Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an upcoming technology that allows oxidizing organic matter to generate current by microorganism's activity. To render MFCs a cost-effective and energy sustainable technology, low-cost materials can be employed as support for bacteria growth and proliferation. With this purpose in mind, ceramic Berl saddles were opportunely covered by a thin and conductive carbon layer, thus obtaining an innovative low-cost anode material able to efficiently recover the electrons released by bacteria metabolisms. The conductive layer was obtained by using α-D-glucose deposition process within the following steps: impregnation, caramelization, and pyrolysis. In this way, a homogenous coating of polycrystalline graphitic carbon was successfully obtained and characterized by several methods. The carbon-coated Berl saddles were then tested as anode material in a two-compartment MFC prototype, in batch mode and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as active microorganisms. The MFC performances were evaluated using electrochemical techniques. The carbon-coated Berl saddles showed a maximum power density of 130 mW m−2 (29.6 mA L−1) which is about 2–3 times higher than the values reported in literature by using commercial anode materials. In particular, we have carefully estimated the production and process costs of these carbon-coated Berl saddles used in our MFC prototype, obtaining a value comparable to the commercial carbon felt employed in the same MFC apparatus. All these results confirm that our innovative carbon-coated Berl saddles not only satisfy the electrical requirements, but also favor an optimal bacteria adhesion and can be produced as a low-cost anode for scaling-up MFC. - Highlights: • Berl saddles were opportunely covered by a conductive carbon layer. • New and easy electrode preparation methods offer a low-cost solution for MFC anode. • Power density using coated Berl saddles is comparable to commercial materials. • Coated
Is Berle and Means Really a Myth?
Brian Cheffins and Steven Bank
2009-01-01
Adolf Berle and Gardiner Means famously declared in 1932 that a separation of ownership and control was a hallmark of large U.S. corporations, and their characterization of matters quickly became received wisdom. A series of recent papers has called the Berle-Means orthodoxy into question. This survey of the relevant historical literature acknowledges that the pattern of ownership and control in U.S. public companies is not monolithic. Nevertheless, a separation between ownership and control ...
Berlín, una ciudad en la encrucijada
Sambricio, Carlos
2005-01-01
Ninguna otra ciudad puede simbolizar mejor las convulsiones del siglo pasado. Punto de encuentro de las vanguardias primero, más tarde sede del régimen que desencadenó la mayor guerra de la historia, eje de la frontera que dividió al planeta en dos durante la guerra fría… Berlín intenta ahora renacer como capital de una Alemania reunificada políticamente, pero que aún no ha conseguido resolver importantes contradicciones.
The Computational Complexity of Weak Saddles
Brandt, Felix; Brill, Markus; Fischer, Felix; Hoffmann, Jan
We continue the recently initiated study of the computational aspects of weak saddles, an ordinal set-valued solution concept proposed by Shapley. Brandt et al. gave a polynomial-time algorithm for computing weak saddles in a subclass of matrix games, and showed that certain problems associated with weak saddles of bimatrix games are NP-complete. The important question of whether weak saddles can be found efficiently was left open. We answer this question in the negative by showing that finding weak saddles of bimatrix games is NP-hard, under polynomial-time Turing reductions. We moreover prove that recognizing weak saddles is coNP-complete, and that deciding whether a given action is contained in some weak saddle is hard for parallel access to NP and thus not even in NP unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Our hardness results are finally shown to carry over to a natural weakening of weak saddles.
La reconstrucci??n de Berl??n tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial
Mart??nez-Monedero, Miguel
2004-01-01
En la 1?? d??cada del s. XXI Berl??n presume de una nueva expresi??n arquitect??nica que tuvo su momento de partida en la reunificaci??n del a??o 1989. En este art??culo se hace un repaso de c??mo fue el comienzo de la reconstrucci??n de Berl??n y c??mo se establecieron las bases para que, a partir de la reunificaci??n, se produjera la efervescencia constructiva que se ha experimentado en la ciudad. Si la ca??da del muro fue el momento de la reunificaci??n entre las dos Alemanias, conocer el ...
The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices
Pestana, J.
2014-01-01
Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
La reconstrucci??n de Berl??n, la b??squeda de una nueva identidad
Mart??nez-Monedero, Miguel
2008-01-01
Fue en Berl??n donde se dieron las soluciones m??s parad??jicas y controvertidas, motivadas sin duda por la quir??rgica y traum??tica divisi??n de la ciudad en varios bloques primero, y en dos sectores despu??s, con el levantamiento del muro en los tempranos a??os 60. A esto hemos de a??adir que la recuperaci??n del pasado hist??rico corri?? pareja e indisolublemente unida a la recuperaci??n econ??mica. El espectacular desarrollo econ??mico que alcanz?? el pa??s en los a??os 50, el llamado ??...
Mario Lillo C
2009-01-01
Cartas escritas en Berlín Occidental y Oriental son el punto de partida del análisis que examina la fuerza ilocutiva y perlocutiva de este tipo textual en Morir en Berlín y El desierto. Además, el artículo discute los problemas de la culpa, del perdón, de la memoria, de la historia narrada/vivida y de algunos intertextos que vinculan a ambas novelas.Letters from/in Western and Eastern Berlin are the starting point of this article, in which we examine the illocutionary and perlocutionary stren...
Complexified Path Integrals, Exact Saddles, and Supersymmetry.
Behtash, Alireza; Dunne, Gerald V; Schäfer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Ünsal, Mithat
2016-01-01
In the context of two illustrative examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics we show that the semiclassical analysis of the path integral requires complexification of the configuration space and action, and the inclusion of complex saddle points, even when the parameters in the action are real. We find new exact complex saddles, and show that without their contribution the semiclassical expansion is in conflict with basic properties such as the positive semidefiniteness of the spectrum, as well as constraints of supersymmetry. Generic saddles are not only complex, but also possibly multivalued and even singular. This is in contrast to instanton solutions, which are real, smooth, and single valued. The multivaluedness of the action can be interpreted as a hidden topological angle, quantized in units of π in supersymmetric theories. The general ideas also apply to nonsupersymmetric theories. PMID:26799010
Complexified path integrals, exact saddles and supersymmetry
Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Unsal, Mithat
2016-01-01
In the context of two illustrative examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics we show that the semi-classical analysis of the path integral requires complexification of the configuration space and action, and the inclusion of complex saddle points, even when the parameters in the action are real. We find new exact complex saddles, and show that without their contribution the semi-classical expansion is in conflict with basic properties such as positive-semidefiniteness of the spectrum, and constraints of supersymmetry. Generic saddles are not only complex, but also possibly multi-valued, and even singular. This is in contrast to instanton solutions, which are real, smooth, and single-valued. The multi-valuedness of the action can be interpreted as a hidden topological angle, quantized in units of $\\pi$ in supersymmetric theories. The general ideas also apply to non-supersymmetric theories.
A 40 años de la construcción del muro de Berlín
Maffeo, Aníbal José
2001-01-01
En este número recordamos el 40° aniversario de la construcción del Muro de Berlín. Este fue un hecho relevante para el sistema internacional, ya que su historia y, sobre todo su fin, trajo consecuencias en el mundo actual.
Iterative Solution of Saddle Point Problems
Rozložník, Miroslav; Jiránek, Pavel
Ostrava : ÚGN AV ČR, 2007 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.) ISBN 978-80-86407-12-8. [SNA '07. Seminar on Numerical Analysis. Ostrava (CZ), 22.01.2007-26.01.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : saddle point systems * symmetric indefinite matrices * iterative methods * preconditioning
Hanford Reach - Strategic Control of Phragmites Within Saddle Mountain Lakes
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Saddle Lakes Fire of 2015 burned 14,200 acres of habitat on Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Within the...
36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent....
Watson, Kara M.; Hoppe, Heidi L.
2013-01-01
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.1-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.6 miles downstream from the New Jersey-New York State boundary in Upper Saddle River Borough to 0.2 miles downstream from the East Allendale Road bridge in Saddle River Borough, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390450. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations (in effect March 2013) at USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the upper extent of the stage-discharge rating which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached
Limiting Accuracy of Inexact Saddle Point Solvers
Rozložník, Miroslav; Jiránek, Pavel
Dundee : University of Dundee, 2007 - (Griffith, D.; Watson , G.). s. 33-33 [Biennial Conference on Numerical Analysis /22./. 26.06.2007-29.06.2007, University of Dundee] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0554; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : saddle point systems * iterative methods * rounding error analysis * limiting accuracy
Phase retrieval and saddle-point optimization
Marchesini, S
2006-01-01
Iterative algorithms with feedback are amongst the most powerful and versatile optimization methods for phase retrieval. Among these, the hybrid input-output algorithm has demonstrated remarkable success in performing giga-element nonlinear optimization, escaping local minima and producing images at resolutions beyond the capabilities of lens-based optical methods. Here the input-output iteration is improved by a lower dimensional subspace saddle-point optimization.
Producció alemanya cinematogràfica ambientada a la caiguda del mur de Berlín (1989)
Petrus Coll, Marina
2015-01-01
El present treball ofereix un revisió i anàlisi de la producció cinematogràfica alemanya ambientada a la caiguda del Mur de Berlín. A través de l'anàlisi formal i audiovisual de cinc pel•lícules es construeix una conclusió i valoració sobre el cinema alemany i la finalitat d'aquestes. El presente trabajo ofrece un revisión y análisis de la producción cinematográfica alemana ambientada en la caída del Muro de Berlín. A través del análisis formal y audiovisual de cinco películas se construye...
Memoria de la Shoah: el caso de Berlín
María Rabe, Ana
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In the framework of memory, this paper investigates the interaction between remembrance and oblivion at a philosophical level, as well as on a historical concrete level in relation to the German memory of the Shoah. In the first part, an analysis of this problem is carried out in dialogue with selected philosophers, sociologists, and historians. In the second part, this question is dealt with in the context of the great public debates which occurred in Germany in the nineties, particularly the debate, in 1993, on the remodelling and re-signification of the «New Guard-House» in Berlin, the polemics provoked by Martin Walser’s discourse in 1998 in Frankfurt, and the debate, from 1989 to 1999, on the plan to build a monument in Berlin for the victims of the Shoah. The paper concludes with a discussion of the force of the Berlin monument in present time.
El trabajo investiga tanto en general a nivel filosófico, como en concreto en el caso de la memoria alemana de la Shoah la interacción entre recuerdo y olvido en el marco del trabajo de la memoria. En la primera parte se lleva a cabo un análisis de este problema en diálogo con filósofos, sociólogos e historiadores escogidos. En la segunda parte se trata esta cuestión en el contexto de los grandes debates públicos que hubo en Alemania en los años 90, particularmente el debate de 1993 sobre la remodelación y resignificación de la «Nueva Guardia» en Berlín, la polémica suscitada por el discurso de Martin Walser en 1998 en Francfort, y el debate entre 1989 y 1999 sobre el plan de construir en Berlín un monumento a las víctimas de la Shoah. El texto termina con una discusión del vigor del monumento berlinés en la actualidad.
Un puente entre los mundos. El Instituto Ibero-Americano de Berlín
Diana von Römer
2005-10-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece al lector una visión de conjunto sobre el Instituto Ibero-Americano (IAI en Berlín. En primer lugar, relata la historia del instituto desde que se fundara en 1930, cuando surgió el modelo de tres pilares: información, investigación e intercambio cultural, hasta la actualidad, en la que éste sigue vigente. A continuación se exponen en detalle las tres funciones principales que cumple el instituto: centro de información - el IAI alberga la mayor biblioteca de Europa especializada en las culturas ibero-americanas - con sus diversos fondos y colecciones; centro de investigación, con el apoyo a la investigación a través de becas, publicaciones y coloquios; y finalmente el centro cultural, con actividades de diversa índole en colaboración con otras instituciones y embajadas, favoreciendo así el diálogo entre Alemania e Iberoamérica, el Caribe, España y Portugal.
Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum
Kirillov, Oleg N.; Levi, Mark
2016-01-01
One of the many surprising results found in the mechanics of rotating systems is the stabilization of a particle in a rapidly rotating planar saddle potential. Besides the counterintuitive stabilization, an unexpected precessional motion is observed. In this note, we show that this precession is due to a Coriolis-like force caused by the rotation of the potential. To our knowledge, this is the first example where such a force arises in an inertial reference frame. We also propose a simple mechanical demonstration of this effect.
Saddle nose: Autologous augmentation techniques and their relevant patient satisfaction
Wael Khamis Abdel-Hamid Hussein
2015-01-01
Introduction: The analysis and treatment of saddle nose have always been a surgical challenge. The study describes the three-stage classification of this deformity as well as a treatment algorithm adapted to each case. Materials and methods: A prospective study was carried out on 46 patients with saddle nose. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of saddling; minimal, moderate and major. The authors describe the treatment protocol adopted for each stage. Resu...
Convergence and Cycling in Walker-type Saddle Search Algorithms
Levitt, Antoine
2016-01-01
Algorithms for computing local minima of smooth objective functions enjoy a mature theory as well as robust and efficient implementations. By comparison, the theory and practice of saddle search is destitute. In this paper we present results for idealized versions of the dimer and gentlest ascent (GAD) saddle search algorithms that show-case the limitations of what is theoretically achievable within the current class of saddle search algorithms: (1) we present an improved estimate on the region of attraction of saddles; and (2) we construct quasi-periodic solutions which indicate that it is impossible to obtain globally convergent variants of dimer and GAD type algorithms.
Getting a grip on the saddle: Chasms or cycles?
Chandrasekaran, D. (Deepa); G.J. Tellis (Gerard)
2011-01-01
textabstractThe "saddle" is a sudden, sustained, and deep drop in sales of a new product, after a period of rapid growth following takeoff, followed by a gradual recovery to the former peak. The authors test for the generalizability of the saddle across products and countries and for three rival exp
The Formual of Generalized Center－Weak Saddle
万维明; 迟晓恒
2002-01-01
In his paper,a problem of center-weak focus of a general system of degree n is transformed into a problem of generalized center-weak saddle.It offers:(1) the calculating formula of the saddle values of the former 4 orders in the general system of degree three;(2) some calculating formulae of the saddle values in the general homogeneous system of degree n. The problem of center-focus(saddle)plays an important role in the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations.However,since the calculations are difficult,the results have not been satisfactory.On the basis of the author's work,Northeast.Math.J.,13(4)(1997),487-494,the paper offers some calculating formulae of the saddle values.
Complex economic dynamics: Chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency
Complex economic dynamics is studied by a forced oscillator model of business cycles. The technique of numerical modeling is applied to characterize the fundamental properties of complex economic systems which exhibit multiscale and multistability behaviors, as well as coexistence of order and chaos. In particular, we focus on the dynamics and structure of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles within a periodic window of the bifurcation diagram, at the onset of a saddle-node bifurcation and of an attractor merging crisis, and in the chaotic regions associated with type-I intermittency and crisis-induced intermittency, in non-linear economic cycles. Inside a periodic window, chaotic saddles are responsible for the transient motion preceding convergence to a periodic or a chaotic attractor. The links between chaotic saddles, crisis and intermittency in complex economic dynamics are discussed. We show that a chaotic attractor is composed of chaotic saddles and unstable periodic orbits located in the gap regions of chaotic saddles. Non-linear modeling of economic chaotic saddle, crisis and intermittency can improve our understanding of the dynamics of financial intermittency observed in stock market and foreign exchange market. Characterization of the complex dynamics of economic systems is a powerful tool for pattern recognition and forecasting of business and financial cycles, as well as for optimization of management strategy and decision technology
Oscillation of Hot Fissioning Nuclei around a Saddle Point
BAO Jing-Dong; L(U) Kun; LIU Ling; JIA Ying
2005-01-01
@@ Three time scales of a fissioning nucleus starting from the ground state to the scission point are defined and calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The result shows that the time of oscillating around the saddle point is longer than both the mean first passage time from the ground state to the saddle point and the time of descent from the saddle to scission points. Thus it is suggested that more neutrons could be emitted from a hot heavy fissioning nucleus during the period of the stretching and contracting of the deformation process.
Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources
Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com; Johnson, R. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Breitschopf, J. [TLU, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [UMD, College Park, Maryland 32611 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H{sup −} beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.
Resonance wave functions located at the Stark saddle point
The hydrogen atom in crossed static electric and magnetic fields is an important example for a quantum system accessible both in experiments and numerical calculations. Adding external fields to the Coulomb potential of the hydrogen atom opens the possibility for wave functions to be localized far away from the nucleus. In particular, the existence of resonances localized in the vicinity of the Stark saddle point predicted by simple expansions of the potential around the saddle has been unclear for a long time. We calculate quantum mechanically exact wave functions of resonances in spectra of the hydrogen atom in crossed external fields and prove the existence of the long-lived decaying quantum states localized at the Stark saddle point. A spectrum of ground and excited states reproducing the nodal patterns expected from simple quadratic and cubic expansions of the potential in the vicinity of the saddle can be identified.
New Preconditioners for Nonsymmetric Saddle Point Systems with Singular Block
Qingbing Liu
2013-01-01
We investigate the solution of large linear systems of saddle point type with singular (1,1) block by preconditioned iterative methods and consider two parameterized block triangular preconditioners used with Krylov subspace methods which have the attractive property of improved eigenvalue clustering with increased ill-conditioning of the (1,1) block of the saddle point matrix, including the choice of the parameter. Meanwhile, we analyze the spectral characteristics of two preconditioners and...
A Parameterized Splitting Preconditioner for Generalized Saddle Point Problems
Wei-Hua Luo; Ting-Zhu Huang
2013-01-01
By using Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula, we introduce a preconditioner based on parameterized splitting idea for generalized saddle point problems which may be singular and nonsymmetric. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix, we find that when α is big enough, it has an eigenvalue at 1 with multiplicity at least $n$ , and the remaining eigenvalues are all located in a unit circle centered at 1. Particularly, when the preconditioner is used in general saddle point proble...
Clinical and functional outcomes of the saddle prosthesis
Donati, D.; D’Apote, G.; M. Boschi; Cevolani, L.; M.G. Benedetti
2012-01-01
Background The implantation of a saddle prosthesis after resection of a pelvic tumor has been proposed as a simple method of reconstruction that provides good stability and reduces the surgical time, thus limits the onset of intraoperative complications. There are no studies in the literature of patients evaluated using gait analysis after being implanted with a saddle prosthesis. The present study is a retrospective case review aimed at illustrating long-term clinical and functional findings...
Cuesta Barriga, Sara
2013-01-01
El presente trabajo propone una unidad didáctica sobre el Muro de Berlín para demostrar que se puede integrar en el aula de Alemán como Lengua Extranjera en la Educación Secundaria Superior una Landeskunde entendida como "cultura" en su sentido tradicional sin desatender las necesidades comunicativas del alumnado.
De Ming ZHU; Ying SUN
2007-01-01
In this paper,we study the dynamical behavior for a 4-dimensional reversible system near its heteroclinic loop connecting a saddle-focus and a saddle.The existence of in nitely many reversible 1-homoclinic orbits to the saddle and 2-homoclinic orbits to the saddle-focus is shown.And it is also proved that,corresponding to each 1-homoclinic (resp.2-homoclinic)orbit Γ,there is a spiral segment such that the associated orbits starting from the segment are all reversible 1-periodic (resp.2-periodic)and accumulate onto Γ.Moreover,each 2-homoclinic orbit may be also accumulated by a sequence of reversible 4-homoclinic orbits.
Las fronteras en el muro de Berlín: frente, fronda y solitón
David Casado Neira
2008-01-01
El Muro de Berlín ha constituido durante casi tres décadas una de las imágenes más poderosas de la frontera. El muro de hormigón que dividió familias, vecinos, edificios, un país y la geopolítica internacional era además de un símbolo una frontera. Pero como frontera materializa más que una línea de división rígida. Buscando los rastros del Muro descubrimos cómo incluso una frontera de tal materialidad fue a la vez frente (ofensivo/defensivo), fronda (espacio de intercambio y habitabilidad) y...
Natural Preconditioning and Iterative Methods for Saddle Point Systems
Pestana, Jennifer
2015-01-01
© 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The solution of quadratic or locally quadratic extremum problems subject to linear(ized) constraints gives rise to linear systems in saddle point form. This is true whether in the continuous or the discrete setting, so saddle point systems arising from the discretization of partial differential equation problems, such as those describing electromagnetic problems or incompressible flow, lead to equations with this structure, as do, for example, interior point methods and the sequential quadratic programming approach to nonlinear optimization. This survey concerns iterative solution methods for these problems and, in particular, shows how the problem formulation leads to natural preconditioners which guarantee a fast rate of convergence of the relevant iterative methods. These preconditioners are related to the original extremum problem and their effectiveness - in terms of rapidity of convergence - is established here via a proof of general bounds on the eigenvalues of the preconditioned saddle point matrix on which iteration convergence depends.
Reconstruction of saddle nose deformity with calvarial bone graft
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of calvarial bone in the reconstruction of saddle nose deformity. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Plastic Surgery Unit of Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from July 2004 to October 2009. It comprised 19 patients who underwent saddle nose deformity reconstruction with calvarial bone graft. All patients were operated upon under general anaesthesia. They were followed up periodically. Results: The patients followed up for 25 to 61 months for an average period of 39.2+-4.3 months. In 14 (74%) patients the result of the surgical intervention was excellent, while in 5 (26%) it was acceptable. All patients were satisfied and there was not displacement, absorption, distortion or infection of the graft. Conclusion: Calvarial bone graft is a viable option for the reconstruction of saddle nose deformity, especially in severe cases. (author)
Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)
Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu
2016-08-01
We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.
