Sample records for beriberi

  1. Beriberi

    ... affects the cardiovascular system. Dry beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome affect the nervous system. Beriberi is rare in ... movements, and walking difficulties may go away. However, Korsakoff syndrome (or Korsakoff psychosis) tends to develop as Wernicke ...

  2. Beriberi cardiovascular agudo (Shoshin-Beriberi Acute cardiovascular beriberi (shoshin-beriberi

    Osvaldo D. López Gastón


    Full Text Available El beriberi, la deficiencia de tiamina (B1, fue referido en el siglo XVII en la literatura asiática, y pue de manifestarse por síntomas neurológicos (beriberi «seco» donde la neuropatía periférica y la debilidad muscular son los más destacados y/o síntomas cardiovasculares (beriberi «húmedo», con una variante «clásica» donde es predominante la insuficiencia cardíaca derecha con índice cardíaco (IC normal o alto y otra aguda o «shoshin-beriberi», caracterizada por insuficiencia biventricular, acidosis láctica e IC variable y que sin tratamiento precoz evoluciona al colapso vascular y la muerte. Se presenta una paciente de 58 años y antecedente de enolismo, con disnea, oliguria, sígnos de fallo cardíaco biventricular con patrón hiperdinámico, acidosis metabólica, disfunción tubular renal y lactacidemia de 5.6 mEq/L. El exámen neurológico mostró una polineuropatía sensitiva, simétrica y distal en MMII y deterioro cognitivo con sígnos frontales. Horas después de la administración de 100 mg de tiamina ev. se observó una manifiesta mejoría de los valores hemodinámicos y el estado ácido-base. Se concluye que si bien el beriberi cardiovascular agudo es de presentación infrecuente hay consenso en que además es subdiagnosticado. La presencia de acidosis láctica o cuadro de insuficiencia cardíaca de alto volumen minuto sin etiología manifiesta, en pacientes con riesgo de deficiencia de B1, es suficiente para hacer la prueba terapéutica.Beriberi (BB, thiamine deficiency, has been described in the Asian literature in the 17th century and is characterized by peripheral neuropathy and muscle weakness, also called «dry» beriberi (BB to differentiate it from «wet» BB, with essentially cardiovascular manifestations. Wet can be either «classic» wet BB in which signs and symptons of right-sided heart failure with normal or high cardiac output are the presenting features or the «shoshin» BB variant with severe

  3. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  4. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Wani, Nisar A. [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir, Pin (India); Qureshi, Umar A.; Ahmad, Kaiser; Ahmad, Waseem [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatrics, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Jehangir, Majid [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir (India)


    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in wet beriberi

    Giri Shivraman; Smith Sakima; Velez Michael R; Essa Essa; Raman Subha V; Gumina Richard J


    Abstract The clinical presentation of beriberi can be quite varied. In the extreme form, profound cardiovascular involvement leads to circulatory collapse and death. This case report is of a 72 year-old male who was admitted to the Neurology inpatient ward with progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and parasthesia. He subsequently developed pulmonary edema and high output cardiac failure requiring intubation and blood pressure support. With the constellation of peripheral neuropathy,...

  6. [The history of healing; beriberi: 'kind of paralysis'].

    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A


    Beriberi began to attract increasing attention in the second half of the 19th century, mostly due to the large numbers of victims among Dutch military personnel in the Netherlands East Indies. A study, carried out in Atjeh in 1886 by the Japanese Sugenoya and F. J. Cornelissen, led to the conclusion that there existed a beriberi bacillus which they could make visible in stained microscopical preparations. An extensive disinfection campaign in all barracks followed, but its benefits were a matter of debate. Inadequate nutrition in the investigators' eyes was only a predisposing factor. A.G. Vorderman (1844-1902) assumed a connection between rice feeding and beriberi in prisoners; he reported that the disease coincided with a diet of polished white rice. Beriberi could be prevented by providing the prisoners with 'red rice' (unpolished rice). However, red rice was regarded as inferior and status-lowering so that substitution of red for white rice in the rations was impossible. The concept of a 'lacking substance' (thiamine, vitamin B1) was hesitatingly accepted in the Netherlands. C. Winkler and C. Eijkman, for instance, refused until the early twenties of this century to exclude the possibility of a bacterial infection as the cause. As known, Eijkman in 1929 was awarded the Nobel prize for his contribution to vitamin research. PMID:9380156

  7. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Hubert Barennes


    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  8. A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia

    Margaret B. E. Livingstone


    Full Text Available In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC but not in the other (NBC. We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi.

