01-01 In this paper we announce some results obtained for certain algebraic functions, which we call of cyclotomic type. The main results properly resemble von Staudt-Clausen's theorem and Kummer's congruence for the Bernoulli numbers, and such theorems for the Hurwitz numbers. 4. A PERTURBATION METHOD FOR THE NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE BERNOULLI PROBLEM Fran(c)ois bouchon; Stéphane Clain; Rachid Touzani 2008-01-01 We consider the numerical solution of the free boundary Bernoulli problem by employing level set formulations.Using a perturbation technique,we derive a second order method that leads to a fast iteration solver.The iteration procedure is adapted in order to work in the case of topology changes.Various numerical experiments confirm the efficiency of the derived numerical method. 5. On the exponential decay of the Euler-Bernoulli beam with boundary energy dissipation Lazzari, Barbara; Nibbi, Roberta 2011-01-01 We study the asymptotic behavior of the Euler-Bernoulli beam which is clamped at one end and free at the other end. We apply a boundary control with memory at the free end of the beam and prove that the "exponential decay" of the memory kernel is a necessary and sufficient condition for the exponential decay of the energy. 6. Frecuencias propias de vigas Euler-Bernoulli no uniformes Non-uniform Euler-Bernoulli beams’ natural frequencies Zhevandrov Petr 2011-05-01 Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia el problema de frecuencias propias de la viga Euler-Bernoulli de sección no uniforme; se comparan las soluciones del problema obtenidas numéricamente con la solución asintótica lograda mediante el método Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB. Se establece que la precisión de las fórmulas WKB es mayor del 3% para frecuencias altas (número de modo ≥ 4. This paper has studied the problem of natural frequencies for Euler-Bernoulli beams having non-uniform cross-section. The numerically-obtained solutions were compared to asymptotic solutions obtained by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB method. It was established that WKB formula precision was higher than 3% for high frequencies (A Batch Arrival Retrial Queue with Two Phases of Service and Bernoulli Vacation Schedule Gautam Choudhury; Kandarpa Deka 2013-01-01 We consider an MX/G/1 queueing system with two phases of heterogeneous service and Bernoulli vacation schedule which operate under a linear retrial policy.In addition,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon the arrival.This model generalizes both the classical M/G/1 retrial queue with arrivals in batches and a two phase batch arrival queue with a single vacation under Bernoulli vacation schedule.We will carry out an extensive stationary analysis of the system,including existence of the stationary regime,embedded Markov chain,steady state distribution of the server state and number of customer in the retrial group,stochastic decomposition and calculation of the first moment. 7. Accuracy of AFM force distance curves via direct solution of the Euler-Bernoulli equation Eppell, Steven J.; Yehe Liu; Zypman, Fredy R. 2016-01-01 In an effort to improve the accuracy of force-separation curves obtained from atomic force microscope data, we compare force-separation curves computed using two methods to solve the Euler-Bernoulli equation. A recently introduced method using a direct sequential forward solution, Causal Time-Domain Analysis, is compared against a previously introduced Tikhonov Regularization method. Using the direct solution as a benchmark, it is found that the regularization technique is unable to reproduce... 8. Multiple-Model Cardinality Balanced Multitarget Multi-Bernoulli Filter for Tracking Maneuvering Targets Xianghui Yuan; Feng Lian; Chongzhao Han 2013-01-01 By integrating the cardinality balanced multitarget multi-Bernoulli (CBMeMBer) filter with the interacting multiple models (IMM) algorithm, an MM-CBMeMBer filter is proposed in this paper for tracking multiple maneuvering targets in clutter. The sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method is used to implement the filter for generic multi-target models and the Gaussian mixture (GM) method is used to implement the filter for linear-Gaussian multi-target models. Then, the extended Kalman (EK) and unscen... 9. Generalized distributions of order k associated with success runs in Bernoulli trials Gregory A. Tripsiannis; Papathanasiou, Afroditi A.; Philippou, Andreas N. 2003-01-01 In a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, by counting multidimensional lattice paths in order to compute the probability of a first-passage event, we derive and study a generalized negative binomial distribution of order k, type I, which extends to distributions of order k, the generalized negative binomial distribution of Jain and Consul (1971), and includes as a special case the negative binomial distribution of order k, type I, of Philippou et al. (1983). This new distribution gives r... 10. Sums of Possibly Associated Bernoulli Variables: The Conway–Maxwell-Binomial Distribution Joseph B. Kadane 2016-01-01 The study of sums of possibly associated Bernoulli random variables has been hampered by an asymmetry between positive correlation and negative correlation. The Conway-Maxwell Binomial (COMB) distribution and its multivariate extension, the Conway-Maxwell Multinomial (COMM) distribution, gracefully model both positive and negative association. Sufficient statistics and a family of proper conjugate distributions are found. The relationship of this distribution to the exchangeable special case ... 11. Multilevel simulation of functionals of Bernoulli random variables with application to basket credit derivatives Bujok, K.; Hambly, B. M.; Reisinger, C. 2012-01-01 We consider$N$Bernoulli random variables, which are independent conditional on a common random factor determining their probability distribution. We show that certain expected functionals of the proportion$L_N$of variables in a given state converge at rate 1/N as$N\\rightarrow \\infty$. Based on these results, we propose a multi-level simulation algorithm using a family of sequences with increasing length, to obtain estimators for these expected functionals with a mean-square error of$\\ep...

12. Forecasting Russian renewable, nuclear, and total energy consumption using improved nonlinear grey Bernoulli model

Hsiao-Tien Pao; Hsin-Chia Fu; Hsiao-Cheng Yu

2013-01-01

Forecasts of renewable, nuclear, and total primary energy consumption are essential for a green energy system and the understanding of climate change in a rapidly growing market such as Russia. In this paper, nonlinear grey Bernoulli with power j model (NGBMj) is applied to predict these three different types of energy consumption. A numerical iterative method to optimize the powers of NGBM using mathematical software is also proposed. The NGBM with optimal power model is named NGBMop. The fo...

13. Discrete-Time Chaotic Circuits for Implementation of Tent Map and Bernoulli Map

LI Zhi-zhong; QIU Shui-sheng

2005-01-01

Discrete-time chaotic circuit implementations of a tent map and a Bernoulli map using switched-current (SI) techniques are presented. The two circuits can be constructed with 16MOSFET's and 2 capacitors. The simulations and experiments built with commercially available IC's for the circuits have demonstrated the validity of the circuit designs. The experiment results also indicate that the proposed circuits are integrable by a standard CMOS technology. The implementations are useful for studies and applications of chaos.

14. Improving performance of DS-CDMA systems using chaotic complex Bernoulli spreading codes

2014-12-01

15. Stabilization of Nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli Beam with Locally Distributed Feedbacks

Xian-bing CAO; Qing-xu YAN

2012-01-01

In this article,we study the stabilization problem of a nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with locally distributed feedbacks.Firstly,using the semi-group theory,we establish the well-posedness of the associated closed loop system.Then by proving the uniqueness of the solution of a related ordinary differential equations,we derive the asymptotic stability of the closed loop system. Finally,by means of the piecewise frequency domain multiplier method,we prove that the corresponding closed loop system can be exponentially stabilized by only one of the two distributed feedback controls proposed in this paper.

16. Optimal Policy for Mx/G/1 Queueing System with Bernoulli Feedback

Mukta Kalra

2010-01-01

Full Text Available We deal with Mx/G/1 Queueing System with Bernoulli feedback under N-Policy. The probability generating function and supplementary variable technique are utilized to evaluate the steady state probability distribution of the number of units in the system. The steady state results are used to establish the explicit expressions for the average number of units in the system and the mean response time for three different series time distribution. Some of the existing results are deduced as special cases. Cost analysis is performed to design the optimal N-policy at minimum cost. In order to validate the analytical approach by taking illustration we compute numerical results.

17. The Real Powers of the Convolution of a Gamma Distribution and a Bernoulli Distribution

Nahla, Ben Salah; Afif, Masmoudi

2009-01-01

In this paper, we essentially compute the set of $x,y>0$ such that the mapping $z \\longmapsto \\Big{(}1-r+r e^z\\Big{)}^x \\Big{(}\\dis\\frac{\\lambda}{\\lambda-z}\\Big{)}^{y}$ is a Laplace transform. If $X$ and $Y$ are two independent random variables which have respectively Bernoulli and Gamma distributions, we denote by $\\mu$ the distribution of $X+Y.$ The above problem is equivalent to finding the set of $x>0$ such that $\\mu^{{\\ast}x}$ exists.

