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Sample records for bep protocol bleomycin

  1. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer : intergroup study EORTC 30983

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC).

  2. [BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) therapy for testicular tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y; Shima, H; Ihara, H; Yabumoto, H; Iwasaki, A; Yoshioka, M; Ikoma, F

    1992-10-01

    We describe our experience with BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) therapy as chemotherapy for testicular tumors in 11 patients. Eight were non-seminomatous testicular cancer patients and 3 were seminoma patients. Three of 8 non-seminomatous testicular cancer patients had no evident metastasis and BEP therapy was performed for prophylaxis of recurrence. Other 5 non-seminomatous testicular cancer patients and 3 seminoma patients had metastatic lesions and BEP therapy was performed to cure these metastatic lesions. Ten of our 11 patients are living and disease-free. One non-seminomatous testicular cancer patient who had brain, lung, eye and bladder metastases and had an extremely elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level responded only partially and died later due to disease progression. Side effects in most patients were nausea, vomiting, alopecia and leucopenia and all these side effects were reversible. Neuromuscular toxicity such as paresthesia or abdominal cramp that is sometimes encountered in PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine, bleomycin) therapy was not seen in our patients. Our results support the concept that BEP therapy is better than PVB therapy as an initial chemotherapy for testicular tumors. PMID:1282774

  3. Extensive deep vein thrombosis as a complication of testicular cancer treated with the BEP protocol (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin): case report / Trombose venosa profunda extensa como complicação de um tumor do testículo tratado com o protocolo BEP (cisplatina, bleomicina e etoposide): relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Max Senna, Mano; José Luiz Miranda, Guimarães; Sören Franz Marian Chicata, Sutmöller; André Borba, Reiriz; Christian Sandor Svend Chicata, Sutmöller; Angelo, Di Leo.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Não há relatos na literatura de trombose venosa profunda (TVP) extensa associada ao protocolo de quimioterapia cisplatina, bleomicina e etoposite (BEP). RELATO DO CASO: O paciente era um adolescente de 18 anos com um tumor germinativo não-seminomatoso no testículo direito, com metástases p [...] ulmonares, hepáticas e retroperitoneais. Após orquiectomia radical, o paciente começou a receber quimioterapia de acordo com o protocolo BEP (sem profilaxia rotineira para TVP). No quarto dia do ciclo, TVP massiva foi diagnosticada, estendendo-se das veias poplíteas até o segmento inferior da veia cava torácica. Tratamento trombolítico foi iniciado imediatamente com estreptoquinase. No segundo dia da terapia trombolítica, o paciente desenvolveu insuficiência renal aguda, devido ao acometimento das veias renais pela trombose. Estroptoquinase foi mantida por seis dias e o paciente teve evolução surpreendentemente favorável. Abstract in english CONTEXT: There are no reports in the literature of massive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) associated with cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide (BEP) cancer treatment. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 18-year-old adolescent with a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testicle, with the presence of [...] pulmonary, liver, and massive retroperitoneal metastases. Following radical orchiectomy, the patient started chemotherapy according to the BEP protocol (without routine prophylaxis for DVT). On day 4 of the first cycle, massive DVT was diagnosed, extending from both popliteal veins up to the thoracic segment of the inferior vena cava. Thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase was immediately started. On day 2 of thrombolytic therapy, the patient developed acute renal failure, due to extension of the thrombosis to the renal veins. Streptokinase was continued for six days and the outcome was remarkably favorable.

  4. Treatment outcome and cost-effectiveness analysis of two chemotherapeutic regimens (BEP vs. VIP) for poor-prognosis metastatic germ cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Attili Venkata; Chandra Rama; Anupama G; Loknath D; Bapsy P; Dadhich Hemant; Babu Govind

    2007-01-01

    Background: In patients with small-volume disseminated disease of germ cell tumors, cure can be achieved with four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, around 20% of these cases are not curable. Strategies to improve cure rates have shown that none of the currently available modalities were superior to the others. Among the most used ones, BEP and VIP (etoposide, cisplatin, and ifosfamide) have been the most studied. However, there are no reports comparing the...

  5. Bleomycin--electrical pulse delivery: electroporation therapy-bleomycin--Genetronics; MedPulser-bleomycin--Genetronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Genetronics Biomedical is using its electroporation therapy technology to deliver bleomycin to tumour cells for the treatment of cancer. Genetronics have developed the MedPulser Electroporation Therapy System, which consists of an electrical pulse generator and disposable electrode applicators. The MedPulser system enables the delivery of large molecules into cells by briefly applying an electric field to the cell. This causes a transient permeability in the cell's outer membrane characterised by the appearance of pores across the membrane. After the field is discontinued, the pores close, trapping the therapeutic molecules inside the target cells. Genetronics is using the MedPulser System in conjunction with bleomycin, an antineoplastic antibiotic that binds to DNA causing strand scissions. Genetronics is seeking a licensing partner for the use of electroporation for the delivery of drugs in chemotherapy. In 1998, Genetronics entered a licensing and development agreement with Ethicon for electroporation and electrofusion. Under the terms of this agreement, Ethicon was to develop and clinically test the Genetronics electroporation delivery system and conduct all regulatory activities throughout the world except Canada. Ethicon would also market the products once regulatory approval has been obtained and Genetronics was to receive a percentage of the net sales and as license fees. However, in July 2000, Ethicon exercised its rights to terminate the agreement without cause. All rights were returned to Genetronics in January 2001. In 1997, Genetronics entered an agreement with Abbott Laboratories for the manufacture of bleomycin for use in the US in its MedPulsar system after regulatory approval had been granted for its use in the treatment of solid tumours. In a separate supply agreement, Faulding Inc. has agreed to manufacture bleomycin for Genetronic for use in Canada after regulatory approval had been granted. The MedPulsar Electroporation Therapy System with bleomycin is currently in phase III pivotal studies in the US as a treatment for recurrent and second primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Genetronics received approval for the Electroporation Therapy system as a device in March 1999 when it achieved CE Mark certification. In February 2004, Genetronics announced that it had completed a Special Protocol Assessment review process with the US FDA for two new trials that will compare bleomycin electroporation therapy to surgery. The primary endpoint will be tissue and function preservation rather than survival. One proposal is for recurrent head and neck cancer, and the other is for disfiguring cutaneous cancer. Three Institutional Review Boards in the US have approved the two protocols and Genetronics has initiated enrollment. In June 2004, Genetronics was granted fast-track status for its MedPulsar Electroporation Therapy System clinical development programme for patients with head and neck cancer. Shifting from a primary endpoint of survival to a quality-of-life outcome will enable those clinical trials to be carried out faster with less cost and with a higher likelihood of success. As a result, Genetronic's phase III trials focussing on survival as a primary endpoint have been discontinued. This includes a phase III trial for late-stage, recurrent head and neck cancer in combination with the normal standard of treatment compared with normal standard of treatment alone. Interim results from this trial had suggested bleomycin electroporation therapy demonstrated local tumour control and preservation of organ function, as well as non-inferiority when compared with surgery. This trial was initiated in May 2002. In March 2004, Genetronics initiated a post-European regulatory approval clinical study in patients with primary or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). This study aims to enroll approximately 100 patients at 12-15 hospitals located in the UK, Germany, Italy, France, Austria and other western European countries. The study is designed to support the commercialisation o

  6. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, G.; Skoneczna, I.; Aass, N.; Wit, R.; Santis, M.; Dumez, H.; Marreaud, S.; Collette, L.; Lluch, J. R. G.; Bokemeyer, C.; Schmoll, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC).

  7. Cloning and structure of the BepI modification methylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kupper, D.; Zhou, J. G.; Venetianer, P.; Kiss, A.

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for a CGCG specific DNA methylase has been cloned in E. coli from Brevibacterium epidermidis. The enzyme, named BepI methylase, is probably the cognate methylase of the FnuDII isoschizomer BepI endonuclease isolated from this strain. The expression of BepI methylase in E. coli is dependent on the orientation of the cloned fragment suggesting that the gene is transcribed from a promoter on the plasmid vector. No BepI endonuclease could be detected in the clones producing BepI m...

  8. Bleomycin-induced flagellate dermatitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Devidé, Mota; Adriana Marques Damasco, Penna; Regina Cláudia, Soares; Otávio Carvalho Guimarães, Baiocchi.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman with stage IVB Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Two weeks after the first cycle was completed, she developed pruritic, linear erythematous lesions in a flagellate-like pattern on the trunk, neck and arms. After oral prednis [...] one therapy and cessation of bleomycin, the lesions started to recede.

  9. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Skoneczna, I

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patient and methods: Patients with poor-prognosis GCC were assigned to receive either BEP or VIP followed by HD-CT. To show a 15% improvement in a 1-year failure-free survival (FFS), the study aimed to recruit 222 patients but closed with 137, due to slow accrual.

  10. Effect of bleomycin-radiotherapy combination in management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated with bleomycin-radiotherapy protocol, 15 mg bleomycin I.V. on alternate days followed by radiation within half an hour. The average total dose of bleomycin was 150 mg. Radiotherapy was given daily. Two patients were lost to follow-up very early in the course of the treatment and were removed from the study for statistical purposes. Thirty-six patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with radiotherapy alone during the same period were used as controls. The patients were followed for two years. The incidence of response rate did not differ significantly between regimens; however, the incidence of side effects with bleomycin-radiotherapy, 82.61%, is significantly more than that of radiotherapy alone (52.78%). Median survial time (MST) of those responding to bleomycin-radiotherapy protocol was seven months and 12 days and for radiotherapy responders was six months. Neither the response rate nor the MST improve significantly after pretreatment with bleomycin. On the contrary, the incidence of side effects increased significantly

  11. Fulminant hyperpyrexia induced by bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W H; Lau, J Y; Chan, T K; Kumana, C R

    1989-06-01

    Mild and self-limiting fever following bleomycin use is common, and a fatal hyperpyrexial response occurs rarely. In previously reported cases, such hyperpyrexia occurred either after the initial administration of the drug or during subsequent therapy following an initial pyrexial response. We describe a fatal hyperpyrexial reaction after bleomycin in a patient with T-cell lymphoma who had had no febrile response when she received her initial injection 3 weeks earlier. Since the occurrence of this hyperpyrexial response is unpredictable, health care workers as well as patients and relatives should always be alert to this potentially lethal complication and prompt measures should be taken in any patient who develops fever after bleomycin use. PMID:2481850

  12. Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and bleomycin: an in vitro study using human malignant testicular germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Kucuksayan, Ertan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols used for testicular cancer; however, side-effects are common. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in a number of malignancies. However, to date no study has been carried out to elucidate its anticancer activity and interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of curcumin, bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on apoptotic signaling pathways. Curcumin (20 µM), bleomycin (400 µg/ml) and H2O2 (400 µM) incubation for 24 h decreased the viability of NTera-2 cells, and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, Bax and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels and decreased Bcl-2 levels. The concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin induced caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities to a greater extent in NTera-2 cells than the use of each drug alone. Our observations suggest that the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptotic signaling pathways are synergistic. Therefore, we propose to use curcumin together with bleomycin to decrease its therapeutic dose and, therefore, its side-effects. PMID:22469952

  13. Labeled bleomycin as a tumor localizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antitumor antibiotics bleomycins labeled with 57Co are known to possess excellent tumor localizing properties but the rather long halflife of 57Co prevents its use in clinical routine. It is therefore desirable to label cobalt-bleomycin with a more suitable radionuclide, e.g. 123I. This thesis reports on further studies on cobalt-bleomycin. It appears from the studies on the structure of cobalt-bleomycin described in this thesis (Chapter B), that cobalt is able to form different complexes with bleomycin (the forms I and II). The difference in structure is not clear, but the biological behavior of both forms is studied (Chapter C). In Chapter D the iodination of cobalt-bleomycin is described. Iodination of free bleomycin yields a product with bad tumor localizing properties, and straight-on iodination of cobalt-bleomycin is prevented by the presence of cobalt. To retain the good tumor-localizing properties of cobalt-bleomycin, possibilities were explored to incorporate the iodine in the terminal amine (a side chain, not involved in complexation). Alkylation of cobalt-bleomycin demethyl A2 with N-bromoacetyl-3-iodoaniline yielded a product; unfortunately this product possessed bad tumor localizing properties and moreover, was not stable in vivo. The structure of a possibly successful iodinated cobalt-bleomycin is outlined but could not be realized during this research. (Auth.)

  14. Vincristine, bleomycin, mitomycin C, cisplatin combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past five years the EORTC Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group (G.C.C.G.) performed several studies in patients with disseminated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCCUC). The first trial protocol (55802) studies the efficacy and toxicity of a bleomycin-mitomycin C based regimen to which vincristine and cisplatin were added (VBMP). The overall response rate in 50 evaluable patients was 40% and median time to progression was 48 weeks and 32 weeks for patients with complete response (16%) and partial response respectively. Of interest was that the complete remission rate in patients with only distant metastases was 30% (for patients with only lung and/or lymph nodes metastases 40%) and some of these patients had long term disease-free survival. The toxicity of the VBMP regimen was acceptable to the patients

  15. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun

  16. 57Co-bleomycin and *I-bleomycin in Ehrlich's carcinoma model of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumour concentration, distribution of activity and whole body retention of bleomycin labeled with iodine-125 or iodine-131 was contrasted with that of 57Co-bleomycin following administration to mice showing tumours. Additional investigations were carried out to determine the stability of iodinated bleomyin in vivo and in vitro. As regards the beahaviour of I-bleomycin in mice showing solid carcinomas according to Ehrlich it was established that its absolute tumour concentration was lower and its relative tumour concentration just slightly less pronounced than that of 57Co-bleomycin during the period between 2 and 48 hours following administration. Investigations into whole body retention showed the elimination of activity to be more rapid for 131I-bleomycin as compared to 57Co-bleomycin. Bleomycin that was radioiodinated according to the iodine monochloride method proved to be more stable in vivo than bleomycin labeled with 57Co. Further studies, in particular clinical trials, will have to be carried out before definite conclusions can be drawn as to the diagnostic value of radioiodinated bleomycin in tumour localisation. (TRV)

  17. BEPS redesign of 168 commercial buildings: summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L.; Deringer, J.J.; Moreno, S.; Misuriello, H.P.

    1984-05-01

    The objective of this report is to present, in usable form, summary data from the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) Phase II commercial buildings energy research conducted in 1978-1979. Summary data presented were obtained from two major research efforts: the BEPS Phase II Redesign experiment; and the related research on ASHRAE Standard 90-75R. The bulk of this report consists of data tabulations of key energy parameters for the 168 sample buildings, which were tabulated from computer-stored files of the 1978-1979 data. Two kinds of tabulations are included: numerical tabulations that extracted information from the computer-stored data base for the 168 sample buildings; and graphic presentations of the computer-generated data, plus data extracted from other sources. The intent is to provide a single data compendium of key energy-related factors from the 1978 redesign experiment and the associated 1978-1979 ASHRAE Standard 90-75R research. This report also supplements the information for which there was not space in the magazine articles. Thus, for some building types, additional analysis, comments, and data tabulations are included that could not be included in the articles because space was limited. These additional analysis items are not consistent across building types because both the energy conservation opportunities and the design strategies applied by the building designers varied considerably by building type. The chapters have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  18. Gelatinase B Is Required for Alveolar Bronchiolization after Intratracheal Bleomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Fukuda, Yuh; Parks, William C.; Shipley, J. Michael; Senior, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly gelatinase B (MMP-9), has been described in the lungs in pulmonary fibrosis. Intratracheal bleomycin is often used experimentally to produce lesions resembling human fibrosing alveolitis. To assess the role of gelatinase B in bleomycin-induced fibrosing alveolitis, we instilled bleomycin intratracheally into gelatinase B-deficient mice and gelatinase B+/+ littermates. Twenty-one days after bleomycin the two groups of mice were in...

  19. Assessment of BEP of MIMO-OFDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Naik Ramavath#1 B.A.Sarath Manohar Babu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available MIMO antenna systems with OFDMA are used for high data rate systems for 4th generation wireless networks. Multi cell systems developed based on wireless standards such as WiMAX and 3GPP LTE. In this paper we are calculating average BEP (bit error probability of MIMO-OFDMA systems. Multiuser access scenarios are two types those are co-ordination and randomization. For interference mitigation in co-ordinated scenario we arrange ULA (uniform linear array with closely spaced antennas and beamforming process and in randomization we arrange OSTBC (orthogonal space time block coding with antennas sufficiently spaced apart. Numerical results of analytical frame work is used for different applications and wide range system configurations.

  20. Excretion and organic distribution of 57Co-bleomycin emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excretion and organic distributions of 57Co-bleomycin were studied in normal and tumour-bearing mice with the objective of obtaining high 57Co-bleomycin concentrations in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes. Aqueous 57Co-bleomycin and various 57Co-bleomycin emulsions were used for the studies and applied either locally or systemically. Excretion of 57Co-bleomycin was slowest after local administration of 57Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion and fastest after systemic application of aqueous 57Co-bleomycin. Organic distribution studies showed the highest values in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 57Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion while the lowest values were measured after systemic application of aqueous 57Co-bleomycin. These kinetic studies suggest that intratumoral treatment with oil-in-water emulsions of bleomycin may be a new approach in the therapy of epithelial tumours with lymphogenic metastases. (orig.)

  1. The effect of intralesional bleomycin on canine acanthomatous epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Watarai, Y; Sakai, Y; Yanai, T; Masegi, T; Iwasaki, T

    1998-01-01

    Four dogs with recurrent acanthomatous epulis (AE) were injected with bleomycin (5 mg) intralesionally once a week. In three cases, tumors were clinically indistinguishable within three-to-eight weeks. In the fourth case, the tumor disappeared after 10 weekly injections. Through the administration period of bleomycin, no adverse reactions were recognized in any case. Electron microscopic examination together with a decrease in the percentage of mitotic cells implied that bleomycin might inhibit deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis of tumor cells. PMID:9826279

  2. BEP-relations for N2 dissociation over stepped transition metal and alloy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Ture RØnved; Bligaard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for N(2) dissociation on stepped face-centred cubic (211) surface slabs. By using the same crystal structure, the same adsorption site for atomic nitrogen, and the same transition-state bond length of N(2) over a range of pure metal surfaces, a perfectly linear Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the transition-state potential energy and the dissociative chemisorption energy is obtained. The perfect BEP relation, which extends over 12 eV in chemisorption energy, suggests that the manifestation of BEP relations for surface reactions is a general electronic structure effect, and that geometric effects are responsible for the scatter which is normally observed around the BEP line. The BEP relation is also shown to be valid for both surface and bulk alloys. The scatter is, however, larger than for the pure elements. This can be understood as a larger geometrical variance. To analyze the accuracy of the DFT calculations a detailed convergence study is performed for several adsorbates on stepped hexagonal close-packed and face-centred cubic Ru slabs.

  3. Pressure loss tests for DR-BEP of fullsize 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the conditions, procedure and results in the pressure loss tests carried out for a double grid type debris resistance bottom end piece (DR-BEP) designed by KAERI. In this test, the pressure loss coefficients of the full size 17 x 17 PWR simulated fuel assembly with DR-BET and with standard-BEP were measured respectively, and the pressure loss coefficients of DR-BEP were compared with the coefficients of STD-BET. The test conditions fall within the ranges of loop pressure from 5.2 to 45 bar, loop temperature from 27 to 221 deg C and Reynolds number in fuel bundle from 2.17 x 104 to 3.85 x 105. (Author) 5 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  4. [BEP-chemotherapy in patients with testicular tumors--is it worthwhile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, U; Jungi, W F; Morant, R; Schmid, L; Senn, H J; Bandhauer, K

    1990-12-01

    Since 1985 44 consecutive patients with testicular cancer have been treated with a modified BEP regimen. 70% had metastatic disease and 30% received adjuvant therapy. After mean follow-up of 26 (8-56) months, 91% of patients are alive and all are in remission. Chemotherapy-related side effects were alopecia (100%), myelosuppression (100%), nausea/vomiting (89%) and fever (66%). Patients reported nausea has been rare. It is concluded that BEP chemotherapy is a highly effective treatment which secures complete remission or cure even in patients with advanced metastatic disease. In retrospect the patients considered the treatment worthwhile despite the stress involved. PMID:1702233

  5. Tumor scanning with 57Co-bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical application of 57Co-bleomycin as a tumor scanning radiopharmaceutical was firstly reported by Nouel and Maeda respectively. The authors conducted studies on the diagnostic significance of this tumor scanning agent and presented the results obtained in 40 patients with malignant and non malignant lesions. Six hours and 24 hours after the injection of 500 ?Ci of 57Co-bleomycin, scintigrams were taken with a 3-inch scintiscanner. Positive scans were found in 20 out of 36 patients with various malignant tumors. Of 20 patients with lung cancer, positive scans were obtained in 17 cases (85%) and of 6 with breast cancer, 3 cases showed positive scans. False negative scans were obtained in another 10 cases of malignant tumors (3 cases of thyroid carcinoma, 4 cases of hepatoma, and 1 case each of gastric carcinoma, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and reticulum cell sarcoma). Of 4 patients with non malignant disease, one case of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a positive scan. In 8 cases of lung cancer and 6 of breast cancer, the relationship between the size of the excised tumor and the scintigram findings was studied. The smallest tumors detected by scintigram were 2 cm in lung cancer and 3.2 cm in breast cancer. (author)

  6. Oxygen transfer reactions by synthetic analogues of iron-bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D Y; Hudson, S E; Mascharak, P K

    1992-08-01

    Synthetic analogues of the iron-bleomycins, namely [Fe(PMA)]2+ and [Fe(PMA)]+, have been studied as oxotransfer agents. Oxygen transfer has been observed using iodosobenzene (PhIO), hydrogen peroxide, and dioxygen as oxygen sources. The primary substrates were cis- and trans-stilbene. The products were determined to be cis- and trans-stilbene oxide, benzaldehyde, and deoxybenzoin. These products were recovered in ratios similar to those reported for the iron-bleomycins, albeit in lower yields. Iron complexes of simpler analogues are inactive as oxotransfer agents. This study provides further support that PMAH is an accurate model of the metal binding region of bleomycin. PMID:1279119

  7. 51Cr-bleomycin, a new oncophilic radiopharmaceutical. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    51Cr-bleomycin was used for the scintigraphic detection of tumours and the assessment of the spread of the disease in 20 patients with various malignances: 7 with Hodgkin's lymphoma, 5 with other malignant lymphomas, 4 cases of cervix carcinoma and 4 other tumours. The scintigraphy was performed using a Toshiba GC 401 gamma camera coupled to an MDSI computer Trinary. Active foci were scored using a semiquantitative scale of 0 to 5. Results of these studies were compared with those of tests similarity carried out with 57Co-bleomycin (in 9 of the cases) and 67Ga-citrate (11 cases); they demonstrated that the properties of 51Cr-bleomycin for scintigraphic detection of neoplastic foci are similar to those of 57Co-bleomycin. (orig.)

  8. Effects of bone marrow depression on the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of blood leukocyte depression on the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were studied in F344/N rats injected with 89Sr to destroy bone marrow cells. The 89Sr injections were followed in 7 days by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. At 3 to 30 days after bleomycin, the lung injury in rats given both 89Sr and bleomycin was compared to animals given bleomycin alone. The 89Sr treated rats had reduced numbers of circulating granulocytes, a less severe pulmonary inflammatory response, and a delayed, but not abrogated, pulmonary fibrosis compared to animals given bleomycin alone. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  9. Mitochondrial DNA damage by bleomycin induces AML cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, ManTek; Hurren, Rose; Nemr, Carine; Wang, Xiaoming; Hershenfeld, Samantha; Gronda, Marcela; Liyanage, Sanduni; Wu, Yan; Augustine, Jeevan; Lee, Eric A; Spagnuolo, Paul A; Southall, Noel; Chen, Catherine; Zheng, Wei; Jeyaraju, Danny V; Minden, Mark D; Laposa, Rebecca; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria contain multiple copies of their own 16.6 kb circular genome. To explore the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage on mitochondrial (mt) function and viability of AML cells, we screened a panel of DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents to identify drugs that could damage mtDNA. We identified bleomycin as an agent that damaged mtDNA in AML cells at concentrations that induced cell death. Bleomycin also induced mtDNA damage in primary AML samples. Consistent with the observed mtDNA damage, bleomycin reduced mt mass and basal oxygen consumption in AML cells. We also demonstrated that the observed mtDNA damage was functionally important for bleomycin-induced cell death. Finally, bleomycin delayed tumor growth in xenograft mouse models of AML and anti-leukemic concentrations of the drug induced mtDNA damage in AML cells preferentially over normal lung tissue. Taken together, mtDNA-targeted therapy may be an effective strategy to target AML cells and bleomycin could be useful in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25820141

  10. Amino acid analysis and cell cycle dependent phosphorylation of an H1-like, butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP; H10; IP25) from Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction enriched in the butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP) has been isolated from Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells by perchloric acid extraction and Bio-Rex 70 chromatography. Amino acid analyses indicate that the composition of BEP resembles that of CHO H1; however, BEP contains 11% less alanine than H1, and, in contrast to H1, BEP contains methionine. Treatment of BEP with cyanogen bromide results in the cleavage of a small fragment of approx. 20 amino acids so that the large fragment seen in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels has a molecular weight of approx. 20,000. Radiolabeling and electrophoresis indicate that BEP is phosphorylated in a cell cycle dependent fashion. These data suggest that (1) BEP is a specialized histone of the H1 class and (2) BEP is the species equivalent of calf lung histone H10, rat H10, and IP25, a protein enhanced in differentiated Friend erythroleukemia cells. The data also indicate that putative HMG1 and HMG2 proteins do not undergo the extensive cell cycle dependent phosphorylations measured for histone H1 and BEP

  11. Bleomycin and radiation-induced lung damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin-induced lung damage was assessed using both a functional end-point and mortality. The extent of lung damage was found to depend on the schedule, mode of administration and dose of the drug. Greater damage occurred following twice-weekly administration than when the same dose was given as a single injection. Intravenous administration resulted in greater damage than intraperitoneal administration. When bleomycin was given with thoracic irradiation lung damage occurred earlier and at lower radiation doses than with radiation alone. Similar responses were obtained whether bleomycin was given four weeks before, with or four weeks after irradiation. Thus although there was enhanced damage from the combined treatment, there was no evidence of a time-dependent interaction. (author)

  12. Raynaud's phenomenon progressing to gangrene after vincristine and bleomycin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, I; Pajunen, M; Virkkunen, P

    1984-01-01

    Vascular symptoms after vinca-alcaloids and bleomycin are known. We report a 50-year-old woman who was cigarette smoker and who had had the syndrome of Raynaud's phenomenon for two years before she developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. She was treated with chemotherapy including vincristine and bleomycin. Immediately after the second course of chemotherapy she had severe vertigo, nystagmus, dysarthria and dysphagia. The fingers remained cyanotic and became extremely painful despite stellatum blockade, intra-arterial vasodilators and thoracic sympathectomy. Two digits of the left hand were partially amputated because of gangrenous areas on the fingertips. The cerebral symptoms disappeared. PMID:6208757

  13. DNA structure influences sequence specific cleavage by bleomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, K. P.; Fox, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the cleavage of several synthetic DNA sequences by iron(II)-bleomycin. We find that, although bleomycin cuts mixed sequence DNAs with a preference for GC = GT > GA >> GG, it efficiently cleaves regions of (AT)n cutting exclusively at ApT, not TpA. Isolated ApT steps show very little cleavage while blocks of three or more contiguous ATs are cut as efficiently as GpT. This cleavage is specific for (AT)n, since sequences of the type (TAA)n.(TTA)n and (ATT)n.(AAT)n are hardly cut...

  14. Fungal Cell Wall Septation and Cytokinesis Are Inhibited by Bleomycins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carol W.; McKoy, Judith; Del Valle, Robert; Armstrong, Donald; Bernard, Edward M.; Katz, Norman; Gordon, Ronald E.

    2003-01-01

    When the essential and distinctive cell walls of either pathogenic or nonpathogenic fungi break, cytoplasmic membranes rupture and fungi die. This fungicidal activity was discovered previously on nonproliferating Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated briefly with the oxidative tool and anticancer drug family of bleomycins. The present studies investigated effects of bleomycin on growing fungal organisms. These included the medically important Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans, as well as the emerging human pathogen and fungal model, S. cerevisiae. Bleomycin had its highest potency against A. fumigatus. Scanning electron microscopy and thin-section transmission electron microscopy were used to study morphological growth characteristics. Killing and growth inhibition were also measured. Long, thin, and segmented hyphae were observed when A. fumigatus was grown without bleomycin but were never observed when the mold was grown with the drug. Bleomycin arrested conidial germination, hyphal development, and the progression and completion of cell wall septation. Similarly, the drug inhibited the construction of yeast cell wall septa, preventing cytokinesis and progression in the cell division cycle of S. cerevisiae. Even when cytoplasms of mother and daughter cells separated, septation and cell division did not necessarily occur. Bizarre cell configurations, abnormally thickened cell walls at mother-daughter necks, abnormal polarized growth, large undivided cells, fragmented cells, and empty cell ghosts were also produced. This is the first report of a fungicidal agent that arrests fungal growth and development, septum formation, and cytokinesis and that also preferentially localizes to cell walls and alters isolated cell walls as well as intact cell walls on nongrowing cells. PMID:14506042

  15. Indirect measurement of bare astrophysical S(E) factor for 9Be(p,?)6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beryllium abundance acts as a key role for understanding the inhomogeneous Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In order to measure the 9Be(p,?)6Li bare nucleus cross section and S(E) factor at astrophysical energies, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) can be applied. The method can overcome the difficulties caused by Coulomb barrier and electronic screening effect in direct measurement, and it allows to extract the energy dependence for the bare astrophysical S(E) factor at very low energies without any extrapolation by measuring the cross section of an appropriate three body process under the quasi-free condition. The 9Be(p,?)6Li has been studied by means of the THM applied to the 2H(9Be,?6Li)n at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The two body reaction cross section and S(E) factor was extracted in the energy range of Ecm=0-300 keV. The electron screening potential Ue was then obtained by comparing the THM data with the direct ones. (authors)

  16. Antineoplastic Activity of Chloroacetohydroxamic Acid in Combination with Bleomycin Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Khanam; A. Y. K. M. Masud Rana

    2001-01-01

    The research work has been undertaken in order to investigate the antineoplastic activity of chloroacetohydroxamic acid (CHA) in combination with bleomycin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss Albino mice. Results showed that combination of treatment inhibits the tumor growth to more than 90% as against 56 and 65% for CHA and bleomycin, respectively. The combination treatment increases the life span of EAC bearing mice to 70% as against 30 and 50% for CHA and bleomycin, respective...

  17. Preventive effect of erythromycin on experimental bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A; Azuma; Furuta, T.; Enomoto, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Uematsu, K.; Nukariya, N.; Murata, A; Kudoh, S.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Erythromycin has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammatory airway disease and chronic infiltration of neutrophils into the airway. Bleomycin (BLM) often induces interstitial lung fibrosis following acute lung injury. A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of erythromycin (EM) on experimental bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in rats.?METHODS—Bleomycin-induced lung injury was assessed by light microscopic examination, measur...

  18. Radioiodinated bleomycin: stoichiometry of iodination and structural characterization by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin was iodinated by reaction with iodine monochloride (ICl). A direct relationship was found to exist between the average number of iodine atoms bound per molecule of bleomycin and the ICl:bleomycin molar ratio. Characterization by 1H-NMR analysis denoted that mono, di-, tri- and tetraiodobleomycin are formed when the reacting molar ratios, respectively, are 2:1, 4:1, 6.8:1 and 8.5:1 or greater. The sites of iodination of the bleomycin molecule have been identified to be the imidazole ring which iodinates first, followed by the bithiazole ring system which iodinates last. (author)

  19. PG490-88, a Derivative of Triptolide, Blocks Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Ganesh; Liu, Kela; Shigemitsu, Hidenobu; Gao, Mingxing; Raffin, Thomas A.; Rosen, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the antifibrotic properties of PG-490-88, a water-soluble derivative of triptolide. Triptolide is an oxygenated diterpene that is derived from a traditional Chinese herb that has potent immunosuppressive and antitumor activity. We used the intratracheal bleomycin mouse model and found that PG490-88 inhibits fibrosis in the bleomycin group when given the same day or 5 days after bleomycin. PG490-88 also markedly reduced the number of myofibroblasts in the bleomycin tr...

  20. Stability of 111In-bleomycin in vivo - properties compared with 57Co-bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    111Indium-belomycin (111In-BLM) and 57Co-bleomycin (57Co-BLM) were prepared and their distributions were compared in the tissues, blood, and urine in tumor-bearing and in untreated mice and rats. Autoradiographs of electrophoresis gels showed that patterns for urine from untreated and tumor-bearing animals, collected 1-3 h or 48 h after injection of 111In-BLM were similar to those for in vitro mixtures of urine and 111In-BLM, but differed from the patterns obtained with 111InCl3 under in vivo or in vitro conditions. In rats bearing mammary adenocarcinoma, 48 h after administration of the radio-pharmaceutical, the activity ratio of tumor to eleven different tissues was 1.2-4.6 times higher for injected 111In-BLM than for 111InCl3 (P111In-BLM than with 111InCl3. These findings were interpreted as reflecting the stability of 111In-BLM in vivo. The tumor concentration (%dose/g) was higher for the viable area than for the necrotic area for 111In-BLM, but the reverse was true for 57Co-BLM. (orig.)

  1. Pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of bleomycin administered by continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done at Memorial Hospital in which Bleomycin was given by continuous intravenous infusion to radiation therapy patients with a variety of far advanced unresectable malignant neoplastic diseases. Smaller doses than usual were administered initially, approximately 1/10 the dose that had been previously studied. The dose was gradually escalated when it was shown that there was no acute toxicity from the smaller dose. Bleomycin blood levels were measured by bioassay and pulmonary function was studied by measurement of total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. In this study, therapeutic activity in cervix cancer appeared to be significantly better than in earlier studies by the same group of investigators. However, in vitro and animal studies in the author's own clinical pharmacologic studies support the logic of continuous intravenous administration in the effort to decrease pulmonary toxicity and to improve therapeutic effect

  2. Mutation of p53 gene in human bronchial epithelial cells BEP2D induced by ?-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect p53 gene mutation in BEP2D cells induced by ?-particles. Methods: Analysis of genomic DNA from the transformed cells using PCR amplification and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Results: SSCP and restriction enzyme analysis demonstrated a point mutation at codon 249 of tumor suppressor gene p53 which has been thought to be the 'hotspot' of mutation in transformation induced by ?-particles. Southern blot analysis showed a deletion in exon 5/6 of p53 gene, but there was no mutation in the exon 8/9 of p53 gene. Conclusion: p53 gene is the 'target' of DNA lesions induced by ?-particles. It plays an important role in the process of transformation of bronchial epithelial cells induced by ?-irradiation

  3. Intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Derrick P; Meyer, David

    2012-01-01

    Periocular infantile capillary hemangiomas do not always respond well to conventional treatment modalities such as systemic or intralesional corticosteroids, radiotherapy or debulking surgery. The authors describe the use of intralesional bleomycin injections (IBIs) to treat potentially amblyogenic lesions in two cases where other modalities have failed. In both cases monthly IBIs successfully cleared the visual axis of the affected eye before the age of 1 year thus preventing permanent senso...

  4. 51Cr-bleomycin, a new oncophilic radiopharmaceutical. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for labelling bleomycin with 51Cr. The complex was administered to mice (Swiss and C57-B1/6) bearing 5 transplantable tumours: Ehrlich ascites tumour, NK/Ly lymphoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, melanoma B-16, and Sarcoma 180. Activity concentration in neoplasms, blood and numerous organs was determined 12, 24 and 48 hrs after injection. An identical procedure was applied using 58Co-bleomycin as a reference oncophilic substance. Tumour/non-tumor ratios exceeding substantially unity were found for blood, muscle and bone indicating preferential accumulation of both 58Co and 51Cr in all the neoplasms tested. The ratios were lower (by a factor 2-3) for 51Cr than for 58Co; however, it is postulated that the gamma-quantum energy of 51Cr which is higher than that of the commonly used 57Co, should offset to some degree this difference when scintigraphic tumour detection in a patient is to be attempted. In conclusion, clinical trials with 51Cr-bleomycin, which is cheaper than its 57Co-counterpart, appear warranted. (orig.)

  5. N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits bleomycin induced apoptosis in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuksayan, Ertan; Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Yucel, Suleyman Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidants may prevent apoptosis of cancer cells via inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, to date no study has been carried out to elucidate the effects of strong antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on Bleomycin induced apoptosis in human testicular cancer (NTERA-2, NT2) cells. For this reason, we studied the effects of Bleomycin and NAC alone and in combination on apoptotic signaling pathways in NT2 cell line. We determined the cytotoxic effect of bleomycin on NT2 cells and measured apoptosis markers such as Caspase-3, -8, -9 activities and Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-c, Annexin V-FTIC and PI levels in NT2 cells incubated with different agents for 24 h. Early apoptosis was determined using FACS assay. We found half of the lethal dose (LD50) of Bleomycin on NT2 cell viability as 400, 100, and 20 µg/ml after incubations for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Incubation with bleomycin (LD50 ) and H2O2 for 24 h increased Caspase-3, -8, -9 activities, Cyt-c and Bax levels and decreased Bcl-2 levels. The concurrent incubation of NT2 cells with bleomycin/H2O2 and NAC (5 mM) for 24 h abolished bleomycin/H2O2-dependent increases in Caspase-3, -8, -9 activities, Bax and Cyt-c levels and bleomycin/H2O2-dependent decrease in Bcl-2 level. Our results indicate that bleomycin/H2O2 induce apoptosis in NT2 cells by activating mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, while NAC diminishes bleomycin/H2O2 induced apoptosis. We conclude that NAC has antagonistic effects on Bleomycin-induced apoptosis in NT2 cells and causes resistance to apoptosis which is not a desired effect in eliminating cancer cells. PMID:23386420

  6. Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supportolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy

  7. Effects of intratracheal instillation of bleomycin on phospholipid synthesis in hamster lung tissue slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin, an antineoplastic drug, is known to produce interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). As a result, it is commonly employed in various species to produce animal models of fibrosis. We have examined the uptake of [14C] acetate by lung slices and its incorporation into lipids in the slices at various times following intratracheal administration of a fibrogenic dose of bleomycin in hamsters. As compared to saline controls, bleomycin had no effect on [14C] acetate uptake at 4 and 7 days but it increased the uptake at 2 and 14 days after treatment. The incorporation of [14C] acetate into total lipid was significantly reduced to 44, 62, 62, and 75% of the control at 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after bleomycin treatment, respectively. The incorporation into lipid as a percentage of the uptake was 12.2 in control animals whereas in bleomycin-treated animals, it was 4.7, 8.0, 7.3, and 6.9 at the corresponding times. Separation of lipids into various fractions revealed that bleomycin treatment specifically inhibited the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and neutral lipid at all times of the study. The synthesis of all other phospholipids except phosphatidylethanolamine was depressed at 2 days. The latter was, however, depressed at 7 and 14 days after bleomycin treatment. It was concluded from the present study that bleomycin treatment inhibits the synthesis of phospholipid and neutral lipid and this may eventually lead to decreased surfactant proventually lead to decreased surfactant production

  8. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin?induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells. PMID:22825355

  9. Intrapericardial bleomycin for the management of cardiac tamponade secondary to malignant pericardial effusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Cormican, M. C.; Nyman, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with malignant pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade was treated by the instillation of intrapericardial bleomycin. The tumour deposits elsewhere in the body continued to progress and eventually killed the patient, but drainage and one dose of intrapericardial bleomycin prevented further episodes of pericardial effusion.

  10. Extensive pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema as a complication of bleomycin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Tarun P.; Thulkar, Sanjay; Saha, Sanchita [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Bakhshi, Sameer; Dominic, Joseph [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Oncology, New Delhi (India)

    2005-12-01

    Bleomycin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent and one of the commonest cytotoxic drugs leading to pulmonary parenchymal damage. It generally leads to interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis, hypersensitivity reactions and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We describe an 8-year-old boy who, following prolonged bleomycin therapy, demonstrated extensive air dissection and extrapulmonary air, an unusual and fatal complication. (orig.)

  11. Mechanism of bleomycin suicide: a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Gossens, Christian; Roethlisberger, Ursula; Buda, Francesco

    2006-10-26

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations (Car-Parrinello method) we investigated the possible reaction pathways for decay of the active bleomycin-Fe(III)-OOH complex, so-called bleomycin suicide. The theoretical model of activated bleomycin contains the whole metal bonding domain of the bleomycin ligand. Simulations performed both in a vacuum and in water show that a facile decaying process involves a homolytic O-O bond cleavage with an almost simultaneous hydrogen atom abstraction. The formation of an intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bond appears to be crucial for the decay of the activated bleomycin. We did not observe any evidence of heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of the Fe(III)-OOH species. PMID:17048952

  12. Synthesis of non-ionic and ionic resins for BEP intaglio inks curing by electron-beam radiation. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inks currently used to print US postage stamps on web presses are dried by heat evaporation of solvents. Emission of solvents into the atmosphere is governed by Local and Federal Government Regulations. Reduction of these emissions to acceptable levels can be accomplished by either of two methods available to the BEP. The work was part of a continuing effort to produce resins for use in formulation of intaglio inks for the printing of postage stamps and security documents. The inks are to be cured by exposure to an electron beam. The uncured inks are cleaned from the roller and wiping blade by washing the wiping blade with neutral water or with caustic water. Laboratory scale work on the urethane/polyethylene oxide/methacrylate resins has now been concluded and information on the synthesis has been provided to BEP for patenting and scaleup. Some effort on nonionic resins continued into FY88

  13. Electromagnetic dissociation of 8B and the rate of the 7Be(p,?)8B reaction in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, B.; Austin, Sam M.; Bazin, D.; Esbensen, H.; Sherrill, B. M.; Thompson, I. J.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2001-06-01

    In an effort to better determine the 7Be(p,?)8B reaction rate, we have performed inclusive and exclusive measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B. The former was a study of longitudinal momentum distributions of 7Be fragments emitted in the Coulomb breakup of intermediate energy 8B beams on Pb and Ag targets. Analysis of these data yielded the E2 contribution to the breakup cross section. In the exclusive measurement, we determined the cross section for the Coulomb breakup of 8B on Pb at low relative energies in order to infer the astrophysical S factor for the 7Be(p,?)8B reaction. Interpreting the measurements with first-order perturbation theory, we obtained SE2/SE1=4.7+2.0- 1.3×10-4 at Erel=0.6 MeV, and S17(0)=17.8+1.4-1.2 eV b. Semiclassical first-order perturbation theory and fully quantum mechanical continuum-discretized coupled channels analyses yield nearly identical results for the E1 strength relevant to solar neutrino flux calculations, suggesting that theoretical reaction mechanism uncertainties need not limit the precision of Coulomb breakup determinations of the 7Be(p,?)8B S factor. A recommended value of S17(0) based on a weighted average of this and other measurements is presented.

  14. BEP Enhancement for Semi-Femtocell MIMO Systems Employing SC-QICs and OSTBCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Rahimian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile cellular networks, it is estimated that more than 60% of voice and data services occur indoors. Therefore, cellular network operators have shown an unprecedented interest in research on femtocell systems from various aspects to extend the indoor wireless coverage for providing high-quality and high data-rate wireless multimedia services contents. In an effort for reducing the bit-error probabilities (BEPs and also increasing bit/symbol capacity of bandwidth limited error-prone wireless channels in femtocell propagation areas, this paper presents the performance of a promising candidate technology designed based on the state-of-the-art techniques. The performance of powerful space-time turbo codes (STTCs based on serial concatenation of quadratic interleaved codes (SC-QICs with the optimal and also suboptimal decoding algorithms, in conjunction with orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs have been presented in this contribution for wireless multiple-input single-output (MISO, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO semi-femtocells.

  15. Effects of ICRF-187 and L-Carnitine on bleomycin-induced lung toxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible modulatory effects of ICRF-187 and L-carnitine against bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in male rats were investigated. Repeated administration of bleomycin (10 mg/kg, twice weekly for 6 consecutive weeks) produced significant lung toxicity. The toxicity was manifested by significant increase in normal contents of lipid peroxide (LPO, 91.7%) reduced glutathione (GSH, 73.2%) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 135.4%) as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, 222.7%). Thirty minutes prior to bleomycin treatment, other groups of rats received either ICRF-187 (95 mg/kg) or L-carnitine (500 mg/kg) adopting the same schedule of treatment as in bleomycin-treated group. L-carnitine decreased bleomycin-induced elevations in SOD activity, GSH and GSSG contents, however, it failed to suppress the increase in LPO level. On the other hand, treatment with ICRF-187 returned back all the elevated biochemical parameters induced by bleomycin to nearly normal levels. In conclusion, the results of this study showed a potential capability of ICRF-187 to mitigate the bleomycin-induced lung injury. Moreover, despite the inability of L-carnitine to change the elevated LPO content, it was able however, to decrease the elevated endogenous antioxidant parameters. (author)

  16. Expression of yeast apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APN1) protects lung epithelial cells from bleomycin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y H; Wu, M; Kobune, M; Xu, Y; Kelley, M R; Martin, W J

    2001-12-01

    Bleomycin is a well-established anti-tumor drug. Its major untoward effect, pulmonary toxicity, has limited its usage. In this study, we used a DNA repair protein, yeast apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APN1) to reduce the toxicity of bleomycin on lung cells. A549 cells, an alveolar epithelial cell line, were transduced by MIEG3 retroviral vector encoding both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and APN1. Transduced cells were sorted by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and were cloned. The APN1 expression of transduced A549 cell population and four selected clones expressing different levels of EGFP was confirmed by Northern, Western, and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity analyses. The expression of APN1 was positively correlated with the expression of EGFP. The protective effect of APN1 against bleomycin was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis/Comet assay and by clonogenic survival assay following bleomycin treatment. The A549 population expressing APN1 showed a significant reduction of DNA damage in the presence of 20, 50, and 100 microg/ml bleomycin; similarly, the APN1-expressing A549 population also demonstrated increased survival in the presence of bleomycin compared with the vector-transduced A549 population. In selected clones, three of four APN1-expressing clones resulted in significantly improved cell survival. The current study suggests that the yeast DNA repair protein, APN1, can reduce bleomycin toxicity to target lung cells. PMID:11726394

  17. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, T.M.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  18. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  19. Experience in staging testis tumors with bleomycin cobalt 57 and present role of gallium 67 scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique was developed using bleomycin and cobalt 57 to study nodal metastases in testis tumors. Comparative studies were made on 15 cases with gallium 67, lymphangiography, supraclavicular node biopsy, liver and spleen scans, chest x-ray, excretory urogram, bone survey and pathological study of surgical specimens when possible. The results with the bleomycin-cobalt 57 complex and gallium 67 were discouraging. The bleomycin-cobalt 57 study was discontinued. Pathological staging is still the most accurate of all modalities available for staging testicular malignancies

  20. Complete Resolution of Cystic Hygroma with Single Session of Intralesional Bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Atwan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intralesional sclerotherapy as a primary modality of management for cystic hygroma is successfully described in literature. It has many benefits over surgical approach; recurrence being the concern of as much as 20% of patients in which apparent complete excision has been performed. Bleomycin is one of sclerosing agents used as intralesional therapy in cystic hygroma. Complete response usually occurs in multiple sessions of sclerotherapy. Rarely, complete resolution occurs with single session of bleomycin sclerotherapy. We share our experience of managing a case of cystic hygroma of neck that completely resolved with single session of bleomycin sclerotherapy.