  9. Rapidly progressive polyneuropathy due to dry beriberi in a man: a case report

    Lekwuwa Godwin


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of rapidly progressive and severely debilitating polyneuropathy in a patient with confirmed hypovitaminosis B1, consistent with dry beriberi. Crucially, this is a treatable condition, although sometimes with incomplete recovery, but it is probably under-recognized yet increasingly common given increasing levels of alcohol abuse in the western world. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian British man presented with progressive weakness of both lower limbs of approximately seven months' duration. He noted difficulty climbing stairs. He also complained of lethargy, and loss of muscle bulk, including his thighs. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and admitted prior alcohol abuse but denied excessive alcohol intake in the five years prior to presentation. Initial clinical and neurophysiological examinations were consistent with a mild peripheral neuropathy and probable proximal myopathy. However, over the subsequent four months he evolved a marked tetraparesis, with profound sensory disturbance of all limbs. Repeat neurophysiology revealed a widespread polyneuropathy with extensive acute and sub-acute denervation changes in all four limbs, and reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials. Hypovitaminosis B1 was confirmed (45 nmol/L, reference range 66-200 nmol/L. His rapid clinical deterioration was in keeping with dry beriberi. He was treated with thiamine. Subsequent follow-up revealed slow but significant improvement, such that by 15-16 months from the initial onset of symptoms, and approximately six months after the onset of his marked tetraparesis, he was able to stand independently and was gradually gaining confidence in walking pending a period of in-patient neurorehabilitation. Conclusion A potentially wide differential diagnosis exists for this type of presentation. Confirming hypovitaminosis B1 by requesting the assay prior to vitamin replacement ensures accurate diagnosis and

  10. Wernicke’s Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar

    Nuria Huertas-González


    Full Text Available Background. Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called “wet beriberi.” Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice.

  11. Perfil epidemiológico do beribéri notificado de 2006 a 2008 no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Epidemiological profile of reported beriberi cases in Maranhão State, Brazil, 2006-2008

    Estela Maura Padilha


    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos casos e óbitos de beribéri notificados de 2006-2008 no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Informações foram obtidas de fichas de notificação da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Maranhão e utilizou-se o Índice Global de Moran para avaliar autocorrelação espacial. Foram notificados 1.207 casos e 40 óbitos. Regiões oeste e central mostraram forte presença de autocorrelação espacial da incidência. Ocorrência de casos e óbitos concentrou-se de maio a agosto, em homens jovens (20-40 anos. Hábito de consumir álcool e fumar esteve presente entre os óbitos; baixa renda e ocupação com atividade pesada, entre os casos. Os sintomas mais comuns foram diminuição da força, dormência e edema das pernas, dificuldade para caminhar e dor na panturrilha. O perfil dos acometidos e os sintomas, exceto edema de membros inferiores, são característicos de beribéri seco. É pertinente que estudos sobre seu ressurgimento no país sejam aprofundados.This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of beriberi cases and related deaths reported from 2006 to 2008 in Maranhão State, Brazil. Data were obtained from beriberi notification forms at the State Health Department. The global Moran index was used to evaluate spatial auto-correlation. 1207 cases and 40 deaths were reported. The western and central regions of the State showed strong spatial auto-correlation of incidence rates. Cases and deaths were concentrated from May to August, in young men (20-40 years. Regular alcohol consumption and smoking were recorded among fatal cases. Low income and heavy labor were widespread among cases. Common symptoms were asthenia, numbness, and swollen legs, difficulty walking, and calf pain. The profile of cases and their symptoms (except swollen legs are characteristic of dry beriberi. We recommend further studies on the resurgence of beriberi in Brazil.

  12. Beri-beri in immigrant workers--a report of three cases.

    Jeyakumar, D


    Three East Timorese immigrants presented with signs and symptoms of heart failure in early December 1992. One of them also had features of peripheral neuropathy. Another collapsed within 24 hours of admission and attempts at resuscitation failed. The other two showed dramatic response to oral thiamine therapy. An investigation into their dietary history established gross deficiency in fresh vegetables. PMID:8090104

  13. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  14. The discovery of thiamin.