18. Modified Bernoulli Equation for Use with Combined Electro-Osmotic and Pressure-Driven Microflows

2012-01-01

In this paper we present electro-osmotic (EO) flow within a more traditional fluid mechanics framework. Specifically, the modified Bernoulli equation (viz. the energy equation, the mechanical energy equation, the pipe flow equation, etc.) is shown to be applicable to EO flows if an electrical potential energy term is also included. The form of the loss term in the modified Bernoulli equation is unaffected by the presence of an electric field; i.e., the loss term still represents the effect of wall shear stress, which can be represented via a friction factor. We show that that the friction factor for pure EO flow (no applied pressure gradient) varies inversely with the Reynolds number based on the Debeye length of the electric double layer. Expressions for friction factor for combined laminar pressure-driven and EO flow are also given. These are shown to be functions of Reynolds number and geometry, as well as the relative strength of the applied electric field to the applied pressure gradient.

19. Bernoulli-based random undersampling schemes for 2D seismic data regularization

Cai, Rui; Zhao, Qun; She, De-Ping; Yang, Li; Cao, Hui; Yang, Qin-Yong

2014-09-01

Seismic data regularization is an important preprocessing step in seismic signal processing. Traditional seismic acquisition methods follow the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, whereas compressive sensing (CS) provides a fundamentally new paradigm to overcome limitations in data acquisition. Besides the sparse representation of seismic signal in some transform domain and the 1-norm reconstruction algorithm, the seismic data regularization quality of CS-based techniques strongly depends on random undersampling schemes. For 2D seismic data, discrete uniform-based methods have been investigated, where some seismic traces are randomly sampled with an equal probability. However, in theory and practice, some seismic traces with different probability are required to be sampled for satisfying the assumptions in CS. Therefore, designing new undersampling schemes is imperative. We propose a Bernoulli-based random undersampling scheme and its jittered version to determine the regular traces that are randomly sampled with different probability, while both schemes comply with the Bernoulli process distribution. We performed experiments using the Fourier and curvelet transforms and the spectral projected gradient reconstruction algorithm for 1-norm (SPGL1), and ten different random seeds. According to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between the original and reconstructed seismic data, the detailed experimental results from 2D numerical and physical simulation data show that the proposed novel schemes perform overall better than the discrete uniform schemes.

1. A Numerical Method of the Euler-Bernoulli Beam with Optimal Local Kelvin-Voigt Damping

Xin Yu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical approximation problem of the optimal control problem governed by the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with local Kelvin-Voigt damping, which is a nonlinear coefficient control problem with control constraints. The goal of this problem is to design a control input numerically, which is the damping and distributes locally on a subinterval of the region occupied by the beam, such that the total energy of the beam and the control on a given time period is minimal. We firstly use the finite element method (FEM to obtain a finite-dimensional model based on the original PDE system. Then, using the control parameterization method, we approximate the finite-dimensional problem by a standard optimal parameter selection problem, which is a suboptimal problem and can be solved numerically by nonlinear mathematical programming algorithm. At last, some simulation studies will be presented by the proposed numerical approximation method in this paper, where the damping controls act on different locations of the Euler-Bernoulli beam.

2. $q$-poly-Bernoulli numbers and $q$-poly-Cauchy numbers with a parameter by Jackson's integrals

Komatsu, Takao

2015-01-01

We define $q$-poly-Bernoulli polynomials $B_{n,\\rho,q}^{(k)}(z)$ with a parameter $\\rho$, $q$-poly-Cauchy polynomials of the first kind $c_{n,\\rho,q}^{(k)}(z)$ and of the second kind $\\widehat c_{n,\\rho,q}^{(k)}(z)$ with a parameter $\\rho$ by Jackson's integrals, which generalize the previously known numbers and polynomials, including poly-Bernoulli numbers $B_n^{(k)}$ and the poly-Cauchy numbers of the first kind $c_n^{(k)}$ and of the second kind $\\widehat c_n^{(k)}$. We investigate their p...

3. A New Proof of the Sharpness of the Phase Transition for Bernoulli Percolation and the Ising Model

Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Tassion, Vincent

2016-04-01

We provide a new proof of the sharpness of the phase transition for Bernoulli percolation and the Ising model. The proof applies to infinite-range models on arbitrary locally finite transitive infinite graphs. For Bernoulli percolation, we prove finiteness of the susceptibility in the subcritical regime {β β_c}. For finite-range models, we also prove that for any {β decays exponentially fast in n. For the Ising model, we prove finiteness of the susceptibility for {β β_c}. For finite-range models, we also prove that the two-point correlation functions decay exponentially fast in the distance for {β < β_c}.

4. Zipf's law is not a consequence of the central limit theorem

Troll, G.; Beim Graben, P.

1998-02-01

It has been observed that the rank statistics of string frequencies of many symbolic systems (e.g., word frequencies of natural languages) follows Zipf's law in good approximation. We show that, contrary to claims in the literature, Zipf's law cannot be realized by the central limit theorem(s). The observation that a log-normal distribution of string frequencies yields an approximately Zipf-like rank statistics is actually misleading. Indeed, Zipf's law for the rank statistics is strictly equivalent to a power law distribution of frequencies. There are two natural ways to perform the infinite size limit for the vocabulary. The first one is the method of choice in the literature; it makes the upper word length bound tend to infinity and leads in the case of a multistate Bernoulli process via a central limit theorem to a log-normal frequency distribution. An alternative and for text samples actually better realizable way is to make the lower frequency bound tend to zero. This limit procedure leads to a power law distribution and hence to Zipf's law-at least for Bernoulli processes and to a very good approximation for natural languages where it passes the χ2 test. For the Bernoulli case we will give a heuristic proof.

5. On Initial Conditions for a Boundary Stabilized Hybrid Euler–Bernoulli Beam

Sujit K Bose

2001-08-01

We consider here small flexural vibrations of an Euler–Bernoulli beam with a lumped mass at one end subject to viscous damping force while the other end is free and the system is set to motion with initial displacement 0() and initial velocity 1(). By investigating the evolution of the motion by Laplace transform, it is proved (in dimensionless units of length and time) that $$\\int_0^1 y_{xt}^2 dx ≤ \\int_0^1 y_{xx}^2 dx, \\quad t>t_0,$$ where 0 may be sufficiently large, provided that {0, 1} satisfy very general restrictions stated in the concluding theorem. This supplies the restrictions for uniform exponential energy decay for stabilization of the beam considered in a recent paper.

6. Accuracy of AFM force distance curves via direct solution of the Euler-Bernoulli equation

Eppell, Steven J.; Liu, Yehe; Zypman, Fredy R.

2016-03-01

In an effort to improve the accuracy of force-separation curves obtained from atomic force microscope data, we compare force-separation curves computed using two methods to solve the Euler-Bernoulli equation. A recently introduced method using a direct sequential forward solution, Causal Time-Domain Analysis, is compared against a previously introduced Tikhonov Regularization method. Using the direct solution as a benchmark, it is found that the regularization technique is unable to reproduce accurate curve shapes. Using L-curve analysis and adjusting the regularization parameter, λ, to match either the depth or the full width at half maximum of the force curves, the two techniques are contrasted. Matched depths result in full width at half maxima that are off by an average of 27% and matched full width at half maxima produce depths that are off by an average of 109%.

7. Accuracy of AFM force distance curves via direct solution of the Euler-Bernoulli equation

Steven J. Eppell

2016-03-01

Full Text Available In an effort to improve the accuracy of force-separation curves obtained from atomic force microscope data, we compare force-separation curves computed using two methods to solve the Euler-Bernoulli equation. A recently introduced method using a direct sequential forward solution, Causal Time-Domain Analysis, is compared against a previously introduced Tikhonov Regularization method. Using the direct solution as a benchmark, it is found that the regularization technique is unable to reproduce accurate curve shapes. Using L-curve analysis and adjusting the regularization parameter, λ, to match either the depth or the full width at half maximum of the force curves, the two techniques are contrasted. Matched depths result in full width at half maxima that are off by an average of 27% and matched full width at half maxima produce depths that are off by an average of 109%.