  1. Antitumour activity and plasma kinetics of bleomycin by continuous and intermittent administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Y M; Alberts, D.S.; Chen, H.S.; Mason, N.; Moon, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the cytotoxicity of bleomycin (4--10 u/kg/day for 6 days) given by continuous i.p. infusion (using an osmotic minipump) compared to daily i.p. bolus administration, against P388 leukaemic spleen colony-forming-units(LCFU-S). Continuous i.p. bleomycin at 8 u/kg/day caused a 0.5 log greater reduction of LCFU-S than did an identical dose given by intermittent bolus administration. The infusion minipump provided constant bleomycin plasma levels of 0.62 +/- 0.03 mu/ml and a total p...

  2. Metal Matrix Superconductor Composites for SMES-Driven, Ultra High Power BEP Applications: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dan A.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2006-05-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) `battery' of order 0.25-1 km diameter is designed to demonstrate theoretical feasibility for large scale beamed energy propulsion (BEP) applications, charging at ˜300e MW from solar or nuclear sources, and discharging the full energy load into a gyrotron network in 1-2 minutes. The superconducting coil, whose storage capacity is 2.5 TJ, is made of structural carbon fiber filaments with a superconducting MgCNi3 high current density film surface layer, imbedded in a high electrical and thermal conductivity stabilizer metal, such as copper and/or beryllium. The SMES energy density is compared to other energy storage means and appears superior at the proposed operations scale and prolonged, frequent cycling duty. It is demonstrated that a toroidal coil with solenoidal winding configuration is most effective in specific energy (J/kg). Concurrently the high modulus and yield strength of the coil composite perform well for tensile hoop stress along the winding conductors, as well as transversely, to resist a self generated effective external pressure tending to buckling conditions in the thin walls. As such the toroid cross-section is re-enforced with periodic discrete rings. To achieve this hyper rigidity, the coil composite requires exclusion of traditional soft insulators (like epoxy), making use of a CVD (with tough metal-bonded Al2O3) continuous process of wire insulation and integration into a coil structural lattice, which ultimately needs to withstand very large quench voltages. The coil is built on a modular inflatable mandrel which is removed after assembly. A Part 2 associated paper treats the electromagnetic problem.

  3. Eosinophilic pneumonia associated with bleomycin in a patient with mediastinal seminoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lung toxicities resulting from the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin encompass a variety of pathological changes, including bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis and progressive interstitial fibrosis. We report a rare case of eosinophilic pneumonia associated with bleomycin. Case presentation A 44-year-old Hispanic man with a primary mediastinal seminoma complicated by superior vena cava syndrome underwent treatment with four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. He had a complete positive response to the chemotherapy. However, three months after treatment he presented with shortness of breath and severe hypoxemia associated with peripheral eosinophilia. Computed tomography showed bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrates that were refractory to antibiotic treatment. A lung biopsy showed eosinophilic pneumonia. He was subsequently treated with high-dose prednisone, resulting in a complete resolution of his symptoms and lung infiltrates. Conclusion This case illustrates that eosinophilic pneumonia may be a late sequela of bleomycin toxicity, and may respond dramatically to steroid treatment.

  4. In-111 BLEDTA: a conjugate of bleomycin with a bifunctional chelating agent for tumor localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLEDTA, a bleomycin A2 analog containing an EDTA group was labeled in the EDTA group to a specific activity of 70 mCi/mg and used for animal and human studies. KHJJ mouse tumor uptake was higher than the orange Co-57 bleomycin isomer and the tumor/organ ratios were >1 for all organs except the kidney. In 29 biopsy proven cancer patients the scan done 24 hours post I.V. with 1-2 mCi of In-111 BLEDTA was positive in all clinically known sites in 18, and in some clinically known sites in 11. The In-111 BLEDTA clinical results are similar to reported Co-57 bleomycin clinical studies, and the method is proposed as an alternate way to produce a stable biologically active bleomycin labeled with In-111

  5. 89Strontium-induced bone marrow depression suppresses the early inflammatory response and fibrosis caused by intratracheal bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of bone marrow depression on the development of bleomycin-induced lung injury, F-344/Crl rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 89SrCl2 (2 mCi/kg body weight) 7 days prior to the intratracheal (IT) instillation of 7.0 U/kg body weight bleomycin (Sr-bleomycin group). A second group of rats was given an IP injection of saline followed 7 days later by IT bleomycin (bleomycin group). Additional rats were given 89Sr IP and saline IT (Sr group) or saline IP and saline IT (saline group). Rats were sacrificed at 0, 3, 10, 21, and 30 days after the intratracheal instillations. 89Sr administration resulted in significantly lower numbers of circulating blood neutrophils and monocytes in the Sr-bleomycin group compared with the bleomycin group through at least the first 21 days following the IT instillations. Lymphocyte numbers were also depressed in the Sr-bleomycin group at days 3 and 21. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed significantly reduced protein and lymphocyte numbers in the BALF from the 89Sr-bleomycin group compared with the bleomycin group at day 3, but not at later time points. Neutrophils in BALF were also lower (though not significantly) in the 89Sr-Bleomycin group at day 3. There was no difference in the number of BALF macrophages between the Sr-bleomycin and bleomycin groups at any time point throughout the study. Histology and morphometoughout the study. Histology and morphometry showed the same trends as the BALF data with much less severe lesions in the 89SR-Bleomycin group compared with the bleomycin group at day 3, but not at later time points. At day 10, hydroxyproline values were significantly higher in the bleomycin group (47% increase above saline group) than the Sr-bleomycin group (only 18% increase above Sr group), but by day 21, there was no longer a significant difference between these two groups

  6. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ?Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  7. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ye-Ji [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Hae [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Keung-Sub [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min-Sun [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihee Lee, E-mail: jihee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ?Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  8. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C; Silver, Richard M.; Visconti, Richard P; Hoffman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compa...

  9. Tumor imaging after administration of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin, an anticancer drug, was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using stannous chloride and ascorbic acid and specific activities of 1 to 3 mCi/mg-eq with labeling efficiencies of 50 to 75 percent were achieved. Very rapid excretion of /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin through the kidney and concomitant rapid decrease of radioactivity in blood, various tissues and organs, and whole body were observed after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical into tumor-bearing mice. In such animals, approximately 1 percent of the label was found in a transplanted fibrosarcoma within 30 min while 0.58 percent was recovered in such lesions even after 24 hr. In patients positive tumor images were obtained by scintigraphy as early as 1 hr after intravenous administration of 3 to 5 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin. A total of 142 cases were examined by scintigraphy after administration of /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin and/or 67Ga-citrate. In 93 cases with various malignant tumors, tumor was detected in 80 percent using /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin and in 63 percent using 67Ga-citrate. Technetium-99m-bleomycin scintigraphy successfully detected tumors of the thyroid, lung, face, breast, extremity, and digestive tract and was also useful in finding metastatic lesions and brain tumors. However, 67Ga scintigraphy gave superior results in detecting lesions in patients with malignant lymphomas. In patients with inflammatory diseases, accumulation in lesions was detected in 13 permulation in lesions was detected in 13 percent using /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin and in 48 percent using 67Ga-citrate. The further use of /sup 99m/Tc-bleomycin scintigraphy for tumor detection in patients appears to be warranted. (U.S.)

  10. Anti-profibrotic effects of artesunate on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xuan, Xiuping; Yao, Wenmin; Huang, Guojin; Jin, Junfei

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether artesunate has beneficial effects on bleomycin?induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and to examine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. All experiments were performed with male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180?250 g. Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups that were administered either saline alone, artesunate alone, bleomycin alone or bleomycin + artesunate. Lung histopathology was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining. Lung profibrotic molecules were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In rats treated with artesunate, pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin was significantly reduced. Administration of artesunate significantly improved bleomycin?induced morphological alterations. Profibrotic molecules, including transforming growth factor??1, Smad3, heat shock protein 47, ??smooth muscle actin and collagen type I were also reduced by artesunate. These findings suggest that artesunate improves bleomycin?induced pulmonary fibrosis pathology in rats possibly by inhibiting profibrotic molecules associated with pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25816117

  11. Response of the 9L rat brain tumor to combination treatment with radiation and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic efficacy of combined modality treatment with radiation therapy and bleomycin was investigated in rats burdened with the intracerebral 9L bliosarcoma. Both radiation (single or fractioned exposures) and bleomycin (injected intracerebrally directly into the tumor region) are effective in prolonging survival when used as single agents. Bleomycin (1.0 mg/kg/week) combined with low-dose radiation therapy (15.3 By in 6 fractions in 2 weeks) prolonged survival over that of radiation alone, but not to the extent of high-dose radiation therapy (30.6 Gy in the same schedule). Bleomycin was effective whether given simultaneously or following fractionated radiation therapy - the important factor being delivery of radiation therapy early in the disease process. The greatest enhancement in survival caused by combination therapy compared to that by single agent therapy was observed when single exposure radiation therapy (20 Gy) followed single bleomycin administration by 4 hr. These results suggest the possibility of using bleomycin as an adjunct to radiation therapy for the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors

  12. Electromagnetic dissociation of 8B and the rate of the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction in the sun

    OpenAIRE

    Davids, B.; Austin, Sm; Bazin, D.; Esbensen, H.; Sherrill, Bm; Thompson, Ij; Tostevin, Ja

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the 7Be(p,?)8B reaction rate, we have performed inclusive and exclusive measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B. The former was a study of longitudinal momentum distributions of 7Be fragments emitted in the Coulomb breakup of intermediate energy 8B beams on Pb and Ag targets. Analysis of these data yielded the E2 contribution to the breakup cross section. In the exclusive measurement, we determined the cross section for the Coulomb breakup of 8B on Pb ...

  13. The astrophysical reactions 12C(?,?)16O and 7Be(p,?)8B and Coulomb dissociation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the Coulomb dissociation method to obtain the cross sections for the radiative capture reactions 12C(?, ?)16O and 7Be(p, ?)8B is investigated. The contribution of the nuclear interaction to the breakup is included. Due to the low binding of the proton in 8B the second reaction is dominated by Coulomb breakup. The effects of Coulomb reacceleration of the fragments and of the excitation of states in the fragments is also studied. Ideal kinematical conditions for the experiments are investigated. (orig.)

  14. Large angle proton emission in the 9Be(p,2p) reaction at 300 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 9Be(p,2p) coincidence experiment performed to to further elucidate the reaction mechanism for the production of energetic wide-angle protons in intermediate energy proton induced reactions is reported. Detectors in a coplanar geometry were used to measure coincidences between trigger protons at 90 degrees to the beam and forward angle protons on the opposite side of the beam. The incident proton energy was 300 MeV. The authors report both the inclusive spectra for the trigger protons and the differential mean multiplicities for the coincidence events

  15. Overall normalization of the astrophysical S factor and the nuclear vertex constant for 7Be(p,?)8B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out a simple relation between the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) and the overall normalization of the astrophysical S factor. Using predicted values of the NVC for the virtual decay of 8B ?7Be+p, we find S17(0) ?17.6 eV b for 7Be (p,?)8B reactions, consistent with the low values extrapolated from direct capture measurements by Filippone et al. and by Vaughn et al. New possibilities, using proton transfer reactions, to measure the astrophysical S factor indirectly are proposed

  16. Transient iron overload with bleomycin detectable iron in the plasma of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutteridge, J M; Quinlan, G. J.; Evans, T W

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate iron status in plasma samples collected from five patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who had bleomycin detectable iron in at least one sample. Ten patients with ARDS with no evidence of bleomycin detectable iron and 10 healthy individuals served as controls. METHODS--Evidence of iron overload was established by measuring the percentage saturation of plasma transferrin. In each case the bleomycin assay for re...

  17. Effect of bleomycin and irradiation on G2 progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of bleomycin and x-irradiation on the induction of G2 delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells was investigated utilizing the mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis. Following the addition of BLM, the number of cells selected in mitosis remained at control level for a refractory period and then decreased. The location of the transition point, i.e., the age in G2 at which cells become refractory to a progression blockade, was concentration-dependent, ranging from the S/G2 boundary at low concentrations to the G2/M boundary at high concentrations. Depending upon the concentration of the drug used and the duration of exposure, the mitotic rate either decreased to zero or else leveled off at some intermediate value and then recovered to the control level. The duration of BLM-induced division delay was thus dependent upon the concentration used and the duration of exposure. When cells were treated with pulses of bleomycin (10-500 ?g/ml) in addition to x-irradiation, the mitotic rate declined as with exposure to x-ray alone. However, the recovery from radiation-induced division delay and the subsequent reappearance of mitotic cells in the selection window was delayed until the cells had recovered from their BLM-induced division delay. This implies that, in contrast to the synergistic effects observed for cell lethality, BLM and radiation do not interact in the production of a progression blockade and the uction of a progression blockade and the resultant division delay

  18. Mutational spectrum of bleomycin in lacZ mouse kidney: a possible model for mutational spectrum of reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Khmelnitsky, Michael; Haesevoets, Roderick; Kosinska, Wieslawa

    2004-10-04

    The mutational spectrum of bleomycin was compared with the spontaneous mutational spectrum in lacZ mouse kidney. Mice were treated with four 20 mg/kg of doses of bleomycin over a two-week period, leading to a mutant fraction several times greater than that of controls. The major class of bleomycin-induced mutations consisted of small deletions, in particular -1 deletions at AT base pairs and hot spots for deletions at 5'-GTC-3' sequences. Smaller, but significant fractions of GC > AT followed by GC > TA substitutions were also observed. In untreated mice, the major class of mutations consisted of GC > AT substitutions followed by GC > TA mutations, and a much smaller fraction of deletions. Other than the specificity of bleomycin for AT base pairs and the 5'-GTC-3' hotspots, the mutational spectrum of bleomycin in mice is similar to that reported for ionizing radiation. However, bleomycin initially mediates the formation of oxidized DNA via reduction of molecular oxygen, as opposed to the radiolysis of water. In this respect mutagenesis induced by bleomycin may be more similar to that induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) than mutagenesis induced by ionizing radiation. If bleomycin-induced mutagenesis is an appropriate model for mutagenesis induced by ROS, then, based on the difference between the mutational spectrum of bleomycin and spontaneous mutagenesis, the latter appears not to result predominantly from ROS, at least in mouse kidney.

  19. Mutational spectrum of bleomycin in lacZ mouse kidney: a possible model for mutational spectrum of reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutational spectrum of bleomycin was compared with the spontaneous mutational spectrum in lacZ mouse kidney. Mice were treated with four 20 mg/kg of doses of bleomycin over a two-week period, leading to a mutant fraction several times greater than that of controls. The major class of bleomycin-induced mutations consisted of small deletions, in particular -1 deletions at AT base pairs and hot spots for deletions at 5'-GTC-3' sequences. Smaller, but significant fractions of GC > AT followed by GC > TA substitutions were also observed. In untreated mice, the major class of mutations consisted of GC > AT substitutions followed by GC > TA mutations, and a much smaller fraction of deletions. Other than the specificity of bleomycin for AT base pairs and the 5'-GTC-3' hotspots, the mutational spectrum of bleomycin in mice is similar to that reported for ionizing radiation. However, bleomycin initially mediates the formation of oxidized DNA via reduction of molecular oxygen, as opposed to the radiolysis of water. In this respect mutagenesis induced by bleomycin may be more similar to that induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) than mutagenesis induced by ionizing radiation. If bleomycin-induced mutagenesis is an appropriate model for mutagenesis induced by ROS, then, based on the difference between the mutational spectrum of bleomycin and spontaneous mutagenesis, the latter appears not to result predominantly from ROS, at least in mouse kidney at least in mouse kidney

  20. Mutational spectrum of bleomycin in lacZ mouse kidney: a possible model for mutational spectrum of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Khmelnitsky, Michael; Haesevoets, Roderick; Kosinska, Wieslawa

    2004-10-01

    The mutational spectrum of bleomycin was compared with the spontaneous mutational spectrum in lacZ mouse kidney. Mice were treated with four 20 mg/kg of doses of bleomycin over a two-week period, leading to a mutant fraction several times greater than that of controls. The major class of bleomycin-induced mutations consisted of small deletions, in particular -1 deletions at AT base pairs and hot spots for deletions at 5'-GTC-3' sequences. Smaller, but significant fractions of GC > AT followed by GC > TA substitutions were also observed. In untreated mice, the major class of mutations consisted of GC > AT substitutions followed by GC > TA mutations, and a much smaller fraction of deletions. Other than the specificity of bleomycin for AT base pairs and the 5'-GTC-3' hotspots, the mutational spectrum of bleomycin in mice is similar to that reported for ionizing radiation. However, bleomycin initially mediates the formation of oxidized DNA via reduction of molecular oxygen, as opposed to the radiolysis of water. In this respect mutagenesis induced by bleomycin may be more similar to that induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) than mutagenesis induced by ionizing radiation. If bleomycin-induced mutagenesis is an appropriate model for mutagenesis induced by ROS, then, based on the difference between the mutational spectrum of bleomycin and spontaneous mutagenesis, the latter appears not to result predominantly from ROS, at least in mouse kidney. PMID:15450417

  1. In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of ruthenium-bleomycin compared to cobalt- and copper-bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) has undergone extensive investigation both as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and as a carrier for radionuclides for tumor imaging. The available methods or the radionuclides used, however, have had limited effectiveness. Although labeling of BLM with 103Ru has been reported earlier, we carried out a study to develop a more reproducible method of labeling particularly for use with Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer produced 97Ru. Ruthenium-97 has favorable physical properties that make it ideal for imaging applications: decay by electron capture; ? 216 keV, 85%; t/sub 1/2/ 2.9 d. A novel method based on the reduction of Ru3+ to Ru2+ using stannous chloride was investigated for labeling BLM with 97Ru and/or 103Ru. In-vitro and in vivo comparisons of the product(s) with 57Co and 67Cu-labeled BLM were also carried out. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Electronic structure and physical properties of the spinel-type phase of BeP2N4 from all-electron density functional calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, W. Y.; Aryal, Sitram; Rulis, Paul; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Using density-functional-theory-based ab initio methods, the electronic structure and physical properties of the newly synthesized nitride BeP2N4 with a phenakite-type structure and the predicted high-pressure spinel phase of BeP2N4 are studied in detail. It is shown that both polymorphs are wide band-gap semiconductors with relatively small electron effective masses at the conduction-band minima. The spinel-type phase is more covalently bonded due to the increased number of P-N bonds for P a...

  3. Effects of bleomycin on the reproductive capacity of cultured brain tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bleomycin were studied on the colony forming ability of cultured mammalian cells, including two cell lines established from human glioblastoma multiform, one cell line from mouse glioma induced by methylcholanthrene, HeLa S3 from human carcinoma coli and L5 from mouse fibroblast. Both the bleomycin treatment time survival curves and the bleomycin dose response curves for each cell line were in general upward concave. There was a big difference of response to bleomycin in the cell lines used, and the brain tumor cells were more sensitive than HeLa and L5, while there was no significant difference of radiosensitivity in these cell lines. Treatment with 12 ?g/ml bleomycin for one hour prior to x-ray irradiation resulted in a decrease of Do in the x-ray dose response curve for L5 cells. The dose modifying factor calculated by using Do, 10% survival, and 1% survival was 1.1, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  4. Expression of FACIT collagens XII and XIV during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzaki, Eleni G; Tischfield, Jay A; Sahota, Amrik; Siafakas, Nikolaos M; Gordon, Marion K; Gerecke, Donald R

    2003-12-01

    Collagens XII and XIV are members of a subfamily of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple-helices (FACITs) that facilitate the interactions of adjacent collagen fibrils. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the spatial and temporal expression pattern of collagens XII and XIV during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57Bl mice were treated with bleomycin (1 U, i.p., every other day for 8 days) or saline (control), and lung tissue samples were analyzed 2-12 weeks later. Collagen I protein expression was increased in the lung 2 weeks post bleomycin treatment and persisted for at least 12 weeks. In contrast, collagen XII and XIV expression was low until 4 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Whereas collagen XII expression was greatest between 4 weeks and 8 weeks, expression of collagen XIV persisted from 4 to 12 weeks, which suggests that these two proteins may play distinct roles in the fibrotic process. The mRNA for lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme for cross-linking of collagens, had a delayed increase in the lung after bleomycin administration. It reached a maximum after 8 weeks, and persisted throughout the 12 weeks of the study. These data support the hypothesis that fibrosis is a multistep process that involves both collagen accumulation and changes in the molecules that modulate the biomechanical properties of fibrils. PMID:14613307

  5. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on bleomycin induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a very common cancer in males aged 15-44 years. Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces oxidative cleavage of DNA strand and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. There is no study in the literature investigating effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) on bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors. For this reason, we studied effects of NAC on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testis cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and compared the results with H(2)O(2) which directly produces oxidative stress. We determined protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide levels and total antioxidant capacity in both testicular cancer cells. Bleomycin and H(2)O(2) significantly increased 8-isoprostane, TBARS, protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels in NTera-2 and NCCIT cells. Bleomycin and H(2)O(2) significantly decreased antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in both cell lines. Co-incubation with NAC significantly decreased lipid hydroperoxide, 8-isoprostane, protein carbonyl content and TBARS levels increased by bleomycin and H(2)O(2). NAC enhanced GSH levels and antioxidant capacity in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cells. It can be concluded that NAC diminishes oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells induced by bleomycin and H(2)O(2). PMID:22940535

  6. Study of the reactions 9Be(p, ?)6Li, 9Be(p,d)8Be from 300 keV to 900 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results concerning the two reactions 9Be(p,?)6Li and 9Be(p,d)8Be from 300 to 900 keV are presented. The angular distribution, excitation and total cross-section curves are expressed in absolute values after a normalization carried out using results given by Weber, Davis and Marion. (authors)

  7. Determination of astrophysical 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction rates from the 7Li(d, p)8Li reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, XianChao; Guo, Bing; Li, ZhiHong; Pang, DanYang; Li, ErTao; Liu, WeiPing

    2015-06-01

    The 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction plays a central role not only in the evaluation of solar neutrino fluxes but also in the evolution of the first stars. Study of this reaction requires the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay 8B g.s. ? 7Be + p. By using the charge symmetry relation, we obtain this proton ANC with the single neutron ANC of 8Li g.s. ?7Li + n, which is determined with the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and adiabatic distorted wave approximation (ADWA) analysis of the 7Li(d, p)8Li angular distribution. The astrophysical S-factors and reaction rates of the direct capture process in the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction are further deduced at energies of astrophysical relevance. The astrophysical S-factor at zero energy for direct capture, S 17(0), is derived to be (19.9 ± 3.5) eV b in good agreement with the most recent recommended value. The contributions of the 1+ and 3+ resonances to the S-factor and reaction rate are also evaluated. The present result demonstrates that the direct capture dominates the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction in the whole temperature range. This work provides an independent examination to the current results of the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction.

  8. Determination of astrophysical 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction rates from the 7Li(d, p)8Li reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, XianChao; Guo, Bing; Li, ZhiHong; Pang, DanYang; Li, ErTao; Liu, WeiPing

    2015-03-01

    The 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction plays a central role not only in the evaluation of solar neutrino fluxes but also in the evolution of the first stars. Study of this reaction requires the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay 8B g.s. ? 7Be + p. By using the charge symmetry relation, we obtain this proton ANC with the single neutron ANC of 8Li g.s. ?7Li + n, which is determined with the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and adiabatic distorted wave approximation (ADWA) analysis of the 7Li(d, p)8Li angular distribution. The astrophysical S-factors and reaction rates of the direct capture process in the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction are further deduced at energies of astrophysical relevance. The astrophysical S-factor at zero energy for direct capture, S 17(0), is derived to be (19.9 ± 3.5) eV b in good agreement with the most recent recommended value. The contributions of the 1+ and 3+ resonances to the S-factor and reaction rate are also evaluated. The present result demonstrates that the direct capture dominates the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction in the whole temperature range. This work provides an independent examination to the current results of the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction.

  9. Tanshinone IIA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huanyu; Tang, Haiying; Gao, Lili; Wu, Yun; Feng, Zhiqiang; Lin, Hongli; Wu, Taihua

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and progressive fibrotic lung disorder with unknown etiology and a high mortality rate. Tanshinone ?A (Tan ?A) is a lipophilic diterpene extracted from the Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with diverse biological functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Tan ?A on bleomycin (BLM)?induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of Tan ?A and normal rats were used as controls. Severe pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the BLM?treated rats and the counts of total cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of those rats. These pathological changes were markedly attenuated by subsequent treatment with Tan ?A. In addition, BLM?induced increased expression of tumor necrosis factor??, interleukin (IL)?1?, IL?6, cyclooxygenase?2, prostaglandin E2, malondialdehyde, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide in rats, which was also suppressed by Tan ?A injection. The present findings suggest therapeutic potential of Tan ?A for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25672255

  10. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C2W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C2W cells were irradiated, incubated at 370C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising. (J.P.N.)

  11. 111In-bleomycin breast and axilla imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    111Indium-Bleomycin (111In-Blm), a new radiopharmaceutical, was administered intravenously to 37 patients with benign and malignant breast lesions. Early and delayed images of both the breasts and axillae were made, and results were correlated with physical examination, histopathology of the excised lesion, mammography, and thermography. In 18 patients with malignant disease, clinical examination of the breast and axilla correlated with histopathology in 78 and 54 percent of the cases, respectively. Images of the breast were accurate (true positives) in 83 percent of the cases. Images of the axilla were accurate in 62 percent of the cases. Mammography was correct and suggested malignancy in 88 percent, and thermography in 73 percent of the cases. In 19 patients with benign breast lesions, clinical examination of the breast and axilla correlated with histopathology in 68 and 95 percent of the cases, respectively. Scans of the breast and axilla were correct (true negative) 79 and 95 percent of the time, respectively. Mammography was correct, and suggested benignancy, in 53 percent and thermography in 25 percent of the cases. Imaging of the breasts using 111In-Blm appears to be as accurate as physical examination and mammography for palpable benign and malignant breast tumors

  12. Bleomycin-induced trans lipid formation in cell membranes and in liposome models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Tomris; Sansone, Anna; Barata-Vallejo, Sebastian; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla

    2015-01-28

    Cell cultures of NTera-2 cells incubated with bleomycin and liposomes as biomimetic models of cell membranes were used for examining some novel aspects of drug-metal induced reactivity with unsaturated lipids under oxidative conditions. In cell cultures, bleomycin was found for the first time to cause the formation of trans fatty acids. The chemical basis of this transformation was ascertained by liposome experiments, using bleomycin-iron complexes in the presence of thiol as a reducing agent that by incubation at 37 °C gave rise to the thiyl radical-catalysed double bond isomerisation of membrane phospholipids. The effect of oxygen and reagent concentrations on the reaction outcome was studied. An interesting scenario of free radical reactivity is proposed, which can be relevant for understanding the role of membrane lipids in antitumoral treatments and drug carrier interaction. PMID:25417813

  13. Coulomb dissociation of 8B and the 7Be(p,?)8B reaction at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section for Coulomb dissociation of 8B---the 208Pb(8B,7Be p)208Pb reaction---was measured using a 8B radioactive beam of 46.5 MeV/nucleon energy, and the cross section for the 7Be(p,?)8B capture reaction was deduced at low energies; Ec.m.=0.6-1.7 MeV. The extracted astrophysical S17 factors were found to be consistent with the values measured by Vaughn et al. and Filippone et al. This result encourages further experimental studies extended to lower relative energies for a new determination of the S17 value relevant to the 8B solar neutrino flux

  14. Latent transforming growth factor-?1 protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Jiang; Xiao, Jun; Huang, Xiao Ru; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Chen; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Yu-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Hui, David S C; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Lan, Hui Yao

    2014-12-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 is a potent mediator known to induce lung fibrosis. However, the role of latent TGF-?1 in lung inflammation and fibrosis is unclear. To investigate the role of circulating latent TGF-?1 in bleomycin-induced lung injury, lung disease was induced in keratin-5 promoter-driven TGF-?1(wt) transgenic (Tg) mice by bleomycin. The role of latent TGF-?1 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was examined at Days 7 and 28 after administration of bleomycin. Compared with littermate wild-type (WT) mice, TGF-?1(wt) Tg mice had over twofold-higher levels of latent TGF-?1 in both plasma and lung tissue, and were protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation, such as up-regulation of IL-1?, TNF-?, and macrophage chemotactic protein-1, and infiltration of CD3(+) T cells and F4/80(+) macrophages. In addition, the severity of lung fibrosis with massive collagen matrix accumulation was markedly reduced in TGF-?1(wt) Tg mice. These protective effects were associated with higher levels of Smad7 and inactivation of both NF-?B and TGF-?/Smad3 signaling pathways, in addition to an increase in forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-dependent regulatory T cells, but inhibition of T helper 17-mediated lung injury. In summary, mice overexpressing latent TGF-?1 are protected from bleomycin-induced lung injury. Triggering the Smad7 negative feedback mechanism to inhibit both NF-?B and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathways, and enhancing the regulatory T cell response to counter-regulate T helper 17-mediated lung injury, are potential mechanisms by which latent TGF-?1 protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury. PMID:24885478

  15. Induction of Apoptosis and Micronuclei by Bleomycin Sulfate in Different Cell Cycle Stages of Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saify B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bleomycin sulfate is a DNA damaging agent used in cancer chemotherapy. The effect of this drug on various cell cycle stages might be different, thus inducing different modes of death (apoptotic or mitotic death. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of bleomycin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes at various cell cycle stages by two different end points (induction of apoptosis or micronuclei. Material and Methods: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with various doses of bleomycin at G0, G1, and G2 phases of the cell cycle and the percentages of apoptosis (AP and micronuclei (MN were determined. The peripheral lymphocytes were isolated by ficoll hypaque and suspended in RPMI-1640 containing 15 % fetal calf serum. The isolated lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA, cultured again inRPMI-1640, harvested after 64 hrs and 96 hrs, and stained with acridine orange and ethidiumbromide to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells. MN assay was done according to the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. Results: The results showed that the percentages of apoptotic cells and MN at G2 stage were significantly higher than those of G0 and G1 stages. At higher doses, MN formation and apoptotic cells were increased; however with increasing time, the percentage of MN decreased while the percentage of apoptotic cells generally increased in all the cell cycle stages. Conclusion: The results indicate that bleomycin is a potent inducer of both micronuclei and apoptosis. The incidence of apoptotic cells following bleomycin treatment in G0 and G1 was much higher than the incidence of micro nucleated cells at the two sampling times. The percentage of AP cells following bleomycin treatment remained constant across cell cycle stages.

  16. Changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in bleomycin-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin is a widely accepted cancer drug but may induce life-threatening interstitial lung disease in a subset of patients. We evaluated the effect of bleomycin administration on pulmonary surfactant function and composition in rabbit lungs. In order to obtain a uniform response to bleomycin, aerosol technology was employed for bronchoalveolar delivery of 1.8 U/kg b.w. bleomycin. On days 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 64 after challenge, bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. Sham-aerosolized rabbits served as controls. In the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like post-bleomycin period (4-16 days), marked loss of surface activity of the large surfactant aggregate (LA) fraction of surfactant was noted. In parallel, reduced percentages of LA, but only minor changes in surfactant apoproteins (SP)-A, SP-B, and SP-C, were encountered. Analysis of the surfactant lipid profile showed impressively enhanced cholesterol and significantly decreased phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels. The relative content of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) was slightly increased, and a several-fold increase within the 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl subclass of PC was observed. During the prolonged fibroproliferative period, a highly significant downregulation of SP-B and SP-C levels was observed. This was paralleled by an upregulation of the total extracellular phospholipid pool, with a far-reaching normalization of the (phospho)-lipid profile. The biophysical surfactant function never fully normalized within th function never fully normalized within the 64-day observation period. In conclusion, bleomycin caused marked abnormalities of pulmonary surfactant, with the profile of changes being different between the early ARDS and the late fibrotic phase

  17. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2.0 millimeters..

  18. Transgenic mice expressing the Sh ble bleomycin resistance gene are protected against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, J; Camus, A; Barra, J; Dumont, P; Julian, M; Cros, S; Babinet, C; Tiraby, G

    1996-12-15

    Despite the high efficiency of bleomycin (BLM) as a chemotherapeutic agent against various carcinomas, the potentially lethal and chronic fibrotic response of the lung is a major dose-limiting side effect. Here, we explore the possibility of a direct inhibition of lung tissue injury by in vivo expression of the actinomycetes BLM resistance protein Sh ble. Transgenic mice expressing the Sh ble gene under the control of a composite viral promoter were produced after introduction of the transgene into D3 ES cells. The protein was detected at high level in lungs, spleen, and kidney. We then assessed its ability to modulate the BLM-induced fibrotic response in the transgenic mice in comparison with C57BL/6 and 129/Sv parental mice. Cumulative doses of 300, 400, or 500 mg/kg BLM were administered either by i.p. or s.c. repeated injections in the different strains. Transgenic mice were shown to be clearly less sensitive to BLM toxicity, as assessed by lung histology. The pulmonary hydroxyproline content in the treated transgenic mice was close to its baseline level, whereas it was up to 50% higher than the control level in C57BL/6 and 129/Sv parental mice. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a resistance gene specifically expressed in lungs may prevent the BLM-induced inflammation. PMID:8971172

  19. Evaluation of cold areas on the thyroid scan with sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin scintigraphy in the evaluation of cold areas on a sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan was investigated in 35 patients. A histological diagnosis was obtained in 31 patients. Only one of the six malignant lesions was considered as positive and two as doubtful. Of the remaining 25 patients with non-toxic colloid goitre, one was clearly positive and four were doubtful. These results indicate that sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin scintigraphy is not a valuable procedure in the further evaluation of patients with cold lesions. (orig.)

  20. Carcinoma of the penis; Treatment by surgery or combined bleomycin and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modig, H. (Dept. of Oncology and Urology and Andrology, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden)); Duchek, M. (Dept. of Oncology and Urology and Andrology, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden)); Sjoedin, J.G. (Dept. of Oncology and Urology and Andrology, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis stage T1-T2, N0 were either treated surgically (n=19) or with a combination of irradiation and bleomycin (n=25). The overall actuarial survival rate was 80% at 3 years, 77% at 5 years and 60% at 10 years. The result of irradiation treatment combined with bleomycin was in stage N0 equivalent to that of surgical therapy. The non-surgical treatment had the advantage of preserved sexual ability. (orig.).

  1. Effects of radiotherapy combined with daily intramuscular injection of bleomycin for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 103 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix, untreated previously, were treated with radiotherapy combined with daily intramuscular injection of Bleomycin 30 minutes before irradiation (BR therapy) in 12 institutions. Result showed that especially in cases of stage III, BR therapy was superior in primary local control rate (89.6%), recurrence rate (20.8%) and crude 5-year survival rate (56.5%) to that of nationwide statistics. No severe side effects were found. It was concluded that external radiotherapy could control advanced cancers of uterine cervix combining with intramuscular injection of Bleomycin. (author)

  2. Normal distribution of 111In-bleomycin on scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin labelled with 111In was used as a tumor-localizing agent in 36 patients (40 scintigrams), who were suspected of or clinically diagnosed as having malignant tumor. All patients were inpatients or outpatients of the department of Radiology, University of Tokyo. The sites where there was clinically suspected malignant disease and where there was an abnormal accumulation on scintigrams were excluded in estimating the normal distribution of 111In-BLM. All scintigrams were taken 48 hrs after injection of 111In-BLM 2 - 3 mCi. The score of normal distribution was as follows: liver 100, mediastinum 54.0, thyroid area 50.0, nasopharynx 48.5, salivary area 42.5, lumbar spine 40.5 and kidney 30.5. The large intestine, hip joints, eye area and lung fields were revealed in a few cases. Comparing this study with the previous study on normal distribution of 67Ca-citrate, the score of large intestine was shown to be 28.5 - 37 points on 67Ga-citrate scintigrams, but it was only 1.5 - 0 points on 111In-BLM scintigrams. The kidneys were not appreciated on 67Ga-citrate scintigrams, but its score was 31.5 on 111In-BLM scintigrams. On the chest, the heart was not revealed on 67Ga-citrate scintigrams, but its score was 37.5 on 111In-BLM scintigrams. We conclude that 111In-BLM would be more effective than 67Ga-citrate in detecting malignant tumors whichitrate in detecting malignant tumors which locate in lower abdomen. (auth.)

  3. Sensitive DNA-based electrochemical strategy for trace bleomycin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bin-Cheng; Wu, Di; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2010-10-01

    Bleomycins (BLMs) are widely used in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of a variety of cancers. The clinical application of BLMs is featured by the occurrence of sometimes fatal side effects, such as renal and lung toxicity, and the potential dose-limiting side effect of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a sensitive method to quantitatively determine the BLM content in both pharmaceutical analysis and clinical samples, to make full use of therapeutic efficacy and to weaken its toxicity. Here, we proposed a simple, rapid, and convenient electrochemical assay for trace BLM detection. A reported DNA motif, as substrate for BLMs, is prepared to self-assemble onto the gold electrode to fabricate an electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor, with a terminus tethered on the electrode surface and the other terminus labeled with ferrocenyl moiety as a signal reporter to form a stem-loop structure, giving an arise of remarkable faradaic current. In the presence of Fe(II)·BLM, the E-DNA sensor undergoes the irreversible cleavage event, which can be transduced into a significant decrease in current peak. This proposed sensor reveals an impressive sensitivity as low as 100 pM BLMs and exhibits a good performance as well as in serum sample. Considering the high sensitivity and specificity of this proposed sensor, as well as the cost-effective and simple-to-implement features of the electrochemical technique, we believe that this method shows distinct advantages over conventional methods and it is a promising alternative for the determination of trace amounts of BLMs in clinical samples. PMID:20815350

  4. Effects of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Maria Cristina P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidative damage. Many plant constituents including turmeric and curcumin appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. The effects of turmeric and curcumin on chromosomal aberration frequencies induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. Three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml and curcumin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml, were combined with BLM (10 mg/ml in CHO cells treated during the G1/S, S or G2/S phases of the cell cycle. Neither turmeric nor curcumin prevented BLM-induced chromosomal damage in any phases of the cell cycle. Conversely, a potentiation of the clastogenicity of BLM by curcumin was clearly observed in cells treated during the S and G2/S phases. Curcumin was also clastogenic by itself at 10 µg/ml in two protocols used. However, the exact mechanism by which curcumin produced clastogenic and potentiating effects remains unknown.

  5. Relationships between chromosome damage, cell cycle delay and cell killing induced by bleomycin or X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of mitotic delay and chromosome aberration induction by X-rays and bleomycin has been compared in normal human foetal fibroblasts at doses giving approximately equal levels of cell killing, assayed as colony-forming ability. Bleomycin induced much less G2 delay and chromosome damage than X-rays. The authors conclude that (1) the major mechanism of cell killing by bleomycin does not involve chromosome damage but the cells pass through a number of division cycles before dying and (2) a common DNA lesion is involved in G2 delay and chromosome damage. (Auth.)

  6. Protective effect of royal jelly on fertility and biochemical parameters in bleomycin-?induced male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amirshahi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins.

  7. Comparison of gamma radiation and radiomimmetic chemical, bleomycin in leukocytes from certain genetic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To compare the frequency and distribution pattern of bleomycin and gamma radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in human genetic disorders. To study if the induced chromosomal break points are specific for specific human genetic disorders. Human genetics disorders such as; retinitis pigmentosa, retinoblastoma, xeroderma pigmentosa and gonadal dysgenesis were used in our study. Suitable controls were maintained. The frequency and distribution pattern of chromosomal break points in individual chromosomes were determined in lymphocytes exposed to 50r of gamma radiation and 10?g/ml of bleomycin for 3h at G2. In normal individuals none of the unirradiated leukocyte cultures of any syndrome showed any accountable number of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of radiation induced chromosomal break points showed a non random distribution pattern and frequently clustered at some specific chromosome regions to form hot spots. Lack of linear-quadratic dose response was observed in the lymphocyte exposed to bleomycin in normal individual. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the whole genome for the genetic disorders were higher than the controls and a varying distribution pattern of bleomycin induced breaks per cell was observed

  8. 57Co-bleomycin scintigraphy for the postoperative detection and staging of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient with Pancoast tumor, obscured on radiograms by pleural thickening following earlier tuberculosis, the primary cancer was detected by 57Co-Bleomycin scintigraphy. It helped also in delineating the area which had to be subjected to external radiotherapy. (orig./MG)

  9. Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines sensitive to mitomycin C and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell lines exhibiting sensitivity to anticancer drugs have been isolated by a replica-plating technique. Five of the mutants are hypersensitive to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C. Of these, one is also appreciably sensitive to UV light. Significant variations in their cross-sensitivity to cis-platinum(II) diammine dichloride, chlorambucil, and Adriamycin have also been observed. Two additional mutants have been isolated on the basis of sensitivity to the radiomimetic agent bleomycin. One of these shows greater than 6-fold sensitivity to bleomycin, while the other is approximately 14 times more sensitive than the parental strain to bleomycin and is also hypersensitive to a number of other DNA-damaging agents, including cis-platinum(II) diammine dichloride, chlorambucil, X-rays, and UV light. Both bleomycin-sensitive mutants also exhibit some degree of sensitivity to Adriamycin. In all cases, the cell lines have been grown in continuous culture for 3 months without evidence of reversion and should act as suitable recipients in DNA transfection experiments aimed at identifying human DNA repair genes

  10. Deficiency in the divalent metal transporter 1 augments bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to bleomycin can result in an inflammatory lung injury. The biological effect of this anti-neoplastic agent is dependent on its coordination of iron with subsequent oxidant generation. In lung cells, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) can participate in metal transport ...

  11. A Systematic Review of Talc Compared with Bleomycin for Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang WEI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Malignant pleural effusions are a common complication in advanced malignancy. Talc, bleomycin and the tetracyclines are the three most frequently used sclerosants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of patients with malignant pleural effusions treated with talc and bleomycin. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese biomedicine literature database (CBM, CNKI, VIP, references of included studies for randomized controlled trials comparing talc with bleomycin for patients with malignant pleural effusions. The quality of included studies was assessed independently by two reviewers, discrepancies were resolved by discussion with the third person. We analyzed the data using Review Manager (version 5.0 software. Results Six studies totaling 224 patients were included. Meta analysis results were as follows: there was significantdifference in treatment success (RR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, recurrence rate (RR=0.31, 95%CI: 0.11-0.87 between talc group and bleomycin group, there was no significant difference between the two groups in case fatality rate (RR=1.39, 95%CI: 0.84-2.30, fever (RR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.24-1.94, pain (RR=0.22, 95%CI: 0.01-4.32. Conclusion Current evidence indicate that talc is super to bleomycin for patients with malignant pleural effusions in terms of improvingtreatment success and reducing recurrence rate, there is no significant difference between the two group with regard to casefatality rate, fever, pain, the results mentioned above still need to be confirmed by high quality, large sample, multicenter randomized controlled trial.

  12. Precision measurement of the $^{7}$Be(p, $\\gamma$)$\\,^{8}$B cross section with an implanted $^{7}$Be target

    CERN Document Server

    Baby, L T; Goldring, G; Hass, M; Weissman, L; Fedosseev, V; Köster, U; Nir-El, Y; Haquin, G; Gäggeler, H W; Weinreich, R

    2003-01-01

    The $^{7}$Be(p, $\\gamma$) $\\,^{8}$B reaction plays a central role in the evaluation of solar neutrino fluxes. We report on a new precision measurement of the cross section of this reaction, following our previous experiment with an implanted $^{7}$Be target, a raster- scanned beam, and the elimination of the backscattering loss. The new measurement incorporates a more abundant $^{7}$Be target and a number of improvements in design and procedure. The point at E$_{lab}$ = 991 keV was measured several times under varying experimental conditions, yielding a value of S$_{17}$(E$_{c.m.}$ = 850 keV) = 24.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 eV b. Measurements were carried out at lower energies as well. Because of the precise knowledge of the implanted $^{7}$Be density profile, it was possible to reconstitute both the off- and on-resonance parts of the cross section and to obtain from the entire set of measurements an extrapolated value of S$_{17}$(0)=21.2 $\\pm$ 0.7 eV b.