    Carpenter, Kenneth J


    Thiamin deficiency was long known as 'beriberi' in English and 'kakké' in Japan and China. The cause of beriberi was attributed to miasmas rising from wet soil and later to an unknown infectious organism. Systematic studies of beriberi began in the Dutch East Indies in the 1880s. Cornelis Pekelharing and Cornelis Winkler investigated beriberi in the Dutch East Indies and thought that they had isolated a micrococcus that was responsible for the disease. Christiaan Eijkman observed that chickens fed white rice developed a leg paralysis or 'polyneuritis', whereas chickens fed brown (unpolished) rice did not. Gerrit Grijns succeeded Eijkman in the beriberi studies in Java and concluded correctly that there were unknown substances in foods that were needed for the peripheral nervous system. In 1926, Barend Jansen and Willem Donath isolated and crystallized a substance that cured polyneuritis in pigeons. Robert Williams synthesized thiamin in 1936. PMID:23183292

  15. A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e) and Its Derivatives

    Derrick Lonsdale


    Thiamin(e), also known as vitamin B1, is now known to play a fundamental role in energy metabolism. Its discovery followed from the original early research on the ‘anti-beriberi factor’ found in rice polishings. After its synthesis in 1936, it led to many years of research to find its action in treating beriberi, a lethal scourge known for thousands of years, particularly in cultures dependent on rice as a staple. This paper refers to the previously described symptomatology of beriberi, empha...

  16. Vitamin D and its use in veterinary and animal husbandry

    Alla Savinova


    Full Text Available This article discusses the effect of vitamin D on the body of agricultural animals. Analyzed the clinical, pathologic changes, methods of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hypo- and hyper beriberi.

  17. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities


    ... Atrioventricular block 7015 Avitaminosis 6313 Bartonellosis 6306 Beriberi 6314 Bladder: Calculus in 7515 Fistula in... Group II Function: Depression of arm 5302 Group III Function: Elevation and abduction of arm 5303...

  18. Vitamin B1

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  19. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  20. [Experimental Approach to Analysis of the Relationship between Food Environments and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Including Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver, and Fatigue Symptoms].

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro


    The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The

  1. A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e and Its Derivatives

    Derrick Lonsdale


    Full Text Available Thiamin(e, also known as vitamin B1, is now known to play a fundamental role in energy metabolism. Its discovery followed from the original early research on the ‘anti-beriberi factor’ found in rice polishings. After its synthesis in 1936, it led to many years of research to find its action in treating beriberi, a lethal scourge known for thousands of years, particularly in cultures dependent on rice as a staple. This paper refers to the previously described symptomatology of beriberi, emphasizing that it differs from that in pure, experimentally induced thiamine deficiency in human subjects. Emphasis is placed on some of the more unusual manifestations of thiamine deficiency and its potential role in modern nutrition. Its biochemistry and pathophysiology are discussed and some of the less common conditions associated with thiamine deficiency are reviewed. An understanding of the role of thiamine in modern nutrition is crucial in the rapidly advancing knowledge applicable to Complementary Alternative Medicine. References are given that provide insight into the use of this vitamin in clinical conditions that are not usually associated with nutritional deficiency. The role of allithiamine and its synthetic derivatives is discussed. Thiamine plays a vital role in metabolism of glucose. Thus, emphasis is placed on the fact that ingestion of excessive simple carbohydrates automatically increases the need for this vitamin. This is referred to as high calorie malnutrition.

  2. A kinetic model of thiamine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    Matos, Marta; Herrgard, Markus; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam;


    Thiamine can only be synthesized by prokaryotes and some eukaryotes, humans for example get it through their diet. Yet, it is key for the correct functioning of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and thiamine deficiency in humans can cause beriberi, which can result in muscle weakness or....... Therefore, kinetic models are needed to understand the dynamics of metabolite concentrations and reaction fluxes. We have built a kinetic model for the thiamine biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. So far we have used convenience kinetics rate laws to describe the flux rates, but once more data has...

  3. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Anorexia by Inhibiting Hypothalamic AMPK

    Liu, Mei; Alimov, Alexander; Wang, Haiping; FRANK, JACQUELINE A.; Katz, Wendy; Xu, Mei; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia


    Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16 days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in re...