Complex saddle points in finite-density QCD
Nishimura, Hiromichi; Pangeni, Kamal
2015-01-01
We consider complex saddle points in QCD at finite temperature and density, which are constrained by symmetry under charge and complex conjugations. This approach naturally incorporates color neutrality, and the Polyakov loop and the conjugate loop at the saddle point are real but not identical. Moreover, it can give rise to a complex mass matrix associated with the Polyakov loops, reflecting oscillatory behavior in color-charge densities. This aspect of the phase structure appears to be sensitive to the origin of confinement, as modeled in the effective potential.
Evaluation of saddle and driving aptitudes in Monterufoli pony
Riccardo Bozzi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The Monterufoli pony is an endangered Tuscan breed. In the 80’s began a project for the conservation of the breed and at present there are roughly 200 individuals. The equine was once utilized for saddle and driving and this study deals with the training for these two aptitudes. The mor- phologic type of the pony seems suited for saddle, in particular for children and beginners, and driving. The ponies showed developed chest, strong legs with short shanks: all these characters were useful for trot and driving. In this trial 3-4 years old never tamed Monterufoli ponies were opportunely choose and subsequently trained for saddle and driving. The ponies were submitted to the “aptitude test” for the two aptitudes and the results were good both for practical and character sides. The marks for sad- dle and driving were 8.16 and 8.06 respectively. Also the 3 ponies showed good results for the Aptitude Index: 7.60, 7.87 and 7.89. The results of the trial showed the excellent ability of the Monterufoli pony for saddle and driving. The good results of the test are important for the diffusion of the breed in the territory and in particular in horse centres and in equestrian tourism sites.
Rotating saddle trap: A Coriolis force in an inertial frame
Kirillov, Oleg N
2015-01-01
Particles in rotating saddle potentials exhibit precessional motion which, up to now, has been explained by explicit computation. We show that this precession is due to a hidden Coriolis-like force which, unlike the standard Coriolis force, is present in the inertial frame. We do so by finding a hodograph-like "guiding center" transformation using the method of normal form.
19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses... for Returning Residents § 148.32 Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free of duty. Automobiles and other vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses,...
Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.
Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R
2012-02-01
A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing. PMID:22380221
Cyclicity of a fake saddle inside the quadratic vector fields
De Maesschalck, Peter; Rebollo-Perdomo, Salomón; Torregrosa, Joan
2015-01-01
This paper concerns the study of small-amplitude limit cycles that appear in the phase portrait near an unfolded fake saddle singularity. This degenerate singularity is also known as an impassable grain. The canonical form of the unperturbed vector field is like a degenerate flow box. Near the singularity, the phase portrait consists of parallel fibers, all but one of which have no singular points, and at the singular fiber, there is one node. We demonstrate different techniques in order to s...
Unified analysis of preconditioning methods for saddle point matrices
Axelsson, Owe
2015-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-253. ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : saddle point problems * preconditioning * spectral properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nla.1947/pdf
Maximum Attainable Accuracy of Inexact Saddle Point Solvers
Jiránek, P.; Rozložník, Miroslav
2008-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 4 (2008), s. 1297-1321. ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0554; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : saddle point problems * Schur complement reduction * null-space projection method * rounding error analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.328, year: 2008
Stochastic Variance Reduction Methods for Saddle-Point Problems
Balamurugan, P.; Bach, Francis
2016-01-01
We consider convex-concave saddle-point problems where the objective functions may be split in many components, and extend recent stochastic variance reduction methods (such as SVRG or SAGA) to provide the first large-scale linearly convergent algorithms for this class of problems which is common in machine learning. While the algorithmic extension is straightforward, it comes with challenges and opportunities: (a) the convex minimization analysis does not apply and we use the notion of monot...
Saddle-nose deformities in the rheumatology clinic.
Schreiber, Benjamin E; Twigg, Sarah; Marais, Joe; Keat, Andrew C
2014-01-01
Saddle-nose deformity can occur as a result of trauma to the nose, but it has also been well described in the setting of infections such as leprosy and syphilis and idiopathic inflammatory conditions such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis) and relapsing polychondritis. Since these deformities may also arise without an evident precipitating cause, they can pose a diagnostic conundrum. We review 2 cases of saddle-nose deformity that were treated at Northwick Park Hospital in Middlesex, England. The first patient was a 53-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis and deviation of the nasal septum. She subsequently developed a saddle-nose deformity and a septal ulcer. An autoimmune screen was negative, and histologic findings were nonspecific. She underwent successful reconstruction with a polyethylene implant. The second patient was a 21-year-old woman who presented with nasal obstruction and a nasal septal deviation. Two years later, she was diagnosed with Crohn disease and treatment with azathioprine was commenced. Eventually, the cartilaginous dorsum of her nose collapsed. A biopsy of the area revealed nonspecific, active, chronic inflammation. A polyethylene implant was placed to correct the deformity, but part of the implant became dislodged, and revision surgery was not successful. A subsequent revision was performed, and the early results were encouraging. Saddle-nose deformity may be a manifestation of underlying connective tissue disease, so it is important to detect and treat any such condition before embarking on surgical repair of the deformity. Our 2 cases indicate that this very deforming condition is poorly understood and treatment can be unsatisfactory. PMID:24817241
The Bramble-Pasciak preconditioner for saddle point problems
Stoll, Martin; Wathen, A. J.
2007-01-01
The Bramble-Pasciak Conjugate Gradient method is a well known tool to solve linear systems in saddle point form. A drawback of this method in order to ensure applicability of Conjugate Gradients is the need for scaling the preconditioner which typically involves the solution of an eigenvalue problem. Here, we introduce a modified preconditioner and inner product which without scaling enable the use of a MINRES variant and can be used for the simplified Lanczos process. Furthermore, the modifi...
A new relaxed HSS preconditioner for Saddle point problems
Salkuyeh, Davod Khojasteh; Masoudi, Mohsen
2016-01-01
We present a preconditioner for saddle point problems. The proposed preconditioner is extracted from a stationary iterative method which is convergent under a mild condition. Some properties of the preconditioner as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the preconditioned matrix are presented. The preconditioned system is solved by a Krylov subspace method like restarted GMRES. Finally, some numerical experiments on test problems arisen from finite element discretization of the Stokes proble...
Shell Correction at the Saddle Point for Superheavy Nucleus
张炜; 张时声; 张双全; 孟杰
2003-01-01
The potential energy surface for superheavy nucleus has been studied within the framework of the constrained relativistic mean field theory, and the shell correction energy as a function of deformation has been extracted by the Strutinsky shell correction procedure. Contrary to the usual expectation, the shell correction energy at the saddle point is too important to be neglected, and it has essential contribution to the fission barrier in superheavy nucleus.
Thermal Fission Rate Calculated Numerically by Particles Multi-passing over Saddle Point
LIU Ling; BAO Jing-Dong
2004-01-01
Langevin simulation of the particles multi-passing over the saddle point is proposed to calculate thermal fission rate. Due to finite friction and the corresponding thermal fluctuation, a backstreaming exists in the process of the particle descent from the saddle to the scission. This leads to that the diffusion behind the saddle point has influence upon the stationary flow across the saddle point. A dynamical correction factor, as a ratio of the flows of multi- and firstoverpassing the saddle point, is evaluated analytically. The results show that the fission rate calculated by the particles multi-passing over the saddle point is lower than the one calculated by the particle firstly passing over the saddle point,and the former approaches the results at the scission point.
A la luz de las cúpulas. Restauración del Reichstag de Berlín (1992-1999), Foster & Partners
Trillo de Leyva, Manuel
2010-01-01
Durante el curso académico 2000-2001, los profesores del Aula Taller F realizaron un seminario dedicado a la arquitectura contemporánea de Berlín. Además de las conferencias impartidas se visitaron las obras que habían sido analizadas en el seminario. Este artículo, escrito en marzo de 2001, añade una reflexión final, escrita en marzo del año 2002, consecuencia de esa visita conjunta que, profesores y estudiantes, realizaron al Reigchstag. Con el cambio de milenio, las principales ciudade...
El IEO se adhiere a la Declaración de Berlín sobre acceso abierto al conocimiento científico
Lozano, P.; Mosquera-de-Arancibia, C. (Concha)
2016-01-01
El 24 de junio de 2016, el Instituto Español de Oceanografía oficializó su adhesión a la Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, hito del movimiento de acceso abierto al conocimiento científico gestionado por la Max Planck Society. Los firmantes de la Declaración de Berlín defienden el uso de internet como medio funcional que sirva de base global al conocimiento científico y la reflexión humana. Los declarantes consideran que la misión de diseminar el co...
Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term
Klawonn, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)
1996-12-31
Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.
Saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory
The observed value of the Higgs mass indicates the possibility that there is no supersymmetry below the Planck scale and that the Higgs can play the role of the inflaton. We examine the general structure of saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory without supersymmetry. We point out that the string scale is fixed to be around the GUT scale ∼1016 GeV in order to realize successful inflation. We find that the inflaton can be naturally identified with the Higgs field
Saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-09-01
The observed value of the Higgs mass indicates the possibility that there is no supersymmetry below the Planck scale and that the Higgs can play the role of the inflaton. We examine the general structure of saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory without supersymmetry. We point out that the string scale is fixed to be around the GUT scale {˜ }10^{16} GeV in order to realize successful inflation. We find that the inflaton can be naturally identified with the Higgs field.
Saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The observed value of the Higgs mass indicates the possibility that there is no supersymmetry below the Planck scale and that the Higgs can play the role of the inflaton. We examine the general structure of the saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory without supersymmetry. We point out that the string scale is fixed to be around the GUT scale $\\sim10^{16}$GeV in order to realize successful inflation. We find that the inflaton can be naturally identified with the Higgs field.
Computation of saddle-type slow manifolds using iterative methods
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall
2015-01-01
This paper presents an alternative approach for the computation of trajectory segments on slow manifolds of saddle type. This approach is based on iterative methods rather than collocation-type methods. Compared to collocation methods, which require mesh refinements to ensure uniform convergence...... with respect to , appropriate estimates are directly attainable using the method of this paper. The method is applied to several examples, including a model for a pair of neurons coupled by reciprocal inhibition with two slow and two fast variables, and the computation of homoclinic connections in the...
Maximal Saddle Solution of a Nonlinear Elliptic Equation Involving the -Laplacian
Huahui Yan; Zhuoran Du
2014-02-01
A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values of any solutions that vanish on the Simons cone $\\mathcal{C} = \\{s = t\\}$ and have the same sign as - . We prove the existence of a maximal saddle solution of the nonlinear elliptic equation involving the -Laplacian, by using the method of monotone iteration, $$-_{p^u}=f(u) \\quad \\text{in} \\quad R^{2m},$$ where $2m≥ p > 2$.
Influence of saddle type upon the incidence of lower back pain in equestrian riders.
Quinn, S.; Bird, S
1996-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible influences of saddle type on the incidence of "lower back pain" in a cross section of equestrian riders. METHODS: 108 equestrian riders completed a questionnaire concerning their riding habits and whether they suffered from lower back pain. In particular they were asked whether they used a traditional style/general purpose saddle (GP) or a deep seated/Western style saddle (W). RESULTS: 48% of the riders reported suffering from lower back pain, the incide...
Optimization of cold cathode saddle field ion source
Abdelrahman, M.M., E-mail: moustafa82003@yahoo.co [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inchas, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, F.W. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inchas, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)
2010-02-01
The modified cold cathode saddle field ion source operates at low gas pressure and requires neither magnetic field nor filament. We have designed a cold cathode saddle field ion source (cylindrical symmetry type) and characterized the discharge with nitrogen gas in the oscillating ('low pressure') mode. The distance between the two anode rods was optimized for maximum electrostatic confinement of the electrons. The discharge anisotropy was investigated and the discharge was found to be mainly an axial one in which the electrons oscillate near the axis at the discharge region. A high output beam current was measured on the Faraday cup at a distance of 1.5 cm from the cylindrical cathode, and was found to be dependent upon the operating pressure and the discharge current. An ion beam current of 220 muA was obtained at the optimum distance between the two anode rods of 6 mm for a nitrogen gas pressure of 8x10{sup -4} mbar and a discharge current of 2 mA.
Power inverter design for ASDEX Upgrade saddle coils
Teschke, M., E-mail: teschke@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Suttrop, W.; Rott, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► A cost effective inverter topology for AUG's 16 in-vessel saddle coils has been found. ► Use of commercially available power modules is possible. ► Exchange of reactive power between multiple inverters is possible. ► Influence of electromagnetic noise to AUG's diagnostics was measured. ► Gas insulation of electric feed through significantly depends on magnetic fields. It is protected by fast turn-off circuit. -- Abstract: A set of 16 in-vessel saddle coils has been installed in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) experiment since the end of 2011 [1]. To achieve full performance, it is necessary to operate them with alternating current (AC) of arbitrary waveforms. To generate spatially resolved magnetic fields, it is required to allocate separate power inverters to every single coil. Therefore, different topologies are analyzed and compared. Studies of the commutation behavior of power stages, different pulse width modulation (PWM) schemes and single-phase-to-earth fault detection are executed. Experiments to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of possible inverter topologies on the AUG diagnostics are done as well. A special focus is put on the feasibility of analyzed topologies using industrially available and fully assembled “power modules” to minimize development effort and costs.
Saddle point condition for D - 3He tokamak fusion reactor
In this paper the concept of a generalized ignition contour map, showing bar PhtT2E, NTE, and T, is used to study the ignition criterion for a D-3He fusion reactor with plasma temperature and density profiles. Direct heating scenarios to the D - 3He ignition regime without the help of deuterium-tritium burning are considered. The machine size and enhancement factor for the confinement time required to reach D - 3He ignition can be simple determined by comparing the height of the operation path with Goldston L-mode scaling and the height of the generalized saddle point. A confinement enhancement factor of 2 to 3 is required in the case of a large plasma current (30 to 80 MA) in a small-aspect-ratio tokamak. On the other hand, for a small plasma current (approx-lt 10 MA), large-aspect-ratio tokamak, an enhancement factor of 5 to 6 is necessary to reach ignition. Fuel dilution effects by fusion products and impurities, the confinement degradation effect due to 14-MeV protons, and the operation paths are also considered. To lower the height of the saddle point, and hence the auxiliary heating power, we optimize the fuel composition and examine operation in the hot ion mode
Relative variances of the cadence frequency of cycling under two differential saddle heights.
Chang, Wen-Dien; Fan Chiang, Chin-Yun; Lai, Ping-Tung; Lee, Chia-Lun; Fang, Sz-Ming
2016-01-01
[Purpose] Bicycle saddle height is a critical factor for cycling performance and injury prevention. The present study compared the variance in cadence frequency after exercise fatigue between saddle heights with 25° and 35° knee flexion. [Methods] Two saddle heights, which were determined by setting the pedal at the bottom dead point with 35° and 25° knee flexion, were used for testing. The relative variances of the cadence frequency were calculated at the end of a 5-minute warm-up period and 5 minutes after inducing exercise fatigue. Comparison of the absolute values of the cadence frequency under the two saddle heights revealed a difference in pedaling efficiency. [Results] Five minutes after inducing exercise fatigue, the relative variances of the cadence frequency for the saddle height with 35° knee flexion was higher than that for the saddle height with 25° knee flexion. [Conclusion] The current finding demonstrated that a saddle height with 25° knee flexion is more appropriate for cyclists than a saddle height with 35° knee flexion. PMID:27065522
Saddle Pulmonary Embolism in a Cancer Patient with Thrombocytopenia: A Treatment Dilemma
Ali Zalpour; Katy Hanzelka; John T. Patlan; Marc A. Rozner; Syed Wamique Yusuf
2011-01-01
The association between cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well established. Saddle pulmonary embolism is not uncommon in hospitalized cancer patients and confers a higher mortality. We report a case of saddle pulmonary embolism in a cancer patient with thrombocytopenia, discuss the bleeding risks, complexity of managing such patients and review current guidelines.
Saddle point solutions in Yang-Mills-dilaton theory
Bizón, P
1993-01-01
The coupling of a dilaton to the $SU(2)$-Yang-Mills field leads to interesting non-perturbative static spherically symmetric solutions which are studied by mixed analitical and numerical methods. In the abelian sector of the theory there are finite-energy magnetic and electric monopole solutions which saturate the Bogomol'nyi bound. In the nonabelian sector there exist a countable family of globally regular solutions which are purely magnetic but have zero Yang-Mills magnetic charge. Their discrete spectrum of energies is bounded from above by the energy of the abelian magnetic monopole with unit magnetic charge. The stability analysis demonstrates that the solutions are saddle points of the energy functional with increasing number of unstable modes. The existence and instability of these solutions are "explained" by the Morse-theory argument recently proposed by Sudarsky and Wald.
Using a new saddle model for echinotherapy therapy.
Carlos Cesar Santín Alfaro
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A descriptive study with experimental design was done, having as an objective to elaborate a new riding saddle model in the Provincial Laboratory of Technical Orthopaedics in the province of Sancti Spiritus for the Echinotherapy´s treatment in disable patients that still assisting to this kind of alternative therapy having the necessity of obtaining the frame according to the adequate characteristics and adjusting to the requirements of the qualified staff that takes care of this task taking into consideration that for the rehabilitation of these children they should be closer to the horse skin. The frame was not made with the row materials of normal chair but with the one adequate in our Laboratory. Some important characteristics were developed in this kind of therapy, and was analyzed the characteristics of the frame use give to patients, offering an immediate solution to their problems in order to solve this difficulty in our province.
Polymer quantization and the saddle point approximation of partition functions
Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.; Orozco-Borunda, Daniel H.; Rastgoo, Saeed
2015-11-01
The saddle point approximation of the path integral partition functions is an important way of deriving the thermodynamical properties of black holes. However, there are certain black hole models and some mathematically analog mechanical models for which this method cannot be applied directly. This is due to the fact that their action evaluated on a classical solution is not finite and its first variation does not vanish for all consistent boundary conditions. These problems can be dealt with by adding a counterterm to the classical action, which is a solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. In this work we study the effects of polymer quantization on a mechanical model presenting the aforementioned difficulties and contrast it with the above counterterm method. This type of quantization for mechanical models is motivated by the loop quantization of gravity, which is known to play a role in the thermodynamics of black hole systems. The model we consider is a nonrelativistic particle in an inverse square potential, and we analyze two polarizations of the polymer quantization in which either the position or the momentum is discrete. In the former case, Thiemann's regularization is applied to represent the inverse power potential, but we still need to incorporate the Hamilton-Jacobi counterterm, which is now modified by polymer corrections. In the latter, momentum discrete case, however, such regularization could not be implemented. Yet, remarkably, owing to the fact that the position is bounded, we do not need a Hamilton-Jacobi counterterm in order to have a well-defined saddle point approximation. Further developments and extensions are commented upon in the discussion.
What is QFT? Resurgent trans-series, Lefschetz thimbles, and new exact saddles
Dunne, Gerald V
2015-01-01
This is an introductory level review of recent applications of resurgent trans-series and Picard-Lefschetz theory to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Resurgence connects local perturbative data with global topological structure. In quantum mechanical systems, this program provides a constructive relation between different saddles. For example, in certain cases it has been shown that all information around the instanton saddle is encoded in perturbation theory around the perturbative saddle. In quantum field theory, such as sigma models compactified on a circle, neutral bions provide a semi-classical interpretation of the elusive IR-renormalon, and fractional kink instantons lead to the non-perturbatively induced gap, of order of the strong scale. In the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, saddles must be found by solving the holomorphic Newton's equation in the inverted (holomorphized) potential. Some saddles are complex, multi-valued, and even singular, but of finite action, and their ...