  13. Structure of the excited states of 11Be reached through the reaction d(10Be,p)11Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one-neutron transfer reaction d(10Be,p)11Be has been studied at 32 A.MeV at GANIL with a 10Be secondary beam. Protons were detected by the silicon strip array MUST. The ground state and excited states of 11Be at 0.32, 1.78 and 3.41 MeV were populated, demonstrating the feasibility of transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams leading to bound and unbound states. A DWBA (distorted wave born approximation) analysis indicates for the 3.41 MeV state spin and parity 3/2+ or 5/2+ and a spectroscopic factor of 0.18 or 0.11, respectively. A broad structure centered at 10 MeV is also observed and corresponds to transfer to the 1d sub-shells. If one assumes that only the 1d3/2 orbital contributes to this structure, the splitting of the 1d neutron states in 11Be is estimated to be 6.3 MeV. Using a 2-particle-RPA (random phase approximation) model, we have shown that neutron-neutron correlations play an important role in the inversion between the 2s1/2 and 1p1/2 neutron states in 11Be. (author)

  14. Validation of Serological Testing for Anti-Treponema pallidum from Postmortem Blood on the Siemens-BEP®-III Automatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Ulrich; Wilkemeyer, Ina; Pruss, Axel; Caspari, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Infectious disease marker testing is obligatory for the release of human tissue for transplantation. Most CE-marked tests are not validated for postmortem blood. In a previous study we have validated the testing for anti-HIV-1/2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-HBc. Here, we present the validation of testing for antibodies against T. pallidum, which is the last marker obligatory for tissue release for transplantation. Methods 17 samples of postmortem sera and 10 samples of both pre-und postmortem sera were obtained from cornea donors and tested for anti-T. pallidum on the Siemens-BEP-III-System. These sera were spiked with anti-T. pallidum-positive standard sera in concentrations which give low- and high-positive results at the respective dilution. Results Two of the unspiked postmortem sera were false-positive most likely due to intense hemolysis (free hemoglobin > 50 mg/dl). Of the 25 negative postmortem sera, none of the spiked samples was false-negative after 0, 24 and 60 h. Conclusion There is no indication that postmortem samples give false-negative or false-positive results with the test system and test kits used in cases of low hemolysis. The procedure described might serve as a model for validating other test kits on postmortem samples. PMID:24474889

  15. Proliferative kinetics and chromosome damage in trisomy 21 lymphocyte cultures exposed to gamma-rays and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytes from patients with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) have been investigated for cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation delays, and chromosomal aberrations after exposure to gamma-rays or bleomycin. Analysis by sister chromatid differential staining revealed that trisomy 21 lymphocytes started cell cycling about 5 hr earlier than did normal diploid lymphocytes after phytohemagglutinin stimulation as a whole, but that cycling trisomic and normal cells had the same mean cell cycle times. When exposed to gamma-rays or bleomycin in G0, trisomy 21 lymphocytes showed a 30% or, on average, 50% longer duration of cell turnover times, respectively, than normal cells; only bleomycin-treated trisomic cells had a biphasic dose-response. Frequencies of dicentrics and rings in first-division cells after gamma-ray or bleomycin exposure were twice as high in trisomic cells as in normal cells. The frequency of aberrations decreased by 50% (gamma-ray-exposed) or 65 to 85% (bleomycin-treated) through successive divisions; trisomic cells showed a more marked decline in aberration yields compared to normal cells after bleomycin treatment. These data support the idea that circulating lymphocytes in trisomy 21 patients have a shorter average life span or a younger average age

  16. Histolgical AND Immunohistochemical Study on the Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Albino Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Marwa Mohammed; Elkalawy, Seham Abd-Elhamed; Abo-Elnour, Rahma Kamal El-din; Abd-El-Maksod, Dalia Fathy

    2014-01-01

    Aim of work: To demonstrate the bleomycin induced histological changes in the lung and the possible protective and/or therapeutic effect of stem cell therapy. Materials and methods: Study was carried out on 36 adult male albino rats, classified into 4 groups: group I (control), group II (bleomycin treated group), group III (early stem cell treated group: immediately after bleomycin), group IV (late stem cell treated group: 7 days after bleomycin). Sections were taken at the 14th day of experiment. stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s trichrome, immunohistochemichal stains for ?-SMA & PCNA. Sections were examined by light & immunofluroscent microscopy. Area percent of collagen fibers, area percent & optical density of ?-SMA immunopositive cells were measured as well as the number of H&E and PCNA stained pneumocytes type II was counted. Results: Group II showed, thickening of septa, extravasation of blood, dividing pneumocytes type II cells with acinar formation, cellular infiltration, fibroblast cells, almost complete loss of normal lung architecture in certain fields, consolidation and replacement of the lung tissue with fibrous tissue in other fields. Restoring of lung tissue with significant decrease in mean area % of collagen fibers, ?-SMA immunopositive cells were detected in group III. Conclusions: Early treatment with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) immediately after bleomycin administration showed a significant reduction in fibrotic changes, however the late treatment with BMSCs (7 days) after bleomycin administration showed non significant results. PMID:24921026

  17. Bleomycin--mode of action with particular reference to the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twentyman, P R

    1983-01-01

    Over the last four years, investigations into the mechanism of interaction between bleomycin and DNA have been pursued at a rapid pace. This is, no doubt, because of the potential of bleomycin as a tool for molecular biology. It seems likely that the precise nature of the interaction between Fe(II), oxygen and bleomycin will be elucidated in the near future together with the nature of the binding between the complex and DNA. More information on the mechanism of strand scission including the involvement of free radical mechanisms and sequence specificity may also be expected. In contrast to this picture of rapid progress at the molecular level, interest in studies of bleomycin action at the cellular level appears to have waned. This is despite the fact that most of the important questions which have been raised regarding effects of the drug on cell cycle progression, the possibility of a selective action on on-cycling cells and the nature of 'recovery from potentially-lethal damage' remain unresolved. There is no doubt that, for most cell types, bleomycin produces a block at the early G2 stage of the cell cycle. There is considerable doubt, however, as to how many of the cells blocked for a significant period remain clonogenically viable. This question is amenable to being answered using a vital DNA stain, such as Hoechst 33342, and cell sorting but this does not appear to have been done. The relationship between G2 blockage and repair of DNA damage has also not been resolved. Neither has the question of whether or not DNA breaks which remain unrepaired are different in nature from the majority of repairable lesions. The data on the relative sensitivity of exponential and plateau phase cells are conflicting and their in vivo significance unclear. Well designed experiments to examine the bleomycin sensitivity of those cells in solid tumors which survive radiation treatment could help to answer this question. Evidence that the phenomenon of 'recovery from potentially lethal damage' is therapeutically-exploitable is mainly lacking. It would be of great relevance to known whether or not the effect can be observed in normal tissues. However, the evidence that the effect is not simply an artefact of clonogenic assay procedures is scanty and this possibility must be borne in mind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6201934

  18. Survival of diploid yeast cells to bleomycin in combination with UV-light or hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work we have investigated the possible interaction between Bleomycin (B) and UV light or hyperthermia (HT) in the induction of lethal events in diploid yeast populations in the stationary phase of growth. UV and B acting as single agents determine sigmoid survival curves. The combination of UV+B produces different degrees of sensitization depending on dose ranges. For [B]=7.5 ?g/ml combined with different UV fluences an exponential course is observed, suggesting overlapping lesion specificity of the involved repair pathways (excision and recombination). The hyperthermia plus Bleomycin treatment produces different degrees of inactivation depending on the sequences. Maximal inactivation effect was obtained for the sequence B+HT. In the case of HT+B ([B]>7.5 ?g/ml) the obtained sensitization is lower. (orig.)

  19. [Evaluation of intratumoral bleomycin application in a tumor model and in a clinical pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, M; Henke, E; Gens, J; Seela, W; Franke, W G

    1990-01-01

    In a total of 21 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa 26.9% of the total volume of 57Co-Bleomycin injected into the tumor was found in the blood as early as 10 min following injection. Examinations using a gamma camera demonstrated that 94.6% of the substance have cleared the tumor tissue after just 1 h. This sharp and rapid drop in activity, which was particularly pronounced in carcinomas of the tongue and the floor of the mouth, might be caused by rapid resorption due to the high degree of vascularization of the maxillofacial region. Autoradiography showed deposits of the substance in tumor-free areas of the operation specimens. It seems that the postulated advantages of intratumoral application--increased concentration and depot effect in the tumor tissue--are no longer tenable, thus large-scale clinical trials with intratumoral bleomycin treatment cannot be justified. PMID:1725668

  20. Electrochemotherapy with intravenous bleomycin in the local treatment of skin melanoma metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Osella Abate, Simona; Savoia, Paola; Quaglino, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) combines chemotherapy and electroporation to increase drug uptake. Its role in cutaneous melanoma metastasis treatment is not well defined; indeed, few studies have been reported, without complete follow-up data. AIM: To prospectively evaluate clinical activity and tolerability of ECT with i.v. bleomycin, and to analyze the response increase associated to repeated sessions, in the largest series of cutaneous melanoma metastases reported to date (n = 233)....

  1. Radiation therapy alone and in combination with bleomycin and 5-flurouracil in advanced carcinoma esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is a randomized prospective study of 74 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus divided into two groups. First group was treated with radical radiation alone and the other with radical radiation and combination of bleomycin and 5-FU. Analysis at the end of two years showed that the patients treated with addition of chemotherapy had an overall survival of 23 percent as compared to nine percent in the radiation alone group (P < 0.05). (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs

  2. TGF? signaling in lung epithelium regulates bleomycin-induced alveolar injury and fibroblast recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Amber L.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Xu, Xiaochuan C.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Jones, Brittany R.; Boomershine, Chad S.; Ortiz, Camila; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Mcmahon, Frank B.; Gleaves, Linda A.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Lawson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The response of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to lung injury plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which AECs regulate fibrotic processes are not well defined. We aimed to elucidate how transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling in lung epithelium impacts lung fibrosis in the intratracheal bleomycin model. Mice with selective deficiency of TGF? receptor 2 (TGF?R2) in lung epithelium were generated and crossed to cell fate reporter mice...

  3. Bleomicina: un modelo de fibrosis pulmonar / Bleomycin: a lung fibrosis animal model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Cabrera Benítez.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La bleomicina es un glicopéptido utilizado para el tratamiento del cáncer cuyo potencial terapéutico está limitado por su toxicidad pulmonar. El efecto citotóxico depende de la dosis e involucra el desarrollo de neumonitis que progresa a fibrosis; las células epiteliales alveolares son el blanco pri [...] ncipal del daño inducido por la bleomicina. Se considera que la muerte de células epiteliales alveolares por apoptosis es un evento clave en el inicio y la progresión de la fibrosis pulmonar (FP) que se caracteriza por el depósito excesivo de moléculas de la matriz extracelular, principalmente de colágenas fibrilares en el parénquima pulmonar. En la investigación básica de la FP, la bleomicina se ha utilizado como el principal agente fibrogénico en modelos animales. Durante los últimos años, el modelo de bleomicina desarrollado en ratones trasgénicos se ha empleado para elucidar in vivo el papel de un gran número de biomoléculas involucradas en la FP. Abstract in english Bleomycin is a glycopeptide used for cancer treatment, but the therapeutic potencial of this drug is limited by its lung toxicity. The cytotoxic effect of bleomycin is dose-dependent and involves pneumonitis that proceeds to lung fibrosis (LF). Alveolar epithelial cells are the main target of bleomy [...] cin induced injury. Alveolar epithelial cell death by apoptosis is considered as a key event in the initiation and progression of LF, that is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, mainly fibrilar collagens in the lung parenchyma. Bleomycin has been used as the main fibrogenic agent in animal models in LF basic research; in recent years, a bleomycin model developed in transgenic mice has been used to elucidate the in vivo role of a great number of biomolecules involved in LF.

  4. Enhanced type III collagen gene expression during bleomycin induced lung fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzeidi, S.; Mulier, B.; Crombrugghe, B.; Jeffery, P. K.; Mcanulty, R. J.; Laurent, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Intratracheal instillation of bleomycin into mice leads to deposition of collagen in the lung and fibrosis, but the mechanism for this is poorly understood. Enhanced collagen gene expression, increased collagen synthesis, decreased collagen degradation, and proliferation of fibroblasts have all been proposed as possible contributors. To obtain information on the activity of collagen producing cells at an early stage in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in situ hybridisation wa...

  5. Local delivery of biodegradable pirfenidone nanoparticles ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to assess sustained delivery and enhanced efficacy of pirfenidone-loaded nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing pirfenidone (NPs) were prepared and characterized. Biodistribution of NPs and solution was assessed using LC-MS after intratracheal administration in C57Bl/6 mice at 3 and 24 h and 1 week post-administration. Efficacy was tested in C57Bl/6 mice in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Mice received 10 ?g pirfenidone intratracheally in solution or NPs, once a week, for 3 weeks after bleomycin administration. Drug effects were monitored on day 28. Lung hydroxyproline content, total number of cells, and numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assessed. Numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were assessed in the lung as well. NPs sustained significantly higher levels of pirfenidone in the lungs and BAL at 24 h and 1 week, compared to the solution group. Pirfenidone solution and NPs significantly reduced hydroxyproline levels by 57 and 81%, respectively, compared to bleomycin alone. At the end of 4 weeks, BAL cellularity was reduced by 25.4% and 56% with solution and NP treatment, respectively. The numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the BAL were also reduced by 58.9 and 82.4% for solution and 74.5% and 89.7% for NPs, respectively. The number of inflammatory macrophages in the lung was reduced by 62.8% and the in the lung was reduced by 62.8% and the number of neutrophils was reduced by 59.1% in the NP group and by 37.7% and 44.5%, respectively, in the solution group, compared to bleomycin alone. In conclusion, nanoparticles sustain lung pirfenidone delivery and enhance its anti-fibrotic efficacy. (paper)

  6. Stimulation of alveolar macrophages by BCG vaccine enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyczewska, E; Chyczewski, L; Ba?kowski, E; Su?kowski, S; Nikli?ski, J

    1993-01-01

    It was found that the BCG vaccine injected subcutaneously to the rats enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Pretreatment of rats with this vaccine results in accumulation of activated macrophages in lung interstitium and in the bronchoalveolar spaces. It may be suggested that the activated macrophages release various cytokines which may stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components. PMID:7505240

  7. Complete Resolution of Cystic Hygroma with Single Session of Intralesional Bleomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Atwan; Isam Elamin Elsiddig; Muhammad Sharif

    2012-01-01

    Intralesional sclerotherapy as a primary modality of management for cystic hygroma is successfully described in literature. It has many benefits over surgical approach; recurrence being the concern of as much as 20% of patients in which apparent complete excision has been performed. Bleomycin is one of sclerosing agents used as intralesional therapy in cystic hygroma. Complete response usually occurs in multiple sessions of sclerotherapy. Rarely, complete resolution occurs with single session...

  8. Relationship between the time of doubling of pulmonary tumours and the uptake of labelled bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlations between the uptake of cobalt 57 labelled bleomycin and, firstly, survival and, secondly, the time necessary for a primary bronchial carcinoma to double in volume were studied. Analysis of 22 cases showed significant correlations to p=0,001. The greater the fixation index, the shorter was the doubling time and the survival. One may consider that this finding permits measurement of the cellular proliferation of carcinomas, the clinical interest of which is obvious

  9. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Khin Ei; Okada, Shigeru

    1995-01-01

    "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females). High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store ...

  10. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C.; Silver, Richard M.; Visconti, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compared the effects in mice of bleomycin delivered directly into the lungs (direct model) or systemically using osmotic minipumps (pump model) to determine which more closely resembles human ILD. The pump model is more similar to human SSc ILD in that: 1) lung injury/fibrosis is limited to the subpleural portion of the lung in the pump model and in SSc ILD, whereas the entire lung is affected in the direct model; 2) conversely, there is massive inflammation throughout the lung in the direct model, whereas inflammation is limited in the pump model and in SSc ILD; 3) hypertrophic type II alveolar epithelial cells are present at high levels in SSc ILD and in the pump model but not in the direct model; and 4) lung fibrosis is accompanied by dermal fibrosis. The pump model is also move convenient and humane than the direct model because there is less weight loss and mortality. PMID:24583879

  11. Intratumoral (i.t.) application of 57Co-bleomycin. Results of pharmacodynamic and autoradiographic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Co-labeled bleomycin in aqueous solution was applied intratumorally (i.t.) in 51 tumor-bearing nude mice (tissue from a carcinoma of the tongue, from the lymph node metastasis of the tongue carcinoma, and from a cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland, as well as to 11 patients with a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Animal experiments showed that the intratumoral radioactivity accumulation is 10 times higher after i.t. application than after intravenous injection, that the tongue carcinoma accumulates bleomycin to a higher degree than the other tumors, and that a considerable portion of the radioactive bleomycin is found in necrotic tumor areas only 5 hours p.i. The clinical study showed that large amounts of the radiopharmaceutical are eliminated from the tumor within 1 hour of injection. Retention of the pharmaceutical seems to depend on tumor localization and/or the vascularity of the adjacent tissue. The radiographic findings were compatible with the results gained in animal experiments. (orig.)

  12. Intralesional bleomycin sclerotherapy: an effective treatment of cystic hygroma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the outcome of intralesional sclerotherapy with injection Bleomycin in cystic hygroma in children. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: The department of Pediatric Surgery at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2011 to Dec 2012. Patients and Methods: All patients with peripheral cystic hygroma (CH) presenting to us, were enrolled in the study. The cyst was aspirated in the operation theater under sedation. Injection bleomycin 0.5 mg /kg diluted in 10-15 cc of distilled water was injected in the cyst at multiple sites. Injection was repeated after every month depending upon the response. Results: A total of 30 patients reported to the department with superficial cystic hygroma, 12 were males (40%) and 18 were females (60%), age ranged from 15 days to 8 years. Cervico-facial was the most common site. Results were assessed in terms of excellent (complete resolution), good (> 50% reduction in size) and poor (< 50% reduction in size). In 2 patients, complete resolution was achieved after maximum seven shots of intra-lesional bleomycin injections (IBI), while 18/30 (60%) resolved after single dose. Twenty seven patients (90%) resolved completely, 2 (6.6%) had good response, 1 (3.3%) showed poor response. Minor complications were noted which were treated by ymptomatic treatment. No major side effects or recurrence were noted in maximum 2 years follow up. (author)

  13. Intralesional bleomycin injection in management of low flow vascular malformations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anita T; Adams, Saleigh; Adams, Kevin; Hudson, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    Low flow vascular malformations are challenging to manage, particularly with their propensity to grow, and can lead to severe disfigurement and dysfunction. Traditional surgical excision is fraught with tedious dissection and complications, particularly in the head and neck region. Trends toward less invasive techniques, such as intralesional sclerotherapy, are proving to be successful independent treatments or adjuncts in management in low flow vascular malformations. This study was a retrospective case note review, over an 8-year period, reporting the outcomes of 32 children (mean = 5.8 years, range = 5 months-11.5 years) with radiologically confirmed low flow vascular malformations, treated with serial intralesional bleomycin injection (IBI) therapy. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, imaging findings, treatment course, radiological and clinical response to treatment were recorded. An overall 91% (n = 29) response rate was achieved, with 28% obtaining complete resolution for low flow vascular malformations. Lesions were sub-categorized into venous malformation, including mixed venous-capillary (n = 27) or lymphatic malformation (LM) (n = 5). Twenty-seven of 32 children experienced no complications. Local complications included superficial skin infection (n = 2), skin necrosis (n = 1), hyperpigmentation, and minor contour deformity. There was no recurrence and no systemic side-effects to bleomycin. Mean follow-up was 38 months (range = 6-95 months). In conclusion, serial intralesional bleomycin injections can be effective and also safe in a paediatric population for the successful management of symptomatic or disfiguring low flow vascular malformations. PMID:25204206

  14. Fasudil, a Rho-Kinase Inhibitor, Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuojun Xu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF involve multiple pathways, such as in?ammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, coagulation, oxidative stress, and developmental processes. The small GTPase, RhoA, and its target protein, Rho-kinase (ROCK, may interact with other signaling pathways known to contribute to pulmonary ?brosis. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effects and mechanisms of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Our results showed that the Aschcroft score and hydroxyproline content of the bleomycin-treated mouse lung decreased in response to fasudil treatment. The number of infiltrated inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was attenuated by fasudil. In addition, fasudil reduced the production of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. These findings suggest that fasudil may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of pulmonary ?brosis.

  15. Effects of acronycine, bleomycin and cytosine arabinoside on the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of three chemotherapeutic agents, acronycine, bleomycin and cytosine arabinoside, alone and combined with radiation, on cell cycle progression and viability of L-cells was examined. The percentages of cells in G1, S and (G2 + M)-phases as derived from pulse cytophotometric DNA distribution patterns were recorded as a function of exposure time. After 24-h treatment with 10 ?g/ml acronycine, 46.4% of cells were accumulated in (G2 + M)-phase compared to 12.1% in the controls. This accumulation was significantly enhanced by an irradiation with 150 rads of X-rays resulting in arresting 63.1% of cells in this phase. Similar findings were obtained after a 24-h treatment with 100 ?g/ml bleomycin. 54.4 % of cells were arrested in (G2 + M)-phase by the chemical treatment alone, while the combined treatment, bleomycin and radiation, yielded an accumulation of 66.3% of cells in G2 + M. A 24-h exposure to 0.2 ?g/ml cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) produced a reversible block of 72.8% of cells in S phase compared to 27.4% in the control cultures. This S block was less pronounced after the combined treatment (51.1%). Some implications of the results for combined therapy are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Interspecies cytogenetic comparisons: Studies with x-radiation and bleomycin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of in vitro experiments were conducted to determine if there are innate differences in the sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from different mammalian species to clastogens. Mouse, rat, and human whole blood samples were exposed to either 0, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy x-radiation or 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 ?g/ml bleomycin for 4 hr. Bromodeoxyuridine-containing cultures were initiated and the PBLs stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin. All cultures were harvested following a 3-hr colcemid treatment. Slides were made and differentially stained, and first-division metaphases were scored for chromosome aberrations. In the x-radiation studies human PBLs were significantly more sensitive than mouse PBLs which were in turn more sensitive than rat PBLs as measured by either the total percent aberrant cells or the number of dicentrics. Data from all three species could be fitted to a linear-quadratic model. Results with bleomycin suggest that the mouse and human PBLs are equally sensitive to the clastogenic effects of bleomycin. Both appeared to be more sensitive than the rat PBLs, but the variation between experiments was such that the results among species were not significantly different. These results indicate that there may be inherent differences in sensitivity among PBLs of mammalian species; however, more studies are needed to determine if the differences presented here hold for other agents. 39 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabsrefs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Novel regulatory role for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded vFLIP in chemosensitization to bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yuri; Noguchi, Kohji; Segawa, Hatsune; Tanaka, Noritaka; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2011-11-18

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is associated with malignancy. KSHV-derived vFLIP is structurally related to cellular FLIP and binds to NEMO/I?B kinase (IKK?) to activate NF-?B signaling. NF-?B activation is postulated to confer chemoresistance to various anticancer drugs. However, here we showed that vFLIP expression uniquely sensitized HEK293 cells to bleomycin and its derivatives. Chemosensitization to bleomycin by vFLIP accompanied accumulation of ?-H2AX and G2/M-arrest of cells, while bleomycin-induced DNA damage checkpoints, such as phosphorylation of Chk2 and foci formation of Rad51, were similarly detected in both parental and vFLIP-expressing cells, suggesting that primary DNA damage was not affected by vFLIP. Paradoxically, while NF-?B activity was little affected by bleomycin treatment, vFLIP-stimulated NF-?B activity was suppressed by it. Additionally, cAMP-response element (CRE)- and p53-dependent transcriptional reporter activity was negatively regulated by vFLIP in the presence of bleomycin. Interestingly, a negative regulatory phosphatase essential for G2 checkpoint recovery and for dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX, Wip1/PPM1D, whose gene promoter is regulated by p53, CRE and NF-?B, was selectively downregulated in vFLIP-expressing cells after bleomycin treatment. These results suggest that vFLIP-mediated transcriptional regulation such as Wip1/PPM1D repression is involved in chemosensitization to bleomycin. PMID:22037577

  18. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines : a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation offers several advantages over standard treatment options: calcium is inexpensive and may readily be applied without special precautions, as is the case with cytostatic drugs. Therefore, details on the use of calcium electroporation are essential for carrying out clinical trials comparing calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy. METHODS: The effects of calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation (alone or in combination) were compared in three different cell lines (DC-3F, transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblast; K-562, human leukemia; and murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma). Furthermore, the effects of electrical pulsing parameters and calcium compound on treatment efficacy were determined. RESULTS: Electroporation with either calcium or bleomycin significantly reduced cell survival (p<0.0001), without evidence of a synergistic effect. Cellular death following calcium or bleomycin treatment occurred at similar applied voltages, suggesting that similar parameters should be applied. At equimolar concentrations, calcium chloride and calcium glubionate resulted in comparable decreases in cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium electroporation and bleomycin electroporation significantly reduce cell survival at similar applied voltage parameters. The effect of calcium electroporation is independent of calcium compound. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study strongly supports the use of calcium electroporation as a potential cancer therapy and the results may aid in future clinical trials.

  19. A cell-free system for studying a priming factor involved in repair of bleomycin-damaged DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki,Shuji

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple cell-free system for studying a priming factor involved in the repair of bleomycin-damaged DNA was established. The template-primer used for the repair DNA synthesis was prepared by treating the closed circular, superhelical form of pUC19 plasmid DNA with 2.2 microM bleomycin and 20 microM ferrous ions. Single-strand breaks were introduced into pUC19 DNA by the bleomycin treatment, and the DNA was consequently converted largely into the open circular form. A system for repair of this bleomycin-damaged DNA was constructed with a priming factor, DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase beta or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, ATP, T4 DNA ligase and four deoxynucleoside triphosphates. After incubation, the conformation of the DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The open circular DNA was largely converted to the closed circular DNA, indicating that the single-strand breaks of DNA were repaired. When the priming factor was omitted, DNA repair did not occur. The present system seemed to be applicable to the study of priming factors involved in the repair of DNA with single-strand breaks caused not only by bleomycin but also by ionizing radiation or active oxygen.

  20. The growth of hemopoietic precursor cells (CFU-C) of adriamycin-treated or whole-body-irradiated dogs with or without bleomycin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the cytostatic drug bleomycin (BLM) on the growth of canine hemopoietic stem-cells in vitro was tested in order to detect a stem-cell deficiency after in vivo-treatment with adriamycin (ADM) or whole-body-irradiation. Stem-cells damaged by irradiation or cytostatics are suppressed by bleomycin-induced strand-breaks in vitro. After stem-cell recovery the increased sensitivity towards bleomycin can no longer be detected. After whole-body-irradiation and cytostatical treatment the stem-cells who remained intact have to compensate the quantitative change of the stem-cells by increased proliferation. The proliferating cells show a particular bleomycin-sensitivity. Especially after irradiation a long persistence of the bleomycin-sensitivity can be reckoned on. (orig./MG)

  1. Diagnostic value of thermography and sup(99m)Tc bleomycin scintigraphy for nodules of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined interest of thermography and sup(99m)Tc bleomycin scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of a cold thyroid nodule was evaluated in 86 patients. In all cases a histological examination was performed. Of the 30 malignant nodules (clinically suspect and solitary nodules) 21 (70%) showed concentrations of sup(99m)Tc bleomycin while only 7 of the 12 solitary malignant nodules did so. Among the 54 benign nodules the false positive rate was 54%. Thermography was positive in 26 (87%) of the 30 malignant nodules and in only 8 (67%) of the 12 solitary malignant nodules. For the 54 benign nodules the false positive rate was 72%. The combined results of the study do not provide any improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Thus it can be said that applications of sup(99m)Tc bleomycin and thermography in the diagnosis of solitary hypofixiant nodules are of limited value

  2. Role of 57Co-bleomycin in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Results of 4 years of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57Co-bleomycin was applied in 64 patients with squamous carcinoma or precancerous conditions of the cervix. Clinical verification of these cases was compared with the results of scintigraphic examinations using 57Co-bleomycin. It was found that it was as useful to accept a low level of scintigraphy which did not exclude from further considerations lesions qualified as moderately intense malignant focus, since this increased the sensitivity of the method while its specificity was sufficient. The use of 57Co-bleomycin for assessing the extent of the malignant process in cervical carcinoma may be particularly important in less advanced cases of the disease determining the actual extent of the lesions and cases with allergy or with lymphatic vessels blockade making impossible lymphographic investigations. (author)

  3. Microscopic study of the 7Li(n,?)8Li and 7Be(p,?)8B reactions in a multiconfiguration three-cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-cluster generator coordinate method is applied to the 7Li(n,?)8Li and 7Be(p,?)8B capture reactions. The 8B (or 8Li) nucleus is defined by a mixing of (?+3He)+p and (?+p)+3He (or mirror) configurations. We investigate the sensitivity of different observables with respect to the nucleon-nucleon interaction by considering four different Volkov forces. For all of them, the model fairly reproduces most of the experimentally known spectroscopic properties of the 8B and 8Li mirror nuclei. Recent measurements of the quadrupole moments are well explained without a halo structure. The 7Li(n,?)8Li cross section supports the data of Imhof et al. rather than those of Wiescher et al. At zero energy, the 7Be(p,?)8B astrophysical S-factors slightly depend on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. They are consistent with the currently accepted value, but contradict lower estimates. (orig.)

  4. Attenuating endogenous Fgfr2b ligands during bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis does not compromise murine lung repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, BreAnne; Henneke, Ingrid; Hezel, Stefanie; Al Alam, Denise; El Agha, Elie; Chao, Cho-Ming; Quantius, Jennifer; Wilhelm, Jochen; Jones, Matthew; Goth, Kerstin; Li, Xiaokun; Seeger, Werner; Königshoff, Melanie; Herold, Susanne; Rizvanov, Albert A; Günther, Andreas; Bellusci, Saverio

    2015-05-15

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) mediate organ repair. Lung epithelial cell overexpression of Fgf10 postbleomycin injury is both protective and therapeutic, characterized by increased survival and attenuated fibrosis. Exogenous administration of FGF7 (palifermin) also showed prophylactic survival benefits in mice. The role of endogenous Fgfr2b ligands on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is still elusive. This study reports the expression of endogenous Fgfr2b ligands, receptors, and signaling targets in wild-type mice following bleomycin lung injury. In addition, the impact of attenuating endogenous Fgfr2b-ligands following bleomycin-induced fibrosis was tested by using a doxycycline (dox)-based inducible, soluble, dominant-negative form of the Fgfr2b receptor. Double-transgenic (DTG) Rosa26(rtTA/+);tet(O)solFgfr2b mice were validated for the expression and activity of soluble Fgfr2b (failure to regenerate maxillary incisors, attenuated recombinant FGF7 signal in the lung). As previously reported, no defects in lung morphometry were detected in DTG (+dox) mice exposed from postnatal days (PN) 1 through PN105. Female single-transgenic (STG) and DTG mice were subjected to various levels of bleomycin injury (1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 U/kg). Fgfr2b ligands were attenuated either throughout injury (days 0-11; days 0-28) or during later stages (days 6-28 and 14-28). No significant changes in survival, weight, lung function, confluent areas of fibrosis, or hydroxyproline deposition were detected in DTG mice. These results indicate that endogenous Fgfr2b ligands do not significantly protect against bleomycin injury, nor do they expedite the resolution of bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. PMID:25820524

  5. Protocol Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Cheng Li (Protocol Online)

    2012-01-06

    Protocol Online is a database of research protocols in a variety of life science fields. It contains protocols contributed by worldwide researchers as well as links to web protocols hosted by worldwide research labs, biotech companies, personal web sites. The data is stored in a MySql relational database. Protocol Online also hosts discipline specific discussion forums (BioForum), and provides a free PubMed search and alerting service (PubAlert).

  6. Platinum complexes inhibit repair of potentially lethal damage following bleomycin treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, S A; Teicher, B A; Boeheim, K.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Ervin, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The SCC-25 cell line is a well-established line derived from a human squamous carcinoma of the head and neck. The capacity of this cell line for recovery from potentially lethal damage following X-ray treatment has been documented. The survival curve of stationary phase SCC-25 cells exposed to various concentrations of bleomycin is biphasic with an initial sensitive phase and a less sensitive second phase as is common for many cell lines. Stationary phase SCC-25 cells were exposed to 100 mU m...

  7. Modulation of the clastogenic activity of ionizing radiation and bleomycin by the aminothiol WR-1065

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WR-1065 (2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol) reduces the induction by ionizing radiation of genetic damage, including DNA single- and double-strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and hprt mutations in mammalian cells. The effectiveness of WR-1065 as a radioprotector is apparently enhanced by its tendency, a a cationic thiol, to concentrate near DNA. The authors have studied the modulation by WR-1065 of the induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in G0 human lymphocytes by ionizing radiation and by the radiomimetic chemical bleomycin

  8. 57Co-bleomycin scintigraphy for the preoperative detection and staging of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five consecutive patients with lung tumors were classified according to the presence of metastases by the use of 57Co-Bleomycin scintigraphy. Twenty-two of the tumors visualized but metastatic spread to hilar lymph nodes was not detected. Reliable separation of central tumors with and without growth into neighbouring organs was not possible. Mediastinal uptake was found in eight cases but only a part of these could be verified by operation. The method can contribute to the evaluation of lung tumors and can be helpful to avoid some unnecessary thoracotomies. (orig.)

  9. Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in G2 lymphocytes from Down syndrome patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlise Ladvocat, Bartholomei-Santos; Edmundo José de, Lucca.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Inúmeros trabalhos têm demonstrado que linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down apresentam uma maior freqüência de aberrações cromossômicas quando expostos a radiação ionizante ou agentes químicos nas fases G0 ou G1 do ciclo celular, mas não em G2, quando comparados com controles normais. Para d [...] eterminar a sensibilidade de linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down, na fase G2, usou-se o radiomimético bleomicina em culturas de linfócitos de 24 pacientes. Todos os pacientes mostraram trissomia livre do cromossomo 21 (47,XX + 21 ou 47,XY + 21). Indivíduos que apresentaram freqüência média de quebras cromatídicas por célula superior a 0,8 foram considerados sensíveis à droga. Nenhum controle apresentou suscetibilidade à bleomicina e entre os 24 pacientes com síndrome de Down somente um foi sensível à droga. Não se observou qualquer diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em relação às freqüências de quebras cromatídicas em linfócitos em G2, o que está de acordo com outros trabalhos. A distribuição das quebras induzidas pela bleomicina, em cada grupo cromossômico, foi igual para pacientes e controles. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada na resposta à bleomicina entre homens e mulheres, nos dois grupos. Provavelmente, o principal fator envolvido na sensibilidade cromossômica de linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down seja a fase do ciclo celular na qual a célula é tratada. Abstract in english Several studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes from patients with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations when they are exposed to ionizing radiation or to chemicals at the G0 or G1 phases of the cell cycle, but not at G2, when compared to normal subjects. To [...] determine the susceptibility of DS lymphocytes at G2 phase, bleomycin, a radiomimetic agent, was used to induce DNA breaks in blood cultures from 24 Down syndrome patients. All the patients with DS showed free trisomy 21 (47,XX + 21 or 47,XY + 21). Individuals that showed an average number of chromatid breaks per cell higher than 0.8 were considered sensitive to the drug. No control child showed susceptibility to bleomycin, and among the 24 patients with DS, only one was sensitive to the drug. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, regarding chromatid break frequencies in treated G2 lymphocytes. The distribution of bleomycin-induced breaks in each group of chromosomes was similar for DS and controls. No significant difference was found in the response to bleomycin between male and female subjects. Probably, the main factor involved in chromosome sensitivity of lymphocytes from patients with DS is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is treated.

  10. Chromosome sensitivity to bleomycin in G2 lymphocytes from Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Ladvocat Bartholomei-Santos

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes from patients with Down syndrome (DS exhibit an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations when they are exposed to ionizing radiation or to chemicals at the G0 or G1 phases of the cell cycle, but not at G2, when compared to normal subjects. To determine the susceptibility of DS lymphocytes at G2 phase, bleomycin, a radiomimetic agent, was used to induce DNA breaks in blood cultures from 24 Down syndrome patients. All the patients with DS showed free trisomy 21 (47,XX + 21 or 47,XY + 21. Individuals that showed an average number of chromatid breaks per cell higher than 0.8 were considered sensitive to the drug. No control child showed susceptibility to bleomycin, and among the 24 patients with DS, only one was sensitive to the drug. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, regarding chromatid break frequencies in treated G2 lymphocytes. The distribution of bleomycin-induced breaks in each group of chromosomes was similar for DS and controls. No significant difference was found in the response to bleomycin between male and female subjects. Probably, the main factor involved in chromosome sensitivity of lymphocytes from patients with DS is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell is treated.Inúmeros trabalhos têm demonstrado que linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down apresentam uma maior freqüência de aberrações cromossômicas quando expostos a radiação ionizante ou agentes químicos nas fases G0 ou G1 do ciclo celular, mas não em G2, quando comparados com controles normais. Para determinar a sensibilidade de linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down, na fase G2, usou-se o radiomimético bleomicina em culturas de linfócitos de 24 pacientes. Todos os pacientes mostraram trissomia livre do cromossomo 21 (47,XX + 21 ou 47,XY + 21. Indivíduos que apresentaram freqüência média de quebras cromatídicas por célula superior a 0,8 foram considerados sensíveis à droga. Nenhum controle apresentou suscetibilidade à bleomicina e entre os 24 pacientes com síndrome de Down somente um foi sensível à droga. Não se observou qualquer diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em relação às freqüências de quebras cromatídicas em linfócitos em G2, o que está de acordo com outros trabalhos. A distribuição das quebras induzidas pela bleomicina, em cada grupo cromossômico, foi igual para pacientes e controles. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada na resposta à bleomicina entre homens e mulheres, nos dois grupos. Provavelmente, o principal fator envolvido na sensibilidade cromossômica de linfócitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down seja a fase do ciclo celular na qual a célula é tratada.

  11. Consolidation electrochemotherapy with bleomycin in metastatic melanoma during treatment with dabrafenib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small molecules that inhibit V600 mutated BRAF protein, such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib, are effective in treatment of metastatic melanoma. We here describe the clinical course of a V600E BRAF mutated metastatic melanoma patient with systemic disease, who developed tumor progression on superficial soft-tissue metastases during treatment with dabrafenib. Bleomycin electrochemotherapy during dabrafenib treatment was administered to control the soft-tissue progressing metastases and ensured sustained local control without significant toxicity. The new combined approach maintained the patient quality of life and allowed for the prosecution of the target therapy, which proved to be still effective on systemic disease, up to 17 months

  12. Antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinghua, Song; Lubing, Zhu; Ming, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 ?M). Cell proliferation [...] was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of ?-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.

  13. Advanced and rapidly progressing head and neck cancer: good palliation following intralesional bleomycin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, Keith Ian

    2011-09-01

    The authors herein report the case of a 61-year-old man undergoing adjuvant therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer, who developed parastomal recurrence in his radiation field around his tracheotomy site, while he was undergoing radiation therapy, and compromised the secure placement of his tracheotomy tube and maintenance of his upper airway. MRI restaging and biopsy confirmed recurrence and progressive disease in his mediastinum. He underwent local therapy with intralesional bleomycin with good palliation, and ability to maintain the patency of his upper airway.

  14. Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 with bleomycin results in cellular activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical use of bleomycin results in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory syndromes that are mediated by the production of cytokines and chemokines. In this study, we demonstrate that cell activation is initiated upon the recognition of bleomycin as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern by toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. The THP1 human monocytic cell line, which constitutively expresses high levels of TLR2, secretes interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? during bleomycin exposure. The TLR2-dependent nature of cell activation and cytokine secretion is supported by (1) the inability of TLR2-deficient human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells to exhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation and secrete IL-8 in response to bleomycin; (2) the acquired ability of HEK293 to exhibit NF-?B activation and secrete IL-8 upon experimental expression of TLR2; and (3) the inhibition of cell activation in TLR2-expressing HEK293 and THP1 by anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these observations identify TLR2 activation as a critical event that triggers NF-?B activation and secretion of cytokines and chemokines during bleomycin exposure. Our in vitro findings could serve as a molecular mechanism underlying the pro-inflammatory toxicity associated with bleomycin. Whether bleomycin engages with other cellular receptors that results in activation of alternate signaling pathways and whether the TLR2-agonist activity of bleomycin contribute to its anti- of bleomycin contribute to its anti-neoplastic property deserve further study

  15. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Fibrosis of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Yuben; Atienza, Daniel; Manuelpillai, Ursula; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Tchongue, Jorge; Ilancheran, Sivakami; Boyd, Richard; Trounson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by loss of lung tissue as a result of inflammation and fibrosis. Augmenting tissue repair by the use of mesenchymal stem cells may be an important advance in treating this condition. We evaluated the role of term human umbilical cord cells derived from Wharton’s jelly with a phenotype consistent with mesenchymal stem cells (uMSCs) in the treatment of a bleomycin-induced mouse model of lung injury. uMSCs were administered systemically, and lungs were harvested at 7, 14, and 28 days post-bleomycin. Injected uMSCs were located in the lung 2 weeks later only in areas of inflammation and fibrosis but not in healthy lung tissue. The administration of uMSCs reduced inflammation and inhibited the expression of transforming growth factor-?, interferon-?, and the proinflammatory cytokines macrophage migratory inhibitory factor and tumor necrosis factor-?. Collagen concentration in the lung was significantly reduced by uMSC treatment, which may have been a consequence of the simultaneous reduction in Smad2 phosphorylation (transforming growth factor-? activity). uMSCs also increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels and reduced their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, favoring a pro-degradative milieu following collagen deposition. Notably, injected human lung fibroblasts did not influence either collagen or matrix metalloproteinase levels in the lung. The results of this study suggest that uMSCs have antifibrotic properties and may augment lung repair if used to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:19497992

  16. Protective effect of dexpanthenol on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Hilal; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Gulbas, Gazi; Vardi, Nigar; Polat, Alaadin; Cetin, Asli; Kilic, Talat; Aytemur, Zeynep Ayfer

    2013-12-01

    Despite extensive studies, there is no effective treatment currently available other than pirfenidone for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A protective effect of pantothenic acid and its derivatives on cell damage produced by oxygen radicals has been reported, but it has not been tested in bleomycin (BLM)--induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of dexpanthenol (Dxp) on pulmonary fibrosis. Thirty-two rats were assigned to four groups as follows: (1) control group, (2) dexpanthenol (Dxp) group; 500 mg/kg Dxp continued intraperitoneally for 14 days, (3) bleomycin (BLM) group; a single intratracheal injection of BLM (2.5 mg/kg body weight in 0.25-ml phosphate buffered saline), and (4) BLM + Dxp-treated group; 500 mg/kg Dxp was administered 1 h before the intratracheal BLM injection and continued for 14 days i.p. The histopathological grades of lung inflammation and collagen deposition, tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. BLM provoked inflammation and collagen deposition (p 0.05). We showed that Dxp significantly prevents BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of Dxp in the treatment of lung fibrosis. PMID:23995256

  17. Conjugated bleomycin A5-DTPA and its labelling with 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin A5(BLMA5) is conjugated with cyclic DTPA anhydride and labelled with 153Sm. The conditions of conjugation and labelling are investigated. The possible composition of BLMA5-DTPA is analyzed by measurement and computation. The results show that bleomycin A5 can conjugate with DTPA anhydride easily when the mole ratio of cDTPAA to BLMA5 is more than 10 in weak basic media, and the conjugating yield is more than 80%; A molecule of BLMA5 conjugate with 2 molecule of cDTPAA when the mole ratio of cDTPAA to BLMA5 is not less than 15, and the conjugative positions is on 2 different N atoms. The results of labeling experiments indicate that the labeling yield of 153Sm-DTPAA-BLMA5 is 98% at pH7 - 9 and room temperature for 30 min when the mole ratio of DTPA-BLMA5 to 153Sm is more than 8. 153Sm-BLMA5-DTPA is stable and the radiochemical purity is more than 96% at room temperature for 6 days

  18. Host predisposition by endogenous Transforming Growth Factor-?1 overexpression promotes pulmonary fibrosis following bleomycin injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Yussef; Malizia, Andrea P; Keating, Dominic T; Birch, Mary; Tomlinson, Annette; Martin, Gail; Ferguson, Mark WJ; Doran, Peter P; Egan, Jim J

    2007-01-01

    Background Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse disease involving the lung parenchyma. Despite recent advances, the molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of this disease remain elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated TGF?1 as a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. Methods In this study we have used a transgenic mouse based strategy to identify the effect of overexpression of this key effector mediator on the development of pulmonary fibrosis in response to exogenous injury. We bred two lines (line 25 and 18) of transgenic mice (Tr+) that overexpressed active TGF?1. Three-month old transgenic and wild type mice were subsequently wounded with intraperitoneal bleomycin. Mice were sacrificed at 6 weeks post-bleomycin and their lungs analysed histologically and biochemically. Results The severity of lung fibrosis was significantly greater in the Tr+ mice compared to the wild type mice. Using an oligonucleotide microarray based strategy we identified discrete patterns of gene expression contributing to TGF?1 associated pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusion This data emphasises the importance of a host predisposition in the form of endogenous TGF?1, in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in response to an exogenous injury. PMID:17883846

  19. New 111In-bleomycin complex for combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six days after tumor transplantation three daily intraperitoneal doses of 0.9% NaCl, bleomycin (BLM), or a new 111In-bleomycin complex (BLMC, 15 microCi/g body weight) were administered to glioma-bearing mice. After therapy, tumors in mice treated with 111In-BLMC were smaller than those treated with BLM. Sixteen days after the first injection tumor size for 111In-BLMC-treated mice was 560 (240-1,030) mm3, 1980 (1400-3290) mm3 for BLM (P less than 0.025), and 4830 (2580-9180) mm3 for NaCl (0.1 less than P less than 0.2). Thirteen days after tumor transplantation glioma-bearing mice received single intratumor injection of 0.9% NaCl, BLM, or 111In-BLMC (1.5 mCi, carried by 0.5 mg BLM/g tumor weight). The average tumor size for 111In-BLMC was smaller than that for BLM by a factor of 2.5-3.7. Host weights for these two groups were similar, and morphologic abnormalities were not found in kidney or liver

  20. SRT1720, a SIRT1 Activator, Aggravates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Tobe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs, caused by lung epithelial injury followed by apoptosis, are often challenging. It has been controversial whether the SIRT1 protein, a principal modulator of longevity due to caloric restriction, ameliorates or aggravates ILD in animal models. Here we examined the effect of SRT1720, a syn- thetic activator of SIRT1, on bleomycin-induced lung injury in a mouse model and apoptosis in cultured epithelial cells. Oral intubation of SRT1720 over a period of 15 days caused body weight loss and a high mortality rate among bleomy- cin-treated mice. Histological examinations showed that the SRT1720 load increased fibrosis in the bleomycin-treated lung. An analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed remarkably increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the SRT1720-treated group. Moreover, the apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells, caused by X-ray irradiation and an anti-Fas activating antibody, was promoted by SRT1720. These results indicate that SRT1720 not only aggravates bleomy- cin-induced ILD, but stimulates the apoptosis of physically and biologically stimulated A549 cells. While SIRT1 acti- vators are considered promising for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, and chronic ob- structive pulmonary diseases, an excess of food containing SIRT1 activators may be harmful depending on the disease state, especially in the case of acute inflammation.