  4. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G


    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. PMID:26197853

  5. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.

    Lanska, Douglas J


    This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke

  6. Christiaan Eijkman. First bacteriologist at Utrecht University, Nobel laureate for his work on vitamins.

    Verhoef, J; Snippe, H; Nottet, H S


    One century ago, Christiaan Eijkman was appointed Professor of Bacteriology at the Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Despite his appointment to teach bacteriology, Christiaan Eijkman made his main contribution to medical science not in bacteriology but in nutrition. He discovered that Beri-Beri was not an infection but a nutritient deficiency (later called vitamin-deficiency) and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929 for these observations. These landmark studies were made in the former Dutch East Indies. Interestingly, the results of his studies were presented in the Dutch language, in the medical journal of the Dutch East Indies. As a professor of Bacteriology, his work was the beginning of an important school in biochemistry in The Netherlands. PMID:10427404

  7. [Clinical appearance and scalable profile Thiamine deficiency in prison in Guinea: study of thirty-eight observations].

    Cissé, F A; Konaté, M M; Ekué, W A; Cissé, M; Camara, N; Djigué, B S; Baldé, A O M; Camara, I A; Diallo, F L Y; Diallo, B S; Konaté, F; Barry, L F; Diakhaté, I; Cissé, A


    Cardiovascular and neurological manifestations associated with thiamine deficiency in Guinean prisons are common but not reported.We performed a prospective study of 38 cases related to vitamin B1 deficiency over a period of 4 years. In this population, the literature of traditional data gathered: frequency peak after thirty (92.6%) and clear representation male (sex ratio M/F: 18/1). The clinical symptomatology remains essentially dominated by sensorimotor polyneuropathy and pure sensory (52.2%), overall heart failure (31.5%) and to a lesser degree by Gayet Wernicke's encephalopathy (7.8%) and shoshin beriberi with severe evolution (5.2%). The study of nutritional status by body mass index (BMI) of the World Health Organization, by the criteria of Detsky and biological markers including albumin, shows that these patients are severely malnourished. PMID:27100861

  8. Dysautonomia, a Heuristic Approach to a Revised Model for Etiology of Disease

    Derrick Lonsdale


    Full Text Available Dysautonomia refers to a disease where the autonomic nervous system is dysfunctional. This may be a central control mechanism, as in genetically determined familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day Syndrome, or peripherally in the distribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. There are multiple reports of a number of different diseases associated with dysautonomia. The etiology of this association has never been explained. There are also multiple publications on dysautonomia associated with specific non-caloric nutritional deficiencies. Beriberi is the prototype of autonomic dysfunction. It is the best known nutritional deficiency disease caused by an imbalance between ingested calories and the vitamins required for their oxidation, particularly thiamin. Long thought to be abolished in modern medical thinking, there are occasional isolated reports of the full-blown disease in developed Western cultures.

  9. Clinical studies on rising and re-rising neurological diseases in Japan--a personal contribution.

    Igata, Akihiro


    Throughout my research life, I experienced to discover the causes of some neurological diseases in Japan. 1) SMON (subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy). Since the early 1960s, a peculiar neurological disease became prevalent throughout Japan. Through the chemical analysis of the green urine, characteristic of this disease, it was found that this disease was caused by intoxication of the administered clioquinol, an anti-diarrheal drug. This discovery is a big topic in the history of Japanese medicine. 2) In early 1970s, I experienced many young patients with oedema and polyneuropathy in Kagoshima. Finally it was found that the disease was the long-forgotten beriberi, which had disappeared several decades ago. We must always be aware of beriberi even now, as far as we eat well-polished rice. 3) In 1972, we noticed a group of sporadic paraparesis in Kagoshima, which was 20 years later confirmed to be induced by human T lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I). We named this disease as "HTLV-I associated myelopathy" (HAM). It gave a strong impact that the causative virus of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) can induce entirely different diseases, in terms of both the clinical course and the pathological features. It was also proven that HAM was identical with tropical spastic paraparesis, (TSP), which had been prevalent in many areas of tropical zones. These experiences are good examples of our slogan "to keep in mind to send message of scientific progress from the local area to the international stage. PMID:20431261

  10. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn?Nature?s Drug Store- A Pharmacological Review