Phase-space geometry and reaction dynamics near index 2 saddles
We study the phase-space geometry associated with index 2 saddles of a potential energy surface and its influence on reaction dynamics for n degree-of-freedom (DoF) Hamiltonian systems. In recent years, similar studies have been carried out for index 1 saddles of potential energy surfaces, and the phase-space geometry associated with classical transition state theory has been elucidated. In this case, the existence of a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM) of saddle stability type has been shown, where the NHIM serves as the 'anchor' for the construction of dividing surfaces having the no-recrossing property and minimal flux. For the index 1 saddle case, the stable and unstable manifolds of the NHIM are co-dimension 1 in the energy surface and have the structure of spherical cylinders, and thus act as the conduits for reacting trajectories in phase space. The situation for index 2 saddles is quite different, and their relevance for reaction dynamics has not previously been fully recognized. We show that NHIMs with their stable and unstable manifolds still exist, but that these manifolds by themselves lack sufficient dimension to act as barriers in the energy surface in order to constrain reactions. Rather, in the index 2 case there are different types of invariant manifolds, containing the NHIM and its stable and unstable manifolds, that act as co-dimension 1 barriers in the energy surface. These barriers divide the energy surface in the vicinity of the index 2 saddle into regions of qualitatively different trajectories exhibiting a wider variety of dynamical behavior than for the case of index 1 saddles. In particular, we can identify a class of trajectories, which we refer to as 'roaming trajectories', which are not associated with reaction along the classical minimum energy path (MEP). We illustrate the significance of our analysis of the index 2 saddle for reaction dynamics with two examples. The first involves isomerization on a potential energy
Measuring the distance from saddle points and driving to locate them over quantum control landscapes
Optimal control of quantum phenomena involves the introduction of a cost functional J to characterize the degree of achieving a physical objective by a chosen shaped electromagnetic field. The cost functional dependence upon the control forms a control landscape. Two theoretically important canonical cases are the landscapes associated with seeking to achieve either a physical observable or a unitary transformation. Upon satisfaction of particular assumptions, both landscapes are analytically known to be trap-free, yet possess saddle points at precise suboptimal J values. The presence of saddles on the landscapes can influence the effort needed to find an optimal field. As a foundation to future algorithm development and analyzes, we define metrics that identify the ‘distance’ from a given saddle based on the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of the saddles. Algorithms are introduced utilizing the metrics to find a control such that the dynamics arrive at a targeted saddle. The saddle distance metric and saddle-seeking methodology is tested numerically in several model systems. (paper)
Geology of the Saddle Mountains between Sentinel Gap and 119030' longitude
Members and flows of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group were mapped in the Saddle Mountains between Sentinel Gap and the eastern edge of Smyrna Bench. The Grande Ronde Basalt consists of the Schwana (low-MgO) and Sentinel Bluffs (high-MgO) members (informal names). The Wanapum Basalt consists of the aphyric and phyric units of the Frenchman Springs Member, the Roza-Like Member, and the Priest Rapids Member. The Saddle Mountains Basalt consists of the Wahluke, Huntzinger, Pomona, Mattawa, and Elephant Mountain basalts. The Wanapum and Saddle Mountains basalts are unevenly distributed across the Saddle Mountains. The Wanapum Basalt thins from south to north and across a northwest-southeast-trending axis at the west end of Smyrna Bench. The Priest Rapids, Roza-Like, and aphyric Frenchman Springs units are locally missing across this zone. The Saddle Mountains basalt has a more irregular distribution and, within an area between Sentinel Gap and Smyrna Bench, is devoid of the basalt. The Wahluke, Huntzinger, and Mattawa flows are locally present, but the Pomona is restricted to the southern flank west of Smyrna Bench, and the Elephant Mountain Basalt only occurs on the flanks and in three structurally controlled basins on the northwest side. The structure of the Saddle Mountains is dominated by an east-west trend and, to a lesser degree, controlled by a northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest trend. The geomorphological expression of the Saddle Mountains results from the east-west fold set and the Saddle Mountains fault along the north side. The oldest structures follow the northwest-southeast trend. The distribution of the flows, combined with the structural features, indicates a complex geologic history for the Saddel Mountains
Relative variances of the cadence frequency of cycling under two differential saddle heights
Chang, Wen-Dien; Fan Chiang, Chin-Yun; Lai, Ping-Tung; Lee, Chia-Lun; Fang, Sz-Ming
2016-01-01
[Purpose] Bicycle saddle height is a critical factor for cycling performance and injury prevention. The present study compared the variance in cadence frequency after exercise fatigue between saddle heights with 25° and 35° knee flexion. [Methods] Two saddle heights, which were determined by setting the pedal at the bottom dead point with 35° and 25° knee flexion, were used for testing. The relative variances of the cadence frequency were calculated at the end of a 5-minute warm-up period and...
Polymer quantization and the saddle point approximation of partition functions
Técotl, Hugo A Morales; Rastgoo, Saeed
2015-01-01
The saddle point approximation of the path integral partition functions is an important way of deriving the thermodynamical properties of black holes. However, there are certain black hole models and some mathematically analog mechanical models for which this method can not be applied directly. This is due to the fact that their action evaluated on a classical solution is not finite and its first variation does not vanish for all consistent boundary conditions. These problems can be dealt with by adding a counter-term to the classical action, which is a solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. In this work we study the effects of polymer quantization on a mechanical model presenting the aforementioned difficulties and contrast it with the above counter-term method. This type of quantization for mechanical models is motivated by the loop quantization of gravity which is known to play a role in the thermodynamics of black holes systems. The model we consider is a non relativistic particle in an i...
Medical image of the week: saddle pulmonary embolism
Jaffer F
2016-05-01
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 66-year-old woman with recent history of left knee surgery and L2-L5 spinal fusion within the past month presented to the Emergency Department (ED with pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath for three days. On admission, reported crushing diffuse substernal chest pain worsened to 10/10 on the pain scale on the day of presentation. In the ED, physical examination was remarkable for tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis and hypotension. Initial electrocardiogram was significant for sinus tachycardia with S1Q3T3 pattern. thoracic computed tomography angiogram (CTA showed saddle pulmonary embolus (PE with extension into segmental vasculature, right greater than left (Figure 1. A bedside echocardiogram demonstrated diastolic and systolic bowing of the intraventricular septum into the left ventricle. An emergent trans-thoracic echocardiogram confirmed flattened septum consistent with right ventricle pressure overload with right ventricular systolic pressure of 55 mmHg + central venous pressure (CVP and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 38%. Her ...
Multiscale BDDC for a saddle-point problem
Sousedík, Bedřich
2011-01-01
We propose a Multiscale BDDC for a class of saddle-point problems. The method solves for both flux and pressure variables. The fluxes are resolved in three-steps: the coarse solve is followed by subdomain solves, and last we look for a divergence-free flux correction and pressure variables using conjugate gradients with a Multilevel BDDC preconditioner. Because the coarse solve in the first step has the same structure as the original problem, we can use this procedure recursively and solve (a hierarchy of) coarse problems only approximately, utilizing the coarse problems known from the BDDC. The resulting algorithm thus first performs several upscaling steps, and then solves a hierarchy of problems that have the same structure but increase in size while sweeping down the levels, using the same components in the first and in the third step on each level, and also reusing the components from the higher levels. Because the coarsening can be quite aggressive, the number of outer iterations can be kept small and t...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one...
The unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in a chaotic attractor after an attractor merging crisis (MC) are classified into three subsets, and employed to reconstruct chaotic saddles in the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. It is shown that in the post-MC regime, the two chaotic saddles evolved from the two coexisting chaotic attractors before crisis can be reconstructed from the UPOs embedded in the pre-MC chaotic attractors. The reconstruction also involves the detection of the mediating UPO responsible for the crisis, and the UPOs created after crisis that fill the gap regions of the chaotic saddles. We show that the gap UPOs originate from saddle-node, period-doubling, and pitchfork bifurcations inside the periodic windows in the post-MC chaotic region of the bifurcation diagram. The chaotic attractor in the post-MC regime is found to be the closure of gap UPOs
Saiki, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yoshi.saiki@r.hit-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Commerce and Management, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo 186-8601 (Japan); Yamada, Michio [Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences (RIMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Chian, Abraham C.-L. [Paris Observatory, LESIA, CNRS, 92195 Meudon (France); National Institute for Space Research (INPE), P.O. Box 515, São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12227-010 (Brazil); Institute of Aeronautical Technology (ITA) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12228-900 (Brazil); School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [Faculty UnB-Gama, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Rempel, Erico L. [Institute of Aeronautical Technology (ITA) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12228-900 (Brazil)
2015-10-15
The unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in a chaotic attractor after an attractor merging crisis (MC) are classified into three subsets, and employed to reconstruct chaotic saddles in the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. It is shown that in the post-MC regime, the two chaotic saddles evolved from the two coexisting chaotic attractors before crisis can be reconstructed from the UPOs embedded in the pre-MC chaotic attractors. The reconstruction also involves the detection of the mediating UPO responsible for the crisis, and the UPOs created after crisis that fill the gap regions of the chaotic saddles. We show that the gap UPOs originate from saddle-node, period-doubling, and pitchfork bifurcations inside the periodic windows in the post-MC chaotic region of the bifurcation diagram. The chaotic attractor in the post-MC regime is found to be the closure of gap UPOs.
A method for finding the ridge between saddle points applied to rare event rate estimates
Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Jónsson, Hannes; Vegge, Tejs
2012-01-01
to the path. The method is applied to Al adatom diffusion on the Al(100) surface to find the ridge between 2-, 3- and 4-atom concerted displacements and hop mechanisms. A correction to the harmonic approximation of transition state theory was estimated by direct evaluation of the configuration......A method is presented for finding the ridge between first order saddle points on a multidimensional surface. For atomic scale systems, such saddle points on the energy surface correspond to atomic rearrangement mechanisms. Information about the ridge can be used to test the validity of the harmonic...... approximation to transition state theory, in particular to verify that second order saddle points—maxima along the ridge—are high enough compared to the first order saddle points. New minima along the ridge can also be identified during the path optimisation, thereby revealing additional transition mechanisms...
Optimal path of diffusion over the saddle point and fusion of massive nuclei
Wang, Chun-Yang; Jia, Ying; Bao, Jing-Dong
2008-01-01
Diffusion of a particle passing over the saddle point of a two-dimensional quadratic potential is studied via a set of coupled Langevin equations and the expression for the passing probability is obtained exactly. The passing probability is found to be strongly influenced by the off-diagonal components of inertia and friction tensors. If the system undergoes the optimal path to pass over the saddle point by taking an appropriate direction of initial velocity into account, which departs from t...
Kinematic Geometry for the Saddle Line Fitting of Planar Discrete Positions
WU Yu; WANG Delun; WANG Wei; YU Shudong; XU Wenji
2015-01-01
The position synthesis of planar linkages is to locate the center point of the moving joint on a rigid link, whose trajectory is a circle or a straight line. Utilizing the min-max optimization scheme, the fitting curve needs to minimize the maximum fitting error to acquire the dimension of a planar binary P-R link. Based on the saddle point programming, the fitting straight line is determined to the planar discrete point-path traced by the point of the rigid body in planar motion. The property and evolution of the defined saddle line error can be revealed from three given separate points. A quartic algebraic equation relating the fitting error and the coordinates is derived, which agrees with the classical theory. The effect of the fourth point is discussed in three cases through the constraint equations. The multi-position saddle line error is obtained by combination and comparison from the saddle point programming. Several examples are presented to illustrate the solution process for the saddle line error of the moving plane. The saddle line error surface and the contour map presented to show the variations of the fitting error in the fixed frame. The discrete kinematic geometry is then set up to disclose the relations of the separate positions of the rigid body, the location of the tracing point on the moving body, and the position and orientation of the saddle line to the point-path. This paper presents a new analytic geometry method for saddle line fitting and provides a theoretical foundation for position synthesis.
Absorbable Plate as a Perpendicular Strut for Acute Saddle Nose Deformities
Deok Jung Kim; Soo Hyang Lee; Pil Dong Cho; Seung Chul Rhee; Jong Gyu Kim
2012-01-01
Background Nasal pyramid fractures accompanied by saddle nose deformities are not easily corrected by closed reduction. We used an absorbable plate as a perpendicular strut to support the collapsed "keystone area" and obtained good results. Methods Between September 2008 and June 2011, 18 patients who had nasal pyramid fractures with saddle nose deformities underwent surgery. Pre- and postoperative facial computed tomographic images and photographs were taken to estimate outcomes. The operati...
The charge state of the ions produced by a saddle field ion source
The thesis is concerned with an analysis of the charge state and energy of the ions produced by a saddle field ion source, and its application to the measurement of the sputtering yield. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: production of multicharged ions, saddle field ion sources, experimental conditions, ionic charge state, energy for argon, and sputtering yield of gold for Ar+ and Ar2+ ions. (U.K.)
Analytical approach for Dirac equation using the saddle-point variational method
A general analytical approximate method for Dirac equation with confining power-law scalar plus vector potentials is presented. The method consists in an improved version of a saddle-point variational approach and it is applied to the fundamental state of massless particles for some special cases of interest. Our treatment emphasizes aspects such as the quantum-mechanical relativistic Virial Theorem and the saddle-point character of the critical point of (H), the expectation value of the total energy. (author)
Chaos in driven Alfvén systems: unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles
A. C.-L. Chian
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The chaotic dynamics of Alfvén waves in space plasmas governed by the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, in the low-dimensional limit described by stationary spatial solutions, is studied. A bifurcation diagram is constructed, by varying the driver amplitude, to identify a number of nonlinear dynamical processes including saddle-node bifurcation, boundary crisis, and interior crisis. The roles played by unstable periodic orbits and chaotic saddles in these transitions are analyzed, and the conversion from a chaotic saddle to a chaotic attractor in these dynamical processes is demonstrated. In particular, the phenomenon of gap-filling in the chaotic transition from weak chaos to strong chaos via an interior crisis is investigated. A coupling unstable periodic orbit created by an explosion, within the gaps of the chaotic saddles embedded in a chaotic attractor following an interior crisis, is found numerically. The gap-filling unstable periodic orbits are responsible for coupling the banded chaotic saddle (BCS to the surrounding chaotic saddle (SCS, leading to crisis-induced intermittency. The physical relevance of chaos for Alfvén intermittent turbulence observed in the solar wind is discussed.
Imágenes de una revolución: la caída del muro de Berlín en los medios de comunicación
Ruiz de Larramendi Herranz, María
2015-01-01
El presente trabajo de fin de grado trata del tratamiento que los medios de comunicación dieron a la caída del muro de Berlín en 1989, a través de una exposición de imágenes, publicadas por los periódicos más influyentes de España en la época: El País, La Vanguardia y el ABC.
Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source
Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.
2015-04-01
Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ˜1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ˜4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (˜1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (˜0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ˜15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV).
Saddle-shaped, bistable morphing panel with shape memory alloy spring actuator
Bistable structures are attractive morphing components because they can transform from one stable state to another simply through the application of an external force or moment. Each stable state is preserved despite the absence of a continuous energy supply. However, its competency is quite limited because most bistable composites (unsymmetric laminated bistable composites) have limited equilibrium shape configurations after curing. Most of them are cylindrical in shape. In this paper, for the first time, we present a saddle-shaped bistable panel that can be used for various soft-morphing applications. The mechanics of the saddle-shaped, bistable panel are investigated using the Rayleigh–Ritz approximation. A simple analytical model is proposed to obtain saddle bistability and deformations. Finite element (FE) numerical analysis is also performed to validate the analytical model approach. The numerical FE analysis shows good correlation with simple analytical solutions. Furthermore, for practical, smart-structure applications of the saddle-shaped bistable panel, the FE method simulated a snap-through action induced by a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring actuator. A simple design criterion for the snap-through action of a saddle composite panel actuated by an SMA spring component is suggested, based on the FE analysis. (papers)
Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Roig, Andreu; Galilea, Piero; García-López, Juan
2012-11-01
In cycling, proper saddle height is important because it contributes to the mechanical work of the lower limb joints, thus altering pedaling efficiency. The appropriate method to select optimal saddle height is still unknown. This study was conducted to compare a static (anthropometric measurements) vs. a dynamic method (2D analysis) to adjust saddle height. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between saddle height, anthropometrics, pedaling angles, and hamstring flexibility was carried out. Saddle height outside of the recommended range (106-109% of inseam length) was observed in 56.5% of the subjects. Inappropriate knee flexion angles using the dynamic method were observed in 26% of subjects. The results of this study support the concept that adjusting saddle height to 106-109% of inseam length may not ensure an optimal knee flexion (30-40°). To solve these discrepancies, we applied a multiple linear regression to study the relationship between anthropometrics, pedaling angles, and saddle height. The results support the contention that saddle height, inseam length, and knee angle are highly related (R = 0.963, p < 0.001). We propose a novel equation that relates these factors to recommend an optimal saddle height (108.6-110.4% of inseam length). PMID:22190163
Bowl breakout: Escaping the positive region when searching for saddle points
Pedersen, Andreas [Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland VR-III, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Luiser, Mathieu [Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2014-07-14
We present a scheme improving the minimum-mode following method for finding first order saddle points by confining the displacements of atoms to the subset of those subject to the largest force. By doing so it is ensured that the displacement remains of a local character within regions where all eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are positive. However, as soon as a region is entered where an eigenvalue turns negative all atoms are released to maintain the ability of determining concerted moves. Applying the proposed scheme reduces the required number of force calls for the determination of connected saddle points by a factor two or more compared to a free search. Furthermore, a wider distribution of the relevant low barrier saddle points is obtained. Finally, the dependency on the initial distortion and the applied maximal step size is reduced making minimum-mode guided searches both more robust and applicable.
HESSIAN MATRIX BASED SADDLE POINT DETECTION FOR GRANULES SEGMENTALTION IN 2D IMAGE
无
2008-01-01
Segmenting the touching objects in an image has been remaining as a hot subject due to the problematic complexities,and a vast number of algorithms designed to tackle this issue have come into being since a decade ago.In this paper,a new granule segmentation algorithm is developed using saddle point as the cutting point.The image is binarized and then sequentially eroded to form a gray-scale topographic counterpart,followed by using Hessian matrix computation to search for the saddle point. The segmentation is performed by cutting through the saddle point and along the maximal gradient path on the topographic surface.The results of the algorithm test on the given real images indicate certain superiorities in both the segmenting robustness and execution time to the referenced methods.
Why do galactic spins flip in the cosmic web? A Theory of Tidal Torques near saddles
Pichon, Christophe; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Dubois, Yohan; Desjacques, Vincent; Devriendt, Julien
2014-01-01
Filaments of the cosmic web drive spin acquisition of disc galaxies. The point process of filament-type saddle represent best this environment and can be used to revisit the Tidal Torque Theory in the context of an anisotropic peak (saddle) background split. The constrained misalignment between the tidal tensor and the Hessian of the density field generated in the vicinity of filament saddle points simply explains the corresponding transverse and longitudinal point-reflection symmetric geometry of spin distribution. It predicts in particular an azimuthal orientation of the spins of more massive galaxies and spin alignment with the filament for less massive galaxies. Its scale dependence also allows us to relate the transition mass corresponding to the alignment of dark matter halos spin relative to the direction of their neighboring filament to this geometry, and to predict accordingly it s scaling with the mass of non linearity, as was measured in simulations.
Jiang, Heping; Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli
In this paper, we firstly employ the normal form theory of delayed differential equations according to Faria and Magalhães to derive the normal form of saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation for the general retarded functional differential equations. Then, the dynamical behaviors of a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with time delay and nonmonotonic functional response are considered. Specially, the dynamical classification near the saddle-node-Hopf bifurcation point is investigated by using the normal form and the center manifold approaches. Finally, the numerical simulations are employed to support the theoretical results.
A new technique that can efficiently approximate the attracting set of a nonlinear dynamical system is proposed under the framework of point mapping with the cell reference method. With the aid of the approximated attracting set, the difficulties encountered by the PIM-triple method and bisection procedure in finding trajectories on the stable manifolds of chaotic saddles in basins of attraction and on basin boundaries can be overcome well. On the basis of this development, an effective method to determine saddle-type invariant limit sets of nonlinear dynamical systems can be devised. Examples are presented for the purposes of illustration and to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method. (general)
Jarmila EFTIMOVÁ
2012-09-01
Full Text Available On defined production sites in the closed Tokay region only three varieties (cv. Lipovina, cv. Yellow Muscat and cv. Furmint were grown for several centuries. Objective of the research from 2005-2008 was to examine whether there is a change in varieties susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola (Berk. M.A.Curtis Berl.De Toni and Erysiphe necator Schwein., on four sites located from 105 to 320 AMSL were observed how the infection and pathogen spreading in both diseases were affected by climate factors, site location and the architecture of stand. We found out that the development and progression of infection depends on the susceptibility of leaves where fungi reproductive organs are growing and the dimension of infection source. The results showed that most sensitively responded to Erysiphe necator the Lipovina variety, with its very fine leaves. Cv. Furmint and cv. Muscat yellow were moderately responsive. Raphis and berries are very sensitive in all development stages.Dissemination of ascospores and Erysiphe necator conidia are spatially bounded, therefore, depending on microclimate, site location and stand architecture. The most sensitive response to infection by Plasmopara viticola was observed in cv. Lipovina, medium-sensitive in cv. Furmint, and the smallest in cv. Yellow Muscat. Especially young berries are very susceptible to infection. We found out that cv. Lipovina, Furmint and Yellow Muscat were most sensitive to infection by Plasmopara viticola and Erysiphe necator during the phenophase BBCH 68, when 80% of flowers fade away. The research found out that vines planted on sites with altitude from 105 to150 AMSL, in closed locations without any green work made were infected by Plasmopara viticola strongly.
Song, Q. S.; Yin, G.
2006-01-01
This work establishes sufficient conditions for existence of saddle points in discrete Markov games. The result reveals the relation between dynamic games and static games using dynamic programming equations. This result enables us to prove existence of saddle points of non-separable stochastic differential games of regime-switching diffusions under appropriate conditions.
Baviera, I. (Inmaculada)
2010-01-01
Las políticas de empleo comunitarias se han desarrollado a lo largo del proceso de construcción de la Unión Europea. Desde la Estrategia de Lisboa se ha reforzado la introducción progresiva de planteamientos economicistas para hacer de Europa la economía más competitiva y dinámica del mundo. Sin embargo, estos criterios pretenden recortar ciertas garantías sociales y ponen en peligro los derechos de los trabajadores. El vigésimo aniversario de la caída del muro de Berlín, en gran medida fruto...