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Giant Haemangiomas of the Liver: Embolisation With Bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThe management of patients with giant haemangioma of the liver remains controversial. Although the usual treatment method for symptomatic giant haemangioma is surgery, the classical paradigm of operative resection remains. In this study, we evaluated the symptomatic improvement and size-reduction effect of embolisation with bleomycin mixed with lipiodol for the treatment of symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma.MethodsThis study included 26 patients [21 female, five male; age 41–65 years (mean 49.83 ± 1.53)] with symptomatic giant haemangioma unfit for surgery and treated with selective embolisation by bleomycin mixed with lipiodol. The patients were followed-up (mean 7.4 ± 0.81 months) clinically and using imaging methods. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0, and p 3 (range 3.39–1559 cm3) before intervention and 244.43 ± 54.38 cm3 (range 94–967 cm3) after intervention. No mortality or morbidity related to the treatment was identified. Symptomatic improvement was observed in all patients, and significant volume reduction was achieved (p = 0.001).ConclusionThe morbidity of surgical treatment in patients with giant liver hemangioma were similar to those obtained in patients followed-up without treatment. Therefore, follow-up without treatment is preferred in most patients. Thus, minimally invasive embolisation is an alternative and effective treatment for giant symptomatic haemangioma of the liver

  2. Astragalus polysaccharide suppresses excessive collagen accumulation in a murine model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Su, You-Ming; Liu, Jing-Yang; Wang, Cong-Min; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Systemic scleroderma is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrotic changes in skin and other organs involving excessive collagen deposition. The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway plays a key role in the fibrotic process in systemic scleroderma (SSc). Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of APS on TGF-? signaling and its potential mechanism using a murine model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Scleroderma was induced in C3H/He N mice by subcutaneous bleomycin injections daily for 21 days. Skin samples were obtained 7, 14, and 21 days and TGF-?1, Smad2, Smad3 mRNA expression was observed by real time PCR. The hydroxyproline content which consistent with the collagen content in skin samples from the BLM-injected group was significantly higher than the PBS group, and corresponded with dermal thickening at the injection site. In contrast, mice treated with APS after initiating BLM injection showed obviously lesser collagen content. Increased TGF-?1, Smad2, Smad3 mRNA expression were also observed in the BLM group. TGF-?1, Smad2, Smad3 expression was significantly lesser for the APS group than for the BLM group. In contrast, TGF-?1 mRNA expression was remarkably inhibited by APS. These results suggest that APS treatment may inhibit TGF-?1 production, and thus could be a potential drug for managing fibrotic disorders such as SSc. PMID:26064283

  3. Bleomycin A2 and B2 purification by flash chromatography for chemical and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyder, C P; Zhou, W; Doetsch, P W; Marzilli, L G

    1991-01-01

    The clinically used formulation of the anticancer antibiotic, Blenoxane, is a mixture of bleomycin congeners. A new approach to separating the major A2 and B2 congeners has been developed utilizing the flash chromatography technique. A 5-6-inch column of fine mesh silica gel with a solvent system of 1% ammonium formate:methanol (2:3) was used. Low air pressure was applied to the column to increase the flow rate such that separation was complete in approximately 20 min. Reverse phase size exclusion gravity chromatography with Sephadex G-15 column bedding was an effective, rapid procedure for removal of the 1% ammonium formate, the lowest percentage practical for separating the bleomycins. This separation approach does not damage the antibiotics, as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, and DNA cleaving activity. Although not as useful for detection of trace amounts of the drug in biological systems as some of the known HPLC methods, this method is excellent for separating large quantities of the drug (8-32 mg) in order to obtain congeners pure enough for synthetic, biochemical, and biophysical studies. PMID:1723522

  4. Symptomatic Abdominal Simple Cysts: Is Percutaneous Sclerotherapy with Hypertonic Saline and Bleomycin a Treatment Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souftas, V. D.; Kosmidou, M.; Karanikas, M.; Souftas, D.; Menexes, G.; Prassopoulos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple abdominal cysts, using hypertonic saline and bleomycin, as an alternative to surgery. Materials and Methods. This study involved fourteen consecutive patients (ten women, four men, mean age: 59.2?y) with nineteen symptomatic simple cysts (liver n = 14, kidney n = 3, and adrenal n = 2) treated percutaneously using a modified method. Initially CT-guided drainage was performed; the next day the integrity of the cyst/exclusion of extravasation or communications was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by two injections/reabsorptions of the same quantity of hypertonic NaCl 15% solution and three-time repetition of the same procedure with the addition of bleomycin. The catheter was then removed; the patients were hospitalized for 12 hours and underwent follow-ups on 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Cyst's volumes and the reduction rate (%) were calculated in each evaluation. Results. No pain or complications were noted. A significant cyst's volume reduction was documented over time (P < 0.001). On the 12th month 17 cysts disappeared and two displayed a 98.7% and 68.9% reduction, respectively. Conclusion. This percutaneous approach constitutes a very promising nonsurgical alternative for patients with symptomatic simple cyst, without complications under proper precautions, leading to eliminating the majority of cysts. PMID:25878660

  5. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han,Khin Ei

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  6. The Effect of Bleomycin to the Mitotic Index who were Exposed to Radiation Chronically

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    Hilmi ?si

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the therapeutic dose and increasing three differentdoses and three different periods of time Bleomycin (Bleomycin 0.3 ?g/ml, 3?g/ml and 30 ?g/ml, 6, 24, 48 hours were added to blood which was beingcultured on 5 samples who were exposed to radiation chronically.The mitotic index in the lymphocyte culture was determined by means ofcounting 1000 cells from preparations belong to control and experimentgroups.The mitotic index was showed difference value to the differencebleomycin dose and the between difference samples. As the mitotic indexvalue (Per 1000 cell 10.86 for the control group, this value fall to 8.73 at0.3 ?g/ml, 5.0 at 3 ?g/ml and 3.93 at 30 ?g/ml. There were no significantdifferences between control group and 0.3 ?g/ml, 3 ?g/ml and 30 ?g/ml(P>0.05. An important fall was seen between control group and 3 ?g/mland 30 ?g/ml, 0.3 ?g/ml group and 3 ?g/ml, 30 ?g/ml (P<0.01.

  7. Biphasic pulses enhance bleomycin efficacy in a spontaneous canine genital tumor model of chemoresistance: Sticker sarcoma

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    Citro Gennaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sticker's sarcoma (also known as transmissible venereal tumor is a horizontally transmitted neoplasm of the dog, that is passed with coitus. It is a locally aggressive tumor with a low tendency to metastatic spread. The most common locations are the genitals, the nose, the perianal area. Standard treatment consists with chemotherapy with vincristine, however other therapies such as, cryotherapy, immunotherapy or, in selected cases, radiation therapy, have been reported. In this article we describe the outcome of a small cohort of canine patients, with chemotherapy resistant transmissible venereal tumor (TVT, treated with bleomycin selectively driven by trains of biphasic pulses (electrochemotherapy. Three canine patients, with refractory TVT, entered the study and received two sessions of ECT under sedation. The pets had local injection of bleomycin at the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml and five minutes after the chemotherapy, trains of 8 biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 ?s each, with 1 ms interpulse intervals, were delivered by means of modified caliper or, for difficult districts, through paired needle electrode. All the patients responded to the treatment and are still in remission at different times. Electrochemotherapy appears as a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of TVT and warrants further investigations.

  8. Radio-isotope scanning using labelled bleomycin in positive and differential diagnosis of primary and secondary malignant pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lung scan using bleomycin labelled with cobalt 57 was carried out in 308 patients representing 191 primary malignant tumours, 48 pulmonary metastases and 69 benign lesions. The primary and secondary malignant lesions always gave rise to a hyperactive focus except in 8 cases of primary lung tumour. The negative examination may be explained, either by the small size of the lesion or by radiotherapy in progress. Among the benign lesions, only advanced tuberculosis and very inflammatory lung diseases frequently took up labelled bleomycin (15 hyperactive foci out of 69 benign lesions). Quantitative measurements, i.e. ratio of the lesional activity/activity of healthy lung tissue, were carried out in all patients. The malignant lesions were usually more active than the benign lesions. There was no definite correlation between the uptake of labelled bleomycin and the histological nature of the lesion. However, undifferentiated and anaplastic carcinomas were often more active. One should emphasize that these results show that a hyperactive focus has a 94% chance of being a carcinoma. The absence of bleomycin uptake means that there is a 92% chance of a benign lesion

  9. Effects of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina P., Araújo; Francisca da Luz, Dias; Sergio N., Kronka; Catarina S., Takahashi.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes de ocorrência natural têm sido exaustivamente estudados quanto a sua capacidade de proteger organimos e células contra danos oxidativos. Muitos constituintes das plantas, incluindo cúrcuma e curcumina, parecem ser potentes antimutágenos e antioxidantes. Os efeitos de cúrcuma e curcumin [...] a na freqüência de aberrações cromossômicas induzidas pelo agente radiomimético bleomicina (BLM) foram investigados em células do ovário de hamster chinês (CHO). Três concentrações de cada droga, cúrcuma (100, 250 e 500 mg/ml) e curcumina (2,5, 5,0 e 10 mg/ml), foram combinadas com BLM (10 mg/ml) em células CHO tratadas durante as fases G1/S, S ou G2/S do ciclo celular. Nem cúrcuma nem curcumina evitaram o dano cromossômico induzido pela BLM em fase alguma do ciclo celular. Ao contrário, a potenciação da clastogenicidade da BLM pelo curcumina foi nitidamente observada em células tratadas durante as fases S e G2/S. A curcumina também se mostrou clastogênica na dose de 10 mg/ml nos protocolos de tratamento de 9 e 13 h. Contudo, o mecanismo exato pelo qual a curcumina produziu efeitos potenciadores e clastogênicos permanece desconhecido. Abstract in english Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidative damage. Many plant constituents including turmeric and curcumin appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. The effects of turmeric and curcumin on chromosomal aberr [...] ation frequencies induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml) and curcumin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml), were combined with BLM (10 mg/ml) in CHO cells treated during the G1/S, S or G2/S phases of the cell cycle. Neither turmeric nor curcumin prevented BLM-induced chromosomal damage in any phases of the cell cycle. Conversely, a potentiation of the clastogenicity of BLM by curcumin was clearly observed in cells treated during the S and G2/S phases. Curcumin was also clastogenic by itself at 10 µg/ml in two protocols used. However, the exact mechanism by which curcumin produced clastogenic and potentiating effects remains unknown.

  10. Compartmental stress responses correlate with cell survival in bystander effects induced by the DNA damage agent, bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savu, Diana; Petcu, Ileana; Temelie, Mihaela; Mustaciosu, Cosmin; Moisoi, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Physical or chemical stress applied to a cell system trigger a signal cascade that is transmitted to the neighboring cell population in a process known as bystander effect. Despite its wide occurrence in biological systems this phenomenon is mainly documented in cancer treatments. Thus understanding whether the bystander effect acts as an adaptive priming element for the neighboring cells or a sensitization factor is critical in designing treatment strategies. Here we characterize the bystander effects induced by bleomycin, a DNA-damaging agent, and compartmental stress responses associated with this phenomenon. Mouse fibroblasts were treated with increasing concentrations of bleomycin and assessed for DNA damage, cell death and induction of compartmental stress response (endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic stress). Preconditioned media were used to analyze bystander damage using the same end-points. Bleomycin induced bystander response was reflected primarily in increased DNA damage. This was dependent on the concentration of bleomycin and time of media conditioning. Interestingly, we found that ROS but not NO are involved in the transmission of the bystander effect. Consistent transcriptional down-regulation of the stress response factors tested (i.e. BiP, mtHsp60, Hsp70) occurred in the direct effect indicating that bleomycin might induce an arrest of transcription correlated with decreased survival. We observed the opposite trend in the bystander effect, with specific stress markers appearing increased and correlated with increased survival. These data shed new light on the potential role of stress pathways activation in bystander effects and their putative impact on the pro-survival pro-death balance. PMID:25771975

  11. Parabiosis and transplantation models show no evidence of circulating dermal fibroblast progenitors in bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Ivana; Barisic-Dujmovic, Tatjana; Clark, Stephen H

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis of an extra-dermal origin of dermal fibroblasts, parabiosis, and transplantation models were developed utilizing a collagen promoter green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene expressed in dermal fibroblasts. Parabiotic pairs were treated with bleomycin to induce the skin fibrosis that was evaluated for a dense deposition of collagen and inflammatory cell infiltrates in the thickened dermis in comparison with parabiotic pairs treated with saline. Although, in all cases, repeated injection of bleomycin for 4 weeks induced skin fibrosis, only a few GFP positive cells were detected in skin samples from some of the treated non-transgenic mice. Unexpectedly, similar results were observed in saline treated controls. Furthermore, bone marrow chimeras were created in which non-transgenic recipient mice received injections of bone marrow cell preparations isolated from pOBCol3.6GFP transgenic mice. After bone marrow chimerism had been successfully established, fibrotic lesions in the skin were induced by local bleomycin injections. Donor GFP expressing cells were observed in the skin from all recipient mice. However, no difference in the presence of GFP expressing cells was observed between non-treated mice or mice treated with bleomycin or saline. A large number of GFP expressing cells were observed in the lung preparations from all chimeric mice. Mac-3 antibody immunostaining confirmed a macrophage phenotype for these GFP expressing cells suggesting the expression of the pOBCol3.6GFP transgene in a non-collagen producing cell. Based on these observations, we found no evidence of circulating dermal fibroblast progenitors that participate in the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. PMID:17579342

  12. Modulation of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis by Pegylated Hyaluronidase and Dopamine Receptor Antagonist in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, Olga Victorovna; Reztsova, Alena Mikhaylovna; Ermakova, Natalia Nikolaevna; Khmelevskaya, Ekaterina Sergeevna; Krupin, Vycheslav Andreevich; Stepanova, Inna Ernestovna; Artamonov, Andrew Vladimirovich; Bekarev, Andrew Alexandrovich; Madonov, Pavel Gennadjevich

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are groups of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (HA). To stop enzymatic hydrolysis we modified testicular hyaluronidase (HYAL) by activated polyethylene oxide with the help of electron-beam synthesis. As a result we received pegylated hyaluronidase (pegHYAL). Spiperone is a selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonist. It was demonstrated on the model of a single bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium that during the inflammatory phase monotherapy by pegHYAL or spiperone reduced the populations of hematopoietic stem /progenitor cells in the lung parenchyma. PegHYAL also reduced the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the serum and lungs, while spiperone reduced the level of the serum IL-1?. Polytherapy by spiperone and pegHYAL caused the increase of the quantity of hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells in the lungs. Such an influx of blood cell precursors was observed on the background of considerable fall level of TGF-? and the increase level of TNF-? in the serum and lungs. These results show pegHYAL reduced the bleomycin-induced fibrosis reaction (production and accumulation of collagen) in the lung parenchyma. This effect was observed at a single and repetitive bleomycin damage of alveolar epithelium, the antifibrotic activity of pegHYAL surpassing the activity of testicular HYAL. The antifibrotic effect of pegHYAL is enhanced by an additional instillation of spiperone. Therapy by pegHYAL causes the flow of CD31?CD34?CD45?CD44+CD73+CD90+CD106+-cells into the fibrous lungs. These cells are incapable of differentiating into fibroblast cells. Spiperone instillation separately or together with pegHYAL reduced the MSC-like cells considerably. These data enable us to assume, that pegHYAL is a new and promising instrument both for preventive and therapy of toxic pneumofibrosis. The blockage of D2 dopamine receptors with the following change of hyaluronan matrix can be considered as a new strategy in treatment of pneumofibrosis. PMID:25927611

  13. DNA degradation by bleomycin: evidence for 2'R-proton abstraction and for C-O bond cleavage accompanying base propenal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of poly(dA-[2'S-3H]dU) with activated bleomycin yields [3H] uracil propenal that completely retains the tritium label. In contrast, the authors have previously shown that reaction of poly(dA-[2'R-3H]dU) with activated bleomycin affords unlabeled uracil propenal. They have also prepared both cis- and trans-thymine propenals by chemical synthesis and have observed that the trans isomer is the exclusive product of the bleomycin reaction. Moreover, the cis isomer was found to be stable to the conditions of bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Taken together, these results establish that the formation of trans-uracil propenal occurs via an anti-elimination mechanism with the stereospecific abstraction of the 2R proton. The question of phosphodiester bond cleavage during base propenal formation has also been addressed by the analysis of the fate of oxygen-18 in poly(dA-[3'-18O]dT) upon reaction with activated bleomycin. The 5'-monophosphate oligonucleotide ends produced from thymine propenal formation have been converted to inorganic phosphate by the action of alkaline phosphatase, and the phosphate has been analyzed for 18O content by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The oxygen-18 is retained in the inorganic phosphate, establishing that the formation of thymine propenal by activated bleomycin proceeds with C-O bond cleavage at the 3-position

  14. Labelling of bleomycin with technetium-99m for diagnosis in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about the behavior of the labelling yield of an antineoplastic drug (bleomycin) with a short-leved radionuclide (99 sup(m) Tc), using An(II) as a reductor agent, is presented. Parameters like the pH in the labelling, influence of the reaction time and mass of tin on the labelling yield were analysed. To simplify the labelling,, a lyofilized kit of Sn(II)/BLM in evacuated vials was prepared. The quality control involving paper chromatography, sterility and 'in vivo' test was made. The 'in vivo' tests were made both in healthy rats and in those with tumorous tissues, under barbituric action. The biological distribution, the concentration time of the products in tumors, the excretion time and excretion via were studied by means of scintigraphy and scintiphotos. (Author)

  15. Effect of thiol compounds on bleomycin-induced DNA and chromosome damage in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Anabela; Gimenez, Esteban M; Bolzán, Alejandro D; Bianchi, Martha S; López-Larraza, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein thiols are considered radioprotectors, preventing DNA damage by ionizing radiation. As bleomycin (BLM) is a radiomimetic agent it was proposed that thiols may prevent DNA damage produced by this antibiotic. However, results obtained with thiols and BLM-combined treatments in living cells are contradictory. The goal of this work was to assess the influence of five non-protein thiols of different electrical charge and chemical composition, on the DNA damage, DNA repair, chromosomal aberrations and cell killing induced by BLM. We found that, at the chromosomal level and cell killing, Glutathione, ?-Mercaptoethanol and cysteine showed a protective effect, while ditiothreitol and cysteamine increased them, whereas at the DNA level all thiols potentiated the DNA damage induced by BLM, most probably due to a reactivation of the BLM complex. PMID:23428061

  16. The influence of nonprotein thiols on DNA damage induced by bleomycin in single human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Anabela; Gili, Juan A; Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Nonprotein thiols are considered radioprotectors, preventing DNA damage by ionizing radiation. Because bleomycin (BLM) is a radiomimetic agent, it was proposed that thiols may prevent DNA damage produced by this antibiotic. However, results obtained with treatments combining thiols and BLM in living cells are contradictory. The goal of this study was to analyze the DNA damage induced by BLM and the influence of 3 nonprotein thiols of different electrical charges and chemical compositions at the level of single cells (comet assay). We also studied the morphological signs of apoptosis produced by BLM in these same conditions. We found that all thiols potentiated DNA damage induced by BLM, most probably by reactivating the BLM complex once it generated free radicals. Cysteamine (positive) potentiated BLM action the most, glutathione (negative) potentiated this antibiotic the least, whereas cysteine had an intermediate effect compared with the other two. PMID:24266408

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme: an indicator of bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Peter G; RØmer, F K

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiological evidence of pulmonary damage. While the static and dynamic lung function parameters were unchanged, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during a total of 126 days of pulsed regimen, indicating damage to the alveolar-endothelial membrane. S-ACE was unchanged within each treatment course but increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from the initial value to the last treatment course. Two months after cessation of treatment S-ACE returned to pretreatment values. Although the changes were modest they might mirror treatment-associated endothelial damage.

  18. The Effects of Bleomycin on the Structural Abnormalities of Chromosomes in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diclehan Öktüren Oral

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin in doses 0.3, 3 and 30 ?g/ml was used with periods 6, 24 and48 hours on 5 male samples who were smokers, in in-vitro conditions andunder control so totally 3000 metaphases were evaluated.Structural chromosome aberrations were influenced by the increases indosage. While the ratio total structural aberrations to the number ofmetaphases examined was 25.2% in control groups, It was 47.3% in 0.3?g/ml group, 76% in 3 ?g/ml and rose up to 116.8% in 30 ?g/ml experimentgroup. In addition due to the increases in dosage, there was an increase instructural aberration quantities and qualities.

  19. EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inagaki Hirofumi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. Methods Seven-week-old male ICR mice were used. All experiments used eight mice/group, unless otherwise noted in the figure legends. Bleomycin was administered intravenously to the mice on day 0. EM703 was orally administered daily to mice. All groups were examined for cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and for induction of messenger RNA (mRNA of Smad3 and Smad4 in the lung tissues by reverse transcriptase (RT-polymerase chainreaction (PCR on day 7. Fibroblastic foci were assessed histologically, and the hydroxyproline content was chemically determined in the lung tissues on day 28. We performed assay of proliferation and soluble collagen production, and examined the induction of mRNA of Smad3 and Smad4 by RT-PCR in murine lung fibroblast cell line MLg2908. We also examined Smad3, Smad4 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3 protein assay by western blotting in MLg2908. Results Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, and the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the airspace were inhibited by EM703. The expression of Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA was clearly attenuated by bleomycin, but was recovered by EM703. EM703 also inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the collagen production in lung fibroblasts induced by Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?. The expression of Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA in murine lung fibroblasts disappeared due to TGF-?, but was recovered by EM703. EM703 inhibited the expression of p-Smad2/3 and Smad4 protein in murine lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-?. Conclusion These findings suggest that EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by actions of anti-inflammation and regulation of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts.

  20. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists attenuate pulmonary inflammation and bleomycin-evoked fibrosis in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Gissela B; Fernandez, Xiomara; Mingo, Garfield G; Jia, Yanlin; Caniga, Michael; Gil, Malgorzata A; Keshwani, Shanil; Woodhouse, Janice D; Cicmil, Milenko; Moy, Lily Y; Kelly, Nancy; Jimenez, Johanna; Crawley, Yvette; Anthes, John C; Klappenbach, Joel; Ma, Yu-Lu; McLeod, Robbie L

    2013-10-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates protective actions of mineralocorticoid antagonists (MR antagonists) on cardiovascular pathology, which includes blunting vascular inflammation and myocardial fibrosis. We examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic potential of MR antagonists in rodent respiratory models. In an ovalbumin allergic and challenged Brown Norway rat model, the total cell count in nasal lavage was 29,348 ± 5451, which was blocked by spironolactone (0.3-60 mg/kg, p.o.) and eplerenone (0.3-30 mg/kg, p.o.). We also found that MR antagonists attenuated pulmonary inflammation in the Brown Norway rat. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the actions of MR blockade in acute/chronic lung injury models. (1) Ex vivo lung slice rat experiments found that eplerenone (0.01 and 10 µM) and spironolactone (10 µM) diminished lung hydroxyproline concentrations by 55 ± 5, 122 ± 9, and 83 ± 8%. (2) In in vivo studies, MR antagonists attenuated the increases in bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils and macrophages caused by lung bleomycin exposure. In separate studies, bleomycin (4.0 U/kg, i.t.) increased lung levels of hydroxyproline by approximately 155%, which was blocked by spironolactone (10-60 mg/kg, p.o.). In a rat Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model, spironolactone inhibited acute increases in BAL cytokines with moderate effects on neutrophils. Finally, we found that chronic LPS exposure significantly increased end expiratory lung and decreased lung elastance in the mouse. These functional effects of chronic LPS were improved by MR antagonists. Our results demonstrate that MR antagonists have significant pharmacological actions in the respiratory system. PMID:24012780

  1. Regulation of myofibroblast differentiation and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by adrenomedullin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kach, Jacob; Sandbo, Nathan; Sethakorn, Nan; Williams, Jesse; Reed, Eleanor B.; La, Jennifer; Tian, Xinyong; Brain, Susan D.; Rajendran, Kavitha; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Sperling, Anne I.; Birukov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is characterized by the expression of smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) and extracellular matrix proteins. We and others have previously shown that these changes are regulated by protein kinase A (PKA). Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a vasodilator peptide that activates cAMP/PKA signaling through the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMP). In this study, we found that recombinant ADM had little effect on cAMP/PKA in quiescent human pulmonary fibroblasts, whereas it induced a profound activation of cAMP/PKA signaling in differentiated (by TGF-?) myofibroblasts. In contrast, the prostacyclin agonist iloprost was equally effective at activating PKA in both quiescent fibroblasts and differentiated myofibroblasts. TGF-? stimulated a profound expression of CRLR with a time course that mirrored the increased PKA responses to ADM. The TGF-? receptor kinase inhibitor SB431542 abolished expression of CRLR and attenuated the PKA responses of cells to ADM but not to iloprost. CRLR expression was also dramatically increased in lungs from bleomycin-treated mice. Functionally, ADM did not affect initial differentiation of quiescent fibroblasts in response to TGF-? but significantly attenuated the expression of SMA, collagen-1, and fibronectin in pre-differentiated myofibroblasts, which was accompanied by decreased contractility of myofibroblasts. Finally, sensitization of ADM signaling by transgenic overexpression of RAMP2 in myofibroblasts resulted in enhanced survival and reduced pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of the disease. In conclusion, differentiated pulmonary myofibroblasts gain responsiveness to ADM via increased CRLR expression, suggesting the possibility of using ADM for targeting pathological myofibroblasts without affecting normal fibroblasts. PMID:23585227

  2. Rikkunshito ameliorates bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in a ghrelin-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Iizuka, Seiichi; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical syndrome consisting of acute respiratory failure associated with extensive pulmonary infiltrates. The pathological characterization of ALI includes injuries of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), alveolar neutrophilic infiltration, and increases in proinflammatory cytokines, which cause destruction of the alveolar capillary barrier and subsequent devastating lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and is known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. The therapeutic effects of RKT on organ inflammation and fibrosis remain unknown. We investigated the pharmacological potential of RKT in the treatment of ALI by using a bleomycin-induced ALI model in mice. RKT or distilled water (DW) was given to mice daily starting 12 h after bleomycin administration. The RKT-treated mice showed a definitively higher survival rate than the DW-treated mice after injury. They also had smaller reductions in body weight and food intake. The amelioration of neutrophil alveolar infiltration, pulmonary vascular permeability, induction of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the NF-?B pathway, apoptosis of AECs, and subsequent lung fibrosis were notable in the RKT-treated mice. RKT administration increased the plasma ghrelin levels in wild-type mice, and it also mitigated the ALI response in both ghrelin-deficient mice and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice after lung injury. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects against ALI by protecting the AECs and regulating lung inflammation independently of the ghrelin system, and they highlight RKT as a promising therapeutic agent for the management of this intractable disease. PMID:24285267

  3. Determination of unbound technetium-99m (free technetium) in bleomycin-sup(99m)Tc preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two forms of free technetium-99m exist in bleomycin-sup(99m)Tc preparations: Tc(7) and Tc reduced. For the sup(99m)Tc(7) determination the paper chromatography method was used with Whatman 1 paper and acetone: 30% acetic acid in proportion 7:3 as the developing solvent. The developing time was 2 hr, Rsub(f) for TcO4- is 0.9. For the sup(99m)Tc reduced forms determination the thin layer chromatography was elaborated with Sephadex G-25 superfine as the layer and 2.5N sodium chloride as the developing solvent. Developing time was 30 min. The sup(99m)Tc reduced stays on the start point, sup(99m)Tc(7) and bleomycin-sup(99m)Tc move from the start point to the distance of 2.0-3.5 cm and 4.5-7.0 cm respectively. (author)

  4. Simultaneous production of 67Cu, 64Cu and 67Ga and labelling of bleomycin with 67Cu or 64Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of 64Cu and 67Cu and 67Ga by 16 MeV deuteron bombardment of natural zinc electroplated on to a silver-plated copper backing to minimize copper contamination of the target is described. The most probable nuclear reactions for 64Cu and 67Cu production are 64Zn(d,2p)64Cu, 67Zn(d,2p)67Cu and 68Zn(d,2pn)67Cu which occur simultaneously with the 66Zn(d,n)67Ga reaction which is used regularly for the production of 67Ga. The thick target yields of 64Cu and 67Cu were found to be 143 +- 12 ?Ci ?Ah-1 and 0.123 +- 0.003 ?Ci ?Ah-1 respectively. A method of labelling bleomycin with 64Cu is described which resulted in 99.9% of the copper being complexed if the capacity of the bleomycin was not exceeded. (U.K.)

  5. Measurement of the efficient cross section of the reaction 7Be(p, ?)8B at low energies and implications in the problem of solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8B produced inside the sun through the reaction 7Be(p,?)8B is the main, and even unique, source of high energy neutrinos detected in most solar neutrino detection experiments, except with Gallex and Sage. These experiments have all measured a neutrinos flux lower than the one predicted by solar models. Several explanations have been proposed to explain this deficit, but all require a precise knowledge of the efficient cross-section of the reaction 7Be(p,?)8B, because the neutrinos flux of 8B is directly proportional to this reaction. The direct measurement of this cross section for the solar energy is impossible because of its low value (about 1 femto-barn). In order to get round this problem, the cross sections are measured at higher energy and extrapolated to the solar energy using a theoretical energy dependence. The 6 previous experimental determinations of the efficient cross section were shared in two distinct groups with differences of about 30% which leads to an uncertainty of the same order on the high energy neutrinos flux. The re-measurement of the cross section of this reaction with a better precision is thus of prime importance. A direct measurement of the cross section in the energy range comprised between 0.35 and 1.4 MeV (cm) has been performed first. These experiments have permitted the precise measurement of each parameter involved in the determination of the cross section. Then, measurements of the cross section have been carried out with the PAPAP accelerator at 185.8, 134.7 and 111.7 keV, the lowest mass center energy never reached before. The results are in excellent agreement with those obtained at higher energies. The value obtained by extrapolation of these data for the astrophysical factor S17(0) is 19.21.3 EV-B, which leads to a significant reduction of the uncertainty on the high energy neutrinos flux of 8B. (J.S.)

  6. The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Zorbamycin, a Member of the Bleomycin Family of Antitumor Antibiotics, from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892

    OpenAIRE

    Galm, Ute; Wendt-pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; George, Nicholas P.; Oh, Tae-jin; Yi, Fan; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M.; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotic zorbamycin (ZBM) was cloned by screening a cosmid library of Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892. Sequence analysis revealed 40 ORFs belonging to the ZBM biosynthetic gene cluster. However, only 23 and 22 ORFs showed striking similarities to the biosynthetic gene clusters for the bleomycins (BLMs) and tallysomycins (TLMs), respectively; the remaining ORFs do not show significant homology to ORFs from the related ...

  7. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in hamsters by dietary supplementation with taurine and niacin: biochemical mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, S N; Blaisdell, R; Rucker, R B; Wang, Q.; Hyde, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BL) involves an excess production of reactive oxygen species, unavailability of adequate levels of NAD and ATP to repair the injured pulmonary epithelium, and an overexuberant lung collagen reactivity followed by deposition of highly cross-linked mature collagen fibrils resistant to enzymatic degradation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with taurine and niacin offered al...

  8. Effects of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Maria Cristina P.; Dias Francisca da Luz; Kronka Sergio N.; Takahashi Catarina S.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidative damage. Many plant constituents including turmeric and curcumin appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. The effects of turmeric and curcumin on chromosomal aberration frequencies induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml) and ...

  9. Chemoimmunotherapy with bleomycin, vincristine, lomustine, dacarbazine (BOLD) plus interferon alpha for metastatic melanoma: a multicentre phase II study.

    OpenAIRE

    Punt, C. J. A.; Herpen, C M L van; Jansen, R.L.H.; Vreugdenhil, A.; Muller, E.W.; De Mulder, P. H. M.

    1997-01-01

    High response rates in patients with metastatic melanoma have been achieved with combination chemoimmunotherapy. A response rate of 62% in 45 patients has been reported for treatment with dacarbazine, bleomycin, vincristine, lomustine (BOLD) plus interferon alpha (IFN-alpha). We conducted a multicentre phase II study to confirm these results. Melanoma patients with distant metastases were treated as outpatients with dacarbazine 200 mg m(-2) on days 1-5, vincristine 1 mg m(-2) on days 1 and 4,...

  10. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites on bleomycin-induced cytotoxic action on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Sailaja; Mani, Arul M; Gundala, Naveen K V; Hari, Anasuya D; Bathina, Siresha; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we noted that bleomycin induced growth inhibitory action was augmented by all the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) tested on human neuroblastoma IMR-32 (0.5 × 10(4) cells/100 µl of IMR) cells (EPA > DHA > ALA = GLA = AA > DGLA = LA: ? 60, 40, 30, 10-20% respectively) at the maximum doses used. Of all the prostaglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2?, and PGI2) and leukotrienes (LTD4 and LTE4) tested; PGE1, PGE2 and LTD4 inhibited the growth of IMR-32 cells to a significant degree at the highest doses used. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoate (19, 20 DiHDPA) and 10(S),17(S)-dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid (protectin: 10(S),17(S)DiHDoHE), metabolites of DHA, significantly inhibited the growth of IMR-32 cells. Pre-treatment with AA, GLA, DGLA and EPA and simultaneous treatment with all PUFAs used in the study augmented growth inhibitory action of bleomycin. Surprisingly, both indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) at 60 and 20 µg/ml respectively enhanced the growth of IMR-32 cells even in the presence of bleomycin. AA enhanced oxidant stress in IMR-32 cells as evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that PUFAs suppress growth of human neuroblastoma cells, augment growth inhibitory action of bleomycin by enhancing formation of lipid peroxides and altering the status of anti-oxidants and, in all probability, increase the formation of lipoxins, resolvins and protectins from their respective precursors that possess growth inhibitory actions. PMID:25536345

  11. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: Assessed by micro-computed tomography and pathologic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists exhibit potent anti-fibrotic effects in the lung and other tissues. Recently, micro-computed tomography (CT) has been a useful tool for the investigation of lung diseases in small animals and is now increasingly applied to visualize and quantify the pulmonary structures. However, there is little information on the assessment for therapeutic effects of PPAR? agonists on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice using micro-CT. This study was aimed to determine the capability of micro-CT in examining the effects of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis. We used a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to evaluate the feasibility of micro-CT in evaluating the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis, comparing with pathologic scores. On micro-CT findings, ground glass opacity (80%) and consolidation (20%) were observed predominantly at 3 weeks after the instillation of bleomycin, and the radiologic features became more complex at 6 weeks. In bleomycin-instilled mice treated with rosiglitazone, the majority (80%) showed normal lung features on micro-CT. Radiological-pathologic correlation analyses revealed that ground glass opacity and consolidation were correlated closely with acute inflammation, while reticular opacity was well correlated with histological honeycomb appearance. These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis in mice and that the visualization of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using micro-CT is satisfactory to assess the effects of rosiglitazone. It implies that micro-CT can be applied to evaluate therapeutic efficacies of a variety of candidate drugs for lung diseases.

  12. Antifibrotic effects of curcumin are associated with overexpression of cathepsins K and L in bleomycin treated mice and human fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Dongwei; Huang Chuangfang; Yang Changfu; Liu Renzuo J; Wang Jifeng; Niu Jianzhao; Brömme Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and the deposition of collagens. Curcumin, a polyphenol antioxidant from the spice tumeric, has been shown to effectively counteract fibroblast proliferation and reducing inflammation and fibrotic progression in animal models of bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, there is little mechanistic insight in the biological activity of curcumin. Here, we study the effects of curcumin on the expression and activity of ...

  13. Place occupied by gallium 67 citrate and 57Co-bleomycine scintigraphy in the evaluation and supervision of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work attempts to situate 57Co-bleomycine and gallium67 citrate scintigraphy in pre-treatment evaluation and supervision of solid tumours or malignant lymphomas. The results given by these two radiopharmaceuticals are compared for a series of 136 patients and a bibliograhical survey covering more than 3.000 cases is compiled. The purpose of the study is to establish the diagnostic capacity of each of these two tumoral tracers, according to the nature and location of the lesions, and, on this basis, to try to estimate the position it occupies as well as its indications and limits. The following are dealt with successively: - the biological properties, development of labelling techniques and tumoral fixation mechanisms of 57Co-bleomycine and 67Ga citrate reviewed historically. - The physical and technological foundations of the scintigraphic methods used. - The results obtained with 57Co bleomycine and 67Ga citrate in patients carrying solid tumours and malignant lymphomas. In the discussion these two radiotracers are compared as a function of the histological nature and location of the lesions. Finally these two isotopic methods are situated with respect to other complementary examinations and from this their indications and limits are inferred

  14. Serial micro-CT assessment of the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Jung; Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min; Lee, Young Sun; Jung, Myung Ja; Kwon, Keun Sang [Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Institute for Medical Sciences, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone with serial micro-CT findings before and after rosiglitazone administration in a lung fibrosis mouse model induced with bleomycin. We instilled the bleomycin solution directly into the trachea in twenty mice (female, C57BL/6 mice). After the instillation with bleomycin, mice were closely observed for 3 weeks and then all mice were scanned using micro-CT without sacrifice. At 3 weeks, the mice were treated with rosiglitazone on days 21 to 27 if they had abnormal CT findings (n = 9, 45%). For the mice treated with rosiglitazone, we performed micro-CT with mouse sacrifice 2 weeks after the rosiglitazone treatment completion. We assessed the abnormal CT findings (ground glass attenuation, consolidation, bronchiectasis, reticular opacity, and honeycombing) using a five-point scale at 3 and 6 weeks using Wilcoxon-signed ranked test. The micro-CT findings were correlated with the histopathologic results. One out of nine (11.1%) mice improved completely. In terms of consolidation, all mice (100%) showed marked decrease from 3.1 ± 1.4 at 3 weeks to 0.9 ± 0.9 at 6 weeks (p = 0.006). At 6 weeks, mild bronchiectasis (n = 6, 66.7%), mild reticular opacity (n 7, 77.8%) and mild honeycomb patterns (n = 3, 33.3%) appeared. A serial micro-CT enables the evaluation of drug effects in a lung fibrosis mouse model.

  15. Serial micro-CT assessment of the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone with serial micro-CT findings before and after rosiglitazone administration in a lung fibrosis mouse model induced with bleomycin. We instilled the bleomycin solution directly into the trachea in twenty mice (female, C57BL/6 mice). After the instillation with bleomycin, mice were closely observed for 3 weeks and then all mice were scanned using micro-CT without sacrifice. At 3 weeks, the mice were treated with rosiglitazone on days 21 to 27 if they had abnormal CT findings (n = 9, 45%). For the mice treated with rosiglitazone, we performed micro-CT with mouse sacrifice 2 weeks after the rosiglitazone treatment completion. We assessed the abnormal CT findings (ground glass attenuation, consolidation, bronchiectasis, reticular opacity, and honeycombing) using a five-point scale at 3 and 6 weeks using Wilcoxon-signed ranked test. The micro-CT findings were correlated with the histopathologic results. One out of nine (11.1%) mice improved completely. In terms of consolidation, all mice (100%) showed marked decrease from 3.1 ± 1.4 at 3 weeks to 0.9 ± 0.9 at 6 weeks (p = 0.006). At 6 weeks, mild bronchiectasis (n = 6, 66.7%), mild reticular opacity (n 7, 77.8%) and mild honeycomb patterns (n = 3, 33.3%) appeared. A serial micro-CT enables the evaluation of drug effects in a lung fibrosis mouse model.

  16. Bleomycin induced sensitivity to TRAIL/Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis in human seminomatous testicular cancer cells is correlated with upregulation of death receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Mujgan; Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Sarikcioglu, Sureyya Bilmen; Sanlioglu, Salih; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad; Ozben, Tomris

    2014-01-01

    The most common solid tumor is testicular cancer among young men. Bleomycin is an antitumor antibiotic used for the therapy of testicular cancer. TRAIL is a proapoptotic cytokine that qualified as an apoptosis inducer in cancer cells. Killing cancer cells selectively via apoptosis induction is an encouraging therapeutic strategy in clinical settings. Combination of TRAIL with chemotherapeutics has been reported to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of different kinds of cancer cell lines. The molecular ground for sensitization of tumour cells to TRAIL by chemotherapeutics might involve upregulation of TRAIL-R1 (TR/1, DR4) and/or TRAIL-R2 (TR/2, DR5) receptors or activation of proapoptotic proteins including caspases. The curative potential of TRAIL to eradicate cancer cells selectively in testicular cancer has not been studied before. In this study, we investigated apoptotic effects of bleomycin, TRAIL, and their combined application in NTera-2 and NCCIT testicular cancer cell lines. We measured caspase 3 levels as an apoptosis indicator, and TRAIL receptor expressions using flow cytometry. Both NTera-2 and NCCIT cells were fairly resistant to TRAIL's apoptotic effect. Incubation of bleomycin alone caused a significant increase in caspase 3 activity in NCCIT. Combined incubation with bleomycin and TRAIL lead to elevated caspase 3 activity in Ntera-2. Exposure to 72 h of bleomycin increased TR/1, TR/2, and TR/3 cell-surface expressions in NTera-2. Elevation in TR/1 cell-surface expression was evident only at 24 h of bleomycin application in NCCIT. It can be concluded that TRAIL death receptor expressions in particular are increased in testicular cancer cells via bleomycin treatment, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is initiated. PMID:25173558

  17. Radiotherapy and bleomycin-containing chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: report of six patients and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to improve the complete remission rate achievable with bleomycin and cisplatin, administered prior to radiotherapy in previously untreated patients with unresectable epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck, we initiated a pilot study employing simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Six patients were treated with bleomycin (B) 15 mg i.m. t.i.w. 30-60 minutes prior to radiotherapy (RT) treatment with conventional fractionation, 180-200 rad/fx, 5 fx/week. During interruptions in B + RT for healing of mucocutaneous reactions, patients received cisplatin 40 mg/mg m2 once weekly. Toxicity included severe mucositis within the radiation port in all patients, three episodes of infection, and significant myelosuppression in one patient. Transient mild serum creatinine elevation occurred in four patients. Three patients did not complete treatment because of severity of toxicity. Response was: primary--4/6CR, 1/6 PR; regional nodes--1/5 CR, 4/5 PR. Review of the literature of concurrent bleomycin and radiotherapy trials in head and neck cancer indicates that other investigators have encountered severe toxicity using bleomycin dose and radiation fractionation schedules similar to ours. Toxicity may be reduced when lower doses of concurrent bleomycin and/or alternative radiation fractionation schedules are employed. Although results of uncontrolled trials suggest a possible therapeutic advantage to treatment with the combination compared to radiotheraith the combination compared to radiotherapy alone, this has not clearly been established in the four randomized trials reviewed

  18. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLMgenic effect of BLM

  19. Mechanical ventilation augments bleomycin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the Src pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Fu; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Chen-Te; Chang, Chih-Hao; Hung, Chen-Yiu; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can damage pulmonary epithelial cells by producing inflammatory cytokines and depositing excess collagen. Src participates in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-?1(TGF-?1) production during the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS, which involves a process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanisms regulating interactions between mechanical ventilation and EMT are unclear. We hypothesized that EMT induced by high-tidal volume (VT) mechanical stretch-augmented lung inflammation occurs through upregulation of the Src pathway. Five days after administering bleomycin to simulate acute lung injury (ALI), male C57BL/6 mice, either wild-type or Src-deficient, aged 3 months, weighing between 25 and 30?g, were exposed to low-VT (6?ml/kg) or high-VT (30?ml/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for 1-5?h. Nonventilated mice were used as control subjects. We observed that high-VT mechanical ventilation increased microvascular permeability, PAI-1 and TGF-?1 protein levels, Masson's trichrome staining, extracellular collagen levels, collagen gene expression, fibroblast accumulation, positive staining of ?-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen, activation of Src signaling and epithelial apoptotic cell death in wild-type mice (PSrc-deficient mice and pharmacological inhibition of Src activity by PP2 (PSrc pathway. PMID:24955896

  20. Internal parameters monitored during intraarterial cytostatic therapy with methotrexate and bleomycin combined with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of ten years, i.e., 1973 to 1983, the Vienna Clinic of Mandibular and Facial Surgery treated 109 patients with primary inoperable malignant tumors using regional chemotherapy, i.e., a combination of methotrexate and bleomycin. 95 patients in the groups were also irradiated. The aim of the internal examinations was to assess whether from the beginning of cytostatic therapy it would be possible to deduct from laboratory chemical examinations some prognostic factors, or whether changes in internal parameters during therapy correspond to the further development of the growth. The examination of chemical parameters showed that the permanently reduced levels of Fe and anemia are demonstrably adverse factors for prognosis. The drop in leukocyte and thrombocyte counts and the toxic damage of bone marrow also proved to be such an adverse factor. On the other hand the rise in serum levels of LDH, AST and ALT in the process of therapy may be assessed as favourable factors for the prognosis of the disease. (author). 1 fig., 12 refs

  1. Cytotoxic activity, tumor accumulation, and tissue distribution of ruthenium-103-labeled bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) was labeled with gamma-emitting 103Ru. Yields of 103Ru-labeled BLM as high as 50.6% were attained. 103Ru-labeled BLM was stable in vitro and the 103ru label was not displaced by large excesses of Cu (II) and Co (II) or Fe (III). Chromatography of the urine following 103Ru-labeled BLM injection indicated no in vivo decomposition. Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy inbred SD and tumor-bearing inbred BUF rats demonstrated tumor accumulations, tissue distributions, and clearance nearly identical with those reported for 3H-labeled BLM. Cytotoxicity studies on a WI-L2 human B-cell line showed that BLM labeled with nonradioactive Ru retained 100% of the activity demonstrated by native BLM. Thus BLM may be labeled with isotopes of Ru to form stable complexes by a simple, rapid reaction without loss of its chemotherapeutic properties or variations in its in vivo distribution. BLM labeled with the proper Ru isotope should prove useful as a gamma-emitting tracer for BLM or a beta-emitting compound capable of providing combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy of tumors

  2. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagami Atsuro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. To evaluate the influence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 and AT2 antagonists in a mouse model of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods We examined effects of the AT1 antagonist (AT1A olmesartan medoxomil (olmesartan and the AT2 antagonist (AT2A PD-123319 on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was evaluated by Ashcroft's pathological scoring and hydroxyproline content of lungs. We also analyzed the cellular composition and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results With olmesartan, the lung fibrosis score and hydroxyproline level were significantly reduced, and lymphocyte and neutrophil counts and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-? levels in BALF were reduced on day 7. On day 14, macrophage and lymphocyte counts in BALF were reduced, accompanied by a reduction in the level of transforming growth factor (TGF-?1. With PD-123319, the lung fibrosis score and hydroxyproline level were reduced. On day 7, macrophage, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts in BALF were reduced, accompanied by reductions in TNF-? and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels. On day 14, macrophage, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts in BALF were also reduced, accompanied by a reduction in the level of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2 level but not TGF-?1. Conclusion Both AT1 and AT2 are involved in promoting interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis via different mechanisms of action.