    Full Text Available Use of various plant parts like leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots or the whole plant as such for medicinal purpose has a long tradition in different culture. Averrhoa bilimbi (Bilimbi is medicinally used as a folk remedy for many symptoms .It is an attractive, long-lived tropical tree, reaching 5-10 m in height. It has a short trunk and a number of upright branches. The fruit conserve is administered as a treatment for coughs, beri-beri and biliousness. Syrup prepared from the fruit is taken as a cure for fever and inflammation and to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids. The leaves are applied as a paste or poulticed on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin eruption. The leaves have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. A flower infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush. The leaves and fruit extract is an effective antibacterial against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. This review aims at compiling the potential benefits of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn based on its pharmacological activity.

  11. Thiamine Deficiency in Tropical Pediatrics: New Insights into a Neglected but Vital Metabolic Challenge.

    Hiffler, Laurent; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Lafferty, Nadia; Martinez Garcia, Daniel


    In humans, thiamine is a micronutrient prone to depletion that may result in severe clinical abnormalities. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on thiamine deficiency (TD) and bridges the gap between pathophysiology and clinical presentation by integrating thiamine metabolism at subcellular level with its function to vital organs. The broad clinical spectrum of TD is outlined, with emphasis on conditions encountered in tropical pediatric practice. In particular, TD is associated with type B lactic acidosis and classic forms of beriberi in children, but it is often unrecognized. Other severe acute conditions are associated with hypermetabolism, inducing a functional TD. The crucial role of thiamine in infant cognitive development is also highlighted in this review, along with analysis of the potential impact of TD in refeeding syndrome during severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This review aims to increase clinical awareness of TD in tropical settings where access to diagnostic tests is poor, and advocates for an early therapeutic thiamine challenge in resource-limited settings. Moreover, it provides evidence for thiamine as treatment in critical conditions requiring metabolic resuscitation, and gives rationale to the consideration of increased thiamine supplementation in therapeutic foods for malnourished children. PMID:27379239

  12. Socio-economic development and mortality patterns and trends in Malaysia.

    Tan Poo Chang; Kwok Kwan Kit; Tan Boon Ann; Shyamala Nagaraj; Tey Nai Peng; Siti Norazah Zulkifli


    Morality in Peninsular Malaysia has reached a level that is quite similar to that prevailing in the low mortality countries. This article systematically documents changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and relates these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Remedial measures undertaken by the authorities including the expansion of hospital and health services into the estates, together with a comprehensive malaria-eradication program, improvements in sanitation laws, and increased provision of public utilities and education, resulted in beriberi being eliminated and the incidence of malaria, typhus, and smallpox being greatly reduced by the time of World War II. The gain in life expectancy over the period of 1957-1979 was greatest for the Malay, the most significant period being 1957-1967, which saw the introduction of rural health programs. The infant mortality rate and the neonatal and post-neonatal rates declined substantially for all ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia for the same time period. Although the lower infant mortality of the Chinese can be explained by their advantageous socioeconomic position the same reason cannot explain the lower decline in infant mortality levels of the Indians. Much still needs to be done to narrow, if not to eliminate, the existing mortality differentials of different groups in the country. Overall, the quality of life of the general population can be further enhanced by reducing the high mortality level of disadvantaged groups. PMID:12341034

  13. Cardiac failure due to arteriovenous fistula with brachiocephalic stenosis: a gated heart case study

    Full text: There are numerous causes of cardiac failure of which the commonest in our community include ischaemic cardiomyopathy, post-viral cardiomyopathy, alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy and drug-induced cardiomyopathy. All these entities cause low output cardiac failure however high output cardiac failure is also well recognised. This includes heart failure related to such conditions as hyperthyroidism, anaemia, pregnancy, beri-beri, and Paget's disease. A rare cause of high output cardiac failure is an arteriovenous fistula. We present an unusual case of a patient with end-stage renal failure on haemodialysis who developed extensive dilatation of their left arm arteriovenous fistula secondary to bachiocephalic vein stenosis. The labelled red blood cell gated heart blood pool study demonstrated decreased left ventricular function and extensive pooling of blood within the tortuous dilated left arm vessels. A follow-up study post-ligation of the arteriovenous fistula showed improvement of the left ventricular ejection fraction. The associated contrast venography findings are also demonstrated. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. A brief history of experimentation on condemned and executed humans.