Exact propagator for an electron in a quadratic saddle-point potential and a magnetic field
Yang Tao; Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Pan Xiao-Yin
2011-01-01
We study the propagator for an electron moving in a two-dimensional(2D)quadratic saddle-point potential, in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. A closed-form expression for the propagator is derived using the Feynmann path integrals.
Modeled Top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt Geomodel Unit (smtop_f)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smtop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt geomodlel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel...
Expansion of single-link integrals around a saddle-point configuration
Brihaye, Y.; Taormina, A.
1985-12-01
Considering the single-link integrals arising in the mean-field approach of lattice spin and gauge models, we present a simple method to develop these integrals in powers of a fluctuation around the relevant mean-field saddle-point configurations. We illustrate the method by computing four orders in the large-N limit of the U(N) group integral.
Expansion of single-link integrals around a saddle-point configuration
Brihaye, Y.; Taormina, A.
1985-12-15
Considering the single-link integrals arising in the mean-field approach of lattice spin and gauge models, we present a simple method to develop these integrals in powers of a fluctuation around the relevant mean-field saddle-point configurations. We illustrate the method by computing four orders in the large-N limit of the U(N) group integral.
LEAST-SQUARES MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SADDLE-POINT PROBLEM
Lie-heng Wang; Huo-yuan Duan
2000-01-01
In this paper, a least-squares mixed finite element method for the solution of the primal saddle-point problem is developed. It is proved that the approximate problem is consistent ellipticity in the conforming finite element spaces with only the discrete BB-condition needed for a smaller auxiliary problem. The abstract error estimate is derived.
Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Byczanski, Petr
Roč. 15, č. 4 ( 2012 ), s. 191-207. ISSN 1432-9360 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : poroelasticity * saddle point matrices * preconditioning * stability of discretization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00791-013-0209-0
Modified saddle-point integral near a singularity for the large deviation function
Long-time-integrated quantities in stochastic processes, in or out of equilibrium, usually exhibit rare but huge fluctuations. Work or heat production is such a quantity, for which the probability distribution function displays an exponential decay characterized by the large deviation function (LDF). The LDF is often deduced from the cumulant generating function through the inverse Fourier transformation. The saddle-point integration method is a powerful technique to obtain the asymptotic results in the Fourier integral, but special care should be taken when the saddle point is located near a singularity of the integrand. In this paper, we present a modified saddle-point method to handle such a difficulty efficiently. We investigate the dissipated and injected heat production in equilibration processes with various initial conditions, for example, where the generating functions contain branch-cut singularities as well as power-law ones. Exploiting the new modified saddle-point integrations, we obtain the leading finite-time corrections for the LDFs, which are confirmed by numerical results. (paper)
The saddle-node-transcritical bifurcation in a population model with constant rate harvesting
Saputra, K V I; Quispel, G R W
2010-01-01
We study the interaction of saddle-node and transcritical bifurcations in a Lotka-Volterra model with a constant term representing harvesting or migration. Because some of the equilibria of the model lie on an invariant coordinate axis, both the saddle-node and the transcritical bifurcations are of codimension one. Their interaction can be associated with either a single or a double zero eigenvalue. We show that in the former case, the local bifurcation diagram is given by a nonversal unfolding of the cusp bifurcation whereas in the latter case it is a nonversal unfolding of a degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. We present a simple model for each of the two cases to illustrate the possible unfoldings. We analyse the consequences of the generic phase portraits for the Lotka-Volterra system.
Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India
S Sengupta; Sampa Sarkar; S Mukhopadhyay
2011-04-01
Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.
Toward Picard-Lefschetz Theory of Path Integrals, Complex Saddles and Resurgence
Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Unsal, Mithat
2015-01-01
We show that the semi-classical analysis of generic Euclidean path integrals necessarily requires complexification of the action and measure, and consideration of complex saddle solutions. We demonstrate that complex saddle points have a natural interpretation in terms of the Picard-Lefschetz theory. Motivated in part by the semi-classical expansion of QCD with adjoint matter on ${\\mathbb R}^3\\times S^1$, we study quantum-mechanical systems with bosonic and fermionic (Grassmann) degrees of freedom with harmonic degenerate minima, as well as (related) purely bosonic systems with harmonic non-degenerate minima. We find exact finite action non-BPS bounce and bion solutions to the holomorphic Newton equations. We find not only real solutions, but also complex solution with non-trivial monodromy, and finally complex multi-valued and singular solutions. Complex bions are necessary for obtaining the correct non-perturbative structure of these models. In the supersymmetric limit the complex solutions govern the groun...
Comparing Saddle, Slotted-tube and Parallel-plate Coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nespor, D.; Bartusek, K.; Dokoupil, Z.
2014-06-01
The paper is concerned with a comparison of the properties of RF coils of three configurations for MRI measurements on small animals. In comparison with the classical saddle coil the proposed modification of slotted-tube coil exhibits identical homogeneity of B1 field in a larger space. The parallel-plate coil has a satisfactory homogeneity of B1 field over the whole internal space. The signal-to-noise ratio measured for all three coils is roughly the same and is given by the magnitude of RF pre-amplifier noise. As the slotted-tube and parallel-plate coils have a lower inductance compared with the saddle coil, they can be tuned to resonance on the 200 MHz frequency even at larger dimensions. The results show that the parallel-plate coil has very good properties for the measurement of small animals.
Transition saddle points and associated defects for a triaxially stretched FCC crystal
Delph, T. J.; Zimmerman, J. A.
2016-05-01
We demonstrate the use of a single-ended method for locating saddle points on the potential energy surface for a triaxially stretched FCC crystal governed by a Lennard-Jones potential. Single-ended methods require no prior knowledge of the defected state and are shown to have powerful advantages in this application, principally because the nature of the associated defects can be quite complicated and hence extremely difficult to predict ab initio. We find that while classical spherical cavitation occurs for high stretch values, for lower values the defect mode transitions to a non-spherical pattern without any apparent symmetries. This non-spherical mode plays the primary role in harmonic transition state theory predictions that are used to examine how instabilities vary with applied loading rate. Such a defect mode would be difficult to determine using double-ended methods for finding saddle points.
Ultrasonic depth-sizing errors of crack-like defects in saddle-shaped weld joints
In order to determine crack depth in primarily loop recirculation (PLR) piping of boiling water reactors, ultrasonic angle beam testing using time of flight measurement of the diffracted signal from the crack tip, is employed. There are some power stations in Japan having saddle-shaped weld joints at branch connections in PLR piping. If the angle beam testing is applied without considering curvature of saddle-shaped weld joints, unlike weld joints of straight piping, it can be predicted that determined depth by the typical technique mentioned above contains a geometrical error due to the curvature. This issue has never been discussed in welds of branch connections. This paper deals with this issue with a mockup and phased array inspection system. As a result, the geometrical error is negligibly small in comparison to underlying depth-sizing errors of stress corrosion cracks in authentic stainless steel welds. (author)
Limiting Accuracy of Segregated Solution Methods for Nonsymmetric Saddle Point Problems
Jiránek, P.; Rozložník, Miroslav
Roc. 215, c. 1 (2008), s. 28-37. ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0554; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : saddle point problems * Schur complement reduction method * null-space projection method * rounding error analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.048, year: 2008
NMS Flows on Three-Dimensional Manifolds with One Saddle Periodic Orbit
B. CAMPOS; A. CORDERO; J. Mart(i)nez ALFARO; P. VINDEL
2004-01-01
The simplest NMS flow is a polar flow formed by an attractive periodic orbit and a repulsive periodic orbit as limit sets. In this paper we show that the only orientable, simple, compact,3-dimensional manifolds without boundary that admit an NMS flow with none or one saddle periodic orbit are lens spaces.We also see that when a fattened round handle is a connected sum of tori, the corresponding flow is also a trivial connected sum of flows.
Exotic Homoclinic Surface of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle in a Leech Neuron Model
Yooer, Chi-Feng; Wei, Fang; Xu, Jian-Xue; Zhang, Xin-Hua
2011-03-01
We carry out numerical and theoretical investigations on the global unstable invariant set (manifold) of a saddle-node limit cycle in a leech heart interneuron model. The corresponding global bifurcation is accompanied by an explosion of secondary bifurcations of limit cycles and the emergence of loop-shaped bifurcation structures. The dynamical behaviors of the trajectories of the invariant set are very complicated and can only be partially explained by existing theories.
Exotic Homoclinic Surface of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle in a Leech Neuron Model
We carry out numerical and theoretical investigations on the global unstable invariant set (manifold) of a saddle-node limit cycle in a leech heart interneuron model. The corresponding global bifurcation is accompanied by an explosion of secondary bifurcations of limit cycles and the emergence of loop-shaped bifurcation structures. The dynamical behaviors of the trajectories of the invariant set are very complicated and can only be partially explained by existing theories. (general)
Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Byczanski, Petr; Karátson, J.; Ahmad, B.
2015-01-01
Roč. 280, č. 280 (2015), s. 141-157. ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : preconditioners * heterogeneous coefficients * regularized saddle point Inner–outer iterations * Darcy flow Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042714005238
Det-Det correlations for quantum maps: Dual pair and saddle-point analyses
An attempt is made to clarify the ballistic nonlinear sigma model formalism recently proposed for quantum chaotic systems, by looking at the spectral determinant Z(s)=Det(1-sU) for quantized maps U(set-membership sign)U(N), and studying the correlator ωU(s)=∫dθ vertical bar Z(eiθs) vertical bar2. By identifying U(N) as one member of a dual pair acting in the spinor representation of Spin(4N), the expansion of ωU(s) in powers of s2 is shown to be a decomposition into irreducible characters of U(N). In close analogy with the ballistic nonlinear sigma model, a coherent-state integral representation of ωU(s) is developed. For generic U this integral has (N2N) saddle points and the leading-order saddle-point approximation turns out to reproduce ωU(s) exactly, up to a constant factor. This miracle is explained by interpreting ωU(s) as a character of U(2N), and arguing that the leading-order saddle-point result corresponds to the Weyl character formula. Unfortunately, the Weyl decomposition behaves nonsmoothly in the semiclassical limit N→∞, and to make further progress some additional averaging needs to be introduced. Several schemes are investigated, including averaging over basis states and an ''isotropic'' average. The saddle-point approximation applied in conjunction with these schemes is demonstrated to give incorrect results in general, one notable exception being a semiclassical averaging scheme, for which all loop corrections vanish identically. As a side product of the dual pair decomposition with isotropic averaging, the crossover between the Poisson and CUE limits is obtained
A preconditioner based on the shift-splitting method for generalized saddle point problems
Salkuyeh, Davod Khojasteh; Masoudi, Mohsen; Hezari, Davod
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a preconditioner based on the shift-splitting method for generalized saddle point problems with nonsymmetric positive definite (1,1)-block and symmetric positive semidefinite $(2,2)$-block. The proposed preconditioner is obtained from an basic iterative method which is unconditionally convergent. We also present a relaxed version of the proposed method. Some numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of the method.
On the generalized shift-splitting preconditioner for saddle point problems
Salkuyeh, Davod Khojasteh; Masoudi, Mohsen; Hezari, Davod
2014-01-01
In this paper, the generalized shift-splitting preconditioner is implemented for saddle point problems with symmetric positive definite (1,1)-block and symmetric positive semidefinite (2,2)-block. The proposed preconditioner is extracted form a stationary iterative method which is unconditionally convergent. Moreover, a relaxed version of the proposed preconditioner is presented and some properties of the eigenvalues distribution of the corresponding preconditioned matrix are studied. Finally...
Using a new approach, Stauffer close-quote s expression for the rate of steady state binary nucleation and Trinkaus close-quote s expression for the steady state cluster concentrations f are derived directly from the diffusion equation that governs the evolution of f in composition space. The behavior of Φ (≡f/N, where N is the equilibrium cluster concentration) is explored since this function provides a characterization of the nucleating binary system that, to lowest order, is independent of the actual composition of the mother phase. The angle ω that describes the direction of ∇Φ at the saddle point differs, in general, from the angle φ found by Stauffer for the direction of the nucleation current at the saddle point. These two angles are related by the formula: tan ampersand hthinsp;φ=r ampersand hthinsp;tan ampersand hthinsp;ω, where r is the ratio of impingement frequencies defined by Stauffer. In general, at the saddle point, ∇Φ also fails to lie in the direction of steepest descent on the free energy surface. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Rotating saddle trap as Foucault's pendulum: a hidden 'Coriolis' force in an inertial frame
Kirillov, Oleg N
2016-01-01
According to Earnshaw's theorem an electrostatic potential cannot have stable equilibria, i.e. the minima, since such potentials are harmonic functions. However, the 1989 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to W. Paul for his invention of the trap for suspending charged particles in an oscillating electric field. Paul's idea was to stabilize the saddle by "vibrating" the electrostatic field, by analogy with the so-called Stephenson-Kapitsa pendulum in which the upside-down equilibrium is stabilized by vibration of the pivot. Instead of vibration, the saddle can also be stabilized by rotation of the potential (in two dimensions); this has been known for nearly a century, since 1918. Particles confined in rotating saddle traps exhibit precession in the laboratory frame, which up to now has been explained by analyzing explicit solutions. Here we show that this precession is actually due to a hidden Coriolis-like force, which we uncover by a normal form transformation. Unlike the conventional Coriolis force, this ...
In this paper, a new method for computation of saddle node bifurcation is presented. In this method, initially, the problem is converted to an optimization problem, then solving the optimization problem, the obtained optimum point is the saddle node bifurcation. Here, instead of calculating several power flows, with very few iterative solutions of the optimization equations, which are similar to power flow equations, the saddle node bifurcation is obtained. The number of iterations in which the optimization problem is solved depends directly on the number of reactive power resources reaching their limits before saddle node bifurcation occurs. In the proposed method, for the increase of active power at PV buses, the loss function has been considered. The simulations use a typical network to highlight that the proposed method can rapidly compute the voltage collapse point much faster than other techniques
FERRI, Josipa; Popović, Natalija Topić; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Beer-Ljubić, Blanka; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Škeljo, Frane; Jadan, Margita; Petrić, Mirela; Barišić, Josip; Šimpraga, Miljenko; Stanić, Rino
2011-01-01
Abstract Floating fish farms attract a great number of wild fish species, changing their behaviour and physiology. The saddled bream, Oblada melanura, sampled from populations aggregated around the Adriatic fish farm and from natural/control populations, were analysed for differences in eleven blood biochemistry parameters and liver histomorphology. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and urea (URE) in cage-associated saddled bream (428.00 ? SD 32...
Patrnogić Vesna; Todorović Aleksandar; Šćepanović Miodrag; Radović Katarina; Vesnić Jelena; Grbović Aleksandar
2013-01-01
Background/Aim. Different types of dental restorations are used for the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle edentulism. Unilateral complex partial denture is one of the indications for the Kennedy class II partial edentulism. The abscence of major connector and denture plate is an advantage compared to the conventional restorations, because of better comfort and shorter period of adaptation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of free-end saddle length change on the beha...
Poudel, Dilli Ram; Giri, Smith; Pathak, Ranjan; Hwang, Inyong; Alsafwah, Shadwan
2016-01-01
A 69-year-old female with history of immobilization presented with shortness of breath and generalized weakness and was found to have large saddle pulmonary embolus on CT scan. Further evaluation with a transthoracic echocardiography revealed a moderately enlarged and hypokinetic right ventricle with a pulmonary artery clot of about 1.5 cm seen at the bifurcation while the ultrasound of the legs was negative for deep vein thrombosis.Keywords: saddle; pulmonary; embolism; anticoagulation; echo...
Susmita Bhattacharyya; Subrata Bisai; Hirak Biswas; Mandeep Kumar Tiwary; Suchismita Mallik; Swarna Mukul Saha
2015-01-01
Background: Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). The major complication of spinal technique is risk of hypotension. Saddle block paralyzed pelvic muscles and sacral nerve roots and hemodynamic derangement is less. Aims and objectives: To compare the hemodynamic changes and adequate surgical condition between saddle block and subarachnoid block for TURP. Material and methods: Ninety patients of aged between 50 to 70 years of ASA-PS I, II s...
Oscar Pérez de la Fuente
2011-01-01
RESUMEN Es artículo analiza el caso de los centinelas del muro de Berlín que disparaban y mataron a algunas personas –que querían pasar la frontera-, amparados por una interpretación del Derecho de la RDA. Algunos años después de la unificación alemana, el Tribunal Constitucional condenó aquellos soldados por asesinato con el argumento que se trataba de Derecho “extremadamente injusto”. Esta es una forma particular de aplicación de la fórmula de Radburch. El objetivo de este artículo es est...
Oscar Pérez de la Fuente
2011-06-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN Es artículo analiza el caso de los centinelas del muro de Berlín que disparaban y mataron a algunas personas –que querían pasar la frontera-, amparados por una interpretación del Derecho de la RDA. Algunos años después de la unificación alemana, el Tribunal Constitucional condenó aquellos soldados por asesinato con el argumento que se trataba de Derecho “extremadamente injusto”. Esta es una forma particular de aplicación de la fórmula de Radburch. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar el caso de los centinelas del Muro de Berlín bajo la perspectiva del la Filosofía del Derecho, particularmente en la controversia entre positivismo y iusnaturalismo. En este sentido, se comparan los enfoques de Kelsen y Radburch sobre el Derecho nazi. Y también se estudia la polémica Hart Fuller sobre el caso de “delator rencoroso”. ABSTRACT This article analyzes the case of the border guards of the Berlin Wall that have shot and killed some people -who wanted pass the frontier- and those soldiers were protected by some legal interpretation under the German Democratic Republic Law. Some years after the German unification, the Constitutional Court condemned those soldiers for murder with the argument that that was an “extremely unjust” Law. This was a particular form of application of the Radburch’s formula. The objective of this article is studying the case of the Berlin Wall border guards under the perspective of the Philosophy of Law, particularly the controversy between positivism and iusnaturalism. In this sense, they are compared Kelsen and Radbruch approaches on Nazi law. And also it’s studied the Hart-Fuller polemics on the ‘grudge infomer’ case.
Spike-adding in parabolic bursters: The role of folded-saddle canards
Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Rodrigues, Serafim
2016-09-01
The present work develops a new approach to studying parabolic bursting, and also proposes a novel four-dimensional canonical and polynomial-based parabolic burster. In addition to this new polynomial system, we also consider the conductance-based model of the Aplysia R15 neuron known as the Plant model, and a reduction of this prototypical biophysical parabolic burster to three variables, including one phase variable, namely the Baer-Rinzel-Carillo (BRC) phase model. Revisiting these models from the perspective of slow-fast dynamics reveals that the number of spikes per burst may vary upon parameter changes, however the spike-adding process occurs in an explosive fashion that involves special solutions called canards. This spike-adding canard explosion phenomenon is analysed by using tools from geometric singular perturbation theory in tandem with numerical bifurcation techniques. We find that the bifurcation structure persists across all considered systems, that is, spikes within the burst are incremented via the crossing of an excitability threshold given by a particular type of canard orbit, namely the true canard of a folded-saddle singularity. However there can be a difference in the spike-adding transitions in parameter space from one case to another, according to whether the process is continuous or discontinuous, which depends upon the geometry of the folded-saddle canard. Using these findings, we construct a new polynomial approximation of the Plant model, which retains all the key elements for parabolic bursting, including the spike-adding transitions mediated by folded-saddle canards. Finally, we briefly investigate the presence of spike-adding via canards in planar phase models of parabolic bursting, namely the theta model by Ermentrout and Kopell.
Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River from Rochelle Park to Lodi, New Jersey, 2012
Hoppe, Heidi L.; Watson, Kara M.
2012-01-01
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 2.75-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.2 mile upstream from the Interstate 80 bridge in Rochelle Park to 1.5 miles downstream from the U.S. Route 46 bridge in Lodi, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey (station 01391500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01391500. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey streamgage and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at the Saddle River streamgage at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the extent of the stage-discharge rating, which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached by a rising stream the NWS or a partner needs to take some type of mitigation action in
Globally Proper Saddle Point in Ic-Cone-Convexlike Set-Valued Optimization Problems
Guo Lin YU; San Yang LIU
2009-01-01
The existence conditions of globally proper efficient points and a useful property of iccone-convexlike set-valued maps are obtained. Under the assumption of the ic-cone-convexlikeness, the optimality conditions for globally proper efficient solutions are established in terms of Lagrange multipliers. The new concept of globally proper saddle-point for an appropriate set-valued Lagrange map is introduced and used to characterize the globally proper efficient solutions. The results which are obtained in this paper are proven under the conditions that the ordering cone need not to have a nonempty interior.
Initiation to mould calculus through the example of saddle-node singularities
Sauzin, David
2007-01-01
This article proposes an initiation to \\'Ecalle's mould calculus, a powerful combinatorial tool which yields surprisingly explicit formulas for the normalising series attached to an analytic germ of singular vector field. This is illustrated on the case of saddle-node singularities, generated by two-dimensional vector fields which are formally conjugate to Euler's vector field $x^2\\frac{\\pa}{\\pa x}+(x+y)\\frac{\\pa}{\\pa y}$, and for which the formal normalisation proves to be resurgent in $1/x$.