  3. Photochemical internalization of bleomycin and temozolomide - in vitro studies on the glioma cell line F98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gederaas, Odrun A; Hauge, Anette; Ellingsen, Pål G; Berg, Kristian; Altin, Dag; Bardal, Tora; Høgset, Anders; Lindgren, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    Here we evaluate the photosensitizer meso-tetraphenyl chlorin disulphonate (TPCS2a) in survival studies of rat glioma cancer cells in combination with the novel photochemical internalization (PCI) technique. The tested anticancer drugs were bleomycin (BLM) and temozolomide (TMZ). Glioma cells were incubated with TPCS2a (0.2 ?g ml(-1), 18 h, 37 °C) before BLM or TMZ stimulation (4 h) prior to red light illumination (652 nm, 50 mW cm(-2)). The cell survival after BLM (0.5 ?m)-PCI (40 s light) quantified using the MTT assay was reduced to about 25% after 24 h relative to controls, and to 31% after TMZ-PCI. The supplementing quantification by clonogenic assays, using BLM (0.1 ?m), indicated a long-term cytotoxic effect: the surviving fraction of clonogenic cells was reduced to 5% after light exposure (80 s) with PCI, compared to 70% in the case of PDT. In parallel, structural and morphological changes within the cells upon light treatment were examined using fluorescence microscopy techniques. The present study demonstrates that PCI of BLM is an effective method for killing F98 glioma cells, but smaller effects were observed using TMZ following the "light after" strategy. The results are the basis for further in vivo studies on our rat glioma cancer model using PDT and PCI. PMID:26088711

  4. Attenuation of lung inflammation and fibrosis in CD69-deficient mice after intratracheal bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Hirofumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69, an early activation marker antigen on T and B cells, is also expressed on activated macrophages and neutrophils, suggesting that CD69 may play a role in inflammatory diseases. To determine the effect of CD69 deficiency on bleomycin(BLM-induced lung injury, we evaluated the inflammatory response following intratracheal BLM administration and the subsequent fibrotic changes in wild type (WT and CD69-deficient (CD69-/- mice. Methods The mice received a single dose of 3 mg/kg body weight of BLM and were sacrificed at 7 or 14 days post-instillation (dpi. Lung inflammation in the acute phase (7 dpi was investigated by differential cell counts and cytokine array analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, lung fibrotic changes were evaluated at 14 dpi by histopathology and collagen assays. We also used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to measure the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1 in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. Results CD69-/- mice exhibited less lung damage than WT mice, as shown by reductions in the following indices: (1 loss of body weight, (2 wet/dry ratio of lung, (3 cytokine levels in BALF, (4 histological evidence of lung injury, (5 lung collagen deposition, and (6 TGF-?1 mRNA expression in the lung. Conclusion The present study clearly demonstrates that CD69 plays an important role in the progression of lung injury induced by BLM.

  5. Malformaciones linfáticas: tratamiento percutáneo con bleomicina / Lymphatic malformations: percutaneus treatment with bleomycin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Cuervo; Eduardo, Galli; Guillermo, Eisele; Erica, Johannes; Alejandro, Fainboim; Silvia, Tonini; Walter, Joaquin; Bettina, Viola; Miguel, Nazar.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones linfáticas son anomalías del desarrollo del sistema linfático que tienden a sufrir complicaciones en su evolución. En la última década, la terapia con agentes esclerosantes ha ido ganando popularidad sobre la cirugía, por su eficacia, sus menores complicaciones y sus excelentes re [...] sultados estéticos. Presentamos una serie de 24 pacientes tratados mediante esclerosis percutánea con bleomicina. Los resultados fueron excelentes (reducción de volumen ? 95% y asintomáticos) en 12 pacientes, buenos (reducción de volumen entre 50% y 95% y asintomáticos) en 5 pacientes, regulares (reducción de volumen Abstract in english Lymphatic malformations are developmental abnormalities of the lymphatic system, which tend to complicate during their evolution. In the last decade, therapy with sclerosing agents has gained popularity over surgery due to its effectiveness, fewer complications, and excellent cosmetic results. We pr [...] esent a series of 24 patients treated with percutaneous bleomycin injection. Results were excellent (volume reduction ? 95%, without symptoms) in 12 patients, good (volume reduction between 50% and 95%, without symptoms) in 5 patients, fair (volume reduction

  6. Structural characterization of Ru-bleomycin complexes by resonance Raman, circular dichroism, and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzopoulou, B; Kozlowski, H; Katsaros, N; Garnier-Suillerot, A

    2001-12-31

    A series of spectroscopic techniques including absorption and CD spectra, resonance Raman spectra, and (1)H NMR as well as electrospray mass spectrometry have shown that Ru(II) ion binds to bleomycin, forming an equimolar complex, similarly to Fe(II), i.e., via the secondary amine nitrogen, the pyrimidine ring nitrogen, the deprotonated peptide bond nitrogen of the histydyl residue, and the histidine imidazole nitrogen, which are bound in the equatorial positions, and the alpha-amino nitrogen of beta-aminoalanine, which coordinates in the apical position above pH 7. The reaction of Ru(II)-BLM with O(2), H(2)O(2),or PhIO leads to formation of the oxy species in which only one oxygen atom is bound to metal ion. According to our data, the reaction of Ru(II)-BLM complex with oxygen species leads to different product than that suggested for Fe(II)-BLM. The formation of the BLM-Ru-O-Ru-BLM dimeric unit, similar to that found for sterically unhindered Ru porphyrins, seems to be the most likely. PMID:11754273

  7. Paracetamol Supplementation Does Not Alter The Antitumor Activity and Lung Toxicity of Bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. Suddek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM is well known by its antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, pulmonary fibrosis has been considered the dose limiting toxicity of the drug. Hyperpyrexia following injection of BLM was reported thus, paracetamol is sometimes administered with BLM as antipyretic drug. Actually, paracetamol was found to interfere with cytotoxicity of some drugs. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of paracetamol administration on the antitumor and lung toxicity of BLM. The antitumor activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells. Paracetamol did not alter the antitumor effect of BLM in vitro or in vivo. The lung toxicity of BLM was evidenced by decrease in the body weight, increase in the lung/body weight ratio, decrease in the response of pulmonary arterial rings to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and increase in the contractility of tracheal smooth muscles induced by acetylcholine (ACh. The toxicity was also confirmed biochemically by marked increases in hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation in rat lung and the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Pretreatment with paracetamol did not significantly change lipid peroxidation, GSH level, percent survival of rats or the response of pulmonary arterial rings and tracheal smooth muscles to 5-HT and ACh respectively. The results of the present study indicated that paracetamol neither modified the antitumor effect of BLM nor changed drug-induced lung toxicity.

  8. Effects of simvastatin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in female rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Baykal, Tulek; Esen, Kiyan; Aysel, Kiyici; Hatice, Toy; Hulagu, Bariskaner; Mecit, Suerdem.

    Full Text Available Statins reduce cholesterol levels by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and have a major place in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory properties of statins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effec [...] t of simvastatin on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. A total of 31 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) intratracheal (IT) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + intraperitoneal (IP) PBS (n=7); (2) IT BLM + IP PBS (n=8); (3) IT BLM + low dose (LD) simvastatin (1 mg/kg daily, n=8); (4) IT BLM + high dose (HD) simvastatin (5 mg/kg daily, n=8). Simvastatin was administered IP for 15 days, beginning 1 day prior to IT BLM. The effect of simvastatin on pulmonary fibrosis was studied by measurements of IL-13, PDGF, IFN-?, TGF-p1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue hydroxyproline (HPL) content and by histopathological examination (Ashcroft score). BLM caused significant change in BAL fluid cytokine levels and increased both HPL content and histopathological score (p

  9. Latent Transforming Growth Factor-?-Binding Protein-4 Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Bioavailability for Activation by Fibrogenic Lung Fibroblasts in Response to Bleomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Koli, Katri; Hagood, James S.; Miao, Mi; Mavalli, Mahendra; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that subsets of lung fibroblasts differentially contribute to fibrogenic progression. We have previously shown that a subset of rat lung fibroblasts with fibrogenic characteristics [Thy-1 (?) fibroblasts] responds to stimuli (bleomycin, interleukin-4, etc) with increased latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activation, whereas non-fibrogenic Thy-1-expressing [Thy-1 (+)] fibroblasts do not. Activation of latent TGF-?1 by interstitial lung fibroblasts is critical for fibrogenic responses. To better understand the susceptibility of fibrogenic fibroblasts to the stimulation of TGF-? activation, we examined the role of latent TGF-?-binding proteins (LTBPs), key regulators of TGF-? bioavailability and activation, in TGF-?1 activation by these fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with bleomycin up-regulated LTBP-4 mRNA, protein, and soluble LTBP-4-bound large latent TGF-?1 complexes in Thy-1 (?) fibroblasts to significantly higher levels than in Thy-1 (+) fibroblasts. Bleomycin-induced TGF-?1 activation required LTBP-4, since lung fibroblasts deficient in LTBP-4 did not activate TGF-?1. Expression of LTBP-4 restored TGF-?1 activation in response to bleomycin, but expression either of LTBP-4 lacking the TGF-?-binding site or only the TGF-?-binding domain did not. Bleomycin treatment of mice increased LTBP-4 expression in the lung. Thy-1 knockout mice had increased levels of both LTBP-4 expression and TGF-? activation, as well as enhanced Smad3 phosphorylation compared with wild-type mice. Together, these data identify a critical role for LTBP-4 in the regulation of latent TGF-?1 activation in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. PMID:19056849

  10. Thymoquinone blocks lung injury and fibrosis by attenuating bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and activation of nuclear factor Kappa-B in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common chronic interstitial lung diseases with high mortality rate after diagnosis and limited successful treatment. The present study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of thymoquinone (TQ) and whether TQ can attenuate the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Male Wister rats were treated intraperitoneally with either bleomycin (15 mg/kg, 3 times a week for 4 weeks) and/or thymoquinone (5 mg/kg/day, 1 week before and until the end of the experiment). Bleomycin significantly increased lung weight and the levels of Lactate dehydrogenase, total leucocytic count, total protein and mucin in bronchoalveolar lavage and these effects were significantly ameliorated by TQ treatment. As markers of oxidative stress, bleomycin caused a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide accompanied with a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase. TQ treatment restored these markers toward normal values. TQ also counteracted emphysema in air alveoli, inflammatory cell infiltration, lymphoid hyperplastic cells activation surrounding the bronchioles and the over expression of activated form of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-B) in lung tissue that was induced by bleomycin. Fibrosis was assessed by measuring hydroxyproline content, which increased markedly in the bleomycin group and significantly reduced by concurrent treatment with TQ. Furthermore, histopathological examination confirmed the antifibrotic effect of TQ. Collectively these findings indicate that TQ has potential antifibrotic effect beside its antioxidant activity that could be through NF-?B inhibition.

  11. Investigation of the interacorporcal decay, elimination rate and diagnostic confidence of 57Co-bleomycine in patients with the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 women with diagnosed squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix the 57Co-Bleomycine was used for the estimation of the intracorporeal decay, elimination rate and neoplasmic tissue storage of the complex. Whole body scanner ''Scan modus'' type and gamma chamber were used. A rapid elimination of the examined complex with urine was noted, the blood concentration was significantly higher (p57Co-Bleomycine) can be applied as diagnostic means in cases of uterine squamous carcinoma and in its metastases. (author)

  12. Comparative study of fixation of Co57 labelled bleomycin, labelled gallium citrate and Hg197 labelled mercury chloride, benign or malignant pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last ten years, numerous labelled molecules have been used in lung diseases, in order to attempt definite localisation of primary or secondary carcinoma. Three of these substances are now used: cobalt 57-labelled bleomycin, Hg197Cl2 and Ga67 citrate. A study of 34 patient with malignant or tuberculous lung disease with definite diagnosis, permitted demonstration of the fact that the highest uptake, or the best images, were obtained with labelled bleomycin. However, the long period of Co57 limits its indications in young subjects and, in these cases, HgCl2 is indicated

  13. Prevention of bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice by naproxen and JNJ7777120 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Arianna Carolina; Pini, Alessandro; Lucarini, Laura; Lanzi, Cecilia; Veglia, Eleonora; Thurmond, Robin L; Stark, Holger; Masini, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive and lethal lung disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of extracellular matrix components, is a major therapeutic challenge for which new therapeutic strategies are warranted. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have been previously utilized to reduce inflammation. Histamine H4 receptor (H4R), largely expressed in hematopoietic cells, has been identified as a novel target for inflammatory and immune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of JNJ7777120 (1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine), a selective H4R antagonist, and naproxen, a well known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and their combination in a murine model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Bleomycin (0.05 IU) was instilled intratracheally to C57BL/6 mice, which were then treated by micro-osmotic pump with vehicle, JNJ7777120 (40 mg/kg b.wt.), naproxen (21 mg/kg b.wt.), or a combination of both. Airway resistance to inflation, an index of lung stiffness, was assessed, and lung specimens were processed for inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis markers. Both drugs alone were able to reduce the airway resistance to inflation induced by bleomycin and the inflammatory response by decreasing COX-2 and myeloperoxidase expression and activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine production. Lung fibrosis was inhibited, as demonstrated by the reduction of tissue levels of transforming growth factor-?, collagen deposition, relative goblet cell number, and smooth muscle layer thickness. Our results demonstrate that both JNJ7777120 and naproxen exert an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that is increased by their combination, which could be an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25185215

  14. Radiotherapy, combined with simultaneous chemotherapy with mitomycin C and bleomycin for inoperable head and neck cancer--preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prospectively designed randomized clinical study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of simultaneous application of irradiation, Mitomycin C, and Bleomycin in treatment of patients with inoperable head and neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between March 1991 and October 1993, 49 patients with inoperable head and neck carcinoma were randomly assigned to receive either radiation therapy alone (group A) or radiotherapy combined with simultaneous application of Mitomycin C and Bleomycin (group B). Patients in both groups were irradiated five times weekly with 2 Gy to the total dose of 66-70 Gy. Chemotherapy regimen included intramuscular application of Bleomycin 5 units twice a week, with the planned dose being 70 units and Mitomycin C 15 mg/m2 applied intravenously after delivery of 9-10 Gy of irradiation. The application of Mitomycin C was planned to be repeated on last day of radiotherapy in the dose of 10 mg/m2. In attempt to enhance the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs, patients in group B received also Nicotinamide, Chlorpromazine, and Dicoumarol. Results: The difference in complete response rate between both treatment groups (24% in group A and 63% in group B) was statistically significant (p = 0.015). The difference in response rate was much more pronounced in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma only (18% in group A compared to 81% in group B; p = 0.0003), while for all other subgroups added together, there was observed no bps added together, there was observed no benefit of multidrug therapy. Median follow-up was 18 months. Disease-free survival of patients in group A (9%) was significantly lower then in group B (48%) (p 0.001). The difference between both treatment groups was even greater in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma only: disease-free survival of these patients in group B was 66%, while in group A, all recurred (p = 0.00001). Conclusion: From results of our prospective randomized study it seems that the group of patients that received multidrug treatment with Mytomycin C, Bleomycin, Nicotinamide, Chlorpromazine, and Dicoumarol as enhancers of radiotherpy fared better than patients treated by radiotherapy alone

  15. Local injection of OK-432 and Mitomycin C into vulvar cancer responding poorly to Bleomycin and linac irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In one case of vulvar carcinoma (T2N0M0) in which a radical surgery appeared unfeasible, linac radiation and intratumoral injection of Bleomycin were performed as the primary treatment. These treatments, however, failed to achieve regression of the tumor, and the therapeutic effect was rated as ''no change''. The primary treatment was therefore, discontinued, and intratumoral injections of OK-432 and Mitomycin C were tried as the secondary treatment. Following the administration, the tumor mass disappeared, and, on histological examination, there were no findings suggestive of malignancy (complete response). (author)

  16. Endogenous annexin A1 counter-regulates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis

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    Flower Roderick J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The balancing functions of pro/anti-inflammatory mediators of the complex innate responses have been investigated in a variety of experimental inflammatory settings. Annexin-A1 (AnxA1 is one mediator of endogenous anti-inflammation, affording regulation of leukocyte trafficking and activation in many contexts, yet its role in lung pathologies has been scarcely investigated, despite being highly expressed in lung cells. Here we have applied the bleomycin lung fibrosis model to AnxA1 null mice over a 21-day time-course, to monitor potential impact of this mediator on the control of the inflammatory and fibrotic phases. Results Analyses in wild-type mice revealed strict spatial and temporal regulation of the Anxa1 gene, e.g. up-regulation in epithelial cells and infiltrated granulocytes at day 7, followed by augmented protein levels in alveolar macrophages by day 21. Absence of AnxA1 caused increases in: i the degree of inflammation at day 7; and ii indexes of fibrosis (assessed by deposition of hydroxyproline in the lung at day 7 and 21. These alterations in AnxA1 null mice were paralleled by augmented TGF-?1, IFN-? and TNF-? generation compared to wild-type mice. Finally, treatment of wild type animals with an AnxA1 peptido-mimetic, given prophylactically (from day 0 to 21 or therapeutically (from day 14 onward, ameliorated both signs of inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusion Collectively these data reveal a pathophysiological relevance for endogenous AnxA1 in lung inflammation and, more importantly, fibrosis, and may open new insights for the pharmacological treatment of lung fibrosis.

  17. Rikkunshito ameliorates cachexia associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice by stimulating ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Cachexia is a frequent complication in patients with respiratory failure, such as lung fibrosis, and it is a determining factor for functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Reductions in body weight and skeletal muscle mass are key features of cachexia that are resistant to current therapies. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. By using bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice in this study, we tested our hypothesis that RKT administration could ameliorate pulmonary cachexia. After BLM administration, mice were provided with either RKT or distilled water on a daily basis. Compared with the BLM-injected mice, the RKT-treated mice had smaller reductions of food intake and body weight. Skeletal muscle weights were retained in the RKT-treated mice, in conjunction with reduced expressions of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in the lysates of skeletal muscle found in lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito administration restored the plasma concentrations of ghrelin in BLM-injected mice. The anticachectic efficacies of RKT administration in BLM-injected mice were canceled by the concurrent treatment of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Rikkunshito administration did not decrease the degree of loss of body weight or food intake reduction in either ghrelin-deficient mice or growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects on pulmonary cachexia by ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and food intake reduction as mediated by the ghrelin system and, thus, highlight RKT as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of lung fibrosis. PMID:25270999

  18. Degradation of DNA by iron-bleomycin: mechanistic implications of product 18O incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of d(CGCGCG) with Bleomycin (BLM), activated either with Fe(III) and H2O2 or Fe(II), O2 and one electron, results in production of cytosine and a modified oligonucleotide strand (1). Reduction of 1 with NaBD4 followed by enzymatic digestion, derivatization, and GC-MS permits the identification of 2-deoxypentitols-1,4-d2 as their tetra-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. Similar products have also been isolated from calf thymus DNA and poly(dG-dC). These results provide unequivocal evidence for the intermediacy of a 4' ketone, 1' aldehyde modified carbohydrate. An alternate mode of DNA degradation requires additional O2 and leads to formation of 3' phosphoglycolate termini and base propenals. Glycolate (GA), released from calf thymus DNA, poly(dA-dT) or d(CGCGCG) by enzymatic digestion, can be isolated by chromatography on DEAE Sephadex, silylated and analyzed by GC-MS. This analysis, after incubation with Fe(II) x 18O2 x BLM or Fe(III) x H216O2 x BLM plus 18O2, reveals the incorporation of a single atom of 18O at the C-1 position. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that it is the excess molecular oxygen and not the O2 required for drug activation that is incorporated into the carboxylate group of 3' phosphoglycolate and provide evidence for the proposed addition of O2 to a C4' carbon addition of O2 to a C4' carbon radical. Isotopic enrichments of the other products of DNA oxidation, formed in the presence of 18O2 are also being determined

  19. Madecassoside ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by downregulating collagen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Xun; Bian, Di-Fei; Ji, Yu; Guo, Jiao-Mei; Wei, Zhi-Feng; Jiang, Si-De; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the protective effects of madecassoside (Mad), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centella asiatica herbs, on experimental pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and underlying mechanisms. PF model was established in mice by endotracheal instillation with bleomycin (5 mg/kg). Mice were orally administered with Mad (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) and prednisone (5 mg/kg) for 7 or 21 days. Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) significantly improved lung pathological changes and reduced collagen deposition. In the aspect of collagen synthesis, Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) reduced the expressions of ?-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and inhibited the phosphorylations of Smad2 and Smad3 in the lung tissues. However, in vitro, Mad showed little effect on TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of either Smad2 or Smad3 in primary mouse lung fibroblasts. Moreover, Mad (20, 40 mg/kg) attenuated oxidative damage and inflammation presented at the early stage of PF, evidenced by reduced total leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde level, and increased super-oxide dismutase activity and glutathione level in lung tissues. On the other hand, Mad (40 mg/kg) elevated the matrix metalloproteinase 1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 ratio in lung tissues of PF mice mainly by downregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression. The present study demonstrated that Mad can ameliorate PF by preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix, which might be achieved mainly through attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress and consequent TGF-?1 overexpression. PMID:24458872

  20. Kioto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric contamination by greenhouse gases is a global problem, and thus its solution requires global measures. Although the consequences of climate change are questioned and the foreseeable effects are not excessively serious, there are plenty of scientific reasons for all countries to make the necessary efforts to meet the objectives established by the Kyoto Protocol of reducing the six greenhouse gases over the period 2008-2012. Therefore, it seems essential that we understand the nature of the transformation that are occurring in the different systems, what changes they are causing and what costs they incur. Independently of its effectiveness and realism, the Kyoto Protocol is the first regulatory step in the direction of globalization in the environmental field. (Author)

  1. SD rats response to the cyclophosphamide and bleomycin administration by means of the chromosomal aberration assay in bone marrow.

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    Luis Alfredo Rosario Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we decided to evaluate and compare the SD rats response of both sexes in theadministration of two mutagenic substances by chromosomal aberrations assay in bonemarrow cells. Which were formed 5 experimental groups per sex, the first administered withNaCl 0,9 % by intraperitoneal (i.p route, the second and third groups were administered with cyclophosphamide by i.p route, with designs of different treatments at doses of 50 mg/kg. The fourth and fifth groups were administered with bleomycin by i.p route, equally in two designs of different treatments at doses of 40 mg/kg. At the end of the experience obtained higher results of inductions of numeric and structural chromosome aberrations with the use of cyclophosphamide and bleomycin were administered 48 and 24 hours before sacrifice in SD rats of both sexes. This constitutes the best experimental design to induce a considerable number of chromosomal aberrations. Nevertheless high sensibility of this rat line in both sexes was evidenced to the action of both mutagens independently of the outline of used treatment.

  2. The Sprague Dawley rats as biomodel in the induction of micronuclei in bone marrow cells by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin

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    Daniel Francisco Arencibia Arrebola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The micronuclei assay in bone marrow is easily to reproduce and its offer clear information on the cellular proliferation in bone marrow. This system allow registering in vivo the capacity of the chemical substances to induce chromosomics ruptures to interfere or the chromosomes metaphases migration during the mitosis of the somatic cells. In this article wedecide to evaluate the Sprague Dawley rats in both sexes as biomodel in the induction of micronuclei in bone marrow cells by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin. Which were formed 5 experimental groups per sex, the first administered with NaCl 0,9 % by intraperitoneal (i.p route, the second and third groups were administered with cyclophosphamide by i.p route,with designs of different treatments at doses of 50 mg/kg. The fourth and fifth groups were administered with bleomycin by i.p route, equally in two designs of different treatments at doses of 40 mg/kg. At the end of the experience obtained higher results of the micronucleis inductions with the use of cyclophosphamide was administered 48 and 24 hours beforesacrifice in SD rats of both sexes. That which constitutes in our experimental conditions the best experimental design to induce the micronucleis formation in bone marrow cells of rodents, increasing considerably the spontaneous frequency to present in this species of rat, useful in evaluation studies on in vivo antigenotoxic drugs effects.

  3. Interaction of the antiemetics ondansetron and granisetron with the cytotoxicity induced by irradiation, epirubicin, bleomycin, estramustine, and cisplatin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At cancer treatment, the use of antiemetics are often needed due to induction of nausea and vomiting. Some antiemetics have been shown to interact with the direct cytotoxic effects. The newly developed antiemetics have, so far as we know, not been studied in this respect. In the present study, the effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron and granisetron were evaluated on the cytotoxicity, induced by irradiation, bleomycin, epirubicin, estramustine, and cisplatin using fibroblasts (V79) and lung cancer cells (P31) in vitro. Ondansetron or granisetron (10-5 mol/l) had no effect on the survival of irradiated cells. Granisetron (10-5 mol/l) significantly potentiated cytoxocity of 2.5 mg/l epirubicin on fibroblasts whereas the effect of granisetron (10-7 mol/l) on the cytotoxic effect of 25 mg/l bleomycin, and estramustine (80 mg/l) seemed additive to lung cancer cells. Ondansetron was non-interactive with the cytotoxicity induced by any of the anti-cancer drugs. Although the encountered observation with an enhancing effect of granisetron on the epirubicin-induced cytotoxicity is seen in a specific experimental situation in vitro, the fact that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are routinely used during cancer treatment indicate that attention should be given to a possible interaction with the antineoplastic action of cancer treatment. (orig.)

  4. The Effect of Bleomycin to the Satellite Association who were Exposed to Radiation (X-Ray Chronically

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    Hilmi ?si

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the therapeutic dose and increasing three differentdoses and three different periods of time Bleomycin (Bleomycin 0.3 ?g/ml, 3?g/ml and 30 ?g/ml, 6,24, 48 hours were added to blood which was beingcultured on 5 samples who were exposed to radiation (x-ray chronically.The satellite association was evaluated in 2639 metaphases frompreparations belong to control and experiment groups.The satellite association was showed difference value to the differencebleomycin dose and the between difference samples. As the satelliteassociation 31.7% for the control group, this value fall to 30.9% at 0.3?g/ml, 27.2% at 3 ?g/ml and 19.7% at 30 ?g/ml. Statistically; there were nosignificant differences between in the 6 hour control group and dose groups(P>0.05. There were significant differences between in the 24 hour controlgroup and 30 ?g/ml dose groups (P<0.05. There were significantdifferences between in the 48 hour control group and 3 ?g/ml and 30 ?g/mldose groups (P<0.01.

  5. Analysis of DNA synthesis in micronuclei induced in human lymphocytes by X-ray irradiation, bleomycin and mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the pattern of DNA synthesis in the micronucleus and main nucleus of human lymphocytes by applying immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody against bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after pulse labeling with BrdU. Lymphocytes were obtained from two healthy men and suspended in RPMI1640 medium plus 10% FCS with PHA. Micronuclei were induced by X-ray irradiation (6 Gy), bleomycin (10 ?g/ml) and mitomycin C (2 ?g/ml). After 71 h incubation, the cells were incubated in the presence of BrdU for an additional 1 h. The cells were spread by cytospin and stained with Giemsa solution. Micronucleated cells were recorded, and slides were restained by the immunocytochemical method. Four patterns of BrdU labeling were recorded; main nucleus/ micronucleus (+/+), (+/-), (-/+) and (-/-). These results suggested that the timing of DNA synthesis in micronucleus is different from that in the main nucleus in some cells. The labeling pattern after X-ray irradiation was similar to the pattern after bleomycin, and these groups had more (-/+) patterns induced than the groups treated with mitomycin C and the non-induced control. These findings show that the patterns of BrdU labeling in the main nucleus and micronucleus are changed by micronucleus inducers. (author)

  6. Intratumoral 57Co-bleomycin administration in carcinomas of the oral cavity. Experiments in the xenogeneic nude mouse and clinical pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments concerning the kinetics and biodistribution of 57Co-bleomycin in three different lines of the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in a nude-mouse model yielded a more than tenfold higher concentration after single intratumoral application of an aqueous solution of 57Co-labelled bleomycin in spite of a remarkable drain of radioactivity in the tumor up to 48 hours post application, compared to intravenous injection. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the tumor was determining by autoradiography. The xenografts were removed and cut (5 ?m) 1, 5, 24, and 28 hours after bleomycin administration, respectively. The preparations were covered with an autoradiographic film and exposed for about three weeks. Thereafter an inhomogenous distribution of the radioactive nuclide was produced within the tumor, and a particularly high activity concentration could be demonstrated in the necrotic tumor areas. The results obtained from the animal experiments have been corroborated by a pilot study consisting of bleomycin application in 9 patients with a carcinoma of the oral mucosa. (author)

  7. Atorvastatin Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Suppressing iNOS Expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK Signaling Pathway

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    Bo Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disorder with high mortality rate. To date, despite the fact that extensive research trials are ongoing, pulmonary fibrosis continues to have a poor response to available medical therapy. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known for its broad pharmacological activities, remains a remedy against multiple diseases. The present study investigated the antifibrotic potential of atorvastatin against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that atorvastatin administration significantly ameliorated the bleomycin mediated histological alterations and blocked collagen deposition with parallel reduction in the hydroxyproline level. Atorvastatin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA level and lung indices. Atorvastatin also markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lung tissues and, thus, prevented nitric oxide (NO release in response to bleomycin challenge. Furthermore, atorvastatin exhibited target down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF (CCN2 and phosphorylation extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK expression. Taken together, atorvastatin significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, via the inhibition of iNOS expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK signaling pathway. The present study provides evidence that atorvastatin may be a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  8. A young male with shortness of breath

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    Khan Fahmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum; the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.

  9. Concomitant radiotherapy with mitomycin C and bleomycin compared with radiotherapy alone in inoperable head and neck cancer: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of concomitant irradiation with mitomycin C and bleomycin in patients with inoperable head and neck carcinoma with radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Between March 1991 and December 1993, 64 patients with inoperable head and neck carcinoma (41 with oropharyngeal site) were randomized to radiotherapy alone (group A) or radiotherapy combined with simultaneous application of mitomycin C and bleomycin (group B). In both groups patients were irradiated five times weekly with 2 Gy to a total dose of 66-70 Gy. The planned concomitant treatment in group B was: bleomycin 5 units twice a week IM, total dose 70 units, mitomycin C 15 mg/m2 IV after delivery of 10 Gy, and 10 mg/m2 IV on the last day of radiotherapy. To enhance the effect of these two drugs, patients received also nicotinamide, chlorpromazine, and dicoumarol. Because significantly better results were achieved in arm B for patients with inoperable oropharyngeal carcinoma, the study was closed and such patients were after December 1993 routinely treated with the combined therapy (as in arm B). Until October 1996, we treated and followed up 48 such consecutive patients. Results: Median follow-up of our study patients is 42 months. Complete remission (CR) rate in group A was 31% and in group B 59% (p 0.04); disease-free survival (DFS) in group A was 8% and in group B 37% (P 0.01); and overall survival (OS) was 7% in group A and 26% in group B (p 0.08). CR r group A and 26% in group B (p 0.08). CR rate for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma was 29% in group A (N = 21) and 75% in group B (N = 20) (p = 0.007); DFS in group A was 10% and in group B 48% (p = 0.001); and the OS was 10% in group A and 38% in group B (p 0.019). In patients with inoperable oropharyngeal carcinoma treated after December 1993, complete remission was achieved in 32/48 (67%, 95% CI: 52%-80%). DFS at the median follow-up of 14 months was 60% (95% CI 43-77%) and OS 58% (95% CI 42-74%). Conclusion: From the results of our study it seems that the concomitant treatment significantly improves CR rate, DFS, and OS in patients with inoperable oropharyngeal carcinoma in comparison with radiotherapy alone

  10. The biosynthetic gene cluster of zorbamycin, a member of the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics, from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; George, Nicholas P; Oh, Tae-Jin; Yi, Fan; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Shen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotic zorbamycin (ZBM) was cloned by screening a cosmid library of Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892. Sequence analysis revealed 40 ORFs belonging to the ZBM biosynthetic gene cluster. However, only 23 and 22 ORFs showed striking similarities to the biosynthetic gene clusters for the bleomycins (BLMs) and tallysomycins (TLMs), respectively; the remaining ORFs do not show significant homology to ORFs from the related BLM and TLM clusters. The ZBM gene cluster consists of 16 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes encoding eight complete NRPS modules, three incomplete didomain NRPS modules, and eight freestanding single NRPS domains or associated enzymes, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding one PKS module, six sugar biosynthesis genes, as well as genes encoding other biosynthesis and resistance proteins. A genetic system using Escherichia coli-Streptomyces flavoviridis intergeneric conjugation was developed to enable ZBM gene cluster boundary determinations and biosynthetic pathway manipulations. PMID:19081934

  11. Ethanol and acetaldehyde potentiate the clastogenicity of ultraviolet light, methol methanesulfonate, mitomycin C and bleomycin in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol itself did not induce any apparent chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, posttreatment with ethanol potentiated the chromosome aberrations induced by ultraviolet light (UV), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), mitomycin C (MMC) or bleomycin (BLM). Chromatid exchanges were predominantly increased in cultures treated with UV, MMS or MMC and then with ethanol, whereas chromosome breaks and chromatid exchange were the major types of aberrations increased in the cultures treated with BLM and ethanol. Posttreatment with acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol, also potentiated the chromosome aberrations induced by UV, MMS, MMC or BLM. The main types of aberrations potentiated by posttreatment with acetaldehyde were similar to those by posttreatment with ethanol. (author). 32 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Changes in sensitivity to radiation and to bleomycin occurring during the life history of monolayer cultures of a mouse tumour cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to X-radiation and to bleomycin has been measured at a number of times during the life of monolayer cultures of EMT6 mouse tumour cells. Little change in radiation sensitivity was seen at any time and no loss of the shoulder to the survival curve occurred. Cultures in early plateau phase (where a considerable amount of cell proliferation is balanced by cell loss) showed a reduced sensitivity to bleomycin when compared with cells in exponential growth. However, after a longer period in plateau phase, when proliferation had virtually ceased, the sensitivity became greater than that of exponential phase cells. These findings are discussed with reference to the conflicting results of other workers. (author)

  13. The mouse splenocyte assay, an in vivo/in vitro system for biological monitoring; Studies with X-rays, fission neutrons and bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese Cohen (J.A.) Inst. voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands)); Farooqi, Z. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese); Benova, D. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1992-12-01

    A modified mouse splenocyte culture system was standardized after testing different mitogens (phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A)). The mitotic index was determined for comparison between different mitogens. Following selection of appropriate mitogen (PHA 16, Flow), some experiments were conducted to evaluate application of cytokinesis-block for scoring micro -nuclei and assays for chromosomal aberrations produced by treatment in G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] for purposes of biological dosimetry following in vivo and/or in vitro exposure to X-rays, fission neutrons and bleomycin. In X-irradiation studies, frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings) increased in a dose-dependent manner. These data could be fitted to a linear- quadratic model. No difference was observed between irradiation in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that measurement of dicentrics and micronuclei in vitro after X-irradiation can be used as an in vivo dosimeter. Following in vivo irradiation with 1 MeV fission neutrons and in vivo culturing of mouse splenocytes, linear dose-response curves were obtained for induction of micro -nuclei and chromosomal aberrations. Lethal effects of neutrons were shown to be significantly greater than for a similar dose X-rays. Relative biological effectiveness was 6-8 in a dose range of 0.25-3 Gy for radiation-induced asymmetrical exchanges (dicentrics and rings), and about 8 for micronuclei in dose range of 0.25-2 Gy. Furthermore, induction of chromosomal aberrations by bleomycin was investigated in mouse G[sub 0] splenocytes (in vitro) and compared with X-ray data. Following bleomycin treatment (2 h) similar pattern of dose- response curve was obtained as with X-rays. In this context a bleomycin rad equivalent of 20 [mu]g/ml = 0.50 Gy was estimated. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Spin-Labelled 1-Ethyl-1-Nitrosourea Prevents Doxorubicin and Bleomycin-Induced Oxidative Stress in Lungs, Hearts and Kidneys of Tumour-Bearing Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Veselina G. Gadjeva; Galina D. Nikolova; Boncho G. Grigorov; Antoaneta M. Zheleva; Anna N. Tolekova; Maya I. Vasileva

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the possible protective effect of 1-ethyl-3-[4-(2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)]-1-nitrosourea (SLENU), recently synthesised in our laboratory on doxorubicin and bleomycin-induced oxidative toxicity in C57 black tumour-bearing mice. Specifically, alterations in some biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation products measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) an...

  15. Spin-Labelled 1-Ethyl-1-Nitrosourea Prevents Doxorubicin and Bleomycin-Induced Oxidative Stress in Lungs, Hearts and Kidneys of Tumour-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina G. Gadjeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the possible protective effect of 1-ethyl-3-[4-(2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl]-1-nitrosourea (SLENU, recently synthesised in our laboratory on doxorubicin and bleomycin-induced oxidative toxicity in C57 black tumour-bearing mice. Specifically, alterations in some biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation products measured as malondialdehyde (MDA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, were studied in lung, heart and kidney homogenates isolated from C57 black tumor-bearing mice after i.p. treatment with solutions of DOX (60 mg/kg and BLM (60 mg/kg. The same biomarkers were also measured after i.p. pretreatment of mice with SLENU (100 mg/kg. After treatment with doxorubicin, heart and kidney homogenates of mice had significantly higher productions of lipid peroxidation compared to lung homogenates. It was accompanied by increased activity of the antioxidant defence enzyme superoxide dismutase and decreased activity of catalase. Bleomycin-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by significantly higher production of lipid peroxidation in lungs compared to heart homogenates, elevation of the anti-oxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and decreased activity of catalase enzymes. After pre-treatment of the mice with SLENU, the levels of all studied oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly improved in comparison with those of the mice treated alone with either bleomycin, or doxorubicin. The present results and those from a previously demonstrated superoxide scavenging activities (SSA of the nitrosourea SLENU have enabled us to explain the protective effect of the spin-labelled nitrosourea on doxorubicin and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress by scavenging of  O2- and increased NO release.

  16. Lesions and preferential initial localization of [S-methyl-3H]bleomycin A2 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C W; Del Valle, R; McKoy, J; Pramanik, A; Gordon, R E

    1992-11-01

    Extensive lesions were produced in cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the bleomycin family of anticancer antibiotics (30 min to 4 h). Electron micrographs revealed that the alterations were most frequently large breaks and small interruptions or holes in cell walls, which sometimes extended into cell membranes. Large portions of cell walls were sometimes lost. Cell walls were frequently ruptured in one or more positions. More than 75% of bud scar regions in single-plane sections and all bud scars in serial sections exhibited many interruptions and breaks after 3 or 4 h of treatment. The discovery of extensive damage to cell walls was consistent with the preferential (approximately 70%) association of radiolabeled bleomycin with cell walls and perimeters of bud scar regions after short exposures (30 min). After longer exposures, the distribution of silver grains changed from a predominant association with cell walls (30 min) to an increased association with the cell cytoplasm (1 to 4 h). This correlated with increased ultrastructural damage, since damage to cell walls was generally more frequent and more severe with increasing length of treatment (30 min to 4 h) or dose (25 to 100 micrograms/ml). Although DNA lesions are believed to be the lethal properties of bleomycins, the lesions produced in cell walls are also lethal properties of the antibiotics. The distributions of lesions on cell walls suggested a generalized interaction of the antibiotic with a cell wall component. These results led us to hypothesize a mechanism of effective antifungal action for the bleomycin family of antibiotics. PMID:1283297

  17. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan, E-mail: kalaivasanbio@gmail.com; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam, E-mail: sudhandiran@yahoo.com

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, ?-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  18. Escleroterapia con bleomicina en malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo: Experiencia y revisión del tema / Bleomycin sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations: our experience and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Lobo Bailón; B., Berenguer Fröhner; B., González Meli; C., Marín Molina; E., De Tomás y Palacios; C., Alonso Bañuelos.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías vasculares son lesiones típicas de los pacientes pediátricos y se dividen en dos categorías: tumores vasculares y malformaciones vasculares de alto y bajo flujo. Estas últimas pueden tratarse de diversos modos: laserterapia, drenaje, aspiración, cirugía o escleroterapia, dependiendo de [...] l tipo de lesión y de su localización. Entre los agentes esclerosantes utilizados, la bleomicina ha demostrado tener buenos resultados en el tratamiento de estas lesiones. En este artículo presentamos nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo mediante escleroterapia con bleomicina intralesional. Desarrollamos un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre 30 pacientes que presentaban malformación vascular de bajo flujo y fueron tratados con bleomicina intralesional. Los resultados fueron buenos o excelentes en 22 pacientes y regulares o malos en los 8 restantes. De acuerdo a nuestra casuística y a la literatura revisada, la escleroterapia con bleomicina es una alternativa terapéutica eficaz y segura en el tratamiento de las malformaciones vasculares de bajo flujo. Abstract in english Vascular anomalies are common in children and can be divided into two categories, vascular tumours and vascular malformations: high-flow or low-flow. The latter can be treated in different ways such as lasertherapy, drainage, aspiration, surgery or sclerotherapy depending on the type and location of [...] the lesion. Among the accepted sclerosing agents, bleomycin has proven good results in the treatment of this condition. Herein we present our experience in the treatment of low-flow vascular malformations with intralesional bleomycin injection. This is a retrospective, descriptive study with 30 patients presenting a low-flow vascular malformation treated with intralesional bleomycin injection. Our results are good or excellent in 22 patients and poor in the other 8. According to our case series and the consulted literature, sclerotherapy with intralesional bleomycin injection is an effective and safe treatment for low-flow vascular malformations.

  19. In vivo manipulation of the bleomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 revealing new insights into its biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Wang, Liyan; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Yang, Runying; Liu, Wen; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Shen, Ben

    2008-10-17

    Bleomycin (BLM), an important clinically used antitumor compound, and its analogs are challenging to prepare by chemical synthesis. Genetic engineering of the biosynthetic pathway in the producer strain would provide an efficient and convenient method of generating new derivatives of this complex molecule in vivo. However, the BLM producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 has been refractory to all means of introducing plasmid DNA into its cells for nearly two decades. Several years after cloning and identification of the bleomycin biosynthetic gene cluster, this study demonstrates, for the first time, genetic accessibility of this pharmaceutically relevant producer strain by intergeneric Escherichia coli-Streptomyces conjugation. Gene replacement and in-frame deletion mutants were created by lambdaRED-mediated PCR targeting mutagenesis, and the secondary metabolite profile of the resultant mutants confirmed the identity of the BLM biosynthetic gene cluster and established its boundaries. Ultimately, the in-frame blmD deletion mutant strain S. verticillus SB5 resulted in the production of a bleomycin intermediate. The structure of this compound, decarbamoyl-BLM, was elucidated, and its DNA cleavage activity was compared with the parent compounds. PMID:18697737

  20. Induction of micronuclei in CHO cells by bleomycin but not by X-irradiation is decreased by treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, pravastatin and fluvastatin, on the induction of micronuclei by ionizing radiation or bleomycin in Chinese hamster ovary cells in order to assess the radical-scavenging ability of these inhibitors. The results indicated that both pravastatin and fluvastatin had no effect on the induction of micronuclei by X-irradiation when they were applied for either pre-treatment or post-treatment. In contrast, both drugs effectively reduced the frequency of bleomycin-induced micronuclei when they were applied for simultaneous treatment or post-treatment, but not for pre-treatment. This indicates that the radical-scavenging ability of these two HIMG-CoA reductase inhibitors differs according to the origins of the radicals, e.g., X-rays or bleomycin, even when the two drugs are compared at an equivalent cytotoxic dose. Our results suggest that both pravastatin and fluvastatin have the ability to scavenge certain types of radicals and to protect cells against oxidative stress. (author)

  1. Integrative analyses of miRNA and proteomics identify potential biological pathways associated with onset of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Satoki; Kakehashi, Anna; Sumida, Kayo; Kushida, Masahiko; Asano, Hiroyuki; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    To determine miRNAs and their predicted target proteins regulatory networks which are potentially involved in onset of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin rat model, we conducted integrative miRNA microarray and iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS proteomic analyses, and evaluated the significance of altered biological functions and pathways. We observed that alterations of miRNAs and proteins are associated with the early phase of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and identified potential target pairs by using ingenuity pathway analysis. Using the data set of these alterations, it was demonstrated that those miRNAs, in association with their predicted target proteins, are potentially involved in canonical pathways reflective of initial epithelial injury and fibrogenic processes, and biofunctions related to induction of cellular development, movement, growth, and proliferation. Prediction of activated functions suggested that lung cells acquire proliferative, migratory, and invasive capabilities, and resistance to cell death especially in the very early phase of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The present study will provide new insights for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25933445

  2. Javvin: Protocol Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Javvin Company offers this online Network Protocol Suite Directory and Index. A network protocol is made up of "a formal set of rules, conventions and data structure that governs how computers exchange information over a network." This compiled online database is handy given that these protocols are defined by various organizations and technology vendors. The database organizes the protocols according to their key functions or their origin/sponsors, but the listing can be viewed alphanumerically by protocol name. The website also provides information on Javvin's products. Visitors can get a free a protocol network map poster by contributing to the protocol dictionary.