8. A biclustering algorithm for binary matrices based on penalized Bernoulli likelihood

Lee, Seokho

2013-01-31

We propose a new biclustering method for binary data matrices using the maximum penalized Bernoulli likelihood estimation. Our method applies a multi-layer model defined on the logits of the success probabilities, where each layer represents a simple bicluster structure and the combination of multiple layers is able to reveal complicated, multiple biclusters. The method allows for non-pure biclusters, and can simultaneously identify the 1-prevalent blocks and 0-prevalent blocks. A computationally efficient algorithm is developed and guidelines are provided for specifying the tuning parameters, including initial values of model parameters, the number of layers, and the penalty parameters. Missing-data imputation can be handled in the EM framework. The method is tested using synthetic and real datasets and shows good performance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

9. Free Vibration and Stability of Axially Functionally Graded Tapered Euler-Bernoulli Beams

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Structural analysis of axially functionally graded tapered Euler-Bernoulli beams is studied using finite element method. A beam element is proposed which takes advantage of the shape functions of homogeneous uniform beam elements. The effects of varying cross-sectional dimensions and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are included in the evaluation of structural matrices. This method could be used for beam elements with any distributions of mass density and modulus of elasticity with arbitrarily varying cross-sectional area. Assuming polynomial distributions of modulus of elasticity and mass density, the competency of the element is examined in stability analysis, free longitudinal vibration and free transverse vibration of double tapered beams with different boundary conditions and the convergence rate of the element is then investigated.

10. Generalized distributions of order k associated with success runs in Bernoulli trials

Andreas N. Philippou

2003-02-01

Full Text Available In a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, by counting multidimensional lattice paths in order to compute the probability of a first-passage event, we derive and study a generalized negative binomial distribution of order k, type I, which extends to distributions of order k, the generalized negative binomial distribution of Jain and Consul (1971, and includes as a special case the negative binomial distribution of order k, type I, of Philippou et al. (1983. This new distribution gives rise in the limit to generalized logarithmic and Borel-Tanner distributions and, by compounding, to the generalized PÃƒÂ³lya distribution of the same order and type. Limiting cases are considered and an application to observed data is presented.

11. Multi-flexural band gaps in an Euler-Bernoulli beam with lateral local resonators

Wang, Ting; Sheng, Mei-Ping; Qin, Qing-Hua

2016-02-01

Flexural vibration suppression in an Euler-Bernoulli beam with attached lateral local resonators (LLR) is studied theoretically and numerically. Hamilton's principle and Bloch's theorem are employed to derive the dispersion relation which reveals that two band gaps are generated. Within both band gaps, the flexural waves are partially transformed into longitudinal waves through a four-link-mechanism and totally blocked. The band gaps can be flexibly tuned by changing the geometry parameter of the four-link-mechanism and the spring constants of the resonators. Frequency response function (FRF) from finite element analysis via commercial software of ANSYS shows large flexural wave attenuation within the band gaps and the effect of damping from the LLR substructures which helps smooth and lower the response peaks at the sacrifice of the band gap effect. The existence of the multi-flexural band gaps can be exploited for the design of flexural vibration control of beams.

12. Spectral statistics of Bernoulli matrix ensembles—a random walk approach (I)

We investigate the eigenvalue statistics of random Bernoulli matrices, where the matrix elements are chosen independently from a binary set with equal probability. This is achieved by initiating a discrete random walk process over the space of matrices and analysing the induced random motion of the eigenvalues—an approach which is similar to Dyson’s Brownian motion model but with important modifications. In particular, we show our process is described by a Fokker–Planck equation, up to an error margin which vanishes in the limit of large matrix dimension. The stationary solution of which corresponds to the joint probability density function of certain well-known fixed trace Gaussian ensembles. (paper)

13. Law without Law

Sidharth, B. G.

2007-01-01

We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

14. Continuum mechanics through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries historical perspectives from John Bernoulli (1727) to Ernst Hellinger (1914)

Maugin, Gérard A

2014-01-01

Conceived as a series of more or less autonomous essays, the present book critically exposes the initial developments of continuum thermo-mechanics in a post Newtonian period extending from the creative works of the Bernoullis to the First World war, i.e., roughly during first the “Age of reason” and next the “Birth of the modern world”. The emphasis is rightly placed on the original contributions from the “Continental” scientists (the Bernoulli family, Euler, d’Alembert, Lagrange, Cauchy, Piola, Duhamel, Neumann, Clebsch, Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, Saint-Venant, Boussinesq, the Cosserat brothers, Caratheodory) in competition with their British peers (Green, Kelvin, Stokes, Maxwell, Rayleigh, Love,..). It underlines the main breakthroughs as well as the secondary ones. It highlights the role of scientists who left essential prints in this history of scientific ideas. The book shows how the formidable developments that blossomed in the twentieth century (and perused in a previous book of the author in...

15. Explicit formulas for computing Bernoulli numbers of the second kind and Stirling numbers of the first kind

Qi, Feng

2013-01-01

In the paper, by establishing a new and explicit formula for computing the $n$-th derivative of the reciprocal of the logarithmic function, the author presents new and explicit formulas for calculating Bernoulli numbers of the second kind and Stirling numbers of the first kind. As consequences of these formulas, a recursion for Stirling numbers of the first kind and a new representation of the reciprocal of the factorial $n!$ are derived. Finally, the author finds several identities and integ...

Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract l......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

17. L’Hôpital's Analyse des infiniments petits an annotated translation with source material by Johann Bernoulli

Bradley, Robert E; Sandifer, C Edward

2015-01-01

This monograph is an annotated translation of what is considered to be the world’s first calculus textbook, originally published in French in 1696. That anonymously published textbook on differential calculus was based on lectures given to the Marquis de l’Hôpital in 1691-2 by the great Swiss mathematician, Johann Bernoulli. In the 1920s, a copy of Bernoulli’s lecture notes was discovered in a library in Basel, which presented the opportunity to compare Bernoulli’s notes, in Latin, to l’Hôpital’s text in French. The similarities are remarkable, but there is also much in l’Hôpital’s book that is original and innovative. This book offers the first English translation of Bernoulli's notes, along with the first faithful English translation of l’Hôpital’s text, complete with annotations and commentary. Additionally, a significant portion of the correspondence between l’Hôpital and Bernoulli has been included, also for the fi rst time in English translation. This translation will provide ...

18. Polytropic index of magnetosheath ions based on homogeneous MHD Bernoulli Integral

Pang, Xuexia; Cao, Jinbin; Ma, Yuduan

2016-03-01

This paper uses Cluster data during the period from 2001 to 2010 to study the polytropic processes of magnetosheath ions. Utilizing the method of homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Bernoulli integral (MBI), we first identify streamflow tubes, then use the constant of polytropic relation to guarantee that the streamflow tube experiences an unchanged polytropic process, and finally determine the polytropic index of ions in these streamflow tubes. The statistical results show that the magnetosheath is a complicated system in which the polytropic index of ions ranges from -2 to 3. The polytropic index distribution of ions is dependent on the electromagnetic energy flux perpendicular to the streamline. The median polytropic index of ions in the magnetosheath is 0.960, 0.965, and 0.974 for perpendicular electromagnetic energy ratio δE × B < 5%, δE × B < 3%, and δE × B < 1%, respectively. There are two basic polytropic processes in the magnetosheath: the dominant isothermal process and the isobaric process. When there is no exchange of electromagnetic energy between neighboring streamflow tubes, the magnetosheath ions are isothermal. However, when the perpendicular electromagnetic energy ratio increases, the isobaric polytropic process starts to emerge. The magnetosheath ion flows are highly localized because most streamflow tubes experiencing same polytropic processes last less than 60 s. Thus, the polytropic index of magnetosheath ion flows is highly variable.

19. Forecasting Russian renewable, nuclear, and total energy consumption using improved nonlinear grey Bernoulli model

Hsiao-Tien Pao

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Forecasts of renewable, nuclear, and total primary energy consumption are essential for a green energy system and the understanding of climate change in a rapidly growing market such as Russia. In this paper, nonlinear grey Bernoulli with power j model (NGBMj is applied to predict these three different types of energy consumption. A numerical iterative method to optimize the powers of NGBM using mathematical software is also proposed. The NGBM with optimal power model is named NGBMop. The forecasting ability of NGBMop has remarkably improved, comparing with the grey model. For each time series, the best NGBMop provides an accurate and reliable multi-step prediction with a MAPE value of less than 2.90 during the out-of-sample period of 2004-2009. The prediction results show that Russias compound annual renewable, nuclear, and total energy consumption growth rates are set respectively at 1.95%, 2.44%, and 0.88% between 2010 and 2015.