Absorbable Plate as a Perpendicular Strut for Acute Saddle Nose Deformities
Deok Jung Kim
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Background Nasal pyramid fractures accompanied by saddle nose deformities are noteasily corrected by closed reduction. We used an absorbable plate as a perpendicular strut tosupport the collapsed “keystone area” and obtained good results.Methods Between September 2008 and June 2011, 18 patients who had nasal pyramidfractures with saddle nose deformities underwent surgery. Pre- and postoperative facialcomputed tomographic images and photographs were taken to estimate outcomes. Theoperative technique included the mucoperichondrial dissection of the nasal septum, insertionof an absorbable plate prepared to an appropriate length to support the “keystone area”, andfixation of the absorbable plate strut to the cartilaginous septum.Results Functional and esthetic outcomes were satisfactory in all patients. Eleven patientsassessed the postoperative appearance of the external nose as ‘markedly improved’ and 7patients as ‘improved’. The 5 surgeons scored the results as a mean of 4.5 on a 5-point scale.Conclusions The use of an absorbable plate as a perpendicular strut requires no additionalprocedures because the plate is gradually absorbed. The mechanical strength provided by abuttress between the “keystone area” and the maxillary crest lasts for a long time before thestrut is absorbed.
On the Saddle-point Solution and the Large-Coalition Behavior of Fingerprinting Games
Huang, Yen-Wei
2010-01-01
We study a fingerprinting game in which the number of colluders and the collusion channel are unknown. The encoder embeds fingerprints into a host sequence and provides the decoder with the capability to trace back pirated copies to the colluders. Fingerprinting capacity has recently been derived as the limit value of a sequence of maximin games with mutual information as their payoff functions. However, these games generally do not admit saddle-point solutions and are very hard to solve numerically. Here under the so-called Boneh-Shaw marking assumption, we reformulate the capacity as the value of a single two-person zero-sum game, and show that it is achieved by a saddle-point solution. If the maximal coalition size is k and the fingerprinting alphabet is binary, we show that capacity decays quadratically with k. Furthermore, we prove rigorously that the asymptotic capacity is 1/(k^2 2ln2) and we confirm our earlier conjecture that Tardos' choice of the arcsine distribution asymptotically maximizes the mutu...
Thorbergson, Zoë W; Nielsen, Sharon G; Beaulieu, Rodney J; Doyle, Rebecca E
2016-01-01
Riding is considered to be an arousing activity for horses. It has been suggested that wither scratching may be a more useful tool for relaxation compared with the common practice of neck patting. In the current study, 18 horses were exposed to 3 treatments, including control or no interaction, neck patting, and wither scratching, for 1 min each following a short obstacle course. Heart rate, heart rate variability, and a variety of behaviors were measured in the horses. Wither scratching produced a significantly longer duration of relaxed-type behaviors. Wither scratching could be a useful tool to help a horse relax while under saddle. Additionally, the study identified 2 ear positions that may be useful for future research in horse behavior. PMID:26958705
THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR
Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.
2011-10-01
A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.
Polymerization, the Problem of Access to the Saddle Point Approximation, and Thermodynamics
Morales-Técotl, Hugo A; Rastgoo, Saeed
2016-01-01
The saddle point approximation to the partition functions is an important way of deriving the thermodynamical properties of black holes. However, there are certain black hole models and some mathematically analog mechanical models for which this method can not be applied directly. This is due to the fact that their action evaluated on a classical solution is not finite and its first variation does not vanish for all consistent boundary conditions. These problems can be dealt with by adding a counter-term to the classical action, which is a solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. In this work however, we seek an alternative solution to this problem via the polymer quantization which is motivated by the loop quantum gravity.
广义中心-细鞍点的若干公式%The Formula of Generalized Center-Weak Saddle
万维明; 迟晓恒
2002-01-01
In this paper, a problem of center-weak focus of a general system of degree n is transformed into a problem of generalized center-weak saddle. It offers: (1) the calculating formula of the saddle values of the former 4 orders in the general system of degree three; (2) some calculating formulae of the saddle values in the general homogeneous system of degree n.The problem of center-focus(saddle) plays an important role in the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations. However, since the calculations are difficult, the results have not been satisfactory. On the basis of the author's work, Northeast. Math. J., 13(4)(1997), 487-494, the paper offers some calculating formulae of the saddle values.
2012-05-08
... desired conditions of the Forest Plan, and to facilitate the transition to a sustainable wood product... respond to the goals and objectives identified by the Forest Plan to guide timber management to support... Forest Service Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle...
C. Wallace
1977-08-01
Full Text Available Among the present-day members of the Canidae family are included the dogs and foxes (Wurster and Benirschke 1968. The genus Canis is represented in Africa by four species of jackal (Bigaike 1972. This paper presents the chromosome Findings in a male saddle-backed jackal Canis mesomelas studied in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.
XING Yong-Zhong
2009-01-01
The analytical solution of a multidimensional Langevin equation at the overdamping limit is obtained and the probability of particles passing over a two-dimensional saddle point is discussed. These results may break a path for studying further the fusion in superheavy elements synthesis.
JIA Bing; GU Hua-Guang; LI Yu-Ye
2011-01-01
@@ Excitability is an essential characteristic of excitable media such as nervous and cardiac systems.Different types of neuronal excitability are related to different bifurcation structures.We simulate the coherence resonance effect near a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation corresponding to type-I excitability in a theoretical neuron model,and recognize the obvious features of the corresponding firing pattern.Similar firing patterns are discovered in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.The results are not only helpful for understanding the dynamics of the saddle-node bifurcation and type-I excitability in a realistic nervous system,but also provide a practical indicator to identify types of excitability and bifurcation.%Excitability is an essential characteristic of excitable media such as nervous and cardiac systems. Different types of neuronal excitability are related to different bifurcation structures. We simulate the coherence resonance effect near a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation corresponding to type-I excitability in a theoretical neuron model, and recognize the obvious features of the corresponding firing pattern. Similar firing patterns are discovered in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The results are not only helpful for understanding the dynamics of the saddle-node bifurcation and type-I excitability in a realistic nervous system, but also provide a practical indicator to identify types of excitability and bifurcation.
Susmita Bhattacharyya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP. The major complication of spinal technique is risk of hypotension. Saddle block paralyzed pelvic muscles and sacral nerve roots and hemodynamic derangement is less. Aims and objectives: To compare the hemodynamic changes and adequate surgical condition between saddle block and subarachnoid block for TURP. Material and methods: Ninety patients of aged between 50 to 70 years of ASA-PS I, II scheduled for TURP were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 45 in each group. Group A patients were received spinal (2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine and Group B were received saddle block (2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine. Baseline systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation were recorded and measured subsequently. The height of block was noted in both groups. Hypotension was corrected by administration of phenylephrine 50 mcg bolus and total requirement of vasopressor was noted. Complications (volume overload, TURP syndrome etc. were noted. Results: Incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement was less (P < 0.01 in Gr B patients.Adequate surgical condition was achieved in both groups. There was no incidence of volume overload, TURP syndrome, and bladder perforation. Conclusion: TURP can be safely performed under saddle block without hypotension and less vasopressor requirement.
Patrnogić Vesna
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Different types of dental restorations are used for the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle edentulism. Unilateral complex partial denture is one of the indications for the Kennedy class II partial edentulism. The abscence of major connector and denture plate is an advantage compared to the conventional restorations, because of better comfort and shorter period of adaptation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of free-end saddle length change on the behaviour of unilateral complex partial denture supporting structures. Methods. Stress levels of the canine and the first premolar as retentional teeth and the attachments were tested under the influence of physiological forces with the loading point shifting distally in relation to the saddle length change. A virtual real size 3D model of the fixed part of the restoration (the canine and the first premolar with milled crowns was created using the CATIA computer program. It was connected to the mobile part of partial denture with the SD snap in latch attachment. Mobile part of the restoration was designed in the region of 2, 3 and 4 lateral teeth (second premolar, first, second and third molar. By using the finite element method (FEM stress levels analysis was performed under the load of physiological forces of 150 N in the free-end saddle teeth zone. Results. The results of analysis show that physiological forces cause a different stress distribution on the abutment teeth and the attachment, depending on the saddle length. Conclusion. The stress level values obtained for the abutment teeth as well as the attachment are far lower than the marginal ones. The behaviour of the system changes under this defined stress, but no plastic deformation occurs.
Back in the saddle: large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field
Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Reimberg, P.
2016-08-01
We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few per cent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellent agreement with N-body simulations for a wide range of densities. This formalism should prove valuable for accurately probing the quasi-linear scales of low-redshift surveys for arbitrary primordial power spectra.
A smooth landscape: ending saddle point inflation requires features to be shallow
We consider inflation driven near a saddle point in a higher dimensional field space, which is the most likely type of slow roll inflation on the string theoretical landscape; anthropic arguments need to be invoked in order to find a sufficiently flat region. To give all inflatons large masses after inflation and yield a small but positive cosmological constant, the trajectory in field space needs to terminate in a hole on the inflationary plateau, introducing a curved end-of-inflation hypersurface. We compute non-Gaussianities (bi- and tri-spectrum) caused by this curved hyper-surface and find a negative, potentially large, local non-linearity parameter. To be consistent with current observational bounds, the hole needs to be shallow, i.e. considerably wider than deep in natural units. To avoid singling out our vacuum as special (i.e. more special than a positive cosmological constant entails), we deduce that all features on field space should be similarly shallow, severely limiting the type of landscapes one may use for inflationary model building. We justify the use of a truncated Fourier series with random coefficients, which are suppressed the higher the frequency, to model such a smooth landscape by a random potential, as is often done in the literature without a good a priory reason
Improving efficiency of negative ion production in ion source with saddle antenna
Extraction of negative ions from a saddle antenna radio-frequency surface plasma source is considered. Several versions of new plasma generators with different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the smal Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source Test Stand. The efficiency of positive ion generation in plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 kW from 2.5 mA/cm2 kW. A small oven was developed for cesiation by cesium compounds and alloy decomposition. After cesiation, a current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with 1.5 kW RF power in the plasma and longitudinal magnetic field Bl ∼ 250 G. The specific efficiency of H− production was increased to 20 mA/cm2 kW from 2.5 mA/cm2 kW
[Evaluation of orthostatic regulation by saddle support test using thoracic impedance].
Gugova, F K; Lapin, V V
2002-01-01
We investigated 21 healthy volunteers (10 males and 11 females, mean age 23 +/- 4 years). All the subjects have undergone two 20 min head-up tilt tests using tilt table "TRI W.G. inc." (USA): the first with footplate support and the second with bicycle saddle. Thoracic electrical impedance was measured using impedance cardiography according to Kubicek et al. The protocols included an initial period of 20 min of supine rest while baseline thoracic impedance, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and then followed by a tilt to 65 degrees. Changes of impedance were measured at min 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 after the procedure. Women had higher values of thoracic impedance both at rest and during the tilt test than men. The value of impedance of the chest negatively correlated with the body mass index. We suppose that an increase of impedance more than 15% may be related with pathological venous pooling. Thoracic impedance may be used to monitor changes of thoracic fluid volumes with posture and possibly to assess orthostatic regulation. The contribution of leg muscles in orthostatic regulation does not reflect values of thoracic impedance. PMID:12152425
Cerrada, Lucia [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, EUITI, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); ETS de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, Alberto Aguilera 25, 28015 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus, E-mail: jsm@dfmf.uned.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, EUITI, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Matematica y Fluidos, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-04-25
In this Letter, it is shown that from a two region partition of the phase space of a one-dimensional dynamical system, a p-region partition can be obtained for the CRL...LR...R orbits. That is, permutations associated with symbolic sequences are obtained. As a consequence, the trajectory in phase space is directly deduced from permutation. From this permutation other permutations associated with period-doubling and saddle-node bifurcation cascades are derived, as well as other composite permutations. - Research highlights: Symbolic sequences are the usual topological approach to dynamical systems. Permutations bear more physical information than symbolic sequences. Period-doubling cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. Saddle-node cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. Composite permutations are derived.
Cui Jia; Ruan Xin; Zhou Xiaoyi
2011-01-01
The traffic condition of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge is obtained to a certain extent, according to the traffic investigation nearby Taizhou Bridge. The statistical characteristics of the traffic conditions are acquired by statistical analysis. Simulation of the extreme vehicle loads and the sensitive analysis of load parameters are carried out based on these data complemented, which would guide the determination of the frictional coefficient between the main cables and the saddle.
Nenad Antolović; Valter Kožul; Nikša Glavić; Jakša Bolotin
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of oocyte size and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) on ovulatory success in artificial fertilization. Vitellogenic females with maximum oocyte diameters 400-550 µm were repeatedly injected with LHRHa (20 µg kg-1 per injection). Fish with maximum oocyte diameters 500 µm spawned within 48-54 h. These results demonstrate that injected LHRHa is effective for ovulation of saddled bream with maximum oocyte diameters >500µ...
Zhang, Jian-zu; He, Li-Ming; Zhu, Yun-Xia
2005-01-01
In the combination of crossed electric and magnetic fields and the Coulomb field of the atomic nucleus the spectrum of the Rydberg electron in the vicinity of the Stark saddle-point are investigated at a quantum mechanical level. The results expose a quantum anomaly dissociation: quasibound states near and above the saddle-point ionization limit predicted at the semi-classical level disappear at a quantum mechanical level.
Dimensional design of saddle-form superconductor field winding for turbogenerators
Khutoretskiy, G.M.; Varshavskiy, V.D.; Prazdnikov, V.I.
1983-12-01
The design of saddle-form superconductor field windings for cryogenic turbogenerators involves calculating a three-dimensional magnetic field and optimizing the coil dimensions. This is done analytically, with subsequent refinement by numerical methods. The superconducting material is assumed to be a composite one and to retain its functional properties within some ranges of magnetic induction B, current density j, and absolute temperature T. At a given temperature T = T/sub 0/ = const the sufficient condition for normal operation is defined as j/sub c/ = jk = f B/sub max/ (j/sub c/ - critical current density, k > 1 current safety factor, B/sub max/ - maximum magnetic induction. The magnetic field in both the slotted zone and the end zone is calculated on the basis of corresponding Laplace and Poisson equations for the magnetic vector potential, with appropriate boundary conditions. Design analysis includes determining the dependence of the safety factor on the ratio of wound surface area to total surface area of the rotor for given coil heights, then comparing various coil configurations for some nominal amplitude of the fundamental Fourier component of magnetic induction at the stator bore, assuming a uniform current density distribution over the winding zone which will ensure that amplitude of B/sub 1/, and calculating the safety factor for each configuration. The magnetic field is evaluated by the methods of finite differences and sequential upper relaxation, assuming a magnetic vector potential with only an axial component. Design optimization by variation of independent dimensional parameters is done by linear programming. The algorithm yields first the optimum ratio of wound surface area to total surface area, one which will result in the maximum safety factor and which should serve as a basis for further design. 5 references, 4 figures.
Eneko Besa
2012-12-01
Full Text Available
Resumen
Estudio de la Filarmónica de Berlín como ejemplo de las diferentes aproximaciones y contradicciones que la arquitectura “traba” a través del argumento que la constituye. Acuerdo tenso entre interior‐exterior, lugar‐programa, simetría‐asimetría, unidad sintética ‐ complejidad múltiple, continuidad orgánica ‐ discontinuidad fragmentada.
Comparativa con el edificio Walt Disney Concert Hall, en el que se utiliza la misma tipología de sala de conciertos. Sin embargo y al contrario que Scharoun, Gehry evita cualquier acuerdo sintético de unidad, constituyendo el edificio a partir de la pura fragmentación y diversidad per se. Pues en su caso, la unidad necesaria para constituir la autonomía y ser de la obra, se buscará a través de la imagen y expresión del concepto de belleza que el edificio alcanza.
Palabras clave
sala de conciertos, lugar, unidad, exterior, fragmento
Abstract
This article is a study of the Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall as an example of the different approximations and contradictions that Architecture ties together as a result of the reasoning that makes it up. A tense agreement between interior and exterior, place and program, symmetry and asymmetry, synthetic unity and multiple complexity, organic continuity and fragmented discontinuity.
A comparison to Walt Disney Concert Hall is made, where the same concert hall typology is used. Nevertheless, in contrast to Scharoun, Gehry avoids any kind of synthetic agreement of unity, conceiving the building out of pure fragmentation and diversity per se. In Gehry’s case, the unity necessary to constitute the autonomy and essence of the building is sought through the image and expression of the concept of beauty that it reaches.
Key words
concert hall, place, unity, exterior, fragment
Sanan, P.; Schnepp, S. M.; May, D.; Schenk, O.
2014-12-01
Geophysical applications require efficient forward models for non-linear Stokes flow on high resolution spatio-temporal domains. The bottleneck in applying the forward model is solving the linearized, discretized Stokes problem which takes the form of a large, indefinite (saddle point) linear system. Due to the heterogeniety of the effective viscosity in the elliptic operator, devising effective preconditioners for saddle point problems has proven challenging and highly problem-dependent. Nevertheless, at least three approaches show promise for preconditioning these difficult systems in an algorithmically scalable way using multigrid and/or domain decomposition techniques. The first is to work with a hierarchy of coarser or smaller saddle point problems. The second is to use the Schur complement method to decouple and sequentially solve for the pressure and velocity. The third is to use the Schur decomposition to devise preconditioners for the full operator. These involve sub-solves resembling inexact versions of the sequential solve. The choice of approach and sub-methods depends crucially on the motivating physics, the discretization, and available computational resources. Here we examine the performance trade-offs for preconditioning strategies applied to idealized models of mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics, characterized by large viscosity gradients. Due to the arbitrary topological structure of the viscosity field in geodynamical simulations, we utilize low order, inf-sup stable mixed finite element spatial discretizations which are suitable when sharp viscosity variations occur in element interiors. Particular attention is paid to possibilities within the decoupled and approximate Schur complement factorization-based monolithic approaches to leverage recently-developed flexible, communication-avoiding, and communication-hiding Krylov subspace methods in combination with `heavy' smoothers, which require solutions of large per-node sub-problems, well
Georgiev, Mladen
2006-01-01
The F' center in an alkali halide forms when an anion vacancy traps two electrons which is the prerequisite of a diatomic molecule. Indeed, the center may displace left or right along in a (110) plane, due to its coupling to the B_{1u} vibrational mode of polarization respectively. On jumping from the initial position to the final position the F' center passes through a saddle point which configuration is molecule-like being conformed by two neighboring semi-vacancies along . Each semi-vaca...
鞍形CT的感兴趣区图像重建%ROI-image Reconstruction for a Saddle Trajectory
夏丹; 余立锋; 邹宇
2005-01-01
Recently, we have developed a general formula for 3D cone-beam CT reconstruction, which can accommondate general, smooth trajectories. From the formula, algorithms can be derived for image reconstruction within a region of interest (ROI) from truncated data. In this work, we apply the derived backprojection filteration (BPF) algorithm and the minimum-data filtered backprojection (MD-FBP) algorithm to reconstructing ROI images from cone-beam projection data acquired with a saddle trajec-tory. Our numerical results in these studies demonstrate that the BPF and MD-FBP algorithms can accurately reconstruct ROI images from truncated data.
We designed an inside-out-type endoanal surface and saddle coil to evaluate the anal sphincter of young children who have difficulty in controlling defecation after the correction of anorectal malformation, and compared two coils using an imaging phantom and cats. Using two coils, T1-and T2- weighted axial and coronal images of the phantom and of the anorectal region of cats were obtained, and the results were compared in terms of changes in signal intensity and SNR according to the distance from the coil's surface. We also compared the capability of the coils to delineate the internal and external anal sphincter of cat anorectum, both of which are important in the control of defection. The saddle coil was slightly superior to the surface coil in terms of SNR, but inferior in terms of the signal intensity of the region of interest of the cat's anorectum. Moreover, artifacts of low signal intensity appeared in an azimuthal direction on axial images acquired using the saddle coil and prohibited delineation of the whole of the anal sphincter. In terms of image quality, the surface coil was therefore superior to the saddle coil. Our findings suggest that among inside-out-type endoanal coils, the surface coil may be superior to the saddle coil in MR imaging to evaluate the anal sphincter of young children
Baumgarten, Paul
1964-04-01
Full Text Available This new church, suitable for a seated congregation of 700, including those occupying the choir and baptistry, takes the place of the old one, made of timber, which was destroyed during the war. In addition to the church itself, there is a Sunday school, a sacristy, and living quarters for the sacristan. The organ, orchestra and choir are situated at a higher level, over the church hall. The churchtower has three campaniles, all at the same level. No attempt has been made to emphasize the tower as a dominant feature, as anyway it cannot compete in height with the surrounding buildings. More importance has been attached to the general architectural quality of the building, both in its internal and external expression. A design has been attempted which reflects from the outside the religious character of the interior, whilst fitting well with the charming landscape of the Lietzen lakedistrict. In the final design a number of factors were decisive. Religious, accoustical, structural and human requirements were taken into account. These led also to the choice of the roof, which is formed by a number of triangular shape, and to the fitting of large surfaces of stained glass. Through this the interior is illuminated from all sides, and a greater continuity seems to be established with the green spaces beyond. The project does reflect strongly its essential quality as «the house of God»: this is emphasized by the structural and topological arrangement of its parts, and by the spontaneous manner in which the sight is drawn towards the altar.Esta iglesia, de nueva planta, con 700 asientos—incluidos los del coro y baptisterio—, reemplaza- a la de madera que fue destruida durante la guerra. Dispone de locales para catequesis, sacristía y vivienda del sacristán. Tiene una entreplanta para el órgano, la orquesta y el coro, sobre la cual se levanta el campanario, con tres campaniles colocados uno dominante por no poder competir con las casas altas que le rodean, lado del otro, al que no se ha intentado realzar como elemento dominante por no poder competir con las casas altas que le rodean. Se concedió mayor importancia, en la concepción general arquitectónica, a la forma interior y exterior que a los rasgos urbanísticos, logrando crear un recinto cuyo aspecto externo refleja el carácter religioso del interior y que armoniza con el bello paisaje de la zona del lago Lietzen. En la determinación de dicha forma influyeron varios factores, no sólo de tipo religioso, sino también de orden acústico, estructural y ambiental, que condujeron a la cubierta actual—constituida por una serie de triángulos—y a las grandes vidrieras que cuajan profusamente las superficies exentas. A través de ellas, el interior recibe luz por todos los lados en que se desea un mayor contacto con las zonas verdes exteriores. No obstante, se ha conseguido, acertadamente, conservar el carácter de «casa de Dios», de tabernáculo, carácter que viene acusado por la concentración estructural, direccional y visual de las superficies de la cubierta, hacia el altar.