  3. Antifibrotic effects of curcumin are associated with overexpression of cathepsins K and L in bleomycin treated mice and human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongwei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and the deposition of collagens. Curcumin, a polyphenol antioxidant from the spice tumeric, has been shown to effectively counteract fibroblast proliferation and reducing inflammation and fibrotic progression in animal models of bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, there is little mechanistic insight in the biological activity of curcumin. Here, we study the effects of curcumin on the expression and activity of cathepsins which have been implicated in the development of fibrotic lung diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of curcumin administration to bleomycin stimulated C57BL/6 mice and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 on the expression of cathepsins K and L which have been implicated in matrix degradation, TGF-?1 modulation, and apoptosis. Lung tissues were evaluated for their contents of cathepsins K and L, collagen, and TGF-?1. HFL-1 cells were used to investigate the effects of curcumin and cathepsin inhibition on cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and the expression of cathepsins K and L and TGF-?1. Results Collagen deposition in lungs was decreased by 17-28% after curcumin treatment which was accompanied by increased expression levels of cathepsins L (25%-39% and K (41%-76% and a 30% decrease in TGF-?1 expression. Moreover, Tunel staining of lung tissue revealed a 33-41% increase in apoptotic cells after curcumin treatment. These in vivo data correlated well with data obtained from the human fibroblast line, HFL-1. Here, cathepsin K and L expression increased 190% and 240%, respectively, in the presence of curcumin and the expression of TGF-?1 decreased by 34%. Furthermore, curcumin significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration and increased the expression of surrogate markers of apoptosis. In contrast, these curcumin effects were partly reversed by a potent cathepsin inhibitor. Conclusion This study demonstrates that curcumin increases the expression of cathepsins K and L in lung which an effect on lung fibroblast cell behavior such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis rates and on the expression of TGF-?1 in mouse lung and HFL-1 cells. These results suggest that cathepsin-inducing drugs such as curcumin may be beneficial in the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  4. Evaluación de implantes de norgestomet reutilizados en protocolos de sincronización del estro en vacas Brahman / Evaluation of reused norgestomet implants in estrus synchronization protocols in Brahman cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Uribe-Velásquez; Adriana, Correa-Orozco; Lina, Cuartas-Betancurth; Diego, Villamizar-Ramirez; Santiago, Ángel-Botero.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar las concentraciones de progesterona, la manifestación de estro y las tasas de preñez en vacas Bos indicus sometidas a varios protocolos de sincronización del estro con un implante de norgestomet usado previamente. Materiales y métodos. Sesenta vacas recibieron un implante auricular [...] de norgestomet reutilizado y fueron distribuidas en uno de cuatro protocolos: (1) benzoato de estradiol (BE) + progesterona (P4) + prostaglandina F2? (PG) (BE+P4+PG); (2) valerato de estradiol (VE) + norgestomet (NG) (VE+NG); (3) el mismo protocolo BE+P4+PG, asociado con 400 UI de gonadotropina coriónica equina (eCG) (BE+P4+PG+eCG); (4) el mismo protocolo VE+NG, asociado con 400 UI de eCG (VE+NG+eCG). El implante fue removido el día 9, con inseminación artificial (IA) 12 horas después de la detección del estro. La preñez fue diagnosticada 45 días después de la IA. Las muestras de sangre fueron tomadas los días 0, 4 y 9 (después de colocar el implante) para el análisis de progesterona por RIA. Resultados. En el día 4, las concentraciones de progesterona fueron menores en vacas tratadas con BE+P4+PG (0.90 ± 0.73 ng/ml; p0.05). Conclusiones. Los implantes de norgestomet reutilizados fueron eficaces para sincronizar el estro y alcanzar tasas de preñez adecuadas en vacas Brahman. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate progesterone concentrations, occurrence of estrus and pregnancy rates in Bos indicus cows submitted to several estrous synchronization protocols with previously used Norgestomet implants. Materials and methods. Sixty cows were given a reused Norgestomet ear implant on Day 0 an [...] d were assigned to receive one of four protocols: (PROT 1) estradiol benzoate (EB) + progesterone (P4) + prostaglandin F2? (PG) (EB+P4+PG); (PROT 2) estradiol valerate (EV) + norgestomet (NG) (EV+NG); (PROT 3) same as EB+P4+PG protocol, plus a 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) (EB+P4+PG+eCG); (PROT 4) same as EV+NG protocol, plus a 400 UI eCG (EV+NG+eCG). The implant was removed on Day 9, with artificial insemination (AI) 12 h after detection of estrus. Pregnancy was diagnosed 45 d after AI. Blood samples were collected on Day 0, 4 and 9 (after ear implant was placed), for progesterone analysis by RIA. Results. On day 4, progesterone concentrations were lower in cows treated with EB+P4+PG (0.90 ± 0.73 ng/ml; p0.05). Conclusions. Reusing Norgestomet implants was effective for synchronizing estrus and promote satisfactory pregnancy rates in Brahman cows.

  5. X-ray-sensitive mutants of mouse mammary carcinoma cells are hypersensitive to bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-sensitive mutants, SX9 and SX10, were isolated from mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells. The mutant SX9 complemented another radiation-sensitive strain M10 of mouse leukemia L5178Y cells, but SX10 did not. SX9 and SX10 cells were more sensitive than the wild-type cells to the lethal effects of bleomycin. The frequency of X-ray-induced mutations to 6-thioguanine resistance was much higher in SX9 cells than in the wild-type cells in the dose range up to 1 Gy, although the induced mutant frequencies were not very different between these two cell strains when compared at equivalent survival. SX9, SX10 and M10 cells were found to be far more sensitive than the respective wild-type cells to hydrogen peroxide inactivation, but the levels of catalase activity were similar among these cell strains. These mutants should be useful for cloning and identifying the human genes responsible for radiation sensitivity. (author)

  6. Combined effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin on the proliferation of isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin (BLM) on DNA synthesis in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated mouse parotid glands were investigated. The incorporation of thymidine-3H into DNA in parotid glands increased remarkably in 16 hours with a peak at 22 hours after the injection of IPR. When x-irradiation (250 rads) was given at 1 hour after IPR (early G1 phase), the stimulation of DNA synthesis was inhibited by about 50%, and the beginning of DNA synthesis was delayed nearly 6 hours. BLM injected in the early G1 phase was also effective in inhibiting DNA synthesis. However, the injection of BLM in the late G1 or S phase did not interfere with DNA synthesis. Combined x-irradiation and BLM inhibited DNA synthesis and delayed the beginning of the S phase far more strikingly than did x-irradiation alone. When BLM was injected at various intervals before and after x-irradiation, the greatest inhibition was found just after irradiation. Therefore, a longer interval between x-irradiation and BLM injection had a tendency to decrease the rate of inhibiting DNA synthesis. These findings were confirmed by measuring the labeling index and the mitotic index in the acinar cells of the mouse parotid gland. These results suggest that simultaneous application of x-irradiation and BLM has the greatest effect. (Evans, J.)

  7. Gamma rays and bleomycin nick DNA and reverse the DNase I sensitivity of beta-globin gene chromatin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active beta-globin genes in chicken erythrocytes, like all active genes, reside in large chromatin domains which are preferentially sensitive to digestion by DNase I. We have recently proposed that the special structure of chromatin in active domains is maintained by torsional stress in the DNA. This hypothesis predicts that nicking of the DNA within any such chromosomal domain in vivo will relax the DNA and lead to loss of the special DNase I-sensitive state. Here we have tested this prediction by using gamma irradiation and bleomycin treatment to cleave DNA within intact chicken embryo erythrocytes. Both treatments cause reversal of DNase I sensitivity. Moreover, reversal occurs at approximately one nick per 150 kilobase pairs for both agents despite their entirely unrelated modes of cell penetration and DNA attack. These results suggest that the domain of DNase I sensitivity surrounding the beta-globin genes comprises 150 kilobase pairs of chromatin under torsional stress and that a single DNA nick in this region is sufficient to reverse the DNase I sensitivity throughout the entire domain

  8. The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the chromosomal instability in bleomycin treated fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Joong Won; Kim, Gye Eun; Chung, Hai Won [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In order to determine the effect of Extremely Low Frequency ElectroMagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) on the frequency of MicroNuclei (MN), aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLeoMycin (BLM) in human fibroblast cells, a 60 Hz ELF-EMF of 0.8 mT field strength was applied either alone or with BLM throughout the culture period and a micronucleus-centromere assay was performed. Our results indicate that the frequencies of MN, aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLM increased in a dose-dependent manner. The exposure of cells to 0.8 mT ELF-EMF followed by BLM exposure for 3 hours led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and aneuploidy compared to BLM treatment for 3 hours alone (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as enhancer of the initiation process of BLM rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human fibroblast.

  9. N-acetylcysteine amide, a thiol antioxidant, prevents bleomycin-induced toxicity in human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobwala, S; Fan, W; Stoeger, T; Ercal, N

    2013-09-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces verticillus, is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, its clinical use is restricted due to the wide range of associated toxicities, especially pulmonary toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Previous studies have indicated disruption of thiol-redox status in lungs (lung epithelial cells) upon BLM treatment. Therefore, this study focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of BLM on lung epithelial cells (A549) and (2) elucidating whether a well-known thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), provides any protection against BLM-induced toxicity. Oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered upon BLM treatment. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, indicated that cytotoxicity is possibly mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with NACA reversed the oxidative effects of BLM. NACA decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. Our data showed that BLM induced A549 cell death by a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. NACA had a protective role against BLM-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and ??m. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising adjunctive therapeutic option for patients undergoing chemotherapy with BLM. PMID:23805793

  10. Assessment of cobalt 57 tagged bleomycin as a clinical aid in staging of head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical assessment of head and neck cancer with respect to staging has, on occasion, been disappointingly ineffective. We have attempted to correlate the incidence of measureable uptake of cobalt 57 tagged bleomycin by primary squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Forty-six cases have been evaluated with respect to histopathological confirmation of the suspected metastatic disease. We have found that this diagnostic measure increases our acumen in staging of head and neck cancer. The relevance of the Co-Bleo scans as a diagnostic aid is reported in 46 cases. Malignant tumors greater than 2 cm in size appear to demonstrate active uptake of the imaging agent. Small tumor size and excess background radioactivity contribute to the false-negatives (17%). Inflammatory conditions or benign tumors of the salivary apparatus may result in minimal uptake, thus, a false-positive result (10%). An increase in the radioactivity of the Co-Bleo may enhance the benefits of this procedure in the search for an undiagnosed primary, as well as undiagnosed local or distant metastases

  11. Assessment of cobalt 57 tagged bleomycin as a clinical aid in staging of head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical assessment of head and neck cancer with respect to staging has, on occasion, been disappointingly ineffective. The incidence of measurable uptake of cobalt 57 tagged bleomycin by primary squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic cervical lymph nodes has been correlated. Forty-six cases have been evaluated with respect to histopathological confirmation of the suspected metastatic disease. We have found that this diagnostic measure increases our acumen in staging of head and neck cancer. The relevance of the Co-Bleo scans as a diagnostic aid is reported in 46 cases. Malignant tumors greater than 2 cm in size appear to demonstrate active uptake of the imaging agent. Small tumor size and excess background radioactivity contribute to the false-negatives (17%). Inflammatory conditions or benign tumors of the salivary apparatus may result in minimal uptake, thus, a false-positive result (10%). An increase in the radioactivity of the Co-Bleo may enhance the benefits of this procedure in the search for an undiagnosed primary, as well as undiagnosed local or distant metastases

  12. Experimental studies on the radiation-modifying effect of bleomycin in malignant and normal mouse tissue in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, J; SØgaard, P E

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between bleomycin (BLM) and radiation was studied in a C3H mammary carcinoma and its surrounding normal skin. In the skin, single and fractionated doses of sequential treatment with BLM (25 mg/kg) 24 hours prior to radiation therapy did not influence the response to irradiation, whereas simultaneous treatment with BLM given 15 minutes before radiation therapy enhanced the reaction to irradiation by a factor of 1.2 or 1.4 following treatment with one fraction or five fractions, respectively. The tumor response to irradiation was not influenced by a single sequential treatment, but five daily fractions of radiation therapy following five daily dose fractions of BLM increased the radiation dose needed to control 50% of the tumors, probably because the tumors continued to grow during the BLM treatment. Simultaneous treatment enhanced the response to irradiation by a factor of 1.2 after both single-dose and fractionated therapy. Based on these data it was concluded that none of the combined treatment schedules were able to produce a better therapeutic effect than radiation therapy alone. Furthermore, mortality due to lung fibrosis in mice treated with BLM indicated the marked toxicity of the drug. This toxicity was most pronounced after fractionated treatment and when radiation therapy and BLM were given simultaneously.

  13. Bleomycin-induced ?H2AX foci map preferentially to replicating domains in CHO9 interphase nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Pablo; Lafon-Hughes, Laura; Di Tomaso, María Vittoria; Reyes-Ábalos, Ana Laura; Jara, Jorge; Cerda, Mauricio; Härtel, Steffen; Folle, Gustavo A

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to DNA damaging agents triggers phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX (generating ?H2AX) in large chromatin regions flanking DNA lesions, allowing their immunodetection as nuclear foci. Even though a predominance of ?H2AX foci in euchromatin has been postulated, foci positioning when DNA insult occurs in replicating eu- or heterochromatin regions has not been extensively explored. Labeling of interphase nuclei with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) pulses has revealed that DNA replication is temporarily and spatially regulated: euchromatin replicates in early S (ES) and heterochromatin along mid and late S (MS/LS) phases. In order to map DNA damage with respect to replicating domains, the distribution of ?H2AX foci induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin was analyzed in CHO9 interphase nuclei by delineating euchromatic (H3K4me3+) and replicating (EdU+) regions. Quantification of overlapping pixels and 3D inter-object overlap in binary masks revealed colocalization between ?H2AX foci and EdU?+??domains both in ES and MS/LS nuclei, indicating that primary damage distribution is modulated by DNA synthesis. Further, we verified that EdU incorporation by itself did not influence BLEO-induced ?H2AX nuclear patterns. Our results also revealed a repeated localization of ?H2AX foci in replicating/nonreplicating interfaces which could reflect short-range chromatin migration following DNA insult. PMID:25035135

  14. Quantitative PCR Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jackson Laboratory (The Jackson Laboratory)

    2012-01-06

    This protocol describes how to genotype mice using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The protocol focuses specifically on Ts65Dn mice, but can be used as a basis for genotyping ohter strains.

  15. An investigation of the structure of the complexes formed between bleomycin and copper(II) and gadolinium(III) paramagnetic ion probes by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramagnetic induced spin-lattice proton relaxation enhancements have been used to determine the binding sites of copper(II) and gadolinium(III) bis-nitrilotriacetate to the bleomycin antibiotics. Copper interacts exclusively with the bithiazole moiety and the gadolinium species with the cationic terminal residue. The very similar metal bound conformers are predominantly folded. C.d. spectra of free and bound forms are considerably different, but this does not necessarily imply a difference between free and bound comformers as these might be electrostatic in origin

  16. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy of selected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using bleomycin and hydroxyurea: a Southwest Oncology Group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with simultaneous hydroxyurea and bleomycin in four treatment levels and with full-dose radiotherapy. Complete responses ranged from 28 to 50% (P = .47), and complete plus partial responses ranged from 57 to 84% (P = .50), in a total of 33 patients. The primary toxicity was moderate to severe mucositis and minimal leukopenia. Despite good initial response, long-term survival duration was not greater than was that for historical controls

  17. Accurate and rapid modeling of iron–bleomycin-induced DNA damage using tethered duplex oligonucleotides and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harsch, Andreas; Marzilli, Lisa A.; Bunt, Richard C.; Stubbe, Joanne; Vouros, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Bleomycin B2 (BLM) in the presence of iron [Fe(II)] and O2 catalyzes single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) cleavage of DNA. Electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor these cleavage processes. Two duplex oligonucleotides containing an ethylene oxide tether between both strands were used in this investigation, allowing facile monitoring of all ss and ds cleavage events. A sequence for site-specific binding and cleavage by Fe–BLM was incorporated into each an...

  18. Delivery of antifibroblast agents as adjuncts to filtration surgery. Part I--Periocular clearance of cobalt-57 bleomycin in experimental drug delivery: pilot study in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antitumor and antifibroblast agents show promise as adjuncts after glaucoma filtration surgery in reducing postoperative scarring and failure. We used nuclear imaging in rabbits to investigate periocular clearance of one such agent (57Co-bleomycin). Sub-Tenon injection was compared to other delivery techniques. Our results showed that a collagen sponge and a silastic disc implant with a microhole prolonged drug delivery when compared to sub-Tenon injection alone or injection with a viscosity enhancing agent (0.5% sodium hyaluronate). We theorize that if an antifibroblast agent can be delivered in small and sustained amounts after filtration surgery, this may prolong bleb longevity and avoid unnecessary drug toxicity

  19. Acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico após quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina: relato de caso Ischemic stroke after chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrialdo José Santos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um homem de 20 anos, com diagnóstico de tumor de células germinativas, que apresentou acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico durante quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina. Os casos relatados na literatura foram revisados, bem como os diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados na toxicidade vascular deste esquema quimioterápico.A 20-year-old man with a germ cell tumor who experienced an ischemic stroke as a complication of cisplatin/etoposide/bleomycin based chemotherapy is reported. The previously reported cases are reviewed as well as the different physiopathologic mechanisms associated with vascular toxicity of this regimen.

  20. Acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico após quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina: relato de caso / Ischemic stroke after chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adrialdo José, Santos; Suzana Maria Fleury, Malheiros; Lia Raquel Rodrigues, Borges; Carlos, Dzik; Darcio G, Nalli; Alberto Alain, Gabbai.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um homem de 20 anos, com diagnóstico de tumor de células germinativas, que apresentou acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico durante quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina. Os casos relatados na literatura foram revisados, bem como os diferentes mecanismos fisiopatoló [...] gicos implicados na toxicidade vascular deste esquema quimioterápico. Abstract in english A 20-year-old man with a germ cell tumor who experienced an ischemic stroke as a complication of cisplatin/etoposide/bleomycin based chemotherapy is reported. The previously reported cases are reviewed as well as the different physiopathologic mechanisms associated with vascular toxicity of this reg [...] imen.

  1. 111Indium-labeled neutrophil migration into the lungs of bleomycin-treated rabbits assessed noninvasively by external scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling neutrophil migration into the lung are poorly understood, but their identification is important for our understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases. Pulmonary inflammation is difficult to quantify, and neutrophils in tissues and BAL may not accurately represent cell migration. In this study, intravenously delivered pulses of rabbit neutrophils labeled with Indium-111 (111In-neutrophils) were used to monitor neutrophil migration into the lungs. Radioactivity quantified in the lung region of interest (ROI) of external gamma camera scintigrams recorded 24 h after intravenous 111In-neutrophil injection accurately reflected the actual neutrophil-associated lung tissue radioactivity. ROI radioactivity at 24 h also correlated closely with the percent of 111In-neutrophils that had migrated into lavageable air spaces, and this parameter therefore provided an index of total lung 111In-neutrophil migration. Using 24-h ROI radioactivity and percent of injected 111In-neutrophils recovered in BAL at 24 h as indices of neutrophil migration into the lung, it was found that intratracheal saline caused only a transient neutrophil migration, whereas 10 U/kg intratracheal bleomycin induced migration that persisted for as long as 3 wk. 111In-neutrophil migration into the lung, assessed by external scintigraphy, correlated with total neutrophils quantified in histologic sections (r = 0.71, p = 0.006). The data suggest that this approach will be valuaa suggest that this approach will be valuable in investigating mechanisms controlling neutrophil migration in lung inflammation, and that 111In-neutrophil scintigraphy may provide a noninvasive index of total lung neutrophil load that might be useful in staging inflammation in patchy diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  2. Modulation of the genotoxicity of bleomycin by amines through noncovalent DNA interactions and alteration of physiological conditions in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of amines on the induction of mitotic gene conversion by bleomycin (BLM) were studied at the trp5 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7. BLM induces double-strand breaks in DNA and is a potent recombinagen in this assay. The polyamine spermidine causes concentration-dependent protection against the genotoxicity of BLM, reducing the convertant frequency by over 90% under the most protective conditions. Spermine, diethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, putrescine, and ethylamine were also antigenotoxic in combined treatments with BLM. There was a general correspondence between the protective effect and the number of amino groups, suggesting that more strongly cationic amines tend to be stronger antirecombinagens. Electrostatic association of the amines with DNA probably hinders BLM access to the 4' position of deoxyribose where it generates a free radical. Other amines interact with BLM differently from these unbranched aliphatic amines. The aminothiol cysteamine inhibits the genotoxicity of BLM under hypoxic conditions but increases it under euoxic conditions. In contrast, pargyline potentiates the genotoxicity of BLM under hypoxic conditions but not under euoxic conditions. The antirecombinagenic effect of cysteamine apparently involves DNA binding and depletion of oxygen needed for BLM activity, whereas its potentiation of BLM entails its serving as an electron source for the activation of BLM. Pargyline may enhance BLM indirectly by preventing the dephance BLM indirectly by preventing the depletion of oxygen by monoamine and polyamine oxidase. The planar 9-aminoacridine weakly induces gene conversion in strain D7, but it is strongly synergistic with BLM. Enhancement of BLM activity by this compound and by the related nitroacridine Entozon is apparently mediated by intercalation of the acridine ring system into DNA. Thus, the influence of amines on the genotoxicity of BLM in yeast encompasses antigenotoxic, potentiating, and synergistic interactions. The underlying mechanisms involve noncovalent association with DNA, altered BLM access to DNA, and modulation of physiological conditions

  3. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 oC. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in tf mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells

  4. Study on combined effects of radiation and bleomycin on carcinoma of tongue iduced by DMBA in hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinoma of the tongue (Mostly squamous cell carcinoma) was induced in hamsters by 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA). The amount of various kinds of free radicals, which increased due to radioactive radiation and administration of bleomycin (BLM) in tongue and liver tissues, was determined by an electron spin resonance method. The hamsters were separated into seven groups: BLM administration only (group A1), 60Co-?-ray irradiation only (A2), 60Co-?-ray irradiation 30 min after BLM administration (A3), BLM administration 30 min after 60Co-?-ray irradiation (A4), 60Co-?-ray irradiation 24 h after BLM administration (A5), BLM administration 24 h after 60Co-?-ray irradiation (A6), and the control (A7). Mean free radicals in the groups were compared, using samples fixed 5 min after treatment. The ratio of mean free radicals of carcinoma of the tongue were 2.6, 2.9, 3.7, 3.9, 3.0, 3.2, and 1 in A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7. The ratio of mean free radicals of the liver under the same condition were 1.5, 1.6, 3.3, 3.8, 2.2, 2.6, and 1. A combination of BLM and radioactive radiation increased the amount of free radicals in carcinoma of the tongue and in the liver. Especially BLM administration 30 min after 60Co-?-ray irradiation showed a synergio-?-ray irradiation showed a synergistic effect. Judging from the amount of free radicals determined, the effect of radioactive irradiation increased when combined with BLM administration. BLM was most effective when it was administered 5 min after radioactive irradiation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. A sensitive fluorescence turn-on assay of bleomycin and nuclease using WS2 nanosheet as an effective sensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingfeng; Ma, Yefei; Jin, Xue; Zhang, Liangliang; Ye, Gaojie; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-03-25

    As an important antitumor drug, bleomycin (BLM) is widely used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In addition, nucleases play a crucial role in DNA replication, recombination and repair which are associated with cancer development. Thus, the development of BLM and nuclease detection methods is of great significance in cancer therapy and related biological mechanism research. Here, a WS2 nanosheet-based turn-on fluorescent sensing platform for simple, fast and sensitive detection of BLM and nuclease was reported. WS2 nanosheet exhibits different affinity toward ssDNA with different length and excellent fluorescence quenching ability. A fluorescein (FAM)-labeled long ssDNA could be adsorbed on the surface of WS2 nanosheet and the fluorescence was therefore quenched. In the presence of BLM·Fe(II) or S1 nuclease (a ssDNA-specific nuclease which was used as a model enzyme), an irreversible scission of long ssDNA was underwent through the BLM-induced oxidation cleavage or S1 nuclease-induced enzymatic hydrolysis. Short FAM-linked oligonucleotide fragments which could not be adsorbed on the nanosheet surface were then produced, resulting in a weak fluorescence quenching after mixing WS2 nanosheets. Thus, the fluorescence signal was restored. The proposed sensor displays a wide linear range and a high sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for BLM and 0.01 U mL(-1) for S1 nuclease. It also exhibits a good performance in complex biological samples. This method not only provides a strategy for BLM or S1 nuclease assay but also offers a potential application in biomedical and clinical study. PMID:25732696

  6. Energy Efficient MAC Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat, S.; Javaid, N.; Khan, Z. A.; Shareef, A.; Mahmood, A.; Bouk, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of energy efficiency of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). We highlight the features of MAC protocols along with their advantages and limitations in context of WBASNs. Comparison of Low Power Listening (LPL), Scheduled Contention and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is also elaborated. MAC protocols with respect to different approaches and techniques which are used for energy minimization, t...

  7. Protocols for Distributed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    We survey approaches to distributed management and highlight an architecture thatis especially suited for distributed management in a large network. We then discuss indetail two fundamental classes of protocols that execute within such an architecture.The rst is the class of Echo protocols, which can be used for distributed polling, globalstate estimation, resource discovery, and distributed conguration. The second classis that of GAP protocols, whose main application is continuous real-time ...

  8. Analysis of the dose-response relationships of chromosomal aberrations after irradiation and bleomycin exposure of different human lymphocyte fractions in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic analyses could be carried out on whole blood and pure T-cell cultures and also on cells of the 'buffy-coat'. In pure B-cell cultures even after 96 hours no mitogenic stimulation could be achieved. Parameters of radiosensitivity and bleomycin sensitivity were dicentric chromosomes, for which the dose-response relationships were calculated. Chromosomal investigations on the 'buffy-coat' cells did not provide indications referring to a varying radiosensitivity compared to whole blood cultures. In pure T-cell cultures T-lymphocytes, which had been separated after whole blood irradiation exposure, showed lower aberration rates than lymphocytes, which had been cultured after whole blood irradiation without previous separation. In the case of bleomycin exposure the treatment of previously separated leucocytes and T-lymphocytes respectively, led to lower aberration rates than the treatment before separation. Therefore it is apparently not necessary for a cytogenetic dosimetry or mutagenicity to depart from the whole blood culture method. (orig./MG)

  9. Treatment of advanced refractory lymphomas with a combination of carmustine, bleomycin, teniposide, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (the BBVDD regimen). An ECOG pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, A S; Weens, J H; Rowe, J M; Smith, T J; Horton, J; Gordon, L I; Glick, J H

    1991-12-01

    Forty-four patients with relapsed, refractory malignant lymphomas (12 Hodgkin's disease, 32 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) were treated with a combination of carmustine, bleomycin, teniposide, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (BBVDD regimen). Patients had failed at least one, and frequently two, chemotherapy regimens before admission to the study. Of the patients with Hodgkin's disease, 2 (17%) achieved complete response (CR), and 3 (25%) attained a partial response (PR) for an overall response rate (CR + PR) of 42%. Among the patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma there were 6 CR (19%) and 12 PR (37%), for an overall response rate of 56%. Median durations of response ranged from 2.5 months for nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in PR to 28.5 + months for Hodgkin's disease in CR. In these heavily pretreated patients, the incidence of toxic effects was grade 3 (48%), grade 4 (23%), grade 5 (2%). The one death (grade 5 toxicity) was attributed to pulmonary impairment due to bleomycin. BBVDD is a moderately effective regimen for the palliation of patients with refractory lymphomas and merits further study. PMID:1720279

  10. Measurement of cross-linked elastin synthesis in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using a highly sensitive assay for desmosine and isodesmosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-linked elastin synthesis was measured in the intratracheal bleomycin model of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis by incorporation of 14C-lysine into the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine and isodesmosine. Detection of the labeled crosslinks was facilitated by development of a highly sensitive assay utilizing thin-layer electrophoresis. The results indicate that crosslinked elastin synthesis is significantly elevated from controls (p less than 0.05) at 1 to 3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin and returns to normal by 5 weeks. The increases in labeled elastin synthesis are not directly related to changes in either total lung protein synthesis or the pool size of the 14C-lysine. In comparison with collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in this model of lung injury, maximal increases in cross-linked elastin formation occur later, but overlap with the elevated synthesis of these other connective tissue components. The marked increase from normal in cross-linked elastin synthesis in this model suggests that this tissue component is an important part of the fibrotic response of the pulmonary parenchyma and may play a role in the observed alterations in lung structure and function

  11. Transport Protocol Throughput Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Bhatti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interest continues to grow in alternative transport protocols to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. These alternatives include protocols designed to give greater efficiency in high-speed, high-delay environments (so-called high-speed TCP variants, and protocols that provide congestion control without reliability. For the former category, along with the deployed base of ‘vanilla’ TCP – TCP NewReno – the TCP variants BIC and CUBIC are widely used within Linux: for the latter category, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP is currently on the IETF Standards Track. It is clear that future traffic patterns will consist of a mix of flows from these protocols (and others. So, it is important for users and network operators to be aware of the impact that these protocols may have on users. We show the measurement of fairness in throughput performance of DCCP Congestion Control ID 2 (CCID2 relative to TCP NewReno, and variants Binary Increase Congestion control (BIC, CUBIC and Compound, all in “out-of-the box” configurations. We use a testbed and endto- end measurements to assess overall throughput, and also to assess fairness – how well these protocols might respond to each other when operating over the same end-to-end network path. We find that, in our testbed, DCCP CCID2 shows good fairness with NewReno, while BIC, CUBIC and Compound show unfairness above round-trip times of 25ms.

  12. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity.

  13. Validation of the Serological Testing for Anti-HIV-1/2, Anti-HCV, HBsAg, and Anti-HBc from Post-mortem Blood on the Siemens-BEP-III Automatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Ulrich; Wilkemeyer, Ina; Caspari, Gregor; Schroeter, Jan; Pruss, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background Some properties of blood are modified post mortem. These modifications might give false-negative or false-positive results in infectious disease testing. Most CE-marked test equipment for infectious serology testing is not validated for testing post-mortal blood. Validation, however, is obligatory, if the results are used for the release of tissues for transplantation. Mathods Samples of pre- and post-mortem sera were obtained from 20 cornea donors, and the results were compared for anti-HIV-1/2, anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-HBc on the Siemens-BEP-III Automatic System. Negative post-mortem sera were spiked with standard sera (PEI anti-HCV IgG, PEI HBsAg ad 1000 standard, anti-HBc IgG (WHO) NIBSC 95/522, PEI anti-HIV-IV) in concentrations which give low- and high-positive results for the respective marker. Results All pre-mortem sera were negative for all markers. None of the post-mortem samples was false-positive. None of the spiked postmortem samples was false-negative. Technical errors occurred during the validation process but could be detected and eliminated. Serum samples should be centrifuged immediately after collection, and it must be taken into account that post-mortem serum could rarely lead to blockage of pipetting systems due to clotting phenomena. Conclusion There is no indication that post-mortem samples give false-negative or false-positve results with the test system and test kits used. The procedure described might serve as a model for validating other test kits on post-mortem samples. PMID:22403520

  14. Adaptive Protocols for Interactive Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Shweta; Gelles, Ran; Sahai, Amit

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we ask the question: how much adversarial error can protocols for interactive communication tolerate? This question was examined previously by Braverman and Rao [STOC '11] for the case of "robust" protocols, where each party sends a message in a fixed and predetermined rounds. All previous work in interactive communication focused on robust protocols. We consider a new class of protocols for Interactive Communication, namely, adaptive protocols. Such protocols ...

  15. Meiotic and Mitotic Phenotypes Conferred by the blm1-1 Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MSH4 Suppression of the Bleomycin Hypersusceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Wood Moore

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Oxidative damage can lead to a number of diseases, and can be fatal. The blm1-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers hypersusceptibility to lethal effects of the oxidative, anticancer and antifungal agent, bleomycin. For the current report, additional defects conferred by the mutation in meiosis and mitosis were investigated. The viability of spores produced during meiosis by homozygous normal BLM1/BLM1, heterozygous BLM1/blm1-1, and homozygous mutant blm1-1/blm1-1 diploid strains was studied and compared. Approximately 88% of the tetrads derived from homozygous blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant diploid cells only produced one or two viable spores. In contrast, just one tetrad among all BLM1/BLM1 and BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads only produced one or two viable spores. Rather, 94% of BLM1/BLM1 tetrads and 100% of BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads produced asci with four or three viable spores. Thus, at least one copy of the BLM1 gene is essential for the production of four viable spores after meiosis. During mitotic growth, mutant blm1-1 strains grew at reduced rates and produced cells with high frequencies of unusual morphologies compared to wild-type strains. These results indicated BLM1 is also essential for normal mitotic growth. We also investigated the suppression by the MSH4 gene, a meiosis-specific MutS homolog, of the bleomycin hypersusceptibility of blm1-1 mutant cells, and the relationship of MSH4 to BLM1. We screened a genomic library, and isolated the MSH4 gene on the basis of its ability to suppress lethal effects of bleomycin in blm1-1 cells. However, genetic mapping studies indicated that BLM1 and MSH4 are not the same gene. The possibility that chromosomal nondisjunction could be the basis for the inability of blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant cells to produce four viable spores after meiosis is discussed.

  16. Influence of Feixian Formula on serum transforming growth factor-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei ZHANG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of Feixian Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating pulmonary fibrosis, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its influence on serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF.Methods: Seventy-two male Wistar rats were infused with bleomycin (1 mg/kg through tracheal intubation to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and they were randomly divided into untreated group (n=24, prednisone-treated group (n=24 and Feixian Formula-treated group (n=24. Fifteen male Wistar rats of the sham-operated group were infused with equivalent normal saline. Twenty-four hours after operation, prednisone (5 mg/kg and Feixian Formula (1.25 g/kg were given to the prednisone-treated group and Feixian Formula-treated group respectively by intragastric administration once a day. Equivalent saline was administered to rats of the untreated group and sham-operated group. On the 14th, 28th and 45th day, 5 rats in the sham-operated group and 8 rats in each of the other three groups were dissected to observe pathologic changes of the lung tissues, and the levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: At the 45th day, the degree of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lesser in rats of the Feixian Formula-treated group as compared with those of the untreated group and prednisone-treated group. The levels of serum TGF-?1 and PDGF were increased, and were significantly higher than those of the sham-operated group, especially on the 45th day (P0.05, and there was no significant difference between the prednisone-treated group and the Feixian Formula-treated group (P>0.05. PDGF in the Feixian Formula-treated group reached the highest level on the 14th day, significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01. Then it decreased, and was close to that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P=0.792. The levels of PDGF in untreated group and prednisone-treated group were increased depending on time, and were obviously higher than that of the sham-operated group on the 45th day (P<0.01. Conclusion: Feixian Formula can relieve bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and the mechanism of its action may be related to down-regulating serum PDGF.

  17. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust.

  18. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  19. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  20. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  1. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  2. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  3. Intra-arterial mitomycin C and intravenous bleomycin as induction chemotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer - a phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-six patients with previously untreated, unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region were treated with repeated intra-arterial chemotherapy with mitomycin C using a selective or superselective angiographic technique, and bleomycin given i.v., followed by radical radiotherapy. In addition, restricted tumour-reductive surgery was done in 18 of these patients. The response rate (CR + PR) after completion of the integrated treatment was 89%, with 63% of the patients showing CR. The toxicity of this regimen was, however, far from negligible. The median survival for this series of patients with advanced head and neck cancers is 19 months, and 17 are still alive after 16+ - 66+ months. (Auth.)

  4. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks through the cell cycle after exposure to X-rays, bleomycin, etoposide and 125IdUrd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generally more difficult to detect in S-phase cells than in cells from other phases of the cell cycle. To explore the basis for this observation, other double-strand breaking agents were examined: etoposide, bleomycin and 125IdUrd. DSBs induced by these agents in single cells in S, G1 or G2/M-phases of cell cycle were measured using the neutral comet assay. Regardless of the nature or location of the DSBs, Chinese hamster V79 cells with S-phase DNA content showed about 2-3 times less damage by all agents than cells with G1 of G2/M-phase DNA content. (Author)

  5. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in diffuse large cell immunoblastic lymphoma: a phase II study of CHOP/bleomycin/methotrexate alternating with ifosfamide/methotrexate/etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical outcome of 23 patients with high grade diffuse large cell immunoblastic lymphoma (Working Formulation, category H) treated by an intensive shortened schedule regimen of chemotherapy is described. Alternating cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, bleomycin and prednisolone, and ifosfamide, etoposide and methotrexate were given over an 18-week (range 16.0-20.8) period. External beam radiotherapy was administered as consolation therapy to sites of original bulky disease in 17 patients. Treatment was well tolerated, though there were two toxic deaths. A 90% response rate was obtained. Sixteen of 18 patients followed for a minimum of 36 months are alive and in complete remission, representing a disease free survival of 69.5%; two further patients are alive following autologous bone marrow transplant. The 3-year disease free survival was 73% (±9%) and the overall 3-year survival 78% (±9%). (author)

  6. the importance of the chemical state of sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals: an effective tumor imaging form of sup(99m)Tc bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective preparation procedures of chemically stable sup(99m) Tc-labelled bleomycin (sup(99m)Tc-BLM) for use in scintigraphic studies are reported. The production of various sup(99m)Tc-BLM species in different states depending upon the labelling conditions such as the concentrations of BLM and SnCl2, pH and reaction time is reported. Their biological behaviour was markedly affected by the state of sup(99m)Tc in the labelled compound administered. It is concluded that sup(99m)Tc-BLM complex in which tetravelant sup(99m)Tc was coordinated through three nitrogen atoms of BLM is chemically the most stable and a rapid clearance from blood was obtained, yielding a high tumor-blood ratio of sup(99m)Tc activity after injection into tumor-bearing mice. A selective labelling method for this sup(99m)Tc complex is described. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of vincristine or bleomycin on radiation-induced cell killing of mice spermatogonial stem cells: The importance of sequence and time interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of single doses of vincristine (VCR) or bleomycin (BLM) on mice spermatogonia was investigated, and the influence of either of these drugs on the radiation response of murine spermatogonial stem cells was examined. When assessed by flow cytometry, VCR (1.0 mg/kg) or BLM (100 mg/kg) reduced the survival in the differentiated spermatogonia to 4% and 37% of controls, respectively (p less than 0.05). VCR reduced the stem cells to 79% of controls (p less than 0.05), whereas BLM had no apparent effect on the stem cells (p greater than 0.05). Drugs were administered intraperitoneally up to 28 days before or after local irradiation with 9 Gy. VCR produced significant enhancement of radiation-induced damage to spermatogonial stem cells, which was most prominent when administered 6 or 12 hr after irradiation. BLM administered before irradiation or 1 hr after radiotherapy produced significant enhancement

  8. Regulatory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on type I collagen and interferon-gamma in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larki, A; Hemmati, A A; Arzi, A; Borujerdnia, M Ghafurian; Esmaeilzadeh, S; Zad Karami, M R

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease of unknown etiology. Recent investigations have demonstrated that the impaired immune response is a common characteristic feature of IPF. Unfortunately, no definitive and effective drug treatment is available that could improve or at least inhibit the progressive course of this fatal disease. That is why one of the main priorities of pulmonary fibrosis investigations is to identify novel and effective molecular targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions. caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the most interesting bioactive compounds extracted from bee propolis. It has been shown that CAPE has an antioxidant activity and modulatory impact on immune system. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effects of CAPE on the levels of type I collagen (COL-1) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry procedure was employed to assess the effects of CAPE on lung tissue. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8) included 1: Positive control group: bleomycin (BLM). 2: Negative (saline) control group. 3, 4: Treatment groups of 1 and 2: BLM+CAPE (5 and 10 ?mol/kg/day, respectively). (5: Sham group: CAPE (10 ?mol/kg/day). BLM application resulted in significant changes in the level of studied parameters as compared to the controls. CAPE could decrease type I collagen concentration, modulate IFN-? level, increase the animals' body weight and decrease the lung index dose-dependently, compared with model group. In conclusion, CAPE may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24082893

  9. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) Plasma Levels Increase during Bleomycin- and Cisplatin-Based Treatment of Testicular Cancer Patients and Relate to Endothelial Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, Renske; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Boer, Hink; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Meijer, Coby; Gietema, Jourik A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chemotherapy-related endothelial damage contributes to the early development of cardiovascular morbidity in testicular cancer patients. We aimed to identify relevant mechanisms of and search for candidate biomarkers for this endothelial damage. Methods Human micro-vascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to bleomycin or cisplatin with untreated samples as control. 18k cDNA microarrays were used. Gene expression differences were analysed at single gene level and in gene sets clustered in biological pathways and validated by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of a candidate biomarker were measured in testicular cancer patient plasma before, during and after bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin chemotherapy, and related to endothelial damage biomarkers (von Willebrand Factor (vWF), high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP)). Results Microarray data identified several genes with highly differential expression; e.g. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) and Amphiregulin (AREG). Pathway analysis revealed strong associations with ‘p53’ and ‘Diabetes Mellitus’ gene sets. Based on known function, we measured GDF-15 protein levels in 41 testicular patients during clinical follow-up. Pre-chemotherapy GDF-15 levels equalled controls. Throughout chemotherapy GDF-15, vWF and hsCRP levels increased, and were correlated at different time-points. Conclusion An unbiased approach in a preclinical model revealed genes related to chemotherapy-induced endothelial damage, like GDF-15. The increases in plasma GDF-15 levels in testicular cancer patients during chemotherapy and its association with vWF and hsCRP suggest that GDF-15 is a potentially useful biomarker related to endothelial damage. PMID:25590623

  10. Patterns of failure in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer treated postoperatively with irradiation or concomitant irradiation with Mitomycin C and Bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The long term results and patterns of failure in patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma (SCHNC) treated in a prospective randomized trial in which concomitant postoperative radiochemotherapy with Mitomycin C and Bleomycin (CRT) was compared with radiotherapy only (RT), were analyzed. Patients and Methods: Between March 1997 and December 2001, 114 eligible patients with Stage III or IV SCHNC were randomized. Primary surgical treatment was performed with curative intent in all patients. Patients in both groups were postoperatively irradiated to the total dose of 56-70 Gy. Chemotherapy included Mitomycin C 15 mg/m2 after 10 Gy and 5 mg of Bleomycin twice weekly during irradiation. Median follow-up was 76 months (48-103 months). Results: At 5 years in the RT and CRT arms, the locoregional control was 65% and 88% (p = 0.026), disease-free survival 33% and 53% (p = 0.035), and overall survival 37% and 55% (p = 0.091) respectively. Patients who benefited from chemotherapy were those with high-risk factors. The probability of distant metastases was 22% in RT and 20% in CRT arm (p = 0.913), of grade III or higher late toxicity 19% in RT and 26% in CRT arm (p = 0.52) and of thyroid dysfunction 36% in RT and 56% in CRT arm (p = 0.24). The probability to develop a second primary malignancy (SPM) was 34% in the RT and 8% in the CRT arm (p = 0.023). One third of deaths were due to infection, but there was no difference between the 2 groups. Conclusi difference between the 2 groups. Conclusion: With concomitant radiochemotherapy, locoregional control and disease free survival were significantly improved. Second primary malignancies in the CRT arm compared to RT arm were significantly less frequent. The high probability of post treatment hypothyroidism in both arms warrants regular laboratory evaluation

  11. Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-mei Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus reticulata (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type ? collagen (Col ? content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P?0.05 or P?0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P?0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P?0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P?0.05; the Col ? level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P?0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P?0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.

  12. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SC...

  13. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS (covered in Chapter 3 and 4), and how they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small O(1) internal memory to store N pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory N, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern. We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client’s access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized log3 N query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to log2 N, while also avoiding the bottleneck of sorting networks. And we show how to utilize this construction for four-playerMPC. Another line of work (covered in Chapter 2) has results about the power of correlated randomness; meaning in a preprocessing phase the participants in a MPC protocol receive samples from some joint distribution to aid them implement the secure computation. Especially we look at the communication complexity of protocols in this model, and perfectly secure protocols. We show general protocols for any finite functionality with statistical security and optimal communication complexity (but exponential amount of preprocessing). And for two-player functionalities where only one player receives output (sender-receiver functionalities) with perfect security. We also show protocols for some specific sender-receiver tasks with both optimal communication and small preprocessing. We show lower bounds on the amount of communication and show the impossibility of general perfect protocols when both parties receive output. Also we show how to use the sender-receiver protocols with perfect security given correlated randomness to construct secure protocols in the plain model with perfect correctness.