    Kevorkian, J


    Experimentation on condemned men is assumed to have been a common practice in ancient Alexandria, but disappeared in Rome and during the Middle Ages. Sporadic cases were documented in the Renaissance and afterward, involving experiments both before and immediately after execution. The advent of the guillotine raised the question of possible persistence of consciousness after execution and that spurred much electrophysiological study of freshly decapitated heads and bodies. In 19th-century Europe, interest focused on cardiac function immediately after beheading. In the early 20th century, many condemned men in the Philippines were used by American physicians for their research on plague and beriberi.Briefly discussed is the relevance of the practice of human sacrifice in Homeric Greece and Mayan Yucatan, as well as experiments on black slaves in America. The Nazi medical crimes of World War II encompass a totally different morality, and are not really comparable to the matter at hand. They have, however, so stirred emotions as to discredit the general concept of experimentation associated with capital punishment. Even within the framework of our system of jurisprudence, the altruistic desires of many now languishing on death row are being ignored. PMID:3884824


    Hershkowitz, Einat; Markel, Arie


    Thiamine or vitamin B1 is a water soluble vitamin of the vitamin B complex. It is synthetized by bacteria, fungi and plants and is an essential component of multicellular living organisms. Humans are not able to synthetize this vitamin and have to obtain it from different foods. Thiamin has a vital role in the normal function of the human body. It functions as a coenzyme in the catabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and has an antioxidant role. It has an essential function in a series of metabolic processes related to energy production and conversion of sugar to ATP, as a catalyst in the Krebs cycle. It takes part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and has a main role in the central nervous system and immune system. Deficiency results in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, optic neuropathy, Beri-Beri and other disorders. Vitamin B deficiency in not rare and may occur in conditions related to malnutrition, alcoholism, diabetes, congestive heart failure and others. In this review an effort has been made to demonstrate the presence of thiamine deficiency in various clinical situations frequent in modern medicine, attributed in the past to populations with "classical" inadequate feeding and starvation, or severe malnutrition. Identification of potential causes of vitamin B1 deficiency, knowledge of its metabolic properties and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are important for the implementation of early therapeutic response required for the reduction and prevention of symptoms related to this disorder. PMID:26742231


    M. Kadivar R. Moradian


    Full Text Available Abstract- The syndrome of diabetes mellitus, sensorineural deafness and megaloblastic anemia dose not result from thiamine deficiency. The previous reported patients had no sign of beriberi, had normal nutrition, and had no evidence of malabsorption. The features of this syndrome with apparent inheritance of autosomal recessive trait may define this puzzling syndrome as a true thiamine dependency state. The first Iranian patient was described by Vossough et al. in 1995. We found nine new cases with diagnostic criteria of thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia during eight years of our study. In two patients, presentation of diabetes and anemia was concomitant. All of them were deaf with sensorineural hearing loss which was detected in infancy up to two years of age. The presence of congenital valvular heart disease was eliminated by normal echocardiography, but cardiomyopathy was discovered in two. Nonspecific amino-aciduria was discovered in three but urinary screening tests for hereditary orotic aciduria were negative. Ox-Phos biochemistry of muscle mitochondria which demonstrates severe defect in complexes I, III, IV in diabetes mellitus associated with deafness, were done but was unremarkable in our patients. Urinary methylmalonic acid and methyl malonyl carnitine by GS/MS and TMS was done in our patients and showed abnormal results in six patients. Thiamine gene, SLC 19A2, was detected in four patients.

  17. Characteristic Analysis of the Elsholtzia's Chemistry and Pharmacology in Clinical Application%香薷的化学、药理与临床应用特点分析

    李敏; 苗明三


    香薷含有挥发油类、黄酮类、香豆素类等多种活性成分,具有抗病原微生物、消炎、解热、镇痛、解痉、增强免疫等药理作用,临床上常用于发汗解暑,行水散湿,温胃调中,夏月感寒饮冷,头痛发热,恶寒无汗,胸痞腹痛,呕吐腹泻,水肿,脚气等。香薷作为药食同源的植物具有广泛的应用性和广阔的应用前景,积极研究香薷的药用价值具有重要意义。%Elsholtzia includes many active ingredients,such as essential oil,flavonoid,coumarins,and so on. The pharmacologic action of elsholtzia is resistant microorganisms,anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic,spasmolysis,enhance immunity. In clinic,the elsholt-zia was used for diaphoresis relieving summer-heat,flowing water and dispersing damp,warm the stomach,in summer have a cold,have a headache and fever,aversion to cold and adiapneustia,feeling of stuffiness in chest and abdominal pain,vomit and diarrhea,edema, beriberi. Elsholtzia has extensive applicability and wide application prospect as a plant of homology of medicine and food. It has signifi-cant for study the medicinal value of elsholtzia.