Universal asymptotical behaviour of poloidal spectra of resonant magnetic perturbations created by a set of saddle coils in tokamak plasmas is studied in a vacuum approximation. It is shown that the poloidal mode spectra for a given toroidal mode can be presented by a linear combination of three universal asymptotical formulae corresponding to horizontal and vertical segments of a set of saddle coils. Each of the asymptotical formulae depends only on the safety factor of the equilibrium plasma and the geometry of the perturbation coils. The validity of the universal formulae is confirmed by numerical computations of the poloidal mode spectra for typical plasmas with large and small inverse aspect ratios, DIII-D-like plasmas with internal (I-) coils (Jackson et al 2003 Proc. 30th EPS Conf. on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (St Petersburg, Russia, 7–11 July 2003) vol 27A (ECA) P-4.47) and spherical NSTX-like plasmas with error field coils (Gates et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 104016). (paper)
Fumeron, Sébastien; Moraes, Fernando; Pereira, Erms
2016-09-01
The physics of light interference experiments is well established for nematic liquid crystals. Using well-known techniques, it is possible to obtain important quantities, such as the differential scattering cross section and the saddl-splay elastic constant K24. However, the usual methods to retrieve the latter involve adjusting of computational parameters through visual comparisons between the experimental light interference pattern or a (2) H-NMR spectral pattern produced by an escaped-radial disclination, and their computational simulation counterparts. To avoid such comparisons, we develop an algebraic method for obtaining of saddle-splay elastic constant K24. Considering an escaped-radial disclination inside a capillary tube with radius R0 of tens of micrometers, we use a metric approach to study the propagation of the light (in the scalar wave approximation), near the surface of the tube and to determine the light interference pattern due to the defect. The latter is responsible for the existence of a well-defined interference peak associated to a unique angle [Formula: see text] . Since this angle depends on factors such as refractive indexes, curvature elastic constants, anchoring regime, surface anchoring strength and radius R0, the measurement of [Formula: see text] from the interference experiments involving two different radii allows us to algebraically retrieve K24. Our method allowed us to give the first reported estimation of K24 for the lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow FCF: K 24 = 2.1 pN. PMID:27589980
To explore mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve, the relationship of irradiation-vacuum stress, and irradiation-salt stress, was investigated with rice seeds irradiated to 60-560 Gy by 60Co γ-rays. The dose-response curve was simulated based on seedling height data, which showed obedient to linear-quadratic model. During germination,the irradiated rice seeds were stressed by 10-3 Pa vacuum, or by NaCl in different concentrations. After that, the dose-response curve manifested a saddle-like shape. The results indicate that while low dose irradiation could retard seedling growth synergistically with vacuum stress and salt stress, it could also induce adaptive response upon vacuum stress and salt stress. Low dose irradiation induced adaptive response upon environmental adverse factors could contribute to the mechanism for the effect of saddle-like dose-response curve. (authors)
Fabiano Lemos
2011-01-01
proceso de estructuración de los museos y la reestructuración de las colecciones de historia natural en ciudades como París y Berlín en la transición para el siglo XIX, para convencernos del asombro con el origen que ya no se reconoce y que se convierte en objeto de interés científico y popular, y que guió cada una de las decisiones involucradas en este proceso. El museo es sólo una de las instituciones en que el hombre, a través de una serie idealizaciones del espacio complejo, se entrega a el espectáculo de un tiempo perdido, y por lo tanto una cultura cuyo esfuerzo educativo sólo puede aprender asociándose a estas instituciones. Lo que debemos investigar - y el estudio de caso de la discusión en torno a la fundación del Museo Altes en Berlín entre 1822 y 1830 puede hacer estas investigaciones más concretas - es que las políticas institucionales han hecho posible el surgimiento de este nuevo modelo ideológico, y en sentido contrario, que elaboraciones conceptuales confirmaron y legitimaron la nueva topografía pragmática del tiempo en la modernidad dentro de la institución que tenía como objetivo, precisamente articular y gestionar el pasado y la memoria.
Desde a aurora do que hoje entendemos como modernidade o homem se espanta com sua finitude. O burguês dos séculos XVIII e XIX precisou elaborar intrincados mecanismos de preservação de passado e de vinculação com ele. No círculo dos philosophes, o conceito de tempo passa a se duplicar na idéia de origem, que, para eles, se tornou opaca. Basta pensarmos no amplo processo de estruturação dos museus e de reestruturação das coleções de história natural em cidades como Paris e Berlim, na passagem para o século XIX, para nos convencermos de que o assombro com a origem que não mais se reconhece, que se torna objeto de interesse científico e popular, orienta cada uma das decisões envolvidas neste processo. O museu é apenas uma das institui
Dey, Santanu
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of efficient simulation estimation of the density function at the tails, and the probability of large deviations for a sum of independent, identically distributed, light-tailed and non-lattice random vectors. The latter problem besides being of independent interest, also forms a building block for more complex rare event problems that arise, for instance, in queuing and financial credit risk modeling. It has been extensively studied in literature where state independent exponential twisting based importance sampling has been shown to be asymptotically efficient and a more nuanced state dependent exponential twisting has been shown to have a stronger bounded relative error property. We exploit the saddle-point based representations that exist for these rare quantities, which rely on inverting the characteristic functions of the underlying random vectors. We note that these representations reduce the rare event estimation problem to evaluating certain integrals, which may via importance ...
Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin
2015-08-01
Stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted pendulum; CIP), analogous to human fingertip stick balancing, is considered to get insights of how the human central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics. We explore a possibility that a type of intermittent control strategy proposed for human postural control might also be applicable to the CIP task, i.e., whether a transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type equilibrium of the non-controlled inverted pendulum is exploited intermittently. To this end, we measured task performances during CIP balancing from several experimental subjects. Intermittent appearances of hyperbolicity as typical characteristics reflecting the intermittent control strategy were examined in the recorded motion data using phase space analysis and wavelet analysis. We show that skilled subjects tend to exhibit those characteristics, suggesting that they stabilize upright posture of the stick by utilizing the intermittent control strategy. PMID:26737047
The ejected-electron spectrum for H+ incident on H2 and He at 40 keV is examined experimentally and theoretically. The continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) model is adopted to study the ionization process. Experimentally a 260 mm diameter hemispherical analyser with half-angle acceptance of 1.5 deg. and energy resolution Δ E/E of 0.012, is used to measure the velocity distribution of the emitted electrons. The analyser and the surrounding interaction region are double shielded against the Earth's magnetic field by use of μ-metal enclosures. The observations and calculations, for double differential cross sections (differential with respect to electron momentum and emission angle), are in very good agreement and show a spectrum dominated by a well defined electron capture to the continuum (ECC) peak although existence of saddle-point electrons at 0 deg. is not confirmed. (author)
YOOER Chi-Feng; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua
2009-01-01
Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the "small lobe condition",instead of the blue-sky catastrophe.In every spiking adding,the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.
Yooer, Chi-Feng; Xu, Jian-Xue; Zhang, Xin-Hua
2009-08-01
Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the “small lobe condition", instead of the blue-sky catastrophe. In every spiking adding, the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.
Podolsky, Dmitry
2012-01-01
For a power system operating in the vicinity of the power transfer limit of its transmission system, effect of stochastic fluctuations of power loads can become critical as a sufficiently strong such fluctuation may activate voltage instability and lead to a large scale collapse of the system. Considering the effect of these stochastic fluctuations near a codimension 1 saddle-node bifurcation, we explicitly calculate the autocorrelation function of the state vector and show how its behavior explains the phenomenon of critical slowing-down often observed for power systems on the threshold of blackout. We also estimate the collapse probability/mean clearing time for the power system and construct a new indicator function signaling the proximity to a large scale collapse. The new indicator function is easy to estimate in real time using PMU data feeds as well as SCADA information about fluctuations of power load on the nodes of the power grid. We discuss control strategies leading to the minimization of the coll...
On the main anhydrite scenario, illustrated by the example of the NE flank of the Stassfurt saddle
The non-chloride successions embedded in the salt of the Zechstein with their geomechanical behaviour which is completely different from that of the salt rock play an important part in the assessment of the concrete safety situation in the salt mine destined to serve as a repository. The literature study of this report presents a safety-related assessment of the main anhydrite using the example of the NE flank of the Stassfurt saddle, on the basis of exploratory data and experience and documented data obtained by the authors of this report. The tectonic effects on the main anhydrite are studied in detail. It is found that geomechanical impacts can lead to healed or closed joints getting damaged and thus loose their tightness to water or gas. The most intensive geomechanical stress on the main anhydrite results from the flooding of mines. It is stated that, making pin-pointed investigations of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, natural or man-made hazards to the safety of a repository can be well recognized, characterized, and mastered. (orig./HP)
Wissman, J., E-mail: jwissman@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Finkenauer, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Deseri, L. [DICAM, Department of Mechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77 38123 Trento (Italy); TMHRI-Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin St., MS B-490 Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mechanics, Materials and Computing Center, CEE and ME-CIT, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Majidi, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Robotics Institute and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2014-10-14
We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage Φ to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ϑ. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of Φ. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ϑ on Φ that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.
Hwang, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Yang, Zhu L; Wang, Zheng; Townsend, Jeffrey P
2015-08-01
The relation between ecological and genetic divergence of Helvella species (saddle fungi) has been perplexing. While a few species have been clearly demonstrated to be ectomycorrhizal fungi, ecological roles of many other species have been controversial, alternately considered as either saprotrophic or mycorrhizal. We applied SATé to build an inclusive deoxyribonucleic acid sequence alignment for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of annotated Helvella species and related environmental sequences. Phylogenetic informativeness of ITS and its regions were assessed using PhyDesign. Mycorrhizal lineages present a diversity of ecology, host type and geographic distribution. In two Helvella clades, no Helvella ITS sequences were recovered from root tips. Inclusion of environmental sequences in the ITS phylogeny from these sequences has the potential to link these data and reveal Helvella ecology. This study can serve as a model for revealing the diversity of relationships between unculturable fungi and their potential plant hosts. How non-mycorrhizal life styles within Helvella evolved will require expanded metagenomic investigation of soil and other environmental samples along with study of Helvella genomes. PMID:26033481
One of the principal characteristics of nuclear multifragmentation is the emission of complex fragments of intermediate mass. The statistical multifragmentation model has been used for many years to describe the distribution of these fragments. An extension of the statistical multifragmentation model to include partial widths and lifetimes for emission, interprets the fragmentation process as the near simultaneous limit of a series of sequential binary decays. In this extension, the expression describing intermediate mass fragment emission is almost identical to that of light particle emission. At lower temperatures, similar expressions have been shown to furnish a good description of very light intermediate mass fragment emission. However, this is usually not considered a good approximation to the emission of heavier fragments. These emissions seem to be determined by the characteristics of the system at the saddle-point and its subsequent dynamical evolution rather than by the scission point. Here, we compare the barriers and decay widths of these different formulations of intermediate fragment emission and analyze the extent to which they remain distinguishable at high excitation energy. (author)
Bělohrad, David; Kasal, Miroslav
Bratislava : Department of Radio and Electronics, FEI SUT, 2000, s. IV.46-IV.49. ISBN 80-227-1389-9. [Radioelektronika 2000 /10./. Bratislava (SK), 12.09.2000-13.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Fu, Chunjiang; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin
2014-12-01
Stability of human gait is the ability to maintain upright posture during walking against external perturbations. It is a complex process determined by a number of cross-related factors, including gait trajectory, joint impedance and neural control strategies. Here, we consider a control strategy that can achieve stable steady-state periodic gait while maintaining joint flexibility with the lowest possible joint impedance. To this end, we carried out a simulation study of a heel-toe footed biped model with hip, knee and ankle joints and a heavy head-arms-trunk element, working in the sagittal plane. For simplicity, the model assumes a periodic desired joint angle trajectory and joint torques generated by a set of feed-forward and proportional-derivative feedback controllers, whereby the joint impedance is parametrized by the feedback gains. We could show that a desired steady-state gait accompanied by the desired joint angle trajectory can be established as a stable limit cycle (LC) for the feedback controller with an appropriate set of large feedback gains. Moreover, as the feedback gains are decreased for lowering the joint stiffness, stability of the LC is lost only in a few dimensions, while leaving the remaining large number of dimensions quite stable: this means that the LC becomes saddle-type, with a low-dimensional unstable manifold and a high-dimensional stable manifold. Remarkably, the unstable manifold remains of low dimensionality even when the feedback gains are decreased far below the instability point. We then developed an intermittent neural feedback controller that is activated only for short periods of time at an optimal phase of each gait stride. We characterized the robustness of this design by showing that it can better stabilize the unstable LC with small feedback gains, leading to a flexible gait, and in particular we demonstrated that such an intermittent controller performs better if it drives the state point to the stable manifold, rather
Mielke, Steven L.; Schwenke, David; Peterson, Kirk A.
2005-06-08
We present a detailed ab initio study of the effect that the Born–Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) has on the saddle point properties of the H3 system and its isotopomers. Benchmark values are presented that are estimated to be within 0.1 cm–1 of the complete configuration interaction limit. We consider the basis set and correlation treatment requirements for accurate BODC calculations, and both are observed to be more favorable than for the Born–Oppenheimer energies. The BODC raises the H + H2 barrier height by 0.1532 kcal/mol and slightly narrows the barrier—with the imaginary frequency increasing by ~2%.
Yue WU; Zhao-qing CHEN; Xiao-ying SUN
2015-01-01
The aero-elastic instability mechanism of a tensioned membrane structure is studied in this paper. The response and wind velocities above two closed-type saddle-shaped tensioned membrane structures, with the same shape but different pre-tension levels, were measured in uniform flow and analyzed. The results indicate that, for most wind directions, several vibration modes are excited and the amplitude and damping ratio of the roof slowly increase with the on-coming flow velocity. However, for particular wind directions, only one vibration mode is excited, and the amplitude and damping ratio of the vibration mode increase slowly with the on-coming flow velocity. The aero-elastic instability is caused by vortex-induced resonance. On ex-ceeding a certain wind speed, the amplitude of the roof vibration increases sharply and the damping ratio of the vibration mode decreases quickly to near zero; the frequency of the vortex above the roof is locked in by the vibration within a certain wind velocity range; the amplitudes of the roof in these wind directions reach 2–4 times the amplitudes for other wind directions. The reduced critical wind speeds for the aero-elastic instability of saddle-shaped membrane structures at the first two modes are around 0.8–1.0.%目的：明确张拉膜结构风致气弹响应特征及气弹失稳机理。 创新点：1.采用无接触测量技术设计鞍形张拉膜结构气弹模型风洞试验；2.研究鞍形张拉膜结构的气弹响应特征；3.给出鞍形张拉膜结构的失稳机理。 方法：1.在风洞中测量两个形状相同但预张力不同的封闭式鞍形张拉膜结构气弹模型在不同风速下的均匀流中的位移响应及膜面上方不同高度的风速时程；2.通过对位移响应及风速时程进行分析，明确结构的响应随风速变化特征及气弹失稳原因。 结论：1.膜结构在风荷载作用下变形到平衡位置，并围绕该平衡位置
As DRAM cell pitch size decreases, the need for a high performance transistor is increasing. Though saddle-fin (S-fin) transistors have superior characteristics, S-fin transistors are well known to be more sensitive to process variation. To make uniform S-fin transistors, for the first time, we developed a new fin formation method using tilted ion implantation along the wordline direction after a recess gate etch. Due to the increased etch rate of the oxide film by ion implantation damage, fins are made at the bottom channel of the recess gate after wet etching. The resulting tilt implanted saddle-fin (TIS-fin) transistor has remarkably improved characteristics, such as ∼8% subthreshold swing (SS) and a 40% drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) decrease. Especially, the TIS-fin with a neutral dopant has a reduced threshold voltage (Vth) variation within a wafer (<100 mV), which is comparable with that of a mass-produced sphere-shaped recessed channel array transistor (SRCAT).
Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.
2014-01-01
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the Saddle River in New Jersey from Hollywood Avenue in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough downstream through the Village of Ridgewood and Paramus Borough to the confluence with Hohokus Brook in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey (station 01390500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390500 or at the National Weather Services (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=okx&gage=rwdn4. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation (March 11, 2011) at the USGS streamgage 01390500, Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from 5 ft, the NWS “action and minor flood stage”, to 14 ft, which is the maximum extent of the stage-discharge rating and 0.6 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system 3-meter (9.84-ft) digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data in order to delineate the area flooded
Julio Francisco Kleinpaul
2012-12-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da altura do selim sobre a cinemática da coluna lombar durante o ciclismo. Foram avaliados oito ciclistas recreacionais, na situação usual (auto ajustada e na situação de selim ajustado, com carga de 150 W, utilizando-se avaliação cinemática bidimensional em um ciclosimulador. Foram mensurados os ângulos de flexão, inclinação lateral e rotação da coluna lombar. A flexão da lombar foi maior na situação de selim ajustado, enquanto que a inclinação e a rotação da lombar foram maiores na situação de ajuste usual. Quanto ao comportamento ao longo do ciclo de pedalada, ocorreram dois ciclos de flexão-extensão durante um ciclo completo do pé-de-vela, e apenas um ciclo de inclinação lateral ou de rotação. As maiores diferenças acorreram no início, meio e fim do ciclo. O ajuste equivocado do selim não acarreta alterações na cinemática da coluna lombar.The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of saddle height on the kinematics of the lumbar spine during cycling. Eight recreational cyclists were assessed in an usual situation (self-selected and the situation of saddle properly adjusted while pedaling with a load set at 150 W. Using two-dimensional kinematic the angles of flexion, lateral inclination and rotation of the lumbar spine were computed. The flexion was greater in the adjusted position whereas the highest average tilt and rotation angles occurred in the usual position. There were two cycles of flexion-extension observed during a complete pedaling cycle, and only one cycle of lateral inclination and rotation. The major differences were observed at early, middle and end of the pedaling cycle. The mismanagement of the saddle did not involve significant changes in the kinematics of the lumbar spine for the conditions tested.
Mielke, Steven L.; Schwenke, David W.; Peterson, Kirk A.
2005-06-01
We present a detailed ab initio study of the effect that the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) has on the saddle-point properties of the H3 system and its isotopomers. Benchmark values are presented that are estimated to be within 0.1cm-1 of the complete configuration-interaction limit. We consider the basis set and correlation treatment requirements for accurate BODC calculations, and both are observed to be more favorable than for the Born-Oppenheimer energies. The BODC raises the H+H2 barrier height by 0.1532kcal/mol and slightly narrows the barrier—with the imaginary frequency increasing by ˜2%.
El Aroudi A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper closed-form conditions for predicting the boundary of period-doubling (PD bifurcation or saddle-node (SN bifurcation in a class of PWM piecewise linear systems are obtained from a time-domain asymptotic approach. Examples of switched system considered in this study are switching dc-dc power electronics converters, temperature control systems and hydraulic valve control systems among others. These conditions are obtained from the steady-state discrete-time model using an asymptotic approach without resorting to frequency-domain Fourier analysis and without using the monodromy or the Jacobian matrix of the discrete-time model as it was recently reported in the existing literature on this topic. The availability of such design-oriented boundary expressions allows to understand the effect of the different parameters of the system upon its stability and its dynamical behavior.