  14. On the AAGL Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, M M

    2007-01-01

    Recently theAAGL(Anshel-Anshel-Goldfeld-Lemieux) hasbeenproposed which canbe usedforRFIDtags. We give algorithms for the problem (we call the MSCSPv) on which the security of theAAGL protocol is based upon. Hence we give various attacks for general parameters on the recent AAGLprotocol proposed. One ofour attacks is a deterministic algorithm which has space complexity and time complexityboth atleast exponentialin the worst case. In abetter case using a probabilistic algorithm the time complexity canbe O(|XSS(ui')^L5*(n^(1+e)) and the space complexity can be O(|XSS(ui')|^L6), where the element ui' is part of a public key, n is the index of braid group, XSS is a summit type set and e is a constant in a limit. The above shows the AAGL protocol is potentially not significantly more secure as using key agreement protocols based on the conjugacy problem such as the AAG (Anshel-Anshel-Goldfeld) protocol because both protocols can be broken with complexity which do not significantly differ. We think our attacks can b...

  15. Precise clock synchronization protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luit, E. J.; Martin, J. M. M.

    1993-12-01

    A distributed clock synchronization protocol is presented which achieves a very high precision without the need for very frequent resynchronizations. The protocol tolerates failures of the clocks: clocks may be too slow or too fast, exhibit omission failures and report inconsistent values. Synchronization takes place in synchronization rounds as in many other synchronization protocols. At the end of each round, clock times are exchanged between the clocks. Each clock applies a convergence function (CF) to the values obtained. This function estimates the difference between its clock and an average clock and corrects its clock accordingly. Clocks are corrected for drift relative to this average clock during the next synchronization round. The protocol is based on the assumption that clock reading errors are small with respect to the required precision of synchronization. It is shown that the CF resynchronizes the clocks with high precision even when relatively large clock drifts are possible. It is also shown that the drift-corrected clocks remain synchronized until the end of the next synchronization round. The stability of the protocol is proven.

  16. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  17. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  18. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  19. Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina / Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

  20. Urease Test Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society For Microbiology

    2010-11-11

    Production of the enzyme urease is characteristic of the Proteeae and a few other members of the Enterobacteriaceae among others. Urease is a constitutively produced enzyme that hydrolyzes urea with the resultant release of ammonia and carbon dioxide. The use of urea agar and urea broth for the detection of urease activity is described in this protocol.

  1. Behavior Protocols and Components.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Viš?ovský, S.; Bešta, M.

    Dagstuhl : IBFI gem. GmbH, 1999 - (Wadler, P.; Weihe, K.). s. 7-8 ISSN 0940-1121. [ Component -Based Programming under Different Paradigms Workshop. 21.02.1999-26.02.1999, Daghstul] Keywords : software component * behavior description * behavior protocols Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Coagulase Test Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society For Microbiology

    2010-11-11

    This protocol describes the history and procedures of the coagulase test.  The coagulase test isused to differentiate species of Staphylococcus, especially the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococcal species.  Both common versions of the test, the slide method and the test tube method, are described, and the mechanisms of the reactions are discussed.

  3. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology? series format, the chapters include the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results in the laboratory. Thorough and intuitive, DNA Repair Protocols, Third Edition provides expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication.

  4. Process for Reviewing Survey Protocols

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A brief guide to the NWRS IM survey protocol review process This document describes the process for conducting two types of reviews of survey protocols. A quick...

  5. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  6. Synchronizing internet protocol security (SIPSec)

    CERN Document Server

    Shoniregun, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    Synchronizing Internet Protocol Security (SIPSec) focuses on the combination of theoretical investigation and practical implementation, which provides an in-depth understanding of the Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) framework. The standard internet protocol is completely unprotected, allowing hosts to inspect or modify data in transit. This volume identifies the security problems facing internet communication protocols along with the risks associated with internet connections. It also includes an investigative case study regarding the vulnerabilities that impair IPSec and proposes a SIPSec

  7. Very low dose and dose-rate X-ray induced adaptive response in human lymphocytes at various cell cycle stages against bleomycin induced chromatid aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: To study the adaptive response induced by very low doses of X-rays at very low dose rate in human lymphocytes at different cell cycle stages followed by a challenge dose of bleomycin sulphate at G2 phase. Materials and Methods: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes before (G0) and after PHA stimulation (G1 and G2) were exposed to 1 and 5 cGy X-rays generated by a fluoroscopy unit with a dose rate of 5.56 mGy/min and challenged with 5 ?g/ml bleomycin sulphate (BLM) 48 hours after culture initiation. Mitotic cells were arrested at metaphase by addition of colcemid in cultures 1.5 h before harvesting. Harvesting and slide preparation was performed using standard method. 100 well spread metaphases were analyzed for the presence of chromatid type aberrations for each sample. Results: Results obtained indicate that there is a linear relationship between the dose of BLM and chromatid aberrations below 5 ?g/ml (R=0.93, p<0.0001). The results also show that pretreatment of lymphocytes with low dose X-rays at G0, G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle significantly reduced the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the clastogenic effects of BLM in G2. Much lower frequencies of chromatid aberrations were observed in X-ray irradiated lymphocytes following BLM treatment (p<0.05). The magnitudes of adaptation induced at different phases of the cell cycle were not significantly different. Furthermore, there was no a significant difference in the mwas no a significant difference in the magnitude of adaptive response induced by either 1 or 5 cGy X-rays. Conclusion: These observations might indicate that resistance of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to very low doses of X-rays protects them from clastogenic effects of BLM. This effect might be due to initial DNA damage induced in these cells leading to provocation of an active DNA repair mechanism independent of cell cycle stage.

  8. Peptidomics - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten years ago the scientific community added another discipline to the big –omics family, peptidomics, i.e., “the study of the complement of peptides from a cell, organelle, tissue or organism”. This fact derives from the exceptional capacity to produce data by high-throughput techniques and machines that allow us to pass from proteomics analysis of complex biological systems to the capacity to resolve their peptides content even at the single cell level. Thus, the time is set to have this Peptidomics: Methods and protocols edited by Mikhail Soloviev. I think the editor did a great job; I was reading a very usefull book, a great collection of protocols (that widely range as for the organisms studied, from Bacteria to Man ! both for those are newcomer potential users, as I am, and for those are already acquiented to .....

  9. Generalized Teleportation Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, G; Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are non-maximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of Fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the Probability of Success (P_{suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel capacity bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P_{suc}. A one qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  10. Clinical Protocol Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtschafter, David D.; Gams, Richard; Ferguson, Carol; Blackwell, William; Boackle, Paul

    1980-01-01

    The Clinical Protocol Information System (CPIS) supports the clinical research and patient care objectives of the SouthEastern Cancer Study Group (SEG). The information system goals are to improve the evaluability of clinical trials, decrease the frequency of adverse patient events, implement drug toxicity surveillance, improve the availability of study data and demonstrate the criteria for computer networks that can impact on the general medical care of the community. Nodes in the network co...

  11. Specifying agent interaction protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Sonia Vivian; Marti?nez, Mari?a Vanina; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Argumentation-based negotiation is an adequate alternative for modelling situations in which agents have limited information and bounded capacities. In this research line, each agent elaborates arguments as part of its own planning process and also to justify its proposals, counter-proposals and rejections during the negotiation process. Our proposal analyzes and compares three tools for the specification of interaction protocols: finite state machines, UML, and dialogues games.

  12. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  13. Performance of Relaying Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Viet-Anh

    2009-01-01

    In wireless systems, cooperative diversity and relaying can exploit the benefit of spatial diversity and combat heavy pathloss without requiring multiple antennas at the receivers and transmitters. For practical networks, the use of relays is motivated by the need for simple, inexpensive terminals with limited power and a single antenna. The motivation for this thesis is to study and propose practical relaying protocols that can reduce the power consumption and ameliorate the performance...

  14. Toxicity of aggressive multimodality therapy including cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate with radiation and/or surgery for advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined modality regimen employing induction chemotherapy with cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate followed by surgery and/or radiation therapy was initiated in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In the first 23 patients treated with this program there was a 90% response rate to induction chemotherapy (9% CR and 81% PR). Toxicity associated with radiotherapy, but not surgery, was increased with 11 of 23 patients (48%) who experienced some toxicity during or immediately after radiotherapy. Mucositis was worse than expected and severe delayed mucositis was seen in 2 patients, one of whom required hospitalization. Late complications, possibly related to therapy included one myocardial infarction and one episode of hypoglycemia, both of which were fatal. One other patient voluntarily failed to take prescribed oral leucovorin, dying of unrescued methotrexate toxicity during adjuvant therapy, a questionable suicide. Further follow-up analysis of failure will be necessary to determine if the value of a combined modality regimen in producing an increased cure rate and long term survival will out weigh increased toxicity

  15. Influence of chlorpromazine, bleomycin and WR-2721 singly or in combination on the formation of radiation-induced micronuclei in mice bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female BALB/c mice were divided into 8 groups according to the treatment they received viz. 1. DDW (double distilled water), 2. chlorpromazine (CPZ) 10 mg/kg body-weight, 3. CPZ 15 mg/kg body-weight, 4. bleomycin (BLM), 5. WR-2721, 6. CPZ (10 mg)+WR-2721, 7. CPZ (15 mg)+WR-2721, 8. BLM+WR-2721. After 30 min of drug/s administration the animals were exposed to either 0 or 4 Gy of 60Co g-radiation. The animals were killed at 24 h post-irradiation by cervical dislocation and the micronuclei were prepared according to the method described by Jagetia. The administration of CPZ (10 or 15 mg) alone increased the frequency of micronuclei significantly when compared to the DDW treatment. The exposure of mice with 4 Gy resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei compared to the concurrent control groups. The frequency of micronuclei increased significantly in CPZ (15 mg) and BLM+irradiated groups. However, treatment with WR-2721 before irradiation reduced the frequency of micronuclei by approximately 50% of the DDW+irradiated group. A further reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was observed when WR-2721 was combined with CPZ (10 and 15 mg) before irradiation. A combination of BLM with WR-2721 also resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei. (orig.)

  16. Accurate and rapid modeling of iron–bleomycin-induced DNA damage using tethered duplex oligonucleotides and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Andreas; Marzilli, Lisa A.; Bunt, Richard C.; Stubbe, Joanne; Vouros, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Bleomycin B2 (BLM) in the presence of iron [Fe(II)] and O2 catalyzes single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) cleavage of DNA. Electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor these cleavage processes. Two duplex oligonucleotides containing an ethylene oxide tether between both strands were used in this investigation, allowing facile monitoring of all ss and ds cleavage events. A sequence for site-specific binding and cleavage by Fe–BLM was incorporated into each analyte. One of these core sequences, GTAC, is a known hot-spot for ds cleavage, while the other sequence, GGCC, is a hot-spot for ss cleavage. Incubation of each oligonucleotide under anerobic conditions with Fe(II)–BLM allowed detection of the non-covalent ternary Fe–BLM/oligonucleotide complex in the gas phase. Cleavage studies were then performed utilizing O2-activated Fe(II)–BLM. No work-up or separation steps were required and direct MS and MS/MS analyses of the crude reaction mixtures confirmed sequence-specific Fe–BLM-induced cleavage. Comparison of the cleavage patterns for both oligonucleotides revealed sequence-dependent preferences for ss and ds cleavages in accordance with previously established gel electrophoresis analysis of hairpin oligonucleotides. This novel methodology allowed direct, rapid and accurate determination of cleavage profiles of model duplex oligonucleotides after exposure to activated Fe–BLM. PMID:10756200

  17. "RAPID AND SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ADRIAMYCIN, BLEOMYCIN, VINBLASTINE AND DACARBAZINE IN PLASMA OF HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA PATIENTS BY A REVERSED PHASE HPLC METHOD"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MUHAMMAD, ZUBAIR MALIK; MAHMOOD, AHMAD; SALEH, MUAHAMMAD.

    Full Text Available The RP-HPLC analytical method with UV detection at 230nm with ODS Hypersil C18 column (250mm x 4.6mm, 5µ particle size) was developed for simultaneous determination of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine in plasma of lymphoma patients using mobile phase composition of 300 volumes Acet [...] onitrile and 700 volumes 0.05M Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate containing 0.5ml TEA and pH of the mobiles phase was maintained at 3.7 with 2M Phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 0.75ml/minute with linearity ranges of 0.05-50, 0.06-50, 0.075-50 and 0.09-50 µg/ml respectively with LOD and LOQ of 0.020, 0.050; 0.045, 0.060; 0.060, 0.075 and 0.040, 0.090 respectively. % recovery of DOX, BLM, VBL and DTIC were 99.24, 99.23, 99.08 and 99.09 respectively.

  18. Hektoen Enteric Agar Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society For Microbiology

    2010-11-11

    Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota.  The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered.  The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound.  The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

  19. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  20. Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gendelman, Samantha R.; Pien, Lily C.; Gutta, Ravi C.; Abouhassan, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underw...

  1. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network moderity assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  2. Atomic resolution structure of EhpR: phenazine resistance in Enterobacter agglomerans Eh1087 follows principles of bleomycin/mitomycin C resistance in other bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzen Aymelt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenazines are redox-active secondary metabolites that a large number of bacterial strains produce and excrete into the environment. They possess antibiotic activity owing to the fact that they can reduce molecular oxygen to toxic reactive oxygen species. In order to take advantage of this activity, phenazine producers need to protect themselves against phenazine toxicity. Whereas it is believed that phenazine-producing pseudomonads possess highly active superoxide dismutases and catalases, it has recently been found that the plant-colonizing bacterium Enterobacter agglomerans expresses a small gene ehpR to render itself resistant towards D-alanyl-griseoluteic acid, the phenazine antibiotic produced by this strain. Results To understand the resistance mechanism installed by EhpR we have determined its crystal structure in the apo form at 2.15 Å resolution and in complex with griseoluteic acid at 1.01 Å, respectively. While EhpR shares a common fold with glyoxalase-I/bleomycin resistance proteins, the ligand binding site does not contain residues that some related proteins employ to chemically alter their substrates. Binding of the antibiotic is mediated by ?-stacking interactions of the aromatic moiety with the side chains of aromatic amino acids and by a few polar interactions. The dissociation constant KD between EhpR and griseoluteic acid was quantified as 244 ± 45 ?M by microscale thermophoresis measurements. Conclusions The data accumulated here suggest that EhpR confers resistance by binding D-alanyl-griseoluteic acid and acting as a chaperone involved in exporting the antibiotic rather than by altering it chemically. It is tempting to speculate that EhpR acts in concert with EhpJ, a transport protein of the major facilitator superfamily that is also encoded in the phenazine biosynthesis operon of E. agglomerans. The low affinity of EhpR for griseoluteic acid may be required for its physiological function.

  3. IL-21 induction of CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th17 cells contributes to bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ling; Zhong, Xiao-Ning; He, Zhi-Yi; Zhao, Cheng; Sun, Xue-Jiao

    2015-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Th17 cells and interleukin-17 (also called IL-17A) have been found to be increased in peripheral blood and skin in patients with SSc. IL-21 is a potent inducer of Th17 differentiation that is produced by activated T cells, and whose relationship with Th17 cells in SSc is unclear. Here, using a bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse model of skin fibrosis, we detected the frequency of CD4+/IL-17+ (Th17) cells, CD4+/IL-21+ T cells and IL-21+ Th17 cells in peripheral blood, skin and lungs, as well as the serum content of IL-17A and IL-21. In addition, we assessed the differentiation of CD4+ T cells cultured from these mice into Th17 cells in response to treatment with IL-21. Compared with the control mice, Th17 cell counts and IL-17A levels were significantly increased and correlated with inflammatory and fibrotic indices in the skin and lungs of the BLM-induced fibrosis mice. Moreover, serum levels of CD4+/IL-21+ T cells, IL-21+ Th17 cells, and IL-21 were significantly increased in these mice, and correlated positively with serum levels of Th17 cells. In vitro experiments showed that IL-21 treated CD4+ T cells derived from BLM-induced mice differentiated into Th17 cells. Our results indicate that Th17 cells and IL-17A contributes to inflammatory and fibrotic processes in the skin and lungs in a BLM-induced mouse model of SSc. Moreover, the expansion of the Th17 cell population may be subsequent to IL-21 promotion of the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in these mice. PMID:25492803

  4. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  5. Host Identity Protocol Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Patrik; Melén, Jan

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is one of the more recent designs that challenge the current Internet architecture. The main features of HIP are security and the identifier-locator split, which solves the problem of overloading the IP address with two separate tasks. This paper studies the possibility of providing HIP services to legacy hosts via a HIP proxy. Making a host HIP enabled requires that the IP-stack of the host is updated to support HIP. From a network administrator's perspective this can be a large obstacle. However, by providing HIP from a centralized point, a HIP proxy, the transition to begin using HIP can be made smoother. This and other arguments for a HIP proxy will be presented in this paper along with an analysis of a prototype HIP proxy and its performance.

  6. A Streaming Protocol for Memcached

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Memcached is a general-purpose distributed memory caching system that was originally developed by Danga Interactive for Live Journal but is now used by many other sites and It is thought to be one of the most effective solutions to speed up dynamic database-driven websites by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times that an external data source must be read. Memcached system uses a client-server architecture, it provides its standard memcached protocol to support any types of programming languages. The memcached protocol is simple and very efficient, while it doesn’t support big data objects very well. In this study, the memcached systems were firstly illustrated and then a detailed introduction was provided for the memcached protocol and then the issues of the stock protocol were specified. After that, a new streaming protocol was illustrated which was well designed for big data objects and could be easily integrated into original memcached protocols. Finally, some experiments were done to evaluate the new streaming protocol and finally the new protocol was proved to be very efficient for big data objects storage and it explored new application fields for memcached.

  7. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  8. Enhancer- A Time Commit Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Dubey, Aman Kr Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains content with theinvestigating the performance implications of providingtransaction atomicity for a deadline real timeapplications operating on distributed data. Consideringall the commit protocols and discussing all phases of thecommit protocols and examine their working modelover different aspects of distributed database.Implementing distributed real time databasesystem(DRTDBS) content which must be design on alllevel of database architecture to support timelyexecution of...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF MANET ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Pal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET are networks which routing is based on multi-hop routing from a source to a destination node or nodes. These networks have quite a many constrains because of uncertainty of radio interface and its limitations e.g. in available bandwidth. Also some terminals have limitations concerning battery energy in use. There are numerous applicable protocols for ad hoc networks, but one confusing problem is the vast number of separate protocols. Each of these protocols is designed to perform its task as well as it is possible according to its design criteria. The protocol to be chosen must cover all states of a specified network and never is allowed to consume too much network resources by protocol overhead traffic.

  10. Enhancer- A Time Commit Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Dubey, Aman Kr. Srivastava, Ram Swaroop Misra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains content with theinvestigating the performance implications of providingtransaction atomicity for a deadline real timeapplications operating on distributed data. Consideringall the commit protocols and discussing all phases of thecommit protocols and examine their working modelover different aspects of distributed database.Implementing distributed real time databasesystem(DRTDBS content which must be design on alllevel of database architecture to support timelyexecution of request. The enormous progress inapplications of distributed database systems necessitatesformulation of an efficient atomic commitmentprotocol. The efficiency of these protocols is vital whenhigher transaction throughput is to be supported. Theexisting blocking commit protocols affect over thecapacity of system resources, which worsens indistributed database system Many existing real timecommit protocols try to enhance system performance byallowing a committing participant to share its data to anexecuting participant, thus it reduces datainaccessibility

  11. A Comparison of Effects of ABVD and ChlVPP Chemotherapeutic Protocols for Hodgkin's Disease on Rats’ Epididiymal and Testicular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effects of ABVD and ChlVPP chemotherapeutic protocols for Hodgkin's disease on the structure of testis and epididymis of male rat. After determining tolerance dose of drugs in pilot study, 24 male rats were divided to four groups: ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycine, vinblastin, dacarbazine group, ChlVPP (chlorambucil, vinblastin, procarbazine, prednisolone group and two control groups one for each treatment group. One half of the lethal dose for 50% of population (LD50 was used for treatment of animals in each protocol. Testes and epididymis tissues were examined for structural changes and serum testosterone level was measured by Lission (chemiluminescence method. Body weight, testis and epididymis weights, in treated rats were significantly less than their control groups specifically in ABVD group was less than ChlVPP group. Decreasing of mean diameter of seminiferous tubules, height of spermatogenic cells and diameter of epididymis in caput, corpus and cauda in ABVD group were significantly more than ChlVPP and control group. The serum testosterone level in ABVD group was significantly less than ChlVPP and control group. According to this study results, the ChlVPP had fewer impairment effects than ABVD on testis and epididymis tissue in tolerance doses on male rats' reproductive system. More clinical trial studies are suggested on Hodgkin's patients. With equal treatment effectiveness, it will be better to use the most reliable and safe treatment especially in young patients.

  12. Multidrug chemotherapy (vincristine-bleomycin-methotrexate) followed by radiotherapy in inoperable carcinomas of the head and neck: preliminary report of a pilot study of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a preliminary report on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) pilot study 77-08, of a combination of chemotherapy with vincristine-bleomycin-methotrexate, followed by radiotherapy, for inoperable carcinomas of the head and neck. The main objectives of the study were to determine toxicity and tumor control. Patients who were included had untreated carcinomas, with no distant metastases, and with adequate pulmonary, renal, and liver function. Forty patients were registered for the study. Chemotherapy started with vincristine--1.5 mgs/m2 (maximum of 2 mgs) by I.V. injection, followed by bleomycin drip for 48 hours (15 units/day), and then methotrexate (200 mgs/m2 divided in equal doses 6 hours apart) with folinic acid rescue. Eleven patients received one course of the stated chemotherapy; 28 were given two courses with one week rest period between them. Radical curative radiotherapy was started usually two weeks after chemotherapy. A surgical procedure was considered if the patient was found operable after receiving a dose of 5000 rad with continuous therapy or at 3000 rad with split-course therapy. The level of toxicity that resulted from this combined therapy was considered acceptable. The percentage of complete response of the primary tumor was 6% with chemotherapy; this increased to 46% after irradiation, and to 65% when surgery was added

  13. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  14. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  15. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Form and instructions for conducting a quick assessment of a previously reviewed andor approved survey protocol prior to 2013. A form and instructions for quickly...

  16. Detection of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in airways of a bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis model derived from an ?-smooth muscle actin-Cre transgenic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs has been widely observed in patients suffering interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that AECs could convert into myofibroblasts following exposure to TGF-?1. In this study, we examined whether EMT occurs in bleomycin (BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis, and the involvement of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs in the EMT. Using an ?-smooth muscle actin-Cre transgenic mouse (?-SMA-Cre/R26R strain, we labelled myofibroblasts in vivo. We also performed a phenotypic analysis of human BEC lines during TGF-?1 stimulation in vitro. Methods We generated the ?-SMA-Cre mouse strain by pronuclear microinjection with a Cre recombinase cDNA driven by the mouse ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA promoter. ?-SMA-Cre mice were crossed with the Cre-dependent LacZ expressing strain R26R to produce the double transgenic strain ?-SMA-Cre/R26R. ?-galactosidase (?gal staining, ?-SMA and smooth muscle myosin heavy chains immunostaining were carried out simultaneously to confirm the specificity of expression of the transgenic reporter within smooth muscle cells (SMCs under physiological conditions. BLM-induced peribronchial fibrosis in ?-SMA-Cre/R26R mice was examined by pulmonary ?gal staining and ?-SMA immunofluorescence staining. To confirm in vivo observations of BECs undergoing EMT, we stimulated human BEC line 16HBE with TGF-?1 and examined the localization of the myofibroblast markers ?-SMA and F-actin, and the epithelial marker E-cadherin by immunofluorescence. Results ?gal staining in organs of healthy ?-SMA-Cre/R26R mice corresponded with the distribution of SMCs, as confirmed by ?-SMA and SM-MHC immunostaining. BLM-treated mice showed significantly enhanced ?gal staining in subepithelial areas in bronchi, terminal bronchioles and walls of pulmonary vessels. Some AECs in certain peribronchial areas or even a small subset of BECs were also positively stained, as confirmed by ?-SMA immunostaining. In vitro, addition of TGF-?1 to 16HBE cells could also stimulate the expression of ?-SMA and F-actin, while E-cadherin was decreased, consistent with an EMT. Conclusion We observed airway EMT in BLM-induced peribronchial fibrosis mice. BECs, like AECs, have the capacity to undergo EMT and to contribute to mesenchymal expansion in pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Effectiveness of a sequential combination of bleomycin and mitomycin-C on advanced bronchogenic carcinoma with special reference to influence of additional irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five patients with pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma diagnosed histologically who had no previous treatment were studied in the Institute of Pulmonary Cancer Research of Chiba University. They consisted of 40 males and 5 females. More than 80% belonged to PS1 and 2. Regarding the extent of the disease 15 patients indicated extensive and 30 limited. All of the 45 were classified into 4 groups: group 1 (10 cases) received bleomycin plus mitomycin C (B-M therapy) only; group 2 (13 cases) B-M therapy with post-irradiation; group 3 (8 cases) B-M therapy with pre-irradiation; group 4 (14 cases) B-M therapy with simultaneous irradiation. The response rate and survival duration for these 4 treatment groups were assessed. Group 1 revealed no Complete response (CR), 2 partial response (PR), 7 no change (NC) and 1 progressive disease (PD). (response rate 20.0%) Group 2 showed the total effect of 2 CR, 4 PR, 3 NC and 4 PD. (46.2%) Group 3 achieved the total effect of no CR 4 PR 2 NC and 2 PD. (50.0%) Group 4 accomplished 1 CR 6 PR 7 NC and no PD. (50.0%) Median survival for group 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 18.4 wks 37.7 wks 34.7 wks and 44.3 wks respectively. The response rate based on the clinical stage was 38.9% in the stage 3 and 31.6% in stage 4, and median survival was 38.9 wks in stage 3 and 31.6 wks in stage 4. Furthermore, judging from extent of the disease response rate in the limited disease was 46.7% and 33.3% in the extensive disease, and median survival in the former was 4e, and median survival in the former was 42.0 wks and 24.1 wks in the latter. The results indicate that B-M therapy with simultaneous irradiation is most excellent both in response rate and in survival. (author)

  18. Inhibition of homologous recombination by treatment with BVDU (brivudin) or by RAD51 silencing increases chromosomal damage induced by bleomycin in mismatch repair-deficient tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernole, Patrizia; Muzi, Alessia; Volpi, Antonio; Dorio, Annalisa S; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Shah, Girish M; Graziani, Grazia

    2009-05-12

    Mismatch repair (MMR) has been shown to control homologous recombination (HR) by aborting strand exchange between divergent sequences. We previously demonstrated that MMR-deficient tumour cells are more resistant to chromosomal damage induced by bleomycin (BLM) during the G(2) phase, likely due to the lack of the MMR inhibitory effect on HR. Aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of HR by the nucleoside analogue BVDU [(E)-5(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, brivudin], or silencing of genes involved in HR function, might affect sensitivity of MMR-deficient tumour cells to DNA damage induced by BLM in G(2). The results indicated that BVDU increased chromatid damage and DNA double strand breaks induced by BLM only in MMR-deficient MT-1, HL-60R, HCT116 cells, which are more resistant to BLM with respect to MMR-proficient TK-6, HL-60S and HCT116/3-6 lines. Silencing of RAD51, a key component of HR, increased sensitivity of MMR-deficient HCT-15 cells to BLM clastogenicity; in this case combined treatment with BVDU had no additional effect. Similarly, treatment with BVDU did not affect BLM clastogenicity in CAPAN-1 cells, characterized by a defective HR due to BRCA2 mutations. Conversely, BVDU increased chromatid breaks induced by BLM in HCT-15 cells transiently silenced for DNA-PK catalytic subunit, which plays a key role in non-homologous end joining. The BVDU-mediated increase of chromatid breaks in MMR-deficient cells did not depend on its previously reported inhibitory effect on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In fact, it was observed also in cells stably silenced for PARP-1, which is responsible for most of cellular PARP activity. These data support the suggestion that the higher sensitivity of MMR-proficient versus MMR-deficient cells to BLM-induced chromatid breaks in the G(2) phase is a consequence of the inhibition of HR by MMR. In MMR-deficient cells, BVDU attenuates the repair of BLM-induced DSBs and this is likely to occur via inhibition of HR. PMID:19428379

  19. Multilevel Security Protocol using RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Faiazuddin; S.Venkat Rao; S.C.V. Ramana Rao; M.V.Sainatha Rao; P.Sathish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Though RFID provides automatic object identification, yet it is vulnerable to various security threats that put consumer and organization privacy at stake. In this work, we have considered some existing security protocols of RFID system and analyzed the possible security threats at each level. We have modified those parts of protocol that have security loopholes and thus finally proposed a modified four-level security model that has the potential to provide fortification against security threats

  20. Secure E-payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J Aboud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast spreading of information in the last decade has led to greatdevelopment in e-commerce. For instance, e-trade and e-bank are two mainInternet services that implement e-transaction from anyplace in the world. Thishelps merchant and bank to ease the financial transaction process and to giveuser friendly services at any time. However, the cost of workers andcommunications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority andprotecting information is increased. E-payment is now one of the most centralresearch areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline paymentscenarios. In this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namelyKim and Lee scheme examine its advantages and delimitations, whichencourages the author to develop more efficient scheme that keeping allcharacteristics intact without concession of the security robustness of theprotocol. The suggest protocol employs the idea of public key encryption schemeusing the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with Kimand Lee protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers moresecurity and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real worldservices.

  1. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  2. The Classically-Enhanced Father Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2008-01-01

    The classically-enhanced father protocol is an optimal protocol for a sender to transmit both classical and quantum information to a receiver by exploiting preshared entanglement and a large number of independent uses of a noisy quantum channel. We detail the proof of a quantum Shannon theorem that gives the three-dimensional capacity region containing all achievable rates that the classically-enhanced father protocol obtains. Points in the capacity region are rate triples consisting of the classical communication rate, the quantum communication rate, and the entanglement consumption rate of a particular coding scheme. The classically-enhanced father protocol is more general than any other protocol in the family tree of quantum Shannon theoretic protocols. Several previously known quantum protocols are now child protocols of the classically-enhanced father protocol. Interestingly, the classically-enhanced father protocol gives insight for constructing optimal classically-enhanced entanglement-assisted quantum...

  3. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 ?g/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x107 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x107 spleen cells to 1x106 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge the mixture of cells at 300g for 10 minutes. While the cells are centrifuging, set aside 30 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in another 50-ml tube. Prepare the 50% PEG and place the timer in the hood. 6. Remove all the supernatant from the cell pellet. Overlay the pellet of cells with 0.5 ml of 50% PEG with a Pasteur pipet during 1 minute. Then add 5 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 during 3 minutes. At the end of 3 minutes, add during a minute 15 ml of the same medium. 7. Centrifuge at 250g for 10 minutes. Gently resuspend the fused cells at a concentration of 5 x104 cells/ml, in a RPMI medium containing serum at 20%, HAT (selective growth) and antibiotics. 8. Distribute the cell suspension into 96-well-flat-bottom-tissue-culture plates add 0.2 ml per well. Incubate the plates at 37 deg. C in 5% CO2. Three to 4 days in HAT medium is sufficient for arresting the proliferation of unfused myeloma cells. Screening and establishing a Hybridorna line. The screening could be perform using different immunoassay alternatives (ELISA, RIA, etc). The principal requisite is have been developed a reproducible method before to make the fusion. These method could be improve using the serum of mice immunized as sample. Approximately 1 week after the fusion, colonies of hybrid cells will be ready to screen. During the screening, samples of tissue culture media are removed from wells that have growing hybridomas and are tested for the presence of the desired antibodies. Successful fusions will produce between 2000 and 5000 hybridomas colonies. Depending on the fusion, individual wells will become ready to screening over 2 to 6 day period. Typically, the first wells could be ready to screen in day 7 or 8, and most of the wells will need to be screened within the next 4 or 5 days. When you detected a possible positive clone, you could transfer hybrids of interest to 24-plates adding 1 ml of HAT medium (RPMI 1640) supplemented with serum at 20%. Cryopreserve each culture of cells when they have reached at least 3/4 confluency, 2 ampules/cell culture. Save the supernatants for further studies. Re

  4. Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols Preserving Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar V. Mangipudi; Katti, Rajendra S.; Huirong Fu

    2006-01-01

    Anonymity is a very important security feature in addition to authentication and key agreement features in communication protocols. In this paper, we propose two authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocols: the AKA protocol with user anonymity (UAP) and the AKA protocol with user and server anonymity (USAP). The proposed protocols have the following advantages: first of all, they preserve anonymity, which is a security feature that was ignored in most of the previously proposed AKA proto...

  5. SILC-A Secured Internet Chat Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    ANINDITA SINHA; SAUGATA SINHA

    2013-01-01

    The Secure Internet Live Conferencing (SILC) protocol, a new generation chat protocol provides full featured conferencing services, compared to any other chat protocol. Its main interesting point is security which has been described all through the paper. We have studied how encryption and authentication of the messages in the network achieves security. The security has been the primary goal of the SILC protocol and the protocol has been designed from the day one security in mind. In this pap...

  6. Voice over Internet Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Cavin.

    A reasonably good introduction to the basics of VoIP and its operation is given at this site (1). Special consideration is given to the implementation of VoIP systems and standards; the material can be fairly technical in nature, but the majority should be useful even for people with no prior background in the subject. A much more in-depth overview can be found in this tutorial from the International Engineering Consortium (2). A number of possible applications for VoIP are outlined, and the major technological challenges that face system designers are briefly touched upon. Additional sections about fax over IP are also presented. A professor at Columbia University points out the need for special handling of emergency call services, such as 9-1-1 in the US, in VoIP systems (3). His research paper identifies several key difficulties in accommodating emergency numbers and recommends solutions to them. Furthermore, the advantages to having a VoIP-based emergency call service are discussed. VoIP systems can be used as backups to conventional public switched telephone networks (PSTN), as is proposed by a working group of the Internet2 consortium (4). The group's Voice Disaster Recovery Project is investigating a method of transferring voice communications from phone lines to data networks in the event of a failure in the PSTN, with little or no interruption. Although the work is just beginning, the group's homepage offers background information about the project, press releases, and a slide presentation from an April 2003 talk. The problem of having a mobile endpoint for a VoIP terminal, such as in a wireless local area network, is discussed in a paper from Dartmouth College (5). The implementation issues associated with a Mobile Voice over IP system are highlighted, including how to maintain a connection when the network address of one of the hosts changes. Information technology professionals and anyone working with VoIP systems should find the next two resources to be quite useful. The first is a collection of architectural specifications, network protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP (6). Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. The second resource is the Voice over IP Calculator Web site (7), which actually consists of four free online tools that can be used to estimate bandwidth requirements and voice paths for a planned VoIP system. Each utility is very easy to use, but is mainly intended for experienced IT workers. Lastly, a September 5, 2003 news article (8) recognizes Coldwater, Michigan as being the first US city to offer VoIP services in addition to conventional telephone services. The move is seen as a way of spurring competition and allowing cities to essentially go into business against local telecommunications companies.

  7. Bleomycin, methotrexate and vincristine before irradiation of stage III and IV laryngeal and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A study initiated by the Danish Society of Head and Neck Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Rygård, J

    2013-01-01

    Primary treatment with bleomycin, methotrexate and vincristine for two weeks followed by curatively intended 60Co irradiation was administered to 153 patients consecutively referred to the three main treatment centres in Denmark over more than a two-year period. Seventy-one laryngeal and 82 pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas were evaluated. According to the TNM classification (UICC) 76 patients had stage III and 77 patients stage IV disease. The immediate response (complete + partial) to chemotherapy was 20 per cent. Judging from frequency of local recurrence, metastases as well as survival the treatment results were not obviously improved. A high frequency of complications was observed after this combination of chemotherapy and irradiation, and it was often impossible to fulfil the irradiation to the planned dose in appropriate time.

  8. What compound should be used for the detection of brain metastases. Comparison of sup(99m)Tc-gluconate with four other technetium-containing compounds (pertechnetate, DTPA, citrate, bleomycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comparative study shows that sup(99m)Tc-gluconate and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA give the best results in the diagnosis of brain metastases, on condition that the examinations are not carried out until 4 to 6 hours after injection. They far outclass pertechnetate and appear more efficient than technetium-containing citrate and bleomycine. The only disadvantages of these compounds are their fast elimination by the kidneys, exposing the kidneys and bladder to higher irradiation doses and the length of the examinations which must be performed 3 to 6 hours after injection with relatively low count rates. However these disadvantages are more than offset by the superiority of the data supplied

  9. Respuesta de ratones Balb/c frente a ciclofosfamida y bleomicina en el ensayo de la morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide - Balb/c mice’s response against bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the head sperm morphology assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Fernández Luis Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl ensayo de la morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide permite el estudio del potencial genotóxico de muestras problemas a nivel celular. En este artículo se decidió evaluar y comparar en 16 ratones Balb/c machos por grupo, el efecto de dos sustancias mutagénicas en este ensayo.SummaryThe head sperm morphology assay, allows the study of the genotoxic potencial of samples at the cellular level problems. In this article we decide to evaluate and to compare in 16 Balb/c males mice per group, the effect of two mutagenic substances in these assay, the Cyclophosphamide (CF in dose of 50 mg/kg and the Bleomycin (BL in dose of 20 mg/kg, administered by intraperitoneal route during 5 consecutive days, being sacrificed the animals 35 days after the last administration of the mutagens.

  10. Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Lunemann, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.

  11. Modified LAR Multicast Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Abdellatif Abouhogail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Today there is a widening in digital technologies and increasing in new multimedia services like: pay-per-view TV, interactive simulations, teleconferencing. So there is an increasing demand for multicast communication. There is a number of security issues in multicast communication directly related to the specific nature of multicast. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for authenticating streamed data delivered in real-time over an insecure network we concentrate on the multicast authentication problem. Important requirements of multicast communication protocols are: to perform authentication in real-time, to resist packet loss to have low communication and computation overheads. In the present paper, a scheme for authenticating multicast data applications is proposed. The proposed protocol can be viewed as an improvement of LAR protocol (proposed by R.Latif et al in Jan 2011 [1]. The modified LAR doesn't assume the group members are honest as in LAR with lower communication overhead.

  12. Cryptographic Protocols: : Theory and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    2010-01-01

    The art of keeping messages secret is ancient. It must have been invented only shortly after the invention of the messages themselves. Merchants and generals have always had a need to exchange critical messages while keeping them secret from the prying eyes of competitors or the enemy. Classical cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible framework. We call this framework VIFF, short for Virtual Ideal Functionality Framework. VIFF implements a UC functionality for general multiparty computation on asynchronous networks. We give a formal definition of the functionality in Chapter 3. There we also describe how we implemented the functionality with a variant of the classic BGW protocol. The protocol is secure against a semi-honest adversary. In Chapter 4 we describe a new protocol for VIFF that is secure against malicious adversaries. The protocol guarantees termination if the adversary allows a preprocessing phase to terminate, in which no information is released. The communication complexity of this protocol is the same as that of a passively secure solution up to a constant factor. It is secure against an adaptive and active adversary corrupting less than n=3 players. Following the presentation of VIFF, we turn to a more theoretical subject. Chapter 5 investigates the notion of a covert adversary — an adversary type that intuitively lies in between semi-honest and malicious adversaries. The main idea is that we accept that a cheating adversary may succeed with a given probability, which need not be negligible. The reasoning is that in many real-world cases, a large probability of being caught is sufficient to prevent the adversary from trying to cheat. We show how to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into a protocol that is secure against covert attacks, again for honest majority. The transformed protocol catches cheating with probability 1/4 . Though we present no implementation of this compiler, we believe it will be very efficient and practical to implement using, say, VIFF. The cost of the modified protocol is essentially twice that of the original plus an overhead that only depends on the number of inputs. We round off this dissertation with Chapter 6. There we return to the practical side of things and consider how users of online collaboration tools and network storage services place considerable trust in their providers. We presents a novel approach for protecting data integrity in revision control systems hosted by an untrusted provider. It guarantees atomic read and write operations on the shared data when the service is correct and preserves fork-linearizability when the service is faulty. A prototype has been implemented on top of the Subversion revision control system; benchmarks show that the approach is practical.

  13. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  14. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation. PMID:25316538

  15. Heterogeneous planning for homogeneous protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical trials often require homogeneous treatment plans. Many institutions, however, have begun using heterogeneous plans. Is it possible to satisfy the requirements of such a protocol while achieving the superior accuracy of heterogeneous treatment planning? At the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we currently use conformal treatment planning with heterogeneities for thoracic cancers. This paper describes a procedure that has been developed to satisfy the requirements of a homogeneous protocol, such as RTOG 98-01 (A Phase III Study of Amifostine mucosal protection), while maintaining accuracy in treatment planning

  16. Protocols of myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Min [College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    In myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, the results of this evaluation now confront the practitioner of nuclear medicine with methodological options. Most nuclear cardiologic studies are performed using thallium-201, Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tertrofosmin. Some part of these studies use some form of pharmacologic stress test. While tailoring each test to the individual is ideal, this may be impractical for a busy department. Accordingly, established protocols to be used for patients with similar clinical presentations will be helpful. The following review presents methodology of various imaging protocols mainly according to the guidelines of nuclear cardiology procedures in American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

  17. SECURITY PROTOCOL COMPOSITION FOR WEB SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genge Bela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition method, security protocol specification and middleware, developed in our previous work, are used in the process of composing Web services that use heterogeneous security protocols. Existing solutions rely on using standard security protocols that must be implemented by all Web services for the composition to be successful. This way, services implementing new protocols can not be composed with existing ones. This is why, the main contribution of the paper is the integration of automated security protocol composition methods in the field of Web services. Based on this middleware, we present a new video surveillance system, where services are automatically composed and security protocols are automatically implemented.

  18. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are compared, the representative existing solutions are highlighted, and several remaining research challenges are identified. Finally, the taxonomy of SIP threat will be presented.

  19. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  20. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools.

  2. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  3. Next-hop resolution protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, James V.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the next hop resolution protocol (NHRP), and its use in the deployment over non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) networks with particular emphasis on NHRP's use with IP over ATM campus networks. NHRP allows a host or router to determine the 'best' next hop at the egress of an NBMA cloud toward a final destination. NHRP differs from traditional ARP- like mechanisms in that NHRP will return information that may permit the creation of a cut-through connection across multiple IP subnets and thus would bypass the associated router hops. This bypassing of intermediate routers should cause a net decrease in delay and delay variation since fewer protocol layers of the intervening nodes would potentially have to access the data carried on those connections. Note that while this protocol was developed for use with NBMA subnetworks, it is possible, if not likely, that it will be applied to BMA subnetworks as well. However, this usage of NHRP is for further study. Further, while this paper emphasizes IP networks, NHRP is built to be multi-protocol at the network layer.

  4. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob LØvstad

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based security is not possible. However, putting a natural constraint on the adversary, we show a non-trivial example of a protocol that can indeed be simulated.

  5. Post-Quantum Key Exchange Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangdong; Leung, Lin; Kwan, Andis Chi-Tung; ZHANG, XIAOWEN; Kahanda, Dammika; Anshel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    If an eavesdropper Eve is equipped with quantum computers, she can easily break the public key exchange protocols used today. In this paper we will discuss the post-quantum Diffie-Hellman key exchange and private key exchange protocols.

  6. National Wildlife Refuge System Survey Protocol Template

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A template for drafting survey protocols formatted according to the National Wildlife Refuge System standards from the Survey Protocol Handbook This template was...

  7. Cryptanalysis of shifted conjugacy authentication protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Longrigg, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first practical attack on the shifted conjugacy-based authentication protocol proposed by P. Dehornoy. We discuss the weaknesses of that primitive and propose ways to improve the protocol.

  8. SILC-A Secured Internet Chat Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANINDITA SINHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Secure Internet Live Conferencing (SILC protocol, a new generation chat protocol provides full featured conferencing services, compared to any other chat protocol. Its main interesting point is security which has been described all through the paper. We have studied how encryption and authentication of the messages in the network achieves security. The security has been the primary goal of the SILC protocol and the protocol has been designed from the day one security in mind. In this paper we have studied about different keys which have been used to achieve security in the SILC protocol. The main function of SILC is to achieve SECURITY which is most important in any chat protocol. We also have studied different command for communication in chat protocols.

  9. A Rational Approach to Cryptographic Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero-gil, P.; Herna?ndez-goya, C.; Bruno-castan?eda, C.

    2010-01-01

    This work initiates an analysis of several cryptographic protocols from a rational point of view using a game-theoretical approach, which allows us to represent not only the protocols but also possible misbehaviours of parties. Concretely, several concepts of two-person games and of two-party cryptographic protocols are here combined in order to model the latters as the formers. One of the main advantages of analysing a cryptographic protocol in the game-theory setting is th...

  10. Analysing Applications Layered on Unilaterally Authenticating Protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson-Robinson, T; LOWE, G; Barthe, G.; Datta, A; Etalle, S.

    2011-01-01

    There are many approaches to proving the correctness of application-layer protocols that are layered on secure transport protocols, such as TLS. One popular approach is verification by abstraction, in which the correctness of the application-layer protocol is proven under the assumption that the transport layer satisfies certain properties. Following this approach, we adapt the strand spaces model in order to analyse application-layer protocols that depend on unilaterally authenticating secur...

  11. Automatic Verification of Security Protocols Using Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Boichut, Yohan; He?am, Pierre-cyrille; Kouchnarenko, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Security protocols are widely used in open modern networks to ensure safe communications. It is now recognized that formal analysis can provide the level of assurance required by both developers and users of the protocols. Unfortunately it is generally undecidable to certify whether a protocol is safe or not. However the automatic verification of security protocols can be attempted using abstraction-based approximation. For this purpose, tree automata approximations were introduced by Genet a...

  12. Distributed Database Rk-Secure Sum Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    JYOTIRMAYEE RAUTARAY; RAGHVENDRA KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Secure sum protocol of confidential data inputs is an exciting instance of Secure Multiparty Computation Protocol, which has attracted many researchers to devise secure protocols with highest privacy and lower probability of data leakage. In this paper, we proposed a protocol to compute the sum of individual data inputs with zero probability of data leakage when two neighbour parties join together to know the data of a center party. We break the data block of each party into number of data se...