  18. A simple turn on fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of thiamine using coconut water derived luminescent carbon dots.

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu


    In this study microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to prepare highly luminescent carbon dots (1-6 nm size) within a minute from tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water. The synthesized carbon dots (C-dots) exhibit emission of blue and green lights while excited at 390 and 450 nm wavelengths, respectively. As an application, these C-dots were tested for a simple "turn on" fluorescent sensor for rapid detection of thiamine (vitamin B1). The detection of thiamine in human body is very important to prevent various diseases such as beriberi, neurological disorders, optic neuropathy, etc. The fluorescence emission intensity of C-dots quenches after addition of Cu(2+) ion and then again increases selectively (turn on) after the addition of thiamine. The fluorescence emission intensity enhancement of Cu(2+) ion modified C-dots in the presence of thiamine exhibits a linear relationship within the thiamine concentration range of 10-50 μM. The limit of detection was found to be 280 nM from this study. The selectivity of the detection was also tested in the presence of different organic molecules and inorganic ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) which are present in blood serum and urine and found to be almost no interference in the detection. Finally, to see the applicability in real samples a commercial vitamin capsule was tested and found less than 3% error in the detected concentration. The C-dots were also used for bioimaging of fungus and the results show they are also suitable for this application too. PMID:26745793

  19. Thiamine deficiency induces anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK.

    Liu, M; Alimov, A P; Wang, H; Frank, J A; Katz, W; Xu, M; Ke, Z-J; Luo, J


    Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22nd day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by ninefolds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17-24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight. PMID:24607345

  20. 丰宁县城洗浴场所公共用品卫生状况调查%Survey on statue of public supplies hygiene in bath place of Fengning County



    In order to understand the Fengning County bath places of sanitation of public articles and provide a basis on the theroy for the main work of the supervision. According to (Public health surveillance specification and test methods manual) , data were analyzed. The results showed that the qualified rate of public supplies health indicators in bath places was very low. Fully qualified bathrooms accounted for 18. 8%. We can make a conclusion that there was the existence of infectious disease seriously . The public goods, for exampie, nearly half of the slippers were unqualified and it is easy to spread the beriberi. So we should increase the supervision dynamics. Aims; To understand the Fengning County bath place of sanitation of public articles, better prevention of infectious disease is put.%为了解丰宁县洗浴场所公共用品卫生状况,为卫生监督重点工作提供理论依据.依照《公共场所卫生监测规范与检验方法手册》微生物部分.洗浴场所公共用品卫生指标合格率非常低,完全合格的浴室占18.8%.丰宁县洗浴场所存在传染病安全隐患,特别是拖鞋近一半不合格,极易造成脚气病的传播,应加大监管力度.

  1. [Sun Simiao's voyage to Chu and Shu regions].

    Song, Zhenmin


    During the 4(th)-11(th) years of Zhenguan reign of the Tang Dynasty, Sun Simiao paid a voyage to the regions of Chu (now mostly the Hubei Province) and Shu (now Sichuan Province) for a total of 14 years. In the 4(th) year of Zhenguan, he went to treat the "hydropsy" of Li Gui, the King of Hanyang, hence, the record given as the 9(th) year of Zhenguan by Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions for Emergency Worth a Thousand Gold) is not correct. Later, he went to Jiangzhou (now Jiujiang city of Jiangxi Province) to treat Chen Shuping's, the King of Chenxiangdong beriberi due to wind-poisoning. In the 15(th) of July, the 5(th) year of Zhenguan, he himself suffered a swelling pain in his finger when travelling in Shu region, due to a poisonous sting, which was cured by rubbing with the juice from the root and stem of dendelion. In the 7(th) year of Zhenguan, he suffered a facial erysipelas due to over drinking when he was in Neijiang County which was treated by the mayor, Master Li, with various medications to no avail, which was eventually cured by himself. In the 10(th) year of Zhenguan, he treated the Governor of Zizhou Li Wenbo's consuming thirst. He also got a large amount of copper salts in the Counties of Xuanwu and Feiwu nearby. In the 17(th) year of Zhenguan or later, he processed the "Tai yi spiritual powder" in Wei's family of Shu County. After finishing the processing, he returned to Guanzhong (now Shaanxi) at certain period of "August of 17(th) year of Zhenguan", "January of 18(th) year of Zhenguan", or "January of 19(th) year of Zhenguan". PMID:25429884