Martin, P; Cheze, L; Pourcelot, P; Desquilbet, L; Duray, L; Chateau, H
2016-05-01
Knowledge about the horse-saddle-rider interaction remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rider׳s position at rising trot on the pressure distribution, spine movements, stirrups forces and locomotion of the horse. The horse׳s back movements were measured using IMUs fixed at the levels of thoracic (T6, T12, T16) and lumbar (L2, L5) vertebrae, the pressure distribution using a pressure mat and stirrups forces using force sensors. The horse׳s and rider׳s approximated centres of mass (COM) were calculated using 2D reflective markers. To compare both trot phases (rider seated/rider standing), three horses were trotted at the rising trot by the same rider. Means±SD of each parameter for sitting and standing were compared using a Student׳s t test (p=0.05). Stirrups forces showed two peaks of equal magnitude in every stride cycle for left and right stirrups but increased during the standing phase. Simultaneously, the pressure for the whole mat significantly increased by +3.1kPa during the sitting phase with respect to standing phase. The T12-T16 and T16-L2 angular ranges of motion (ROM) were significantly reduced (-3.2° -1.2°) and the T6-T12 and L2-L5 ROM were significantly increased (+1.7° +0.7°) during sitting phase compared to standing phase. During rising trot, the sitting phase does not only increase the pressure on the horse׳s back but also reduces the back motion under the saddle compared to the standing phase. These results give new insights into the understanding of horse-rider interactions and equine back pain management. PMID:26947029
Alam, Aftab; Johnson, D. D.
2009-09-01
Site-centered, electronic-structure methods use an expansion inside nonoverlapping “muffin-tin” (MT) spheres plus an interstitial basis set. As the boundary separating the more spherical from nonspherical density between atoms, the “saddle-point” radii (SPR) in the density provide an optimal spherical region for expanding in spherical harmonics, as used in augmented plane wave, muffin-tin orbital, and multiple-scattering [Korringa, Kohn, and Rostoker (KKR)] methods. These MT-SPR guarantee unique, convex Voronoi polyhedra at each site, in distinction to Bader topological cells. We present a numerically fast, two-center expansion to find SPR a priori from overlapping atomic charge densities, valid also for disordered alloys. We adopt this MT-SPR basis for KKR in the atomic sphere approximation and study (dis)ordered alloys with large differences in atomic size (fcc CoPt and bcc CrW). For this simple and unique improvement, we find formation energies and structural parameters in strikingly better agreement with more exact methods or experiment, and resolve issues with former results.
Kügler, Philipp
2016-01-01
Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological oscillations in cardiac action potentials during the repolarization phase and may be caused by drug side effects, ion channel disease or oxidative stress. The most widely observed EAD pattern is characterized by oscillations with growing amplitudes. So far, its occurence has been explained in terms of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential dynamics from which stable limit cycles with growing amplitudes emerge. The novel contribution of this article is the introduction of two alternative explanations of EAD genesis with growing amplitudes that do not involve stable limit cycles in fast subsystems. In particular, we demonstrate that EAD patterns with growing amplitudes may alternatively arise due to a delayed subcritical Hopf bifurcation or an unstable manifold of a saddle focus fixed point in the full fast-slow system modelling the action potential. Our work extends the list of possible dynamical EAD mechanisms and may contribute to a classification of drug effects in preclinical cardiotoxicity testing. PMID:26977805
苏萱; 徐雷鸣
2016-01-01
目的：探讨特发性腕管综合征（CTS）患者鞍状腕横韧带的MRI特征。方法回顾性分析经临床诊断为特发性CTS的21例患者（22个腕关节）作为特发性CTS组；无腕管综合征症状且无腕横韧带及其掌侧软组织病变的32例其他腕部疾病患者（33个腕关节）作为对照组。均行矢状面、横轴面腕关节MRI平扫。观察腕横韧带形态，判断腕横韧带是否为马鞍形，并计算腕横韧带掌凹曲率和正中神经压缩率。采用χ2检验比较2组患者腕横韧带形态的差异，采用非参数秩和检验比较2组患者腕横韧带掌凹曲率的差异，采用Pearson相关分析评价特发性CTS患者腕横韧带掌凹曲率与正中神经的压缩率的相关性。结果特发性CTS患者矢状面像上，马鞍形腕横韧带向掌侧凹，最凹点常位于钩骨钩水平。以马鞍形腕横韧带下凹0.25 mm为标准，马鞍形腕横韧带31例（特发性CTS患者20例、对照组11例），非马鞍形腕横韧带24例（特发性CTS 2例，对照组22例），2组患者腕横韧带形态的差异有统计学意义（χ2=17.791，P<0.01）。特发性CTS和对照组患者的腕横韧带掌凹曲率中位数分别为8.49%和0.00%，差异有统计学意义（Z=-4.79，P<0.01）。特发性CTS患者正中神经层面，腕横韧带掌凹曲率[（7.88±4.28）%）]与正中神经压缩率[（39.36±19.43）%]呈正相关（r=0.714，P<0.01）。结论马鞍形腕横韧带是特发性CTS患者的特征表现，腕横韧带矢状面掌凹屈率和正中神经压缩百分比有助于精确诊断。%Objective To explore the MRI characteristics of saddle transverse carpal ligament (TCL)of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods The clinical diagnosis of 21 cases of idiopathic CTS patients (22 wrists) were retrospectively analyzed and as the idiopathic CTS group. Thirty two patients without CTS symptoms or TCL and volar soft tissue lesions (33 wrist
用鞍点保证拓扑正确的快速等值面提取技术%Fast iso-surface extraction method using saddle to ensure topology correct
黄连杰; 李纳
2011-01-01
等值面提取是研究三维数据场可视化的有效方法.针对已有的一些等值面提取算法存在的二义性问题,提出了用鞍点保证拓扑正确的快速等值面提取算法.用二线性插值和三线性插值函数来近似计算立方体表面和内部点的值,根据立方体中面鞍点和体鞍点个数的不同,将立方体剖分成不同数目的四面体.这种剖分只和原始数据的属性有关,与给定的等值无关,因此在数据不变的情况下只需要剖分一次.最后,用分层分组的方法将四面体分类到不同组中,避免在等值面提取过程中访问那些不合有等值面的四面体,从而提高了算法的速度.该算法在等值平滑变化或是随机变化时都能保持良好的特性.%Iso-surface extraction is an effective manner to study the visualization of three-dimensional data field.To solve the ambiguity question of the existing iso-surface extraction algorithms,a fast iso-surface extraction method which uses saddle to ensure the topology correct is proposed.The accurate iso-surface in the interior of cube is constructed by using the bilinear and the bilinear interpolant method.According to the number of saddle in cube, the cube is tessellated to several tetrahedral cell.This method is only relate to the properties of original data rather than the iso-value, so the cube is only tessellated once when the original data are not changed.Finally, tetrahedral cells are classified into different classes by the class group mehtod.so that only the tetrahedral cell which is intersected with the given iso-surface is visited, the speed of extration is quite improved.Whether the iso-value is smoothly changed or randomly changed,the algorithm is able to maintain a good character.
In the design of the electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) in the main cooling loop of the Japanese Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'MONJU', large-sized flat permanent magnet was adopted in order to make the end effect of the magnet as small as possible. For an EMF of a future large LMFBR, it is difficult to adopt such a large-sized magnet because of problems of a large space requirement and a tolerance against earthquake. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel EMF with small-sized magnets. It has been feared that the decrease of magnetic field and the end effect make the EMF's performance worse, but we have no detailed information about the end effect due to such small-sized magnets. By using the three-dimensional steady-state electromagnetic analysis code FALCON, we have studied numerically on the end effect of an EMF with saddle-shaped permanent magnets, the size of which is smaller than the pipe diameter. Consequently, it has been clarified that the performance of an EMF can be improved by utilizing the effect of the downstream end of magnets and by combining the inclined-electrodes and the effect of circumferential ends of magnets. (author)
吴明亮; 杨东方
2013-01-01
The detail design scheme of CNC system based on MSC-51 SCM was put forward for the saddle surface of flange connection processing plant. The manufacturing plan, the hardware circuit and software flowchart were discussed. C language and assemble language were used to program in uVision2. Hardware circuit was designed in Protues7. The simulation results show that the proposed design scheme of the CNC system is feasible.%针对法兰接管马鞍曲面加工专机,提出一种基于51系列单片机的CNC系统设计方案.详细阐述了加工方案,并给出硬件电路的构成方案和软件的程序流程图.利用C语言和汇编语言在uVision2下进行混合编程,并在Protues7中完成硬件电路设计,进行了联合仿真验证.结果表明:自主开发的数控系统能够满足法兰接管的加工要求.
Saddle point avoidance in barrier crossing problems
Talkner, P.; Drozdov, A.N. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
The long-time behavior of the stochastic dynamics of a two-dimensional system having two metastable states is investigated by means of the low-lying part of the corresponding two-dimensional Smoluchowski operator. In particular, its dependence on three parameters describing the strength of the noise, the coupling of the degrees of freedom and a ratio of relaxation-times is considered. Further information characterizing the transition process between the metastable states is gained from the corresponding eigenfunctions. (author) 9 refs.
李如源
2016-01-01
Due to the valve leakage of unit 1,the fluid from the auxiliary feed water system (ASG)of which the temperature was about 30 ℃,entered into the main feed water system (ARE)of which the temperature was about 230 ℃. Therefore a risk of thermal fatigue failure caused by temperature difference existed in the pipe saddle of ARE-ASG.By ANSYS finite element program,fluid-structure interaction analysis was carried out on the flow field and temperature field of the pipe saddle,and the thermal stress was also calculated.The fatigue life evaluation of the pipe saddle was carried through fatigue model program and the material fatigue curve.The results show that under the internal pressure the stress of the pipe saddle could meet the requirement of the specification standard RCC-M,the maximum thermal stress existed on the intersecting part of the pipes,and the service life of thermal fatigue was 954 times.%某核电厂1号机组因阀门内漏导致辅助给水系统(ASG)内30℃的水进入230℃的主给水系统(ARE)中,ARE-ASG 连接管座存在因介质温差引起的热疲劳失效风险。利用 ANSYS有限元程序对连接管座流场、温度场进行流固耦合分析,计算管座的热应力,采用程序的疲劳模块及材料疲劳曲线对连接管座的疲劳寿命进行了评估。结果表明：连接管座在内压条件下应力满足技术规范 RCC-M 的强度要求,热应力的最大值出现在管座内表面相贯线位置,其热疲劳寿命为954次。
李如源
2016-01-01
某核电厂1号机组因阀门内漏导致辅助给水系统(ASG)内30℃的水进入230℃的主给水系统(ARE)中,ARE-ASG 连接管座存在因介质温差引起的热疲劳失效风险。利用 ANSYS有限元程序对连接管座流场、温度场进行流固耦合分析,计算管座的热应力,采用程序的疲劳模块及材料疲劳曲线对连接管座的疲劳寿命进行了评估。结果表明：连接管座在内压条件下应力满足技术规范 RCC-M 的强度要求,热应力的最大值出现在管座内表面相贯线位置,其热疲劳寿命为954次。%Due to the valve leakage of unit 1,the fluid from the auxiliary feed water system (ASG)of which the temperature was about 30 ℃,entered into the main feed water system (ARE)of which the temperature was about 230 ℃. Therefore a risk of thermal fatigue failure caused by temperature difference existed in the pipe saddle of ARE-ASG.By ANSYS finite element program,fluid-structure interaction analysis was carried out on the flow field and temperature field of the pipe saddle,and the thermal stress was also calculated.The fatigue life evaluation of the pipe saddle was carried through fatigue model program and the material fatigue curve.The results show that under the internal pressure the stress of the pipe saddle could meet the requirement of the specification standard RCC-M,the maximum thermal stress existed on the intersecting part of the pipes,and the service life of thermal fatigue was 954 times.
Berlín, coneixement d'una metròpoli
Jiménez Sagols, Neus
2006-01-01
El treball és un anàlisi de l'evolució històrica de la capital alemanya i molt especialment de la seva etapa més recent. Consisteix en dos parts clarament diferenciades, la primera de les quals tracta sobre la història urbana prèvia al 1989, data de la caiguda del mur, on es veuen capítols tant interessants com l'arribada de la industrialització a la ciutat, el modernisme, o la guerra freda. La segona part s'ha dedicat a analitzar els darrers quinze anys de canvis que la ciutat ha sofert a tr...
A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a γ-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC50's of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 105 to 6.0 X 103 spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 μg cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC50 4 spores/mL or 3.7 μg cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC50 > 2.3 X 104 spores/mL or 1.0 μg cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain
Desobediencia Civil Indígena: El pueblo Nasa y el incidente del Cerro Berlín
Ballesteros Peluffo, Gilma Liliana
2016-01-01
El artículo tiene el objetivo de revelar formas espontáneas de desobediencia civil, en la que los indígenas se manifiestan en contra de una postura institucional, como la guerra, a través de acciones noviolentas. Sus manifestaciones no solo señalan las injusticias que trae consigo el ejercicio de la violencia, sino que su postura invita a reflexionar sobre la actitud de los ciudadanos frente a la organización para la transformación positiva, la defensa de los derechos y el rechazo a la guerra...
Matej Zorman
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most economically important disease affecting vine production in Terceira island, Azores. By its incidence, frequency and quantity of pathogens, supported with favourable temperate humid climate conditions, this disease is difficult to control in terms of sustainable integrated plant protection policy. The objectives of INTERFRUTA project were to determine the incidence of the disease, to better understand it and to adopt an adequate forecasting model with necessary adjustments to predict the disease appearance and its in-time integrated plant protection control measures. Plasmopara viticola was directly observed in two weeks time periods on seven representative vineyards at different altitudes. Three of the monitored plots were established during study inside one plantation. Incidence was registered as result of visual symptoms in percentage, where 10% of plants in each vineyard were observed. Seasonal evolution of the disease was studied in one of the wine producing area.O Míldio é uma das doenças que mais afecta a vinha, na ilha Terceira, Açores. É uma doença fúngica de difícil controlo, pela sua incidência e frequência de aparecimento. Os objectivos do projecto INTERFRUTA II foram determinar a incidência desta doença para melhorar o conhecimento sobre esta e adoptar e validar um modelo matemático adequado à previsão do aparecimento da doença de modo a permitir a aplicação de medidas de protecção integrada. A evolução do míldio foi acompanhada em sete parcelas de vinha, da área vitivinícola dos Biscoitos, através da observação visual de folhas. Numa das parcelas, três dos talhões não foram tratados para servirem de controlo. Em cada parcela foram observadas 10% das plantas, tendo sido registada a percentagem de plantas com sintomas visuais da presença de míldio.
The hydrodynamic and matter transfer parameters has been studied on absorption columns destined to trap iodine issued of spent fuel reprocessing plants. These columns have different packing - Raschig rings (glass, ceramic, PVC, steel) - Berl saddles (ceramic) - Weaved metallic thread (steel). The effect of dimension and of packing structure on gas pressure drop and on liquid holdup has been evaluated. The partial transfer coefficients of I2-Air-NaOH system has been the object of an experimental study. This system can be simulated by CO2-Air-NaOH system
Nested BDDC for a saddle-point problem
Sousedík, Bedřich
2013-01-01
Roč. 125, č. 4 (2013), s. 761-783. ISSN 0029-599X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : flow * formulation * substructuring methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2013
27 CFR 9.203 - Saddle Rock-Malibu.
2010-04-01
... Conejo land grant, section 3, T1S/R19W; then (3) Proceed straight east-southeast along the El Conejo land... mile along the El Conejo land grant boundary line to its second intersection with the...
Medical image of the week: saddle pulmonary embolism
Jaffer F; Low SW; Parthasarathy S
2016-01-01
No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 66-year-old woman with recent history of left knee surgery and L2-L5 spinal fusion within the past month presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath for three days. On admission, reported crushing diffuse substernal chest pain worsened to 10/10 on the pain scale on the day of presentation. In the ED, physical examination was remarkable for tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis and hypotensi...
Coal: Bonn saddling the economy with new burdens
The prospects of an energy consensus between the p[arties have faded away. The Social Democrats and Christian Democrats are jeopardizing the possible compromise between coal and nuclear energy. Now there are efforts to concoct a new energy tax. The economy must prepare to cope with higher costs for nuclear energy and coal. (HP)
Factorized parallel preconditioner for the saddle point problem
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to apply the factorized sparse approximate inverse (FSAI) preconditioner to the iterative solution of linear systems with indefinite symmetric matrices. Until now the FSAI technique has been applied mainly to positive definite systems and with a limited success for the...... indefinite case. Here, it is demonstrated that the sparsity pattern for the preconditioner can be chosen in such a way that it guarantees the existence of the factorization. The proposed scheme shows excellent parallel scalability, performance and robustness. It is applicable with short recurrence iterative...
The Horse With Two Saddles-Tamxhwe in Modern Golok
Fernanda Pirie
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Thirty-three examples of oral sayings, mainly from the Golok area, used in conflict mediation are presented and discussed in terms of their usage by mediators and how they reflect Tibetan values and life. ''You have to go to Golok to hear real tamxhwe." Conflict resolution is a topic most Amdo Tibetans will readily discuss and the oratorical skills of the zowa (gzu ba 'mediators' are always emphasized. It was in Golok that they were said to be particularly impressive. ''They make displays of oratory during the early stages of the mediation process,'' explained one informant, a respected mediator from Machu (Rma chu. ''They use proverbs and riddles that are difficult to understand. It is like jousting with words, a display of skill.'' He was referring to the representatives of individual parties, but the same skills are even more important for mediators. The more serious and entrenched the conflict—two Amdo tribes may fight for generations over valuable grassland—the more important it is to secure a high-status mediator, often a lama or local leader with a reputation for oratory. The mediators' task is to persuade reluctant parties to compromise and accept compensation in lieu of taking revenge for an injury or killing; this can require a lengthy and elaborate process extending over several days. ''In Golok,'' my informant continued, ''they use tamxhwe; those who can make good speeches and employ it well enjoy high reputations.'' The tamxhwe, it appeared, were like proverbs or riddles and in one or two cases an informant was able to repeat one of them to me, but I was repeatedly told that I had to go to Golok to learn more. The oratorical skills of the Golok mediators obviously had a considerable reputation throughout Amdo, and in the summer of 2004 I went to this large area in southern Qinghai Province to investigate. ...
La distribución global del ingreso. De la caída del muro de Berlín a la gran recesión
Christoph Lakner; Branko Milanovic
2015-01-01
Este artículo presenta una base de datos recién compilada y mejorada de encuestas nacionales de hogares entre 1988 y 2008. En 2008, el índice global de Gini es de un 70,5% después de disminuir en cerca de 2 puntos Gini en este periodo. Cuando se ajusta por el probable subregistro de los ingresos superiores de las encuestas usando la brecha entre el consumo de cuentas nacionales y el promedio de las encuestas junto con una imputación tipo Pareto de la cola superior, resulta un Gini global much...
A representación dos espazos suburbanos no cinema ficcional europeo tras a caída do Muro de Berlín
Paradelo Núñez, Martín
2015-01-01
Trázase no presente traballo unha panorámica das formas de representación que o cinema europeo desenvolveu para se enfrontar á filmación dos espazos suburbais das cidades europeas. Pártese dunha definición destas estratexias de representación fílmica desde a definición dos diferentes modos de representación cinematográficos e faise fincapé na importancia do realismo e da capacidade de transmisión dunha visión crítica sobre a cidade como colector social e as dinámicas socio-econ...
Emil Rekanović
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The efficacy of new fungicide mixtures in controlling Plasmopara viticola in grapevine was evaluated in field trials. The efficacies of Profiler (fluopicolide + fosetyl-Al and the standard fungicide Mikal Flash (fosetyl-Al + folpet were tested at Radmilovac and Slankamenački Vinogradi in 2006 and 2007. Both tested fungicides exhibited high efficacy in controlling grape downy mildew. There were no significant differencies in the efficacies of Profiler(96.1-99.7% and Mikal Flash (94.9-99.2%. Our experiments showed that the investigated fungicide mixture fluopicolide + fosetyl-Al is highly effective against P. viticola, even when it it is applied at long intervals and under high disease pressure.
Casein number variability of mare milk from Haflinger and Italian Saddle Horse breeds
P. Mariani
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Mare’s milk is the most important nutritional resource for the foal during the initial weeks of life. Since centuries, in Central Asia, it is the basic staple for the Koumiss production (Savini, 1946; Storch, 1985. Because of its peculiar chemical and nutritional characteristics (Malacarne et al., 2002, recently mare’s milk is utilised also in human nutrition and for cosmetics (Drogoul et al., 1992. This arouses new interest for the study of mare’s milk, in particular concerning the effect of genetic, physiological and feeding factors on organic and inorganic milk components (Doreau and Boulot, 1989; Mariani et al., 1993; Doreau, 1994. The effects of breed and physiological state are not yet well defined (Minieri and Intrieri 1970; Bouwman and van der Schee, 1978; Doreau et al., 1992; Mariani et al., 2000; Pinto et al., 2001; Martuzzi et al., 2002, in particular concerning the percentage repartition of the nitrogen fractions (Doreau et al., 1990...
Axelsson, O.; Blaheta, R. (Radim); Byczanski, P. (Petr)
2012-01-01
Poroelastic models arise in reservoir modeling and many other important applications. Under certain assumptions, they involve a time-dependent coupled system consisting of Navier–Lamé equations for the displacements, Darcy’s flow equation for the fluid velocity and a divergence constraint equation. Stability for infinite time of the continuous problem and, second and third order accurate, time discretized equations are shown. Methods to handle the lack of regularity at initial times a...