20. Reverse engineering Boolean networks: from Bernoulli mixture models to rule based systems.

Mehreen Saeed

Full Text Available A Boolean network is a graphical model for representing and analyzing the behavior of gene regulatory networks (GRN. In this context, the accurate and efficient reconstruction of a Boolean network is essential for understanding the gene regulation mechanism and the complex relations that exist therein. In this paper we introduce an elegant and efficient algorithm for the reverse engineering of Boolean networks from a time series of multivariate binary data corresponding to gene expression data. We call our method ReBMM, i.e., reverse engineering based on Bernoulli mixture models. The time complexity of most of the existing reverse engineering techniques is quite high and depends upon the indegree of a node in the network. Due to the high complexity of these methods, they can only be applied to sparsely connected networks of small sizes. ReBMM has a time complexity factor, which is independent of the indegree of a node and is quadratic in the number of nodes in the network, a big improvement over other techniques and yet there is little or no compromise in accuracy. We have tested ReBMM on a number of artificial datasets along with simulated data derived from a plant signaling network. We also used this method to reconstruct a network from real experimental observations of microarray data of the yeast cell cycle. Our method provides a natural framework for generating rules from a probabilistic model. It is simple, intuitive and illustrates excellent empirical results.

1. Sufficient Condition for Monotonicity in Constructing the Distribution Function With Bernoulli Scheme

Vedenyapin Aleksandr Dmitrievich

2015-11-01

Full Text Available This paper is the construction of the distribution function using the Bernoulli scheme, and is also designed to correct some of the mistakes that were made in the article [2]. Namely, a function built in [2] need not be monotonous, and some formulas need to be adjusted. The idea of building as well as in [2], is based on the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein "binary market". The essence of the model was to divide time into N steps, and assuming that the price of an asset at each step can move either up to a certain value with probability p, or down also by some certain value with probability q = 1 - p. Prices in step N can take only a finite number of values. "Success" or "failure" was the changing price for some fixed value in the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein. Here as a "success" or "failure" at every step we consider the affiliation of changing the index value to the section [r, S] either to the interval [I, r. Further a function P(r was introduced, which at any step gives us the probability of "success". The maximum index value increase for the all period of time [T, 2T] will be equal nS, and the maximum possible reduction will be equal nI. Then let x ∈ [nI, nS]. This segment will reflect every possible total variation that we can get at the end of a period of time [T, 2T]. The further introduced inequality k ≥ (x - nI/(S - I gives us the minimum number of successes that needed for total changing could be in the section [x, nS] if was n - k reductions with the index value to I. Then was introduced the function r(x, kmin which is defined on the interval (nI, nS] and provided us some assurance that the total index changing could be in the section [x, nS] if successful interval is [r(x, kmin, S] and the amount of success is satisfying to our inequality. The probability of k "successes" and n - k "failures" is calculated according to the formula of Bernoulli, where the probability of "success" is determined by the function P(r, and r is determined

2. Environmental law

In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST)

3. Criminal Law

Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law.......<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

4. Scrutiny of non-linear differential equations Euler-Bernoulli beam with large rotational deviation by AGM

Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.

2014-12-01

The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

5. Environmental law

This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH)

6. Conservation laws for steady flow and solitons in a multifluid plasma revisited

The conservation laws used in constructing the governing equations for planar solitons in multifluid plasmas are revisited. In particular, the concept of generalized vorticity facilitates the derivation of some general ''Bernoulli theorems,'' which reduce, in specific instances, to conservation laws previously deduced by other means. These theorems clarify the underlying physical principles that give rise to the conserved quantities. As an example of the usefulness of the techniques, even for relatively simple flows and progressive waves, the equations governing stationary nonlinear whistler waves propagating parallel to an ambient magnetic field are derived using generalized vorticity concepts

7. World law

Harold J. Berman; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

1999-01-01

In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

8. Limit laws for Zipf's law

In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law. (fast track communication)

9. Statute law or case law?

Anderlini, Luca; Felli, Leonardo; RIBONI, Alessandro

2008-01-01

In a Case Law regime Courts have more flexibility than in a Statute Law regime. Since Statutes are inevitably incomplete, this confers an advantage to the Statute Law regime over the Case Law one. However, all Courts rule ex-post, after most economic decisions are already taken. Therefore, the advantage of flexibility for Case Law is unavoidably paired with the potential for time-inconsistency. Under Case Law, Courts may be tempted to behave myopically and neglect ex-ante welfare because, ex-...

10. A Family of Modified Even Order Bernoulli-Type Multiquadric Quasi-Interpolants with Any Degree Polynomial Reproduction Property

Ruifeng Wu

2014-01-01

shifts of the function f(x(x∈ℝ to approximate the derivatives of f(x, we propose a family of modified even order Bernoulli-type multiquadric quasi-interpolants which do not require the derivatives of the function approximated at each node and can satisfy any degree polynomial reproduction property. Error estimate indicates that our operators could provide the desired precision by choosing a suitable shape-preserving parameter c and a nonnegative integer m. Numerical comparisons show that this technique provides a higher degree of accuracy. Finally, applying our operators to the fitting of discrete solutions of initial value problems, we find that our method has smaller errors than the Runge-Kutta method of order 4 and Wang et al.’s quasi-interpolation scheme.

11. Energy Law

The author is trying very hard to present a systematic and compact description of the energy law as a whole. For reasons metioned in the first chapter, the energy law confines itself to the law relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines and transmission lines. Energy law and the law relating supplied by means of pipelines are therefore synonyms. There is no special energy law except the one relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines. The book - intended to be read by experts and undergraduates - discusses the subject and systematics of energy law, energy control, price regulations for electricity supply industry and for the gas supply industry, the law relating to pipe-laying, licence fees and law on cartels, supply obligations of the electricity supply utilities, legal issues of energy supply contracts, liability for supply disruptions, the legal nature of public energy supply, planning law, the relating to plant licensing, atomic law, legal protection in plant licensing procedures, the current structure of industry supplying energy by means of pipelines and, finally, reform demands. (orig.)

12. Environmental law

This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST)

13. law 575 courses / law575helpdotcom

law 575

2015-01-01

FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.law575help.com LAW 575 Week 1 Discussion Questions LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 LT Reflection Formative Assesement LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 Business Organization and ADR LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 3 Formative Assessment, Learning Team Reflection LAW 575 Week 4 Reflect...

14. Laws Editorial

Lawrence O. Gostin

2011-05-01

Full Text Available My life’s work has positioned me in two diverse worlds’ one in science and one in law [1]. I publish in both fields, and the traditions are very different. Law journals typically have narrow readerships, principally those in the legal academy. The law review tradition, particularly in North America, is student edited, non-peer reviewed, and characteristically long and detailed. Law libraries often spend large portions of their budgets on journal subscriptions, which they store in scarce space. [...

15. Law 302.

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

16. Integrating the theories of Darwin and Bernoulli: maladaptive baroreceptor network dysfunction may explain the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms.

Conley, Buford R; Doux, John D; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A; Daniel, Stephanie M; Yun, Anthony J

2005-01-01

Current treatment options for aortic aneurysms are suboptimal and their pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. We propose the existence of a coordinated multi-node baroreceptor network that measures pressures at all vascular bifurcations and enables system-wide hemodynamic coordination and vasomotor regulation, in accordance with the principle of Bernoulli. While the presence of baroreceptors at bifurcations remains unknown, behavior at the level of systems predicts their existence, possibly as glomus cell derivatives. We propose that pressure misregistration among sensor nodes at different vascular bifurcations can precipitate feed-forward dysfunctions that promote thrombosis, inflammation, and vasomotor dysregulation resulting in aneurysm formation. One example of this phenomenon is aortic aneurysm, which is currently attributed to focal anatomic defects. As plaque builds in the infrarenal aorta, the increased blood velocity through this segment can widen the difference between pressures sensed at the iliac and the renal artery bifurcations. Due to the Bernoulli effect, this change creates an incorrect impression of reduced dynamic pressure at the kidneys. The erroneous perception of hypovolemia can induce a pernicious cycle of maladaptive adrenergia and associated coagulation and thrombosis, particularly in the infrarenal aortic segment as the body attempts to normalize renal perfusion. Atherosclerosis can further exacerbate baroreceptor dysfunction by interfering with sensor biology in feed-forward fashion. Hypertension may be a consequence as well as a source of atherosclerosis and aneurysm. The described system may have evolved when trauma-related hypovolemia was a far more prevalent driver of natural selection but may be rendered maladaptive in the setting of modern stressors. Failure to address these factors may explain the suboptimal long-term outcomes with current surgical and endovascular treatments for aneurysms. Implications for other potential sensor