  2. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    Lonsdale, D


    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  3. 碳纳米颗粒修饰丝网印刷电极测定百合镉含量%Detection of cadmium content of lily by carbon nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode

    郑琦琦; 俞永华; 吴坚


    People are more and more interested in health foods with the improvement of living standard. Edible lily tastes sweet with a little bitter and can be used to treat cough, phthisis, beriberi, and so on. There are almost 10 species of edible lily in China. The production of lily is in rapid expansion. However, the sample of lily is usually found to have cadmium (Cd) above the national standard. Cd is one of the toxic heavy metals. It will cause damage of lung and kidney. There are a lot of methods to detect the cd in foods, such as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic fluorescence spectrometry, and spectrophotometry. Although these methods have high precision, they need large-scale equipment, high cost, and professional staff, and even some use toxic reagents. Scientists developed several rapid determination methods, one of which was electrochemical detection. In this paper, we designed a novel electrode, which combined screen printing technique with carbon nanodots to detect cd in lily. Carbon nanodots were prepared with candle soot which was low-cost and easily obtained. The carbon nanodots of 1.5μL dissolving in dimethyl formamide were added twice onto the working electrode of screen-printed electrode which was fabricated in our laboratory. Using scanning electron microscope to compare the surface texture of modified screen-printed electrode with original one, we found that the former had more uniform particles. We also compared the electrochemical performance by cyclic voltammetry. The result showed that the modified screen-printed electrode had larger peak current and smaller peak separation which meant superior electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we tested an HAc-NaAc buffer solution with 75μg/L Cd2+ using 2 different electrodes noted above by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The peak potential of original screen-printed electrode was?0.65 V, while modified one was?0.64 V. The anodic stripping voltammogarm showed that the

  4. Evaristo García Piedrahita: el salubrista

    Jesús Rico


    edades tempranas antes de cumplir los cinco años de donde resulta una gran cantidad de descendientes directos entre los cuales existen aún algunos nietos, una gran cantidad de bisnietos y algunos tataranietos. En su práctica médica realizó investigaciones sobre las principales enfermedades que afectaban a la población urbana y campesina, principalmente enfermedades infectocontagiosas, las diarreas, la lepra, el paludismo, el dengue, la fiebre tifoidea, el sarampión, la gripe o influenza y otras enfermedades respiratorias, el cólera, el herpes y la elefantiasis árabe y la malnutrición. Hizo una brillante investigación epidemiológica sobre la presencia de beriberi en la región de Buenaventura (1887 y determinó la naturaleza biológica y social de la enfermedad, sus causas y síntomas, diagnóstico y tratamiento, no sólo por el interés científico sino con la intención de prevenir a las autoridades sanitarias en Buenaventura para «revisar los sacos de arroz y rechazar para el uso los que presenten esos granos opacos, que se desmoronan a la presión entre los dedos, y que tengan señales de un principio de avería». El arroz alterado que provenía del exterior contenía el “bacillus beriberico” que era la causa de esa dolencia parasitaria. En el estudio sobre la «Elefantiasis de los Árabes» (1894 deja ver claramente su inclinación por la salud pública al deducir la «importancia de los progresos de la higiene pública, el uso de las aguas depuradas, de las mejoras en las casas de habitación, en los campos y en otras condiciones de la vida social, para poder disminuir las causas de la Elefantiasis en los climas calientes». En relación con los ofidios venenosos del Cauca y los gusanos urticantes desarrolló una casuística documentada y aplicó rigurosamente el método científico. No es por curiosidad o por capricho exótico de un naturalista que realiza uno de los estudios más interesantes que se han hecho sobre estos animales. Los accidentes