Exotic Homoclinic Surface of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle in a Leech Neuron Model
YOOER Chi-Feng; WEI Fang; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua
2011-01-01
We carry out numerical and theoretical investigations on the global unstable invariant set(manifold) of a saddlenode limit cycle in a leech heart interneuron model. The corresponding global bifurcation is accompanied by an explosion of secondary bifurcations of limit cycles and the emergence of loop-shaped bifurcation structures.The dynamical behaviors of the trajectories of the invariant set are very complicated and can only be partially explained by existing theories.
Parametric CAD and Fea Model of a Saddle Tapping Tee
A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Lund Jepsen, Kristian
2007-01-01
using the "contact wizard tool" in ANSYS 10.0. The performed FE contact analysis has enabled inspection of deformations of bodies in physical contact, of stress levels in critical areas, of perpendicular stresses in the gasket, and friction. The developed procedure allows the engineer to modify any...... section applying a gasket. The system is designed for an allowable pressure of 150[lbs] and the service temperature varies between -40-38[C], i.e. an allowable pressure of 19.7[bar]. However, the system must be able to withstand a test-pressure of 150% of the allowable non-shock pressure, i.e. the design...... pressure 30[bar]. A parametric verification model is established based on considerations regarding the compaction of the gasket and the stress level in the brackets of the clamp. The required minimum compaction pressure in the gasket is 1.4[N/mm] according to the European Norm for pressure vessels DS EN...
A Full Characterization on Fixed-Point Theorem, Minimax Inequality, Saddle Point, and KKM Theorem
Tian, Guoqiang
2012-01-01
This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for fixed-point theorems, minimax inequalities and some related theorems defined on arbitrary topological spaces that may be discrete, continuum, non-compact or non-convex. We establish a single condition, γ-recursive transfer lower semicontinuity, which fully characterizes the existence of equilibrium of minimax inequality without imposing any kind of convexity nor any restriction on topological space. The result then is employed to ful...
Effect of changing the saddle angle on the incidence of low back pain in recreational bicyclists
Salai, M; Brosh, T.; Blankstein, A.; Oran, A.; Chechik, A.
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVE: According to the literature, 30-70% of cyclists suffer from cervical, dorsal, or lumbar back pain. This study was conducted to evaluate one of the possible causes of low back pain and to suggest a solution by appropriate adjustments to the bicycle. METHODS: Serial fluoroscopic studies were performed while cyclists sat on different types of bicycle (sports, mountain, and city). Pelvic/spine angles were measured at different seat angles, and the related force vectors analysed. ...
Transition in pipe flow: the saddle structure on the boundary of turbulence
Duguet, Yohann; Kerswell, Rich R
2007-01-01
The laminar-turbulent boundary S is the set separating initial conditions which immediately relaminarise from those which lead to turbulence. Phase space trajectories on this hypersurface in cylindrical pipe flow are chaotic and show recurring evidence of coherent structures. A general numerical technique is developed for recognising near-visits to these structures and then for identifying the exact coherent solutions themselves. Numerical evidence is presented which suggests that trajectories on S are organised around only a few travelling waves and their heteroclinic connections. If the flow is suitably constrained to a subspace with a discrete rotational symmetry, it is possible to find locally-attracting travelling waves embedded within S. Using this technique, 5 new travelling wave branches were found.
Graphs of NMS Flows on S3 with Knotted Saddle Orbits and No Heteroclinic Trajectories
B. CAMPOS; P. VINDEL
2007-01-01
We consider NMS systems on S3 without heteroclinic trajectories connecting two saddlesorbits and we build the dual graphs associated with this kind of flows. We prove that flows comingfrom essential attachments of orientable round 1-handles can be reproduced from the correspondingdual graph.
Alexy, Robert
2000-01-01
Traducción de: Der Beschluß des Bundesverfassungsgerichts zu den Tötungen an der innerdeutschen Grenze vom 24. Oktober 1996, Hamburg, Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1997 (Berichte aus den Sitzungen der Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., Jahrgang 15, 1997, Heft 3). Traducción: A. Daniel Oliver-Lalana.
Luciano, Pietro; Lentini, Andrea; Prota, Romolo; Verdinelli, Marcello; Deiana, Pietrino
1993-01-01
The study was carried out in a North Sardinian cork oak forest in 1992. To control the gypsy moth population three commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were applied by helicopter: Activator THK and Bactospeine at low volume and Foray 48B at ultra low volume, when 80-90% of the gypsy moth larvae were in 1st and 2nd instars. At 14d after treatment, Activator (applied at 5 l/ha) did not cause significant population reductions, while Bactospeine (applied at 32 ...
Moran Alonso, Nerea; Hernández Aja, Agustín
2011-01-01
En general las ciudades europeas cuentan con una amplia tradición de agricultura urbana, en la que las asociaciones de hortelanos juegan un papel importante en la gestión de los espacios y en la interlocución con las administraciones públicas. Por su parte los gobiernos locales desarrollan políticas de fomento de los huertos urbanos y han definido herramientas concretas para su regulación, protección y gestión. Esta doble tradición ha sido decisiva a la hora de resistir las presiones urbaniza...
ŞİŞMAN, Reyhan; DAYI, Burak; USLU, Mustafa Özay; YALÇIN, Muhamet
2015-01-01
In today's dental practice for anterior restorations patients have to wait for more conservative, aestaetic procedures also as quickly and economic as possible. It is described the prosthetic treatment of periodontally destroyed two anterior teeth after extraction at this study. After radiographic, periodontal and prosthetic assessments it was decided to use extracted tooth as pontic with glass fiber to be drawn in the bridge. The clinical situation has been observed successfully after 3 mont...
Non-Gaussian statistics of critical sets in 2 and 3D: Peaks, voids, saddles, genus and skeleton
Gay, Christophe; Pogosyan, Dmitri
2011-01-01
The formalism to compute the geometrical and topological one-point statistics of mildly non-Gaussian 2D and 3D cosmological fields is developed. Leveraging the isotropy of the target statistics, the Gram-Charlier expansion is reformulated with rotation invariant variables. This formulation allows us to track the geometrical statistics of the cosmic field to all orders. It then allows us to connect the one point statistics of the critical sets to the growth factor through perturbation theory, which predicts the redshift evolution of higher order cumulants. In particular, the cosmic non-linear evolution of the skeleton's length, together with the statistics of extrema and Euler characteristic are investigated in turn. In 2D, the corresponding differential densities are analytic as a function of the excursion set threshold and the shape parameter. In 3D, the Euler characteristics and the field isosurface area are also analytic to all orders in the expansion. Numerical integrations are performed and simple fits a...
van den Hoven, R; Zappe, H; Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Jugl, M; Franz, C
2003-05-01
The effects of an oral preparation containing an extract of thyme and primula (Bronchipret; Bionorica) on the lung function of five horses suffering heaves were determined in a longitudinal study. The horses accepted the product well. The plasma concentrations of the marker substance, thymol, indicated that at least one of the substances in the extract had been absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The compliance, pulmonary pressure and airway resistance of the horses' lungs were all significantly improved after one month of treatment However, the severity of their clinical signs and their arterial oxygen partial pressure had not improved significantly. PMID:12751606
バーリ＆ミーンズの株式会社論―巨大株式会社規制の理論的根拠をめぐって―
柴田, 努; Shibata, Tsutomu
2011-01-01
This paper examines in detail The Modern Corporation and Private Property (1932) by AdolfBerle and Gardiner Means, to show clearly that the essence of their theory concerned thepoint of how to justify social regulation of massive joint-stock corporations.Traditionally, the Berle and Means thesis often has been subjected to the criticism thateven under the “separation of ownership and control” that they discuss management does notact with neutrality. However, consideration of Berle and Means’...
On the composition of cobalt pigment of Chinese Ming Pottery found
Kranda, Karel; Havránek, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Malinský, Petr
Berlín: BAM Headquarters, 2011, P41. [TECHNART 2011. Berlín (DE), 26.04.2011-29.04. 2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : chemometrics * microanalytical techniques Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders
Tinetti, Fernando Gustavo
2000-01-01
This book makes a clear presentation of the traditional topics included in a course of undergraduate parallel programming. As explained by the authors, it was developed from their own experience in classrooms, introducing their students to parallel programming. It can be used almost directly to teach basic parallel programming.
德国骑乘马线粒体DNA的限制性酶分析%Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA of German Saddle-Horse
陈宏; Leibe,F
1999-01-01
通过5种限制性内切酶获得了13匹德国骑乘马线粒体DNA(mtDNA)的切割图谱.结果发现,限制性消化产生了1(EcoRⅠ),3(BglⅡ),4(BamHⅠ)或5个(HindⅢ和BamHⅠ)限制性片断,并确定了所有片断的分子大小.mtDNA总的大小平均为(16.48±0.10) kb.除BamHⅠ外,mtDNA的限制性切点对于所有的个体是完全一致的.用BamHⅠ检测到mtDNA的多态性,通过带谱分析推断,德国骑乘马的B型mtDNA是由A型mtDNA通过突变产生1个新的切割位点进化而来.
Hsu, Pen-Yuan; Notsu, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi
2015-01-01
As one of the violent flow, tornadoes occur in many place of the world. In order to reduce human losses and material damage caused by tornadoes, there are many research methods. One of the effective methods is numerical simulations such as the work in a recent article Ishihara et al. (2011). The swirling structure is significant both in mathematical analysis and the numerical simulations of tornado. In this paper, we try to clarify the swirling structure. More precisely, we do numerical compu...
Francesca Martuzzi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Aim of this work was to investigate nursing mares milk characteristics at the end of lactation (D and to make a comparisonwith milk taken during early lactation (3 to 30 d post partum (E. The survey was carried out on 17 Italian Saddlemares (IS (193 days in milk; 147 pregnancy days and on 12 Haflinger mares (H (174 days in milk; 146 pregnancydays. N fractions were determined by means of Kjeldahl; fat and lactose by means of mid infrared lectures; mineral elementswere determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry; P by colorimetry. Data referring to 58 individual milksamples were analyzed by ANCOVA. Significant variations, similar in both breeds, were observed (E vs D for density at15°C (1.036 vs 1.034, pH (6.94 vs 7.24, titratable acidity (3.56 vs 1.70 °SH, fat (1.17 vs 0.76% g/100g of milk,crude protein (2.31 vs 1.68% g/100g, casein number (52.37 vs 46.59 and ash (0.50 vs 0.30% g/100g; similarly(mg/100g for non casein N (172.31 vs 142.05, non protein N (34.43 vs 29.09, P (61.30 vs 32.48, Ca (112.88 vs54.42, Mg (8.40 vs 4.38 and K (60.77 vs 41.31. Freezing point, lactose and Na showed no significant variations. Atthe end of lactation, milk resulted poorer in all main organic components, except lactose, and in all mineral components,except Na. Only freezing point and phosphorus variations differed in IS from H. Breed significantly affected fat, casein Nand ash mean contents.
Shesterickov A.A.
2011-03-01
Full Text Available There have been regarded problems and peculiarities of the chiasmal and sellar area tumor extraction with the endoscopic endonasal method. The basic characteristics of a new synthetic implant for the trepanation defect plasty of the skull base are marked. Its use has been shown to be effective.
The saddle-shaped historical trail of the evolution of Chinese sexology%中国性学发展的马鞍形史迹
王明辉
1996-01-01
@@ 中医性学源远流长,根据有关史料,论述其发展史迹有如一双峰的马鞍形-始源于远古商周,筑基于春秋先秦,鼎盛于秦汉隋唐,阻滞于宋元两朝,徘徊于明清近代,发扬于新建中国.
Núñez Seixas, Xosé M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available O artigo analisa a influência do nacional-socialismo alemão sobre o movimento fascista espanhol durante a sua primeira fase, ainda durante a guerra civil e primeira pós-guerra. Além do fascínio pela figura de Hitler, os fascistas espanhóis admiravam a modernidade da propaganda e agitação nazista. A admiração era partilhada pela direita católica. Ainda que o antissemitismo biológico constituísse um problema, todos consideravam Hitler como a defesa mais eficaz perante a “expansão bolchevique”.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected in 2014 on board the NOAA Ship Oscar...
78 FR 44577 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board
2013-07-24
... Barrows, Angela Bartoldus, Charles Batkin, Joshua C. Bauhs, Kimberlyn J. Beagles, James Beckham, Steward D..., Edward H. Johnson, James Jones Jr., Berl D. Jones, Franklin C. Jones, Keith Jones, Rendell...
Full Text Available larval stages of pentastomes (tongue worms). Its definitive hosts are reptiles whilst humans serve as rare ...v_factor) Pantchev N, Tappe D Pentastomiasis and other parasitic zoonoses from reptiles and amphibians. Berl
President Ilves ja Simon Peres avasid Tallinna uue sünagoogi / Evely Baum, Riina Leminsky
Baum, Evely
2007-01-01
16. mail 2007 avati pidulikult Tallinna uus juudi sünagoog. Avamistseremoonial osalesid ka Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja peaminister Andrus Ansip, Iisraeli asepeaminister Simon Peres, Iisraeli pearabi Yona Metzger, Venemaa pearabi Berl Lazar
Individual-level evaluative bibliometrics - the politics of its use and abuse
Glänzel, Wolfgang; Gläser, Jochen; Rafols, Ismael; Wouters, Paul
2013-01-01
Trabajo presentado a la 18th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators: "Translational twists and turns: Science as a socio-economic endeavor" celebrada en Berlín (Alemania) del 4 al 6 de Septiembre de 2013.
Corporate Finance, the Theory of the Firm, and Organizations
Patrick Bolton; David S. Scharfstein
1998-01-01
Much of the modern research on firm boundaries, following Ronald Coase (1937), assumes that firms are run by owner-managers. This contrasts with the agency literature, following Adolph Berle and Gardiner Means (1932), that emphasizes the problems that arise when managers are not owners. In this paper, the authors argue that a richer theory of the firm should integrate Coase and Berle and Means. They illustrate this point by reexamining the oft-cited merger of General Motors and Fisher Body. T...
Kepák, T.; Blatný, Marek; Slezáčková, Alena; Vlčková, I.; Jelínek, Martin; Pilát, M.; Kárová, Š.; Štěrba, J.
Berlín : International Society of Paediatric Oncology, 2008. [Konference SIOP Berlin, 40th Congres of International Society of Paediatric Oncology. 02.10.2008-06.10.2008, Berlín] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : tumor diseases * late effects of therapy * quality of life Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Feistel, R.; Wright, D.G.; Miyagawa, K.; Harvey, A.H.; Hrubý, Jan; Jackett, D.R.; McDougall, T.J.; Wagner, W.
Vol. XV. Berlín: VDI - The Association of German Engineers,GET - Society for Energy Technology , 2008 - (Span, R.; Weber, I.), s. 156-156 ISBN 978-3-931384-64-7. [ICPWS /15./. Berlín (DE), 07.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : seawater * equation of state * metastable states Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics
The possibility of direct gas-to-solid nucleation mechanism in water vapor
Němec, Tomáš
Vol. XV. Berlín: VDI - The Association of German Engineers,GET - Society for Energy Technology, 2008 - (Span, R.; Weber, I.), s. 1-7 ISBN 978-3-931384-64-7. [ICPWS /15./. Berlín (DE), 07.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400760701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nucleation * pure water * gas-to-solid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics
Jean Pierre Matus A.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se reseña el texto del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts y, al mismo tiempo, se propone la aplicación de los principales resultados de esa obra para un eventual enjuiciamiento de la tortura masiva y sistemática aplicada en Chile entre 1973 y 1990, tal y como se describe en el Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Prisión Política y Tortura (Informe Valech. Así, se comienza describiendo y analizando la sistematización propuesta por Ambos para una parte general del derecho penal internacional, luego se analiza la tortura como crimen contra la humanidad, sujeto a las reglas del derecho penal internacional. En este apartado se determinan sus elementos principales (el carácter masivo y sistemático, el Tribunal competente en Chile para conocer de estas causas y el procedimiento aplicable. A continuación se describen los hechos, tal y como se dieron a conocer en el Informe Valech, que permiten concluir que en Chile se aplicó la tortura de manera masiva y sistemática durante el régimen militar, favorecida por éste, mediante el establecimiento de una "maquinaria" de represión "legalizada". Enseguida, se determina la existencia de una responsabilidad penal internacional individual derivada de estos hechos, para, a continuación, pasar a analizar los principales problemas de la parte general del derecho penal internacional que se presentarían en el caso de juzgarse tales responsabilidades individuales, siguiendo el esquema de análisis en dos niveles propuesto por Kai Ambos, a saber, discutiendo primero los presupuestos objetivos y subjetivos de esa responsabilidad, para finalizar analizando las principales defensas que podrían oponerse por los eventuales acusados.This article reviews Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos' book, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, and proposes the application of the main results of this book to the possible trial of the acts of massive and systematic torture carried out in Chile between 1973 and 1990, described in the report of the National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture (also known as the Valech Report. We therefore begin by describing and analyzing Prof. Ambos' system for a general part of international penal law, and then torture is analyze as a crime against humanity, subject to the rules of international penal law. Here we determine its main elements (a massive and systematic character, the competent tribunal in Chile for this matters, and the procedure to be applied. We next turn to the description of the facts, as rendered in the Valech Report, which brings us to the conclusion that torture was applied in Chile in a massive and systematic way during the military regime, which supported it through the establishment of a "legalized" repression "machinery". Next, the existence of an individual penal responsibility derived from these facts is determined, followed by the analysis of the main problems of the general part of international penal law which would emerge if those responsible individuals were brought to trial. In this we follow the two-level scheme of analysis proposed by Kai Ambos, namely, discussing first the objective and subjective presuppositions for this responsibility, and then turning to the analysis of the main defenses available to the defendants.
We calculate the partial widths of three collisional resonances in a collinear system with mass combinations HFH and DFD on a low-barrier model potential energy surface. We compare accurate quantal results to results obtained with a reaction-path Hamiltonian model in which the resonances are interpreted as quasibound states trapped in wells of adiabatic potential curves and their decay probabilities are calculated by semiclassical tunneling calculations and a Feshbach golden-rule formula with the decay mediated by an internal centrifugal interaction proportional to the curvature of the reaction path. The model successfully predicts when vibrationally nonadiabatic decay dominates over the adiabatic mechanism for decomposition of the resonances and it predicts the nonadiabatic partial widths with an average error of 25%
Tinetti, Fernando Gustavo
2002-01-01
The two volumes attempt to render a self-contained idea of the state of the art of cluster computing by the year 1999. In the whole, thirty-six articles are presented in Vol. 1 and twenty-nine articles in Vol.2. In each volume, the articles are grouped according to the topics dealt with.
Analysis of Cavitation Phenomena in Water and its Application to Prediction of
Sedlář, M.; Zima, Patrik; Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František
Vol. XV. Berlín: VDI - The Association of German Engineers,GET - Society for Energy Technology, 2008 - (Span, R.; Weber, I.), s. 65-65 ISBN 978-3-931384-64-7. [ICPWS /15./. Berlín (DE), 07.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1612; GA AV ČR KJB400760701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cavitation erosion * water pumps * nucleation theory Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Full Text Available ... capsule here. Once again, working in that saddle region. Now as you do this release, what tells ... is get a clear visualization of this saddle region and of the anterior portion of the femoral ...
An altered cast procedure to improve tissue support for removable partial denture
Chandrashekar Sajjan
2010-01-01
In the laboratory, the free-end saddle areas on the master cast are sectioned off. The denture is then positioned on the model and the new saddle areas are poured. The resulting model represents the free-end saddle areas under conditions, which mimic functional load. Denture construction then continues as normal. The distribution of loading of the free-end saddles is improved and denture is more stable.
Holography on Non-Orientable Surfaces
Maloney, Alexander
2016-01-01
We consider the holographic computation of two dimensional conformal field theory partition functions on non-orientable surfaces. We classify the three dimensional geometries that give bulk saddle point contributions to the partition function, and find that there are fewer saddles than in the orientable case. For example, for the Klein bottle there is a single smooth saddle and a single additional saddle with an orbifold singularity. We argue that one must generally include singular bulk saddle points in order to reproduce the CFT results. We also discuss loop corrections to these partition functions for the Klein bottle.
Two modes of mixing ratio lamina vertical distribution
Križan, Peter
Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2015. EMS2015-53. [EMS Annual Meeting /15./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /12./. 07.09.2015–11.09.2015, Sofia] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mixing ratio lamina * ozonosonde stations * stratospheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2015/EMS2015-53.pdf
Synoptic-scale patterns producing heat episodes in Central Europe
Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav
Berlín : European Meteorological Society, 2013. [EMS Annual Meeting, 13th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 11th. 09.09.2013–13.09.2013, Reading ] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2013/EMS2013-541-1.pdf
The impact of lake area on microclimate
Bartůňková, Kristýna; Sokol, Zbyněk
Berlín : European Meteorological Society, 2013. EMS2013-24. [EMS Annual Meeting /13./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /11./. 09.09.2013-13.09.2013, Reading ] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2013/EMS2013-24.pdf
Spatial calculation of extreme wind climate of Bohemian Forest
Hošek, Jiří; Hanslian, David; Pop, Lukáš
Berlín : European Meteorological Society, 2013. EMS2013-290. [EMS Annual Meeting /13./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /11./. 09.09.2013-13.09.2013, Reading ] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2013/EMS2013-290.pdf