17. Case - Case-Law - Law

2013-01-01

Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

18. A Discrete-Time Geo/G/1 Retrial Queue with Bernoulli Vacation and Second Optional Service%有Bernoulli休假和可选服务的Geo/G/1重试排队

陈佩树; 朱翼隽; 陈燕

2011-01-01

讨论了有Bernoulli休假策略和可选服务的离散时间Geo/G/1重试排队系统.假定一旦顾客发现服务台忙或在休假就进入重试区域,重试时间服从几何分布.顾客在进行第一阶段服务结束后可以离开系统或进一步要求可选服务.服务台在每次服务完毕后,可以进行休假,或者等待服务下一个顾客.还研究了在此模型下的马尔可夫链,并计算了在稳态条件下的系统的各种性能指标以及给出一些特例和系统的随机分解.%We analyze a discrete-time Geo/G/1retrial queue with Bernoulli vacation where all the arriving customers require a first essential service while only some of them demand a second optional service. If upon arrival, the server is busy or vacation, the CU8tomer is obliged to leave the service area and to orbit. Each customer in the orbit forms an independent retrial source and the retrial time follows a geometrical law. Just after completion of a customer's service the server may take a vacation of random length or may opt to continue staying in the system to serve the next customer. We study the Markov chain underlying the considered queuing system and some performance measures of the system in steady-state. Further, we give two stochastic decomposition laws and some examples.

19. Nuclear Law

This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA)

20. Nuclear law

Different laws on use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes in Bulgaria and Italy are given here: civil liability, nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste, nuclear facilities, decommissioning, health and environment protection. (N.C.)

1. Islamic Law

Doranda Maracineanu

2009-01-01

The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

2. Secrets Law

Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

2013-01-01

This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

3. Dynamical equations for the vector potential and the velocity potential in incompressible irrotational Euler flows: a refined Bernoulli theorem.

Ohkitani, Koji

2015-09-01

We consider incompressible Euler flows in terms of the stream function in two dimensions and the vector potential in three dimensions. We pay special attention to the case with singular distributions of the vorticity, e.g., point vortices in two dimensions. An explicit equation governing the velocity potentials is derived in two steps. (i) Starting from the equation for the stream function [Ohkitani, Nonlinearity 21, T255 (2009)NONLE50951-771510.1088/0951-7715/21/12/T02], which is valid for smooth flows as well, we derive an equation for the complex velocity potential. (ii) Taking a real part of this equation, we find a dynamical equation for the velocity potential, which may be regarded as a refinement of Bernoulli theorem. In three-dimensional incompressible flows, we first derive dynamical equations for the vector potentials which are valid for smooth fields and then recast them in hypercomplex form. The equation for the velocity potential is identified as its real part and is valid, for example, flows with vortex layers. As an application, the Kelvin-Helmholtz problem has been worked out on the basis the current formalism. A connection to the Navier-Stokes regularity problem is addressed as a physical application of the equations for the vector potentials for smooth fields. PMID:26465559

4. Bernoulli particle filter with observer altitude for maritime radiation source tracking in the presence of measurement uncertainty

Luo Xiaobo; Fan Hongqi; Song Zhiyong; Fu Qiang

2013-01-01

5. Application of game theory on parameter optimization of the novel two-stage Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model

Hsin, Pei-Han; Chen, Chun-I.

2015-10-01

In grey prediction modeling, there are three parameters in nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM), including the power n, the coefficient p and the length of raw data used to construct grey forecasting model. Nash NGBM only optimizes n and p by the iterated elimination of weakly dominated strategies of game theory. To optimize above three parameters, this study develops a two-stage game for NNGBM (abbreviated as two-stage NNGBM). In the first stage, find the Nash equilibrium for each possible game. In the second stage, use Minimax principle to find the optimal left topological sequence which has the best forecasting performance. Then, obtain Nash equilibrium which consists of these three parameters. This study also proves that the traditional GM(1, 1), optimal p GM(1, 1) and NGBM(1, 1) are the special cases of the proposed model. In order to show the feasibility of this research, the proposed method is applied to the forecasting of Taiwan's GDP. The results show that five elements in raw data sequence are optimal topological length for constructing NNGBM in the case of Taiwan's GDP forecasting.

6. LAW 531 Uop Material - law531dotcom

honey

2015-01-01

LAW 531 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.law531.com   LAW 531 Week 1 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 1 Individual Assignment The Legal System and ADR Analysis LAW 531 Week 2 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 2 Individual Business Forms Worksheet LAW 531 Week 2 Learning Team Reflection IRAC Brief LAW 531 Week 3 Quiz (Knowledge Check) ...

7. Secrets Law

Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

8. Recent publications on environmental law

The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.)

9. Recent publications on environmental law

The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP)

10. Case law

This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

11. Islamic Law

Doranda Maracineanu

2009-06-01

Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

12. Multi-range hypothesis based bearings-only Bernoulli filter%多距离假设纯方位伯努利滤波器的设计

陈辉; 韩崇昭

2015-01-01

Considering the uncertainty of measurement origin deriving from the random surviving multi-target, clutter, and the missed detection of sensor, a multi-range hypothesis Bernoulli filter is proposed in order to solve the bearings-only tracking problem. Firstly, a multi-range hypothesis based bearings-only measurement equation is modeled in Cartesian coordinates. Then, a Gaussian mixture multi-range hypothesis cardinality-balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli filter is derived and proposed. Finally, an adaptive bearings-only birth multi-Bernoulli density is proposed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.%考虑多目标随机新生和消亡下存在杂波和传感器漏检所导致的量测源不确定性，针对纯方位跟踪(BOT)问题，提出一种多距离假设伯努利滤波器。首先，构造笛卡尔坐标系下的多距离假设纯方位观测模型；然后，根据该测量模型详细推导并提出高斯混合多距离假设势平衡多目标多伯努利滤波器；最后，提出一种自适应纯方位新生多伯努利密度的新方法。仿真结果验证了所提出算法的有效性。

13. Criminal law

Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.)

14. 非均质Euler-bernoulli梁的局部反馈定问题%Locally Distributed Feedback Stabilization of Nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli Beam

闫庆旭; 侯瑞鸿; 冯德兴; 齐剑冷

2005-01-01

In this article, we study the locally distributed feedback stabilization problem of a nonuniform Euler-Bernoulli beam. Firstly, using the semi-group theory, we establish the wellposedness of the associated closed loop system. Then by proving the uniqueness of the solution to a related ordinary differential equation, we derive the asymptotic stability of the closed loop system. Finally, by means of the piecewise multiplier method, we prove that, by either one distributed force feedback or a distributed moment feedback control, the closed loop system can be exponentially stabilized.

15. Travail, force vive et fatigue dans l'oeuvre de Daniel Bernoulli: vers l'optimisation du fait biologique (1738-1753) / Work, vis viva and tiredness in Daniel Bernoulli's works: towards the optimization of the biological fact (1738-1753)

Fonteneau, Yannick

2013-01-01

The concept of mechanical work is inherited from the concepts of potentia absoluta and men's work, both implemented in the Section IX of Daniel Bernoulli's Hydrodynamica in 1738. Nonetheless, Bernoulli did not confuse those two entities: he defined a link from gender to species between the former, general, and the latter, organic. Besides, Bernoulli clearly distinguished vis viva and potentia absoluta (or work). Their mutual conversions are rarely explicitly mentionned in this book, except once, in the Section X of his work, from vis viva to work, and subordinated to the mediation of a machine, in a driving forces substitution problem. His attitude significantly evolved in a text in 1753, in which work and vis viva were unambiguously connected, while the concept of potentia absoluta was reduced to the one of men's work, and the expression itself was abandoned. It was then accepted that work can be converted into vis viva, but the opposite is true in only one case, the intra-organic one. The concept of tiredne...

16. Case law

This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

17. Nuclear law

The preclusion of objections made a legal norm in Sect. 3 para. 1 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Installations (Sect. 7 para 1 (2) of Procedural Rules under the Atomic Energy Law) does also cover the court proceedings. The non-availability for public inspection of detailed drawings of those parts of the building which are important for its safety is harmless if there is the danger that the publication of these technical details will provide technical information likely to facilitate potential acts of sabotage. Procedural rules must not be interpreted in such a way as to give rise to inconsistency between the aims of the procedure and the purpose of the conditions to be met before a licence under substantive law is granted. Taking the necessary preventive measures against potential acts of sabotage must not be complicated by the way in which the procedure is organized, and its efficiency must not be jeopardized. Lueneburg Supreme Administrative Court - 7 OVG B 88/77 - Decision of February 5, 1981. (orig.)

18. Case law

Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

19. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

Strauss, Peter L.

1996-01-01

Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

20. Case law

This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

1. Nuclear Law

We find in this report two studies, one about the compensation regimes applicable to radiation workers in OECD countries, the second one about Tokai-mura accident (Japan): third party liability and compensation aspects. Then, come the case law and administrative decisions, national legislative and regulation activities, international regulatory activities, bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements. Among these different parts are to notice: judgement in the public civil action concerning the Goiania radiological accident (2000,Brazil), judgement of the Council of State confirming the definitive shut-down of Superphenix (2000, France), decision relative to the DOE 's obligation to accept spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from nuclear power plants (NPPs) (2000, Usa), decision concerning the construction of a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel (2000, Finland). (N.C.)

2. Case Law

Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

3. Case law

This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

4. Case law

This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

5. Case Law

This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

6. Recent publications on environmental law

The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP)

7. Case law

This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

8. Economic Analysis of Law

Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

1999-01-01

This is a survey of the field of economic analysis of law, focusing on the work of economists. The survey covers the three central areas of civil law liability for accidents (tort law), property law, and contracts as well as the litigation process and public enforcement of law.

9. Economic Analysis of Law

Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

1999-01-01

This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

10. Identification of unknown spatial load distributions in a vibrating Euler–Bernoulli beam from limited measured data

Hasanov, Alemdar; Kawano, Alexandre

2016-05-01

Two types of inverse source problems of identifying asynchronously distributed spatial loads governed by the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation ρ (x){w}{tt}+μ (x){w}t+{({EI}(x){w}{xx})}{xx}-{T}r{u}{xx}={\\sum }m=1M{g}m(t){f}m(x), (x,t)\\in {{{Ω }}}T := (0,l)× (0,T), with hinged–clamped ends (w(0,t)={w}{xx}(0,t)=0,w(l,t) = {w}x(l,t)=0,t\\in (0,T)), are studied. Here {g}m(t) are linearly independent functions, describing an asynchronous temporal loading, and {f}m(x) are the spatial load distributions. In the first identification problem the values {ν }k(t),k=\\bar{1,K}, of the deflection w(x,t), are assumed to be known, as measured output data, in a neighbourhood of the finite set of points P:= \\{{x}k\\in (0,l),k=\\bar{1,K}\\}\\subset (0,l), corresponding to the internal points of a continuous beam, for all t\\in ]0,T[. In the second identification problem the values {θ }k(t),k=\\bar{1,K}, of the slope {w}x(x,t), are assumed to be known, as measured output data in a neighbourhood of the same set of points P for all t\\in ]0,T[. These inverse source problems will be defined subsequently as the problems ISP1 and ISP2. The general purpose of this study is to develop mathematical concepts and tools that are capable of providing effective numerical algorithms for the numerical solution of the considered class of inverse problems. Note that both measured output data {ν }k(t) and {θ }k(t) contain random noise. In the first part of the study we prove that each measured output data {ν }k(t) and {θ }k(t),k=\\bar{1,K} can uniquely determine the unknown functions {f}m\\in {H}-1(]0,l[),m=\\bar{1,M}. In the second part of the study we will introduce the input–output operators {{ K }}d :{L}2(0,T)\\mapsto {L}2(0,T),({{ K }}df)(t):= w(x,t;f),x\\in P, f(x) := ({f}1(x),\\ldots ,{f}M(x)), and {{ K }}s :{L}2(0,T)\\mapsto {L}2(0,T), ({{ K }}sf)(t):= {w}x(x,t;f), x\\in P , corresponding to the problems ISP1 and ISP2, and then reformulate these problems as the operator equations

11. Teaching Global Law.

Wojtan, Linda S.

1980-01-01

Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

12. Law Enforcement Locations

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

13. Tenancy Law Denmark

Edlund, Hans Henrik

2003-01-01

Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

14. Case law

The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

15. AN UNPRECEDENTED LAW

2007-01-01

On the eve of the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong’s return to China and the implementation of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Beijing Review reporter Li Li spoke to Professor Xu Chongde from the Law School of Renmin University of China, a Basic Law drafter, about how the law was created and its spirit.

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1992-01-01

This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

17. EU Labour Law

Nielsen, Ruth

The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

18. The Power of Law

2009-01-01

China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

19. Relativistic Hubble's law

Ko, Yongkyu

2003-01-01

Considering the hyperbolic nature of the universe, the Hubble's law and the inverse square laws such as, the Coulomb's law and Newton's gravitational law, should be modified in accordance with the special theory of relativity. Consequently there is no the Hubble's length, which might be the observable boundary of our universe, does not appear in point of view of the special theory of relativity, and the Newton's third law still hold in the special theory of relativity. Recent astronomical obs...

20. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

Abelardo Posso Serrano

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

1. 变系数Euler-Bernoulli梁振动发展系统的存在性%Existence of Evolution System of Euler-Bernoulli Beam with Variable Coefficient

武洁琼; 陈发师

2003-01-01

讨论变系数Euler-Bernoulli梁振动系统utt(x,t)+η(t)uxxxx(x,t)=0,0＜x＜1,0≤t≤T{ u(0,t)=ux(0,t)=0,0≤t≤T-uxxx(1,t)+mutt(1,t)=-αut(1,t)+βuxxxt(1,t),0≤t≤T (1)uxt(1,t)=-γuxx(1,t),0≤t≤Tu(x,0)=u1(x),ut(x,0)=u2(x),0≤x≤1证明了该系统产生一个发展系统.%A flexible structure consisting of Euler-Bernoulli beam with a variable coefficient described by utt(x,t) +-η(t)uxxxx (x,t)=0, 0＜x＜1, 0≤t≤T u(0,t) = ux(0,t) = 0, 0 ≤ t ≤ T { - uxxx(1,t) +mutt(1,t) =- aut(1,t) + βuxxxt(1,t), 0≤t≤T (1) uxt(1,t) =-γuxx(1,t), 0≤t≤T u(x,0) =u1(x), ut(x,0) =u2(x), 0≤x≤ 1 is considered. We prove that the system generate an evolution system when η(t) is a continuous function and η(t) ∈∨ [0,T], 0＜η0≤η(t)≤M.

2. Endoscopic evaluation of therapeutic effects of “Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama” in Pratishyaya w.s.r. to mucociliary clearance mechanism and Bernoulli's principle

Bhardwaj, Atul; Sharma, Mahendra Kumar; Gupta, Manoj

2013-01-01

The current endeavor intended to evaluate the effectiveness and mode of action of Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama (AVP), i.e., alternate nasal breathing exercise, in resolving clinical features of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis. The present study was directed to validate the use of classical “saccharin test” in measuring the nasal health by measuring mucociliary clearance time. This study also highlights the effects of AVP by application of Bernoulli principle in ventilation of paranasal sinuses and surface oxygenation of nasal and paranasal sinuses ciliary epithelium. Clinically, endoscopically and radiologically diagnosed patients of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis, satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected to perform AVP as a breathing exercise regularly for 30 min every day in order to evaluate the effectiveness of AVP in resolving features of rhinosinusitis. Saccharin test was performed before and after completion of 40 days trial to assess the nasal ciliary activity, which has been proved to be directly related to the health of ciliary epithelium and nasal health overall as well. AVP may be regarded as a catalyst to conspicuously enhance ventilation and oxygenation of the paranasal sinuses and the positively effect the nasal respiratory epithelium by increasing better surface availability of oxygen and negative pressure in the nasal cavity itself. PMID:24696572

3. Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Magnetic Fluid Separation%旋转磁流体分选法中的伯努利方程研究

张应强; 魏镜弢; 张明; 张晶

2014-01-01

立足于旋转磁流体的非磁性矿物分选法，从磁流体微元体模型受力状态出发，对旋转磁流体运动状态进行了分析，以流体力学、铁磁流体力学、离心力学等理论基础为手段，建立旋转磁流体伯努利方程，为旋转磁流体分选法的理论完善和工业应用提供支持。%Starting from non-magnetic mineral separation using rotating magnetic fluid,and focusing on the forces in representative elemental volume of magnetic fluid,the state of dynamics in magnetic fluid is analysed. Based on hydromechanics,ferrohydromechanics(FHD),centrifugal mechanics,etc,the Bernoulli eguation in rotating magnetic fluid separation is established. All of these tasks would help to improve the theories and industrial application of rotating magnetic fluid separation.

4. Factorisations of distributive laws

Kraehmer, Ulrich; Slevin, Paul

2014-01-01

Recently, Boehm and Stefan constructed duplicial (paracyclic) objects from distributive laws between (co)monads. Here we define the category of factorisations of a distributive law, show that it acts on this construction, and give some explicit examples.

5. Civil Law Glossary.

Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

1997-01-01

Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

6. A Healthy Law

2008-01-01

The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

7. Health care law versus constitutional law.

Hall, Mark A

2013-04-01

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

8. Law of Demand

Michael Jerison; John K.-H. Quah

2006-01-01

We formulate several laws of individual and market demand and describe their relationship to neoclassical demand theory. The laws have implications for comparative statics and stability of competitive equilibrium. We survey results that offer interpretable sufficient conditions for the laws to hold and we refer to related empirical evidence. The laws for market demand are more likely to be satisfied if commodities are more substitutable. Certain kinds of heterogeneity across individuals make ...

9. Theorising international environmental law

Humphreys, Stephen; Otomo, Yoriko

2014-01-01

From The Oxford Handbook of International Legal Theory (Florian Hoffmann and Anne Orford, eds, Oxford UP, forthcoming 2014). --- This paper, part of a larger work on international law theory, sketches some early lines of inquiry towards a theoretical understanding of international environmental law. As the body of international law regulating human interaction with the natural world, one might expect this branch of law to be a cornerstone of the international system. Yet in practice,...

10. Behavioral Law and Economics

Christine Jolls

2007-01-01

Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

11. Environmental protection law; Umweltschutzrecht

Kloepfer, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

2008-07-01

The author of the book under consideration reports on the entire environmental protection law in a systematic survey. The book attaches great importance to the presentation of the legal fundaments, the European legal background, to the constitutional law and considers the ministerial draft bill to the environmental law book. The book under consideration is addressed to students of the law as well as junior lawyers. It is suitable for the preparation on the examination.

12. Education on Environmental Law.

Cano, Guillermo J.

1981-01-01

Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

13. Stochastic Conservation Laws?

Sidharth, B G

1998-01-01

We examine conservation laws, typically the conservation of linear momentum, in the light of a recent successful formulation of fermions as Kerr-Newman type Black Holes, which are created fluctuationally from a background Zero Point Field. We conclude that these conservation laws are to be taken in the spirit of thermodynamic laws.

14. The Constitutional Law Sessions

White, Daniel O.

1972-01-01

Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

15. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

2004-01-01

A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

16. Law of Empires.

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

17. European tax law

B.J.M. Terra; P.J. Wattel

2008-01-01

This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

18. Environmental law in Denmark

Basse, Ellen Margrethe

Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

19. Basic Law and Atomic Energy Law

The author avails himself of the by now controversial jurisdiction on partial licences issued for nuclear power plants to argue relevant provisions of the Basic Law and to include facts which are related to the Basic Law. This is also necessary for reasons of social policy, since such a juridicial decision produces an effect which spreads far beyond the litigants. In a constitutional state that has to stand the test in the conflict arising between human rights and technical progress, the controversy on basic rights has to form a part of the trial and of the opinion. There are two sides to the rule of law: The citizen's obligation not to use violence, and his right to be strictly protected by the Basic Law. (HSCH)

20. Water, law, science

Narasimhan, T.N.

2007-10-17

In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

1. The rule of law

Besnik Murati

2015-07-01

Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

2. Statistical laws in linguistics

Altmann, Eduardo G

2015-01-01

Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

3. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

4. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

Visser, Matt

2013-04-01

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

5. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

Visser, Matt

2012-01-01

Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

6. Law and Medical Ethics

Frenkel, D A

1984-01-01

Summarising the interrelationship between law and medical ethics, I would say that in cases which do not touch the patient's body or integrity, such as professional secrecy, statutory law may take precedence over rules of medical ethics. But in cases where the human subject becomes a victim because of domestic statutory laws which are in contradiction with medical ethics, the medical practitioners should insist on adhering to their professional standards in such a way that the legislators wil...

7. Environmental law: Course

Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

2013-01-01

In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

8. The Functions of Law

Green, L

1998-01-01

We often think of law as fulfilling certain social functions; for instance, it is said to guide behaviour, maintain order, settle disputes, and provide benefits and services. In the social sciences, more general claims are also made that law stabilizes the dominant mode of production, promotes economic efficiency, secures patriarchy, and so on. 1 What do these claims mean, and what do they contribute to our understanding of law as a social institution? Those are the questions I want to explor...

9. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

ELENA ANGHEL

2011-04-01

Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

10. On Newton's Third Law

Pinheiro, Mario J.

2009-01-01

The law of action-reaction is thoroughly used in textbooks to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum, and it was considered by Ernst Mach the the cornerstone of physics. We give here a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law, and in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework to clarify the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. It is also obtained an expression for the ge...

11. Thinking law: thinking law in motion

Laura Beth Nielsen

2014-07-01

Full Text Available This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1 multiple methodologies; (2 multiple perspectives; (3 multiple vocalities; and (4 multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can claim credit. And yet, the attempt to put them together in a comprehensive schema with consideration for all four of the multiplicities in the same project, demonstrates that a law in motion perspective can bear new fruit. To do this, my article combines analysis of some of the research in Law & Society that exemplifies these trends and my own research on employment civil rights litigation to interrogate the necessity of a “multiple” approach for our “multiple futures.”

12. Essay on nuclear law

This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

13. Social Studies: Law Education.

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

14. Introduction to planning law

The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG)

15. EU Food Law Handbook

Meulen, van der B.M.J.

2014-01-01

The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

16. Law before Gratian

' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors to...

17. Nanotechnology and the Law

Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

18. Teaching Information Technology Law

Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

2009-01-01

In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

19. Law-Abiding Games

2006-01-01

Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

20. Pop Goes the Law

Harper, Steven J.

2013-01-01

The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

1. Unilateralism in International Law

Hartmann, Jacques

2015-01-01

international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus on...... the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

2. The nuclear law

We find here a digest of nuclear law. From historical aspect to the different agencies such EURATOM, Iea, IAEA, in passing by the law of fuel cycle and the nuclear trade. The ideas of safety and major risks are also reviewed. (N.C.)

3. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

2009-01-01

By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

4. Creating EU law judges

Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

2014-01-01

The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data...

5. Laws of nature

Mittelstaedt, Peter

2005-01-01

The book is concerned with the laws of nature and in particular with the laws of physics. The authors discuss three important questions: First, whether the observed regularities are based on strict "laws of nature" that hold rigorously and without any exception. Second, what we call a "law of nature" is studied by comparing this concept with invariance principles, causality principles, teleological principles and means of predicting future events. Finally, on the basis of these investigations the authors treat the ambitious and intricate third question, why the laws of nature hold. Are there rational reasons for this largely unexplained phenomenon? This book addresses students as well as researchers. It will be an excellent reference for those interested in the philosophical foundations of the natural sciences.

6. Computer Simulation on Bernoulli Equation Experiment in Hydraulics%水力学伯努利方程实验仿真研究

李占松; 蒙昊; 范如琴; 朱士江

2011-01-01

伯努利方程是水力学中最重要且常用的方程之一,它描述了恒定流时流体运动中各种能量之间的相互转换关系和规律.伯努利方程实验是学习和掌握该方程物理意义不可缺少的手段.通过总水头线和测压管水头线可以清晰地表现出水流运动中的各种能量转换关系,用计算机编程进行仿真可以直观方便地再现主要实验现象.程序设计为可视化窗口界面,以命令按钮、菜单为主要控制元件,绘出实验装置,动态演示水流运动,对所得数据进行了相关处理并绘出水头线,同时配有实验说明等.仿真操作方法和步骤以真实实验流程为蓝本实现全过程,此为该项实验预备及课堂教学提供了基本条件.%Bernoulli equation plays an important role in hydraulics and describes the conversion rule of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy and pressure potential energy in the steady flow. Bernoulli equation experiment can clearly show the conversion phenomenon by total head line and piezometer head line. The computer program could intuitively show the main phenomenon of experiment. Which consists of a visual window interface, command buttons and menus, as the main control units. Computer simulation based on the real steps of the experiment, draws the experimental equipment, shows the flow process and deals with the data, plots the head line graphics for analysis. The computer program does not only gives students a roughly knowledge about experiment before doing it. But also helps teachers doing their work.

7. Tight Bernoulli tail probability bounds

Dzindzalieta, Dainius

2014-01-01

The purpose of the dissertation is to prove universal tight bounds for deviation from the mean probability inequalities for functions of random variables. Universal bounds shows that they are uniform with respect to some class of distributions and quantity of variables and other parameters. The bounds are called tight, if we can construct a sequence of random variables, such that the upper bounds are achieved. Such inequalities are useful for example in insurance mathematics, for constructing...

8. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

Tobin, Emma

2013-01-01

This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

9. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

Robbins, Jerry H.

Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

10. The Practice of Transnational Law

2000-01-01

Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

11. Ceteris Paribus Laws and Minutis Rectis Laws

Fenton-Glynn, L.

2016-01-01

Special science generalizations admit of exceptions. Among the class of non-exceptionless special sciencegeneralizations, I distinguish (what I will call) minutis rectis (mr) generalizations from the more familiarcategory of ceteris paribus (cp) generalizations. I argue that the challenges involved in showing that mrgeneralizations can play the law role are underappreciated, and quite different from those involved inshowing that cp generalizations can do so. I outline a strategy for meeting t...

Elsmore, Matthew James

2013-01-01

13. Anomalous law of cooling

Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

2015-03-14

We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

14. Law on Atomic Energy

The Law defines the legislative foundation and concepts for peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. The Law, including 11 chapters, 93 articles and coming into force on the 1 Jan 2009, regulates utilization of atomic energy and assurance of safety and security. The Law contains issues: general provisions; measures to promote development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes; radiation safety, nuclear safety and security of radioactive sources, nuclear material and facilities; exploration, exploitation and processing radioactive ores; transportation, import and export of radioactive materials and nuclear equipment; atomic energy application services; declaration and licensing; response to radiation or nuclear incidents and compensation for damage caused by these incidents. (VAEC)

15. Anomalous law of cooling

We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

16. Retrospectives: Say's Law

Baumol, William J.

1999-01-01

What is perhaps most curious about 'Say's law' is the continuing disagreement on its substance and to whom it should be credited. John Maynard Keynes summarized the law as 'supply creates its own demand' but it is now generally agreed that Keynes did not get it quite right. The author has been unable to ascertain who coined the term 'Say's law' but it appears to be a twentieth century appellation, preceding Keynes's use. John-Baptiste Say was certainly among the earlier writers to discuss the...

17. Anomalous law of cooling

Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

2015-03-01

We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

19. F-generation law and recognition of system law

Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

2007-01-01

If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

20. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

Costonis, John J.

2002-01-01

Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

1. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

2. Teaching Criminal Law.

Levin, Sandy

1989-01-01

Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

3. Law and technology

The book presents the lectures and discussions of a symposium held in November 1984. The main themes of the lectures deal with the legal regulations for technological subjects, and their effects on the economy and society. Some papers discuss the legal provisions of this kind within the German law system, summarizing the regulations in force, and critically evaluating their efficiency. Others investigate the potentials and constraints of efforts towards harmonizing the variety of indefinite legal terms or concepts in the legal regulations of technological safety, and the problems created by such indefinite legal concepts with regard to constitutional law and legislation, or application of the law. Another main subject is the question of how technical safety regulations can be made more concrete, or the European law and its relevant regulations concerning technological subjects. Separate subject analyses of four papers have been made for the database. (HSCH)

4. Law Enforcement Plan

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

5. Law And Economics In Germany

Kirstein, Roland

1997-01-01

Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

6. Artificial Inteligence and Law

Fuková, Kateřina

2012-01-01

Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

7. Enjoying the Law

Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

2005-01-01

of Morals, of the obligation of citizens of a state to subject themselves unconditionally to the sovereign in power, must be seen in connection with his earlier moral writings in order to maintain a proper Kantian conception of the relation between legality and morality. To this end, Kant's use of...... moral law. In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

8. Law and individuality

D.F.M. Strauss

2007-01-01

The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law concepti...

9. Conventional Constitutional Law

2015-01-01

Judges share conventional understandings about what the Constitution requires, both of themselves and of other constitutional actors. These informal conventions lead to formal decisions, which are then centrally enforced by the state in the same manner as all other judicial decisions. This recognition of conventional constitutional law has three critical implications for our understanding, critique and reform of constitutional law. First, it is unlikely that judges will refer e...

10. Free Bessel laws

Banica, Teodor; Belinschi, Serban; Capitaine, Mireille; Collins, Benoit

2007-01-01

We introduce and study a remarkable family of real probability measures $\\pi_{st}$, that we call free Bessel laws. These are related to the free Poisson law $\\pi$ via the formulae $\\pi_{s1}=\\pi^{\\boxtimes s}$ and $\\pi_{1t}=\\pi^{\\boxplus t}$. Our study includes: definition and basic properties, analytic aspects (supports, atoms, densities), combinatorial aspects (functional transforms, moments, partitions), and a discussion of the relation with random matrices and quantum groups.

11. The rule of law

Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

2015-01-01

The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

12. Environmental Law Survey 2013

2014-01-01

Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public –in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting an...

13. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

César Landa

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

14. Environmental Law Survey 2014

2014-01-01

Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public – in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting a...

15. Modernizing Italy's Bankruptcy Law

Vietti, Michele

2007-01-01

Reforming bankruptcy laws is difficult for many reasons. First of all, attitudes in Italy toward bankruptcy make it a difficult subject to generate support for. Secondly, bankruptcy reforms are complex and lengthy. They require changes not only to the bankruptcy law but also to other important parts of the legal framework, such as the codes of civil procedures and, in the case of Italy, the ...

16. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

Elena ANGHEL

2016-05-01

Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

17. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

L.T. Visscher (Louis)

2010-01-01

textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

18. Handbook on nuclear law

The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

19. Handbook on nuclear law

The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

20. A new German law

A new law about the production of electricity came into effect last april in Germany. A renewable energy expert presents this law and its consequences to the electricity market. The previous EFL (electricity feed-in law, 1991) has greatly contributed to the development of wind energy during the last decade but a new law was necessary to comply with European regulations about free electricity market and with European Commission 's aim of doubling the contribution of renewable energies to the European energy balance by 2010. This law sets the purchase prices of electricity by delivery companies according to the renewable energy (wind, photovoltaic,biomass, biogas, mine gas and geothermal) and a compensation system has been thoroughly elaborated. At the end the customer will have to pay the bill but the price is reasonable, the extra-cost is expected to be somewhere between 35 and 70 French francs a year for each electricity consumer but with the perspective of a doubling of the contribution of renewable energies to the German electricity market between 1995 and 2010. (A.C.)

1. Environmental Law or Environmental Protection Law? A Comparative Legal Analysis

Rakoczy, Bartosz

2013-01-01

The problem of environmental law and environmental protection law is not only a terminology issue. Using either of the two terms, the lawmaker reveals its vision of regulating environmental issues in the system of law. In environmental protection law the protective nature of a legal norm is emphasized, and at the same time the control and supervisory powers of public administration authorities are increased. In the case of environmental protection law the confrontation element is in the foreg...

2. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

Ioffe, M. G.

1978-01-01

Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

3. Towards a European contract law

Hondius, E.H.

2000-01-01

I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

4. Online Law Dictionaries

Nielsen, Sandro

2012-01-01

Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English as the...... English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs by...... containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

5. Technical rules in law

An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.)

6. EU Food Health Law

Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat to...... adoption of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law...

7. Transport and conservation laws

Zotos, X.; F. Naef; Prelovsek, P.

1996-01-01

We study the lowest order conservation laws in one-dimensional (1D) integrable quantum many-body models (IQM) as the Heisenberg spin 1/2 chain, the Hubbard and t-J model. We show that the energy current is closely related to the first conservation law in these models and therefore the thermal transport coefficients are anomalous. Using an inequality on the time decay of current correlations we show how the existence of conserved quantities implies a finite charge stiffness (weight of the zero...

8. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

2001-01-01

Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

9. Systematization of Financial Law – Tax Law as a Branch of Law?

Czudek Damian

2015-01-01

This contribution deals with the question of place of the fax law in the system of financial law. The author shows and analyses different point of views of authors in the Central European region at the problem of systematization of financial law. "This is a targeted publication on the one topic (Financial Law). It has been requested for inclusion in WOS."

10. Environmental Law II.

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…