  13. 07421 Executive Summary -- Formal Protocol Verification Applied

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liqun; Kremer, Steve; Ryan, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Security protocols are a core part of distributed computing systems, and are part of our everyday life since they are used in web servers, email, mobile phones, bank transactions, etc. However, security protocols are notoriously difficult to get right. There are many cases of protocols which are proposed and considered secure for many years, but later found to have security flaws. Formal methods offer a promising way for automated security analysis of protocols. While the...

  14. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at th...

  15. Classical Cryptographic Protocols in a Quantum World

    OpenAIRE

    Hallgren, Sean; Smith, Adam; Fang SONG

    2015-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols, such as protocols for secure function evaluation (SFE), have played a crucial role in the development of modern cryptography. The extensive theory of these protocols, however, deals almost exclusively with classical attackers. If we accept that quantum information processing is the most realistic model of physically feasible computation, then we must ask: what classical protocols remain secure against quantum attackers? Our main contribution is sho...

  16. SECURITY PROTOCOL COMPOSITION FOR WEB SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Genge Bela; Haller Piroska

    2009-01-01

    The composition method, security protocol specification and middleware, developed in our previous work, are used in the process of composing Web services that use heterogeneous security protocols. Existing solutions rely on using standard security protocols that must be implemented by all Web services for the composition to be successful. This way, services implementing new protocols can not be composed with existing ones. This is why, the main contribution of the paper is the integration of ...

  17. Annotation Markers for runtime replication protocol selection

    OpenAIRE

    Meling, Hein

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture enabling developers to easily andflexibly assign replication protocols simply by annotating individual server methods.This avoids using costly replication protocols for all object methods, e.g.read-only methods can use less costly protocols, reserving the costly replicationprotocols for update methods. The architecture has been implemented in theJgroup/ARM middleware, and enables addition of new replication protocols withoutmodifying the core toolkit. It al...

  18. File repository transfer protocol. Version 1

    OpenAIRE

    Stabell-Kulø, Tage

    1995-01-01

    This document presents and specifies the protocol that interfaces clients and servers in the File Repository (FR). The FR is a software system that supports sharing of files. The protocol is modelled after Smtp and Nntp and is encoded in Ascii. No details of server implementation is visible in the protocol description, but we state our intentions at several occasions.

  19. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI. 

  20. On using Mobile IP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayza A. Nada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4 with its major components: agent discovery, registration and tunneling. In addition, we outline the available encapsulation techniques and route optimization procedure. In the end, we describe the design of the new protocol for transparent routing of IPv6 packets to mobile IPv6 nodes operating in the Internet.

  1. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  2. Behavior Protocols for Software Components.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Viš?ovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 28, ?. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076. ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2030902; GA ?R GA201/99/0244 Grant ostatní: Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component -based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  3. Transmission protocols for instruction streams

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Threads as considered in thread algebra model behaviours to be controlled by some execution environment: upon each action performed by a thread, a reply from its execution environment -- which takes the action as an instruction to be processed -- determines how the thread proceeds. In this paper, we are concerned with the case where the execution environment is remote: we describe and analyse some transmission protocols for passing instructions from a thread to a remote exec...

  4. On using Mobile IP Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fayza A. Nada

    2006-01-01

    The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4) with its major components: agent discovery, registration and...

  5. Bounding Component Behavior via Protocols.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Viš?ovský, Stanislav; Besta, Miloslav

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 1999 - (Firesmith, D.; Riehle, R.; Pour, G.; Meyer, B.), s. 387-398 ISBN 0-7695-0278-4. [TOOLS /30./. Santa Barbara (US), 01.08.1999-05.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2030902; GA ?R GA201/99/0244 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  6. Formal Verification of Netlog Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Meixian; Monin, Jean-franc?ois

    2012-01-01

    Data centric languages, such as recursive rule based languages, have been proposed to program distributed applications over networks. They greatly simplify the code, while still admitting efficient distributed execution, including on sensor networks. From previous work \\cite{discotec11}, we know that they also provide a promising approach to another tough issue about distributed protocols: their formal verification. Indeed, we can take advantage of their data centric orientation, which allows...

  7. Heuristic Methods for Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat ul Ain Nizamani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Model checking is an automatic verification technique to verify hardware and software systems. However it suffers from state-space explosion problem. In this paper we address this problem in the context of cryptographic protocols by proposing a security property-dependent heuristic. The heuristic weights the state space by exploiting the security formulae; the weights may then be used to explore the state space when searching for attacks.

  8. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero

  9. Optimizing One Fair Document Exchange Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fair document exchange protocol. The exchange of the documents will be between two parties. The protocol is based on the verifiable and recoverable encryption of a document's key. This verifiable and recoverable encryption of the document's key will allow one party to verify the encrypted key. It will also ensure this party that the Semi Trusted Third Party will be able to recover the key if the other party misbehaves. The protocol also incorporates the concept of enforcing the honesty of one party. The proposed protocol consists of only three messages and is more efficient than related protocols.

  10. Simple and Efficient Contract Signing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new contract signing protocol is proposed based on the RSA signature scheme. The protocol will allow two parties to sign the same contract and then exchange their digital signatures. The protocol ensures fairness in that it offers parties greater security: either both parties receive each other's signatures or neither does. The protocol is based on offline Trusted Third Party (TTP) that will be brought into play only if one party fails to sign the contract. Otherwise, the TTP remains inactive. The protocol consists of only three messages that are exchanged between the two parties.

  11. Reactive broadcasting protocol for video on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Carter, Steven W.; Long, Darrell D. E.

    1999-12-01

    We propose a reactive broadcasting protocol that addresses the problem of distributing moderately popular videos in a more efficient fashion. Like all efficient broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting assumes that the customer set-top box has enough local storage to store at least one half of each video being watched. Unlike other broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting only broadcasts the later portions of each video. the initial segment of each video is distributed on demand using a stream tapping protocol. Our simulations show that reactive broadcasting outperforms both conventional broadcasting protocols and pure stream tapping for a wide range of video request rates.

  12. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  13. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncompromised subset of the participants are still guar- anteed that their interaction will respect sessions. A protocol transfor- mation turns any protocol into a session-respecting protocol. We do this via a general theory of separability. Our main theorem ap- plies to different separability requirements, and characterizes when we can separate protocol executions sufficiently to meet a particular require- ment. This theorem also gives direct proofs of some old and new protocol composition results. Thus, our theory of separability appears to cover protocol composition and session-like behavior within a uniform frame- work, and gives a general pattern for reasoning about independence.

  14. An Insight Comparison of Serial Communication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khurana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Embedded System consists of a large number of integrated circuits. For proper functioning of the system, these Integrated circuits need to communicate with each other. This communication is done using a number of universally accepted protocols as per the system requirement. These protocols include Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol, Serial Peripheral Interface, MOD bus protocol, Controller Area Network bus protocol and others. This paper describes the basics of these protocols and also compares them with the help of some performance parameters like speed, data rate, error handling and at different layers of OSI model like physical layer, data link layer and application layer. After reading this paper, one can choose the suitable serial bus protocol as per the requirement of application.

  15. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  16. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  17. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; de Moor, Bart

    2006-06-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states.

  18. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Hostens, E; Dehaene, J; Dehaene, Jeroen; Hostens, Erik; Moor, Bart De

    2006-01-01

    We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states.

  19. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order to ensure the finiteness of the protocol state-spaces while still being able to verify interesting protocol properties. The translations for different kinds of communication media have been implemented and successfully tested, among others, on agreement protocols from WS-Business Activity.

  20. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol ?????? ???????????? spanning-tree protocol ?????? ??????????? SPANNING-TREE PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available

     Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

     ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ????, ???????????? ??? ??????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? (? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ? ????? ???????????????? ??????. ??????????? Spanning-Tree Protocol - ????? ?????? ????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ???? ??????-?????, ??????? ?????? ?????.

     ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????, ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????????. ???? ?????????? ?????? (?, ?????, ? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????????? Spanning-Tree Protocol – ???????? ??????? ????, ?? ????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????.

  1. Efficient Three Party Key Exchange Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Pathak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Key exchange protocols allow two or more parties communicating over a public network to establish a common secret key called a session key. In 1976, Diffie and Hellman proposed the first practical key exchange (DH key exchange protocol.  In 2005, Abdalla and  Pointcheval suggested  a new variation  of the computational   DH assumption  called chosen based computational Diffie Hellman (CCDH  and presented  simple password based authenticated  key exchange protocols.  Since then several three party password  authenticated key agreement  protocols  have  been proposed  In 2007, Lu and  Cao proposed  a simple 3 party authenticated  key exchange  (S-3PAKE  protocol.  Kim   and  Koi found  that this protocol cannot  resist  undetectable   online password  guessing attack  and gave fixed STPKE’ protocol as a countermeasure  using exclusive-or operation.  Recently,   Tallapally and Padmavathy found that STPKE’ is still vulnerable to undetectable online password guessing attack and gave a modified STPKE’ protocol.  Unfortunately,   we find that, although  modified STPKE’ protocol  can  resist  undetectable   online  password  guessing  attack   but it is vulnerable  to man  in the middle  attack.  Also, we propose and analyze an efficient protocol against all the known attacks.

  2. Generalized quarantine disinfestation research protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of a quarantine disinfestation treatment is to prevent the establishment of a pest associated with a commodity to be imported into a country or region where it does not already occur or where its presence is restricted. Irradiation is particularly suited to this purpose with applications over a wide range of commodities and pests. It meets the current consumer requirement of freedom from chemical residues that are associated with fumigation and insecticide treatments. Disinfestation treatments may need to gain the specific approval of quarantine authorities in each importing country. Therefore the supporting data required may differ from country to country. Such differences are usually minor and this generalised protocol will provide most of the information required by most importing countries. This protocol is intended to meet the broad quarantine treatment requirements of the following countries: Japan, USA, Australia and New Zealand. At present irradiation is likely to prove acceptable only to USA. This can be expected to change as public perception of irradiation matures and confidence develops. Additional countries for which the methodology should prove generally acceptable include the other ASEAN countries, China, Korea, Taiwan, India, South Africa and most South American and Central American countries. Signatories to GATT have agreed to abide by the principle of equivalence so there should be some flexibility in how the work is done including existiy in how the work is done including existing data obtained in an equivalent manner. This protocol applies particularly to pests of fresh horticultural produce that can be maintained in laboratory cultures (e.g. fruit flies and mites), but it can be adapted for use with field-collected insects provided that adequate numbers of known stages can be obtained

  3. Anonymity protocols as noisy channels

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Panangaden, Prakash

    2008-01-01

    We consider a framework in which anonymity protocols are interpreted as noisy channels in the information-theoretic sense, and we explore the idea of using the notion of capacity as a measure of the loss of anonymity. Such idea was already suggested by Moskowitz, Newman and Syverson, in their analysis of the covert channel that can be created as a result of non-perfect anonymity. We consider the case in which some leak of information is intended by design, and we introduce the notion of condi...

  4. Internet protocol television (IPTV) services

    OpenAIRE

    Nuuri, Aminullah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to know what IPTV is and how the IPTV network architectures work. The role of IPTV is to deliver video, audio and data commonly called triple play services over an IP network. This thesis describes how video on demand (VOD) shows its relation to the IPTV and introduces unicast and multicast services, IPTV protocols such as RTP and RSTP, IPTV set-top box and some other common ways of this particular technology. It also demonstrates how the Sonera IPTV system deliv...

  5. Secure E-Commerce Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haseeb, Muhammad Arshad, Shoukat Ali, Shazia Yasin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has presented a new way of doing business all over the world using internet.Organizations have changed their way of doing business from a traditional approach to embrace ecommerceprocesses. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, a concernregarding the exchange of money securely and conveniently over the internet increases. Therefore,security is a necessity in an e-commerce transaction. The purpose of this paper is to present atoken based Secure E-commerce Protocol. The purpose of this paper is to present a paradigm thatis capable of satisfying security objectives by using token based security mechanism.

  6. Trypanosoma spp. ring test protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test material will be chosen by the coordinating lab for incorporation into a proficiency panel after repeated testing by more than one analyst on multiple PCR runs on different days. Test material: suitable test material will be provided. Protocol and laboratory procedures: Each laboratory is allowed to use their own 'in-house' test procedure (SOPs will nevertheless be provided by the respective laboratories for comparison and evaluation). Each PCR should be executed on two separate occasions. Test material used will be coded and sent as a blind panel to the participants. Each participating laboratory will be given a unique set of codes

  7. A Streaming Protocol for Memcached

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W.; Zhou, B.; Wang, X.

    2012-01-01

    Memcached is a general-purpose distributed memory caching system that was originally developed by Danga Interactive for Live Journal but is now used by many other sites and It is thought to be one of the most effective solutions to speed up dynamic database-driven websites by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times that an external data source must be read. Memcached system uses a client-server architecture, it provides its standard memcached protocol to support any type...

  8. New Models for Population Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are about to be part of everyday life. Homes and workplaces capable of self-controlling and adapting air-conditioning for different temperature and humidity levels, sleepless forests ready to detect and react in case of a fire, vehicles able to avoid sudden obstacles or possibly able to self-organize routes to avoid congestion, and so on, will probably be commonplace in the very near future. Mobility plays a central role in such systems and so does passive mobility, that is, mobility of the network stemming from the environment itself. The population protocol model was

  9. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  10. Merging Multiparty Protocols in Multiparty Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montesi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Choreography-based programming is a powerful paradigm for defining communication-based systems from a global viewpoint. A choreography can be checked against multiparty protocol specifications, given as behavioural types, that may be instantiated indefinitely at runtime. Each protocol instance is started with a synchronisation among the involved peers. We analyse a simple transformation from a choreography with a possibly unbounded number of protocol instantiations to a choreography instantiating a single protocol, which is the merge of the original ones. This gives an effective methodology for obtaining new protocols by composing existing ones. Moreover, by removing all synchronisations required for starting protocol instances, our transformation reduces the number of communications and resources needed to execute a choreography.

  11. Reactive Networking using Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis studies the possibilities of using a radio-router protocol in order to increase the quality of service in dynamic tactical network environments. We cover three radio-router protocols with emphasis on Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP). Many applications, such as voice and video communication, have bandwidth and latency requirements which need to be fulfilled in order to provide a sufficient level of quality. This poses a problem in tactical network environments where lin...

  12. Emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    On 11 December 1997, delegates to the third conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed upon the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol sets binding emission targets for developed nations (Annex B countries). The Protocol states that Annex B countries may participate in emission trading. The rules for emission trading are to be discussed at the fourth Conference of the Parties in November 1998. differentiation of targets among countries, but not in any systematic...

  13. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  14. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Bhushan; Shailender Gupta; Nagpal, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirement...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Rana; Dr. Rajender Singh Chhillar

    2012-01-01

    The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol) [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service). The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for ...

  16. Secured Electronic Voting Protocol Using Biometric Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaichelvi Visvalingam; Chandrasekaran, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new secure e-voting protocol. This new scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the existing Internet. This method integrates Internet convenience and cryptology. In the existing protocols either the tallier has to wait for the decryption key from voter till the voting process is over or the verification process has to wait until the election is over. But in the proposed single transaction voting protocol the entire votin...

  17. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fei GAO; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum message, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver Bob can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the ...

  18. Simplified IPSec Protocol Stack for Micro Server

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Hoa; Kensuke Naoe; Yoshiyasu Takefuji

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple IPSec protocol stack for Micro Server. We proposed an implementation of IPSec protocol stack which is constructed by Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) protocol with Advanced Encryption Security (AES) encryption scheme, whereas authentication using MD5 algorithm is optional. Researchers have focused on creating a small system composed of sensors and a Micro Server where it has a small sized memory, multi-function, low cost, but without security considerati...

  19. A Lightweight Identification Protocol for Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaye, Abdoulaye; Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Niang, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper is to introduce a new lightweight identification protocol based on biometric data and elliptic curves. In fact, we combine biometric data and asymetric cryptography, namely elliptic curves and standard tools to design a multifactor identification protocol. Our scheme is light, very fast, secure and robust against all the known attacks on identification protocol. Therefore, one can use it in any constraint device such as embedded systems.

  20. Common Protocol for Distributed Network File System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peniak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with common protocol for distributed network file system. Focus is on CIFS protocol from Microsoft, the enhanced version of Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB, that is proposed as possible common solution for file sharing among distributed systems. There are new requirements included as well, that are to be implemented due to recent changes in applications and devices and has been addressed in new generation ofdistributed file system protocols such as AFS2, CODA and WebDAV.

  1. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  2. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  3. Robustness of hashing protocols for entanglement purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate entanglement purification protocols based on hashing, where a large number of noisy entangled pairs are jointly processed to obtain a reduced number of perfect, noiseless copies. While hashing and breeding protocols are the only purification protocols that asymptotically obtain a nonzero yield, they are not applicable in a realistic scenario if local gates and measurements are imperfect. We show that such problems can be overcome by a compact measurement-based implementation, yielding entanglement purification schemes with nonzero yield that are applicable also in noisy scenarios, with tolerable noise per particle of several percent. We also generalize these findings to multiparty purification protocols for arbitrary graph states.

  4. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  5. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  6. Security Attacks On MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar V. Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives idea about various routing protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network against security issues. MANET is vulnerable to various security attacks due to its dynamically changing topology, self configurable nature and lack of centralized control. Malicious node can significantly degrade the performance and reliability of Ad-hoc Network routing protocols. From the survey it has been made quite clear that basic MANET protocols are vulnerable to various routing attacks. While Secure AODV (SAODV routing protocol performs quite well to improve performance in presence of security attack in MANET.

  7. Cryptanalysis of an Authentication Key Exchange Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chan Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An authenticated multiple-key agreement protocol uses a digital signature to sign the Diffie-Hellman public keys which can generate multiple session key in a single round of message exchange and achieve mutual authentication. Recently, Hwang et al. proposed an authentication key exchange protocol which takes less computation time than Harn and Lin;s protocol. However, this study, shows that Hwang et al.`s protocol is vulnerable to forgery attacks. An attacker can fool one communication part into believing the forged short-term public keys and share session keys with him.

  8. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noudjoud Kahya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16, is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS to Subscriber Station (SS. In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. Wefound that PKMv2 is vulnerable to replay, DoS, Man-in-the middle attacks. At last we have proposed asecure protocol (SPKM to prevent the authorization protocol from such attacks.

  9. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads

    Objective Treatment with the combined cytostatic regimens of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) has dramatically reduced the mortality rate in testicular cancer (TC). However, evidence suggests that the use of chemotherapy (CT) may be associated with reduced brain connectivity and impaired neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC.

  10. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  11. E-Cash Payment Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Srivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available E-cash is a payment system designed and implemented for making purchases over open networks such as the Internet. Need of a payment system which enables the electronic transactions are growing at the same time that the use of Internet is growing in our daily life. Present days electronic payment systems have a major problem, they cannot handle the security and the users anonymity and at the same time these systems are secure on the cost of their users anonymity. This paper shows the payment protocols for digital cash and discusses how a digital cash system can be formed by presenting a few of the present days digital cash systems in details. We also provide a comparison and determine them together to see which one of them fulfils the properties for digital cash and the required security level.

  12. Automation of Network Protocol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    keerthi Manchikanti, J Shiva Prashanth, Vishnu Murthy G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper “Automation of Network Protocol Analysis” is mainly aimed to automate the entire process. Starting from sniffing the network packets till the validation of it has been taken care. Here we have automated the logging part through a C program. Whenever packets will be transmitted from a system, Ethereal/Wireshark will be automatically invoked and start capturing the network packets. That will be stored in .pcap format automatically. To validate the contents the logic has been implemented to check particular pattern of packets or any specific string. The .pcap format will be converted into a text format so that the validation can be accomplished through parsing the entire Ethereal/Wireshark log. Based upon the parsing logic, pass/fail verdict will be indicated to user. The logic can always be extended depending upon the project requirements. The performance of the network is also calculated.

  13. Dynamic Router Configuration Protocol (DRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Tanvir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of the network is all what we want because that reduces our headache of managing the network and we would rather expect the network to manage itself. Here in this paper, I am daring to propose the idea of DRCP along with the concept of Generalized Router Discovery Protocol (GRDP and Auto Subnetting to automate the whole process of IP Allocation among the current routers in the world as well as the ones in the queue to join the network. Five Regional Internet Registries APNIC, ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and AFRINIC will each be associated with five Master Zone Routers which will be in charge of allocating IPs to the routers as they enter into the network. This may sound a little dreamy at the moment, but you know, someone has to dream. Why can’t that be me? I will try to explain all the concepts and ideas as clearly as possible in this paper.

  14. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols.

  15. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  16. Design & Implementation Of DAA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Anilkumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available False data can be injected by compromised sensor nodes in various ways, including data aggregation and relaying in wireless sensor networks. Since data aggregation is essential to reduce data redundancy to improve data accuracy, false data detection is critical to the provision of data integrity and efficient utilisation of battery power and bandwidth. To support confidential data transmission, the sensor nodes between two consecutive data aggregators verify the data integrity on the encrypted data rather than the plain data. Performance analysis as shows that DAA detects any false data injected up to ‘T’ compromised nodes, and that the detected false data are not forwarded beyond the next data aggregator on the path. Despite that false data detection and data onfidentiality increases the communication overhead; simulation results shows the DAA can still reduce the amount of transmitted data up to 60% with the help of data aggregation and early detection of false data. The main objectives of this paper are- false data detection, integrate the detection of false data with data aggregation and confidentiality, to present the novel security protocol DAA to integrate data aggregation, confidentiality and false data detection and to reduce the amount of transmitted data over the wireless sensor networks with the help of data aggregation and early data detection of false data, to a significant improvement in bandwidth utilisation and energy consumption. Compromised sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, can distort the integrity of data by injecting false data. Previously known techniques on false data detection do not support data confidentiality and aggregations, even though they are usually essential to wireless sensor networks. However, this paper has presented the novel security protocol DAA to integrate data aggregation, confidentiality and false data detection.

  17. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  18. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  19. Unicity Distance of Quantum Encryption Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Chong; Yang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Shannon presented the concept `unicity distance' for describing the security of secret key encryption protocols against various ciphertext-only attacks. We develop this important concept of cryptanalysis into the quantum context, and find that there exist quantum encryption protocols reusing a short key have infinite unicity distance.

  20. Wireless Cooperative Networks: Protocols, Topologies and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ricieri Castro e Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the most common wireless cooperative network protocols, verifying potentialities and performance relative to the non cooperative methodology, also techniques that can maximize the performance, such as combining signal rules and relay selection. Furthermore, considerations are provided for the computational complexity of topologies, combining techniques and protocols of cooperative networks.

  1. Diagrammatization of the Transmission Control Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of Internet services, developers and users need a greater understanding of the technology of networking. Acquiring a clear understanding of communication protocols is an important step in understanding how a network functions; however, many protocols are complicated, and explaining them can be demanding. In addition, protocols are often explained in terms of traffic analysis and oriented toward technical staff and those already familiar with network protocols. This paper aims at proposing a diagrammatic methodology to represent protocols in general, with a focus on the Transmission Control Protocol and Secure Sockets Layer in particular. The purpose is to facilitate understanding of protocols for learning and communication purposes. The methodology is based on the notion of flow of primitive things in a system with six stages: creation, release, transfer, arrival, acceptance, and processing. Though the method presents a basic description of protocols without in-depth analysis of all aspects and mechanisms, the resultant conceptual description is a systematic specification that utilizes a few basic notions that assist in illustrating functionality and support comprehension.

  2. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  3. The EXACT description of biomedical protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatova, Larisa N.; Aubrey, Wayne; King, Ross D.; Clare, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Many published manuscripts contain experiment protocols which are poorly described or deficient in information. This means that the published results are very hard or impossible to repeat. This problem is being made worse by the increasing complexity of high-throughput/automated methods. There is therefore a growing need to represent experiment protocols in an efficient and unambiguous way.

  4. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  5. An Improved Protocol for Biginelli Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Srivastava

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [Hmim][Tfa] was used as catalyst for the Biginelli reaction under microwave heating. Low catalyst loading, reduced reaction time and operational simplicity are the main highlights of this protocol. The proposed protocol was found active in the synthesis of 30 different biologically active compounds.

  6. A Study of Voice over Internet Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Gerami

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol, is an application that enables data packet networks to transport real time voice traffic. VOIP uses the Internet as the transmission network. This paper describes VoIP and its requirements. The paper further discusses various VoIP protocol, security and its market.

  7. 11Be(?p), a quasi-free neutron decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed ??-delayed proton emission from the neutron-rich nucleus 11Be by analyzing a sample collected at the ISOLDE facility at CERN with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). With a branching ratio of (8.3±0.9)?10?6 the strength of this decay mode, as measured by the BGT-value, is unexpectedly high. The result is discussed within a simple single-particle model and could be interpreted as a quasi-free decay of the 11Be halo neutron into a single-proton state.

  8. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  9. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum message, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver Bob can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics in future study on AQS protocols.

  10. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-08-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  11. A Rational Approach to Cryptographic Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Gil, P; Bruno-Castañeda, C; 10.1016/j.mcm.2006.12.013

    2010-01-01

    This work initiates an analysis of several cryptographic protocols from a rational point of view using a game-theoretical approach, which allows us to represent not only the protocols but also possible misbehaviours of parties. Concretely, several concepts of two-person games and of two-party cryptographic protocols are here combined in order to model the latters as the formers. One of the main advantages of analysing a cryptographic protocol in the game-theory setting is the possibility of describing improved and stronger cryptographic solutions because possible adversarial behaviours may be taken into account directly. With those tools, protocols can be studied in a malicious model in order to find equilibrium conditions that make possible to protect honest parties against all possible strategies of adversaries.

  12. Quantum Communication Complexity of Quantum Authentication Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, Elloá B

    2011-01-01

    In order to perform Quantum Cryptography procedures it is often essencial to ensure that the parties of the communication are authentic. Such task is accomplished by quantum authentication protocols which are distributed algorithms based on the intrinsic properties of Quantum Mechanics. The choice of an authentication protocol must consider that quantum states are very delicate and that the channel is subject to eavesdropping. However, even in face of the various existing definitions of quantum authentication protocols in the literature, little is known about them in this perspective, and this lack of knowledge may unfavor comparisons and wise choices. In the attempt to overcome this limitation, in the present work we aim at showing an approach to evaluate quantum authentication protocols based on the determination of their quantum communication complexity. Based on our investigation, no similar methods to analyze quantum authentication protocols were found in the literature. Pursuing this further, our approa...

  13. Classical cryptographic protocols in a quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Sean; Smith, Adam; Song, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Cryptographic protocols, such as protocols for secure function evaluation (SFE), have played a crucial role in the development of modern cryptography. The extensive theory of these protocols, however, deals almost exclusively with classical attackers. If we accept that quantum information processing is the most realistic model of physically feasible computation, then we must ask: What classical protocols remain secure against quantum attackers? Our main contribution is showing the existence of classical two-party protocols for the secure evaluation of any polynomial-time function under reasonable computational assumptions (for example, it suffices that the learning with errors problem be hard for quantum polynomial time). Our result shows that the basic two-party feasibility picture from classical cryptography remains unchanged in a quantum world.

  14. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Security protocols help in establishing secure channels between communicating systems. Great care needs therefore to be taken in developing and implementing robust protocols. The complexity of security-protocol interactions can hide, however, security weaknesses that only a formal analysis can reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between events. Methods like strand spaces and the inductive method of Paulson have been designed to support an intensional, event-based, style of reasoning. These methods have successfully tackled a number of protocols though in an ad hoc fashion. They make an informal spring from a protocol to its representation and do not address how to build up protocol representations in a compositional fashion. This dissertation presents a new, event-based approach to reasoning about security protocols. We seek a broader class of models to show how event-based models can be structured in a compositional way and so used to give a formal semantics to security protocols which supports proofs of their correctness. More precisely, we give a compositional event-based semantics to an economical, but expressive, language for describing security protocols (SPL); so the events and dependency of a wide range of protocols are determined once and for all. The net semantics allows the derivation of general properties and proof principles the use of which is demonstrated in establishing security properties for a number of protocols. The NSL public-key protocol, the ISO 5-pass authentication and the key-translation protocols are analysed for their level of secrecy and authentication and for their robustness in runs where some session-keys are compromised. Particularly useful in the analysis are general results that show which events of a protocol run can not be those of a spy. The net semantics of SPL is formally related to a transition semantics which can easily be implemented. (An existing SPL implementation bridges the gap that often exists between abstract protocol models on which verification of security properties is carried out and the implemented protocol.) SPL-nets are a particular kind of contextual Petri-nets. They have persistent conditions and as we show in this thesis, unfold under reasonable assumptions to a more basic kind of nets. We relate SPL-nets to strand spaces and inductive rules, as well as trace languages and event structures so unifying a range of approaches, as well as providing conditions under which particular, more limited, models are adequate for the analysis of protocols. The relations that are described in this thesis help integrate process calculi and algebraic reasoning with event-based methods to obtain a more accurate analysis of security properties of protocols.

  15. The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptabe costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

  16. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  17. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of performance data. These standard protocols and representations must support tasks such as profiling parallel applications, monitoring the status of computers and networks, and monitoring the performance of services provided by a computational grid. This paper describes a proposed protocol and data representation for the exchange of events in a distributed system. The protocol exchanges messages formatted in XML and it can be layered atop any low-level communication protocol such as TCP or UDP Further, we describe Java and C++ implementations of this protocol and discuss their performance. The next section will provide some further background information. Section 3 describes the main communication patterns of our protocol. Section 4 describes how we represent events and related information using XML. Section 5 describes our protocol and Section 6 discusses the performance of two implementations of the protocol. Finally, an appendix provides the XML Schema definition of our protocol and event information.

  18. Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols Preserving Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V. Mangipudi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity is a very important security feature in addition to authentication and key agreement features in communication protocols. In this paper, we propose two authentication and key agreement (AKA protocols: the AKA protocol with user anonymity (UAP and the AKA protocol with user and server anonymity (USAP. The proposed protocols have the following advantages: first of all, they preserve anonymity, which is a security feature that was ignored in most of the previously proposed AKA protocols; secondly, they exploit the difference in capabilities between resource constrained clients and highly resourceful servers and thus are suitable for wireless applications; thirdly, they resist known attacks; and finally, they perform better in terms of the number of messages and bits exchanged and computing time as compared to the previously proposed AKA protocols. For example, USAP preserves user and server anonymity, exchanges 3 messages with 1920 bits in total, and requires only 280 msec of processing time on the user side when implemented on Mitsubishis M16C microprocessor. Similarly, the UAP is scalable, preserves user anonymity, requires 440 msec, and exchanges 2560 bits.

  19. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy?preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi?label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  20. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AlOtaibi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and secured; they should protect both parties from fraudulent users and subsequently promote the growth of e-commerce. There are some protocols, known as fair exchange protocols, in e-commerce that are designed to guarantee fairness between the customer and the merchant so that neither party gains any advantage over the other. Therefore, in this paper, we review these protocols in detail. In addition, we present a survey of three fair exchange protocols based on online TTP from different application areas. In particular, we review these protocols with regard to certain properties, namely, fairness, correctness of product, customer's anonymity, timeliness and channel requirement.

  1. Analysis on the Performance of Wireless Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malathi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper by concentrating on various wireless technologies like Bluetooth (802.15.1, Ultra wide band (802.15.3 , ZigBee (802.15.4 and Wi-Fi(802.11, their performance was analyzed based on the area of coverage and the data transfer error control mechanism and data error rates ,the frequency range of each wireless protocols and by comparing each with the other protocols, defining a performance report that helps us to implement the appropriate protocol for the differentiated network models. All the above stated wireless protocols are used in the short range communication systems. By concentrating on the various parameters involved in the Wireless protocols data transfer mechanism, we can define the data transfer methodology, mechanism and power consumed by implementing each protocols and the complexity nature occurs in the data transfer mechanism, data carrying potency are measured using various real time network models. Finally one can pick up an appropriate protocol for wireless data transfer based on their network area and the application for which they going to implement.

  2. Performance Analysis of Protocols RIP & EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Prasad Adhikari,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Routing Information Protocol (RIP is one of the Internet's first widely used routing protocol. It is still useful in local and medium area networks. RIP is classified as a distance-vector routing protocol, which employs the hop count as a routing metric, The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15[3]. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance viewing such distance as unreachable and undesirable route in it routing process. This hop count limits the size of network that RIP operate. EIGRP is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol that is based on IGRP. EIGRP supports CIDR and VLSM, allowing network designers to maximize address space. EIGRP is often described as a hybrid routing protocol that offers the best of distance vector and link-state algorithms. EIGRP is an advanced routing protocol that relies on features commonly associated with link-state protocols. This paper consist of comparisons of RIP and EIGRP, it includes the various trouble resolving techniques and traffic handling techniques during communication in simple as well in bulky networks[5].

  3. Security Issues of Routing Protocols in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Arora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of routing protocols developed by researchers. Due to the nature of ad hoc networks, secure routing is an important area of research in developing secure routing protocols. Although researchers have proposed several secure routing protocols, their resistance towards various types of security attacks and efficiency are primary points of concern in implementing these protocols. This paper presents some of the available secure routing protocols and most common attack patterns against ad hoc networks. Routing protocols are subjected to case studies against the most commonly identified attack patterns such as: denial-of-service attack, tunneling, spoofing, black hole attack and wormhole attack etc. In MANET, the nodes also function as routers that discover and maintain routes to other nodes in the network. Establishing an optimal and efficient route between the communicating parties is the primary concern of the routing protocols of MANET. Any attack in routing phase may disrupt the overall communication and the entire network can be paralyzed. Thus, security in network layer plays an important role in the security of the whole network. A number of attacks in network layer have been identified and studied in security research. An attacker can absorb network traffic, inject themselves into the path between the source and destination and thus control the network traffic flow.

  4. Secured Electronic Voting Protocol Using Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaichelvi Visvalingam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new secure e-voting protocol. This new scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the existing Internet. This method integrates Internet convenience and cryptology. In the existing protocols either the tallier has to wait for the decryption key from voter till the voting process is over or the verification process has to wait until the election is over. But in the proposed single transaction voting protocol the entire voting process as well as the verification process is done as a single transaction compared to multiple transactions in the existing protocol. The advantage of single transaction is that it consumes less time that results in overall speeding up the voting process. It is shown that the proposed scheme satisfies the more important requirements of any e-voting scheme: completeness, correctness, privacy, security and uniqueness. Finally, the proposed protocol is compared with the existing protocols such as Simple, Two Agency, Blind Signatures and sensus protocols.

  5. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have approximate subgame perfect N ash equilibria. Moreover, we observe that the (approximate) equilibria of proportional protocols — which guarantee each of the n agents a 1/n-fraction of the cake — must be (approximately) proportional, and design a GCC protocol where all Nash equilibrium outcomes satisfy the stronger fairness notion of envy-freeness. Finally, we show that under an obliviousness restriction, which still allows the computation of approximately envy-free allocations, GCC protocols are guaranteed to have exact subgame perfect Nash equilibria

  6. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  7. The Russian Federation and the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, W. T.; Ratsiborinskaya, D.

    2007-01-01

    This book brings together the results of two conferences: 'The Kyoto Protocol and beyond: A legal perspective', organised by the University of Siena on 10-11 June 2006, and 'Tackling Climate Change: An appraisal of the Kyoto Protocol and options for the future', held at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in The Hague on 30-31 March 2007. These conferences focused on the legal aspects of the Kyoto Protocol implementation and the post-2012 regime. Experts in European and international environmental law...

  8. The Singapore protocol [for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qubit protocol for quantum key distribution presented in this talk is fully tomographic and more efficient than other tomographic protocols. Under ideal circumstances the efficiency is log2(4/3) = 0.415 key bits per qubit sent, which is 25% more than the efficiency of 1/3 = 0.333 for the standard 6-state protocol. One can extract 0.4 key bits per qubit by a simple two-way communication scheme, and can so get close to the information-theoretical limit. The noise thresholds for secure key bit generation in the presence of unbiased noise will be reported and discussed. (author)

  9. Traffic Performance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rajeswari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research work is to study and investigate the performance measures ofGossip Routing protocol and Energy Efficient and Reliable Adaptive Gossip routing protocols. We useTCP and CBR based traffic models to analyze the performance of above mentioned protocols based onthe parameters of Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End-to-End Delay and Throughput. We willinvestigate the effect of change in the simulation time and Number of nodes for the MANET routingprotocols. For Simulation, we have used ns-2 simulator.

  10. Performance Analysis of Protocols RIP & EIGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevan Prasad Adhikari,

    2013-01-01

    The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the Internet's first widely used routing protocol. It is still useful in local and medium area networks. RIP is classified as a distance-vector routing protocol, which employs the hop count as a routing metric, The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15[3]. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance viewing such distance as unreachable and undesirable route in it routing process. This hop count limits the size of network that RI...

  11. Security Protocol Review Method Analyzer(SPRMAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Narayanan, H. Iyyappa; Vinoth, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Paper is designed using J2EE (JSP, SERVLET), HTML as front end and a Oracle 9i is back end. SPRMAN is been developed for the client British Telecom (BT) UK., Telecom company. Actually the requirement of BT is, they are providing Network Security Related Products to their IT customers like Virtusa,Wipro,HCL etc., This product is framed out by set of protocols and these protocols are been associated with set of components. By grouping all these protocols and components to...

  12. QAODV: Improved Security Routing Protocol of AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihui Mu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Network control system (NCS has higher requirements on QoS index of the network, but MANET can hardly meet the demands of control systems because of its own characteristics. The paper improves AODV and proposes AODV routing protocol QAODV with certain QoS security in combination with NCS and MANET, and expounds routing detection, routing register and routing maintenance. Simulation results show that end-to-end delay and packet loss of QAODV reduces evidently compared with AODV, and the protocol is compatible with AODV. The nodes of 2 protocols can coexist and work normally in the same network

  13. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nth the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of the protocol. All of this holds hope for what, perhaps, matters most, that the protocol will enter into force within a relatively short period of time. Now that the Vienna Convention has been revised, it is to be expected that, on the one hand, there will be accessions to the revised Vienna Convention by further states, chiefly those which have so far steered clear of its liability regime precisely because of its insufficiencies, and, on the other hand, the present States Party to the Vienna Convention will ratify the protocol or accede to it, thereby causing the 1963 Vienna Convention to eventually lose its effect

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  15. Novel combination of epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and prednisone (EBVP II) before radical radiotherapy in localized stages (I-IIIA) of Hodgkin's disease. Early results in 100 consecutive patients. Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerni, B; Orgerie, M B; Eghbali, H; Blanc, C M; David, B; Rojouan, J; Zittoun, R

    1991-01-01

    A novel combination of epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and prednisone (EBVP II) was scheduled to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy and to improve its application in treatment of Hodgkin's disease. This combination followed a previous regimen given every 15 days (EBVP I) by the same cooperative group. EPVP II is given every 21 days with increased dosage and increased intensity of epirubicin. This regimen was given to 100 consecutive patients with favourable or unfavourable limited-stage disease (clinical stages I-IIIA) excluding very favourable stages I and II and stages IIIB and IV. Such patients first received three injections of EBVP II and were then radically irradiated; those with unfavourable prognosis factors received three subsequent injections of EBVP II. The present analysis reports the early results of such treatment and considers particularly toxicity and the obtention of complete remission, which is pre-eminent for a cure. EBVP II was given in full dosage in 99% of the primary set of three injections. The main toxicity was alopecia and to a lesser degree nausea and vomiting and veinitis. Complete remission was obtained in 76 patients before radiotherapy and in 20 others after radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 30 months 1 patient died from Hodgkin's disease, 9 are alive after relapse and 90 with no evidence of disease. This treatment appears to be as efficient as previous chemotherapy, well tolerated and particularly easy to give. It deserves further comparison with other proved regimens taking into consideration the survival and quality of life of patients. PMID:1712359

  16. Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis / Pneumomediastino, enfisema subcutâneo e pneumotórax após prova de função pulmonar em paciente com pneumopatia intersticial por bleomicina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Sponholz, Araujo; Frederico Leon Arrabal, Fernandes; Fernando Uliana, Kay; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro, Carvalho.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O pneumomediastino espontâneo é um evento incomum, cujo quadro clínico inclui dor pleurítica retroesternal, enfisema subcutâneo, dispneia e disfonia. O mecanismo fisiopatológico implicado é o surgimento de uma diferença de pressão entre os alvéolos e estruturas adjacentes, ocasionando ruptura alveol [...] ar com posterior dissecção da bainha peribroncovascular e infiltração do mediastino e do tecido subcutâneo pelo ar. Desencadeantes conhecidos incluem exacerbação aguda de asma e situações que exigem a realização de manobra de Valsava. Descrevemos e documentamos por imagens tomográficas a ocorrência de pneumomediastino após a realização de prova de função pulmonar em um paciente com pneumopatia intersticial induzida por bleomicina. Apesar de incomum, a associação entre provas de função pulmonar e síndromes de vazamento de ar tem sido relatada cada vez mais na literatura, e doenças pulmonares, como as pneumopatias intersticiais, contemplam alterações estruturais que facilitam a ocorrência da complicação. Abstract in english Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causin [...] g alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication.

  17. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ? Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ? One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ? It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ? It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ? Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  18. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  19. Rethinking low extra delay background transport protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Carofiglio, Giovanna; Rossi, Dario; Testa, Claudio; Valenti, Silvio

    2010-01-01

    BitTorrent has recently introduced LEDBAT, a novel application-layer congestion control protocol for data exchange. The protocol design starts from the assumption that network bottlenecks are at the access of the network, and that thus user traffic competes creating self-inducing congestion. To relieve from this phenomenon, LEDBAT is designed to quickly infer that self-induced congestion is approaching (by detecting relative changes of the one-way delay in the transmission path), and to react by reducing the sending rate prior that congestion occurs. Prior work has however shown LEDBAT to be affected by a latecomer advantage, where newly arriving connections can starve already existing flows. In this work, we propose modifications to the congestion window update mechanism of the LEDBAT protocol that aim at solving this issue, guaranteeing thus intra-protocol fairness and efficiency. Closed-form expressions for the stationary throughput and queue occupancy are provided via a fluid model, whose accuracy is conf...

  20. Privacy-Preserving Protocols for Eigenvector Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Manas A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a protocol for computing the dominant eigenvector of a collection of private data distributed across multiple parties, with the individual parties unwilling to share their data. Our proposed protocol is based on secure multiparty computation with a trusted third-party arbitrator who deals with data encrypted by the other parties using an additive homomorphic cryptosystem. We also augment the protocol with randomization to make it difficult, with a high probability, for any party to estimate properties of the data belonging to other parties from the intermediate steps. The previous approaches towards this problem were based on expensive QR decomposition of correlation matrices, we present an efficient algorithm using the power iteration method. We present an analysis of the correctness, security, efficiency of protocol and experiments over a prototype implementation.

  1. A Secure DSDV Protocol for Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kalavathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure destination-sequenced distance-vector routing protocol (SDSDV for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. The proposed protocol is based on the regular DSDV protocol. Within SDSDV, each node maintains two one-way hash chains about each node in the network. Two additional fields, which we call AL (alteration field and AC (accumulation field, are added to each entry of the update packets to carry the hash values. With proper use of the elements of the hash chains, the sequence number and the metric values on a route can be protected from being arbitrarily tampered. In comparison with the secure efficient distance vector (SEAD protocol previously proposed in the literature provides only lower bound protection on the metrics, SDSDV can provide complete protection.

  2. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  3. Entangled and sequential quantum protocols with dephasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boixo, Sergio; Heunen, Chris

    2012-03-23

    Sequences of commuting quantum operators can be parallelized using entanglement. This transformation is behind some optimal quantum metrology protocols and recent results on quantum circuit complexity. We show that dephasing quantum maps in arbitrary dimension can also be parallelized. This implies that for general dephasing noise the protocol with entanglement is not more fragile than the corresponding sequential protocol and, conversely, the sequential protocol is not less effective than the entangled one. We derive this result using tensor networks. Furthermore, we only use transformations strictly valid within string diagrams in dagger compact closed categories. Therefore, they apply verbatim to other theories, such as geometric quantization and topological quantum field theory. This clarifies and characterizes to some extent the role of entanglement in general quantum theories. PMID:22540558

  4. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Jacy Barenco Abbas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  5. Authentication Protocol Using Quantum Superposition States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Kanamori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators -- Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  6. Cryptanalysis of Two RFID Authentication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjie Cao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identi¯cation (RFID technologies have many advantages in applications such as object tracking and monitoring, ticketing, supply-chain management, contactless payment systems. However, the RFID system may bring about various security and privacy problems. In this paper we present our security analysis of the LAK protocol and the CWH protocol. First, we show that the LAK protocol cannot resist replay attacks, and therefore an adversary can impersonate a legal tag. Next, we present a full-disclosure attack on the CWH protocol. By sending malicious queries to a tag and collecting the response messages emitted by the tag, the full-disclosure attack allows an adversary to extract the secret information from the tag.

  7. Enhancing Delay in MANET Using OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ENNEYA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is closely related to the capability of the implemented routing protocol to adapt itself to unpredictable changes of topology network and link status. The Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol is a one key of the proactive routing protocols for MANETs. It is based on the multi-point relays (MPRs technique to reach all nodes in the network with a limited number of broadcasts. In this paper, we propose new versions of the original OLSR protocol based on a new mobility parameter, in the goal to enhance and adapt it in the presence of the mobility. For this objective we define new three criterions for MPRs selection. The first criteria take for selection, just the mobility of nodes at one-hop. The two others criterions are based on both mobility of nodes at one-hop and two-hops.

  8. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  9. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bombin, H

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  11. QKD decoy protocol with photon number measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenhaus, Malte; Mauerer, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine [Max Planck Research Group IOIP, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1 / Bau 24, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bronner, Patrick [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen Nuernberg, Staudtstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Quantum decoy protocols provide an advantageous alternative to various conventional QKD protocols. Decoy protocols feature a lower threshold for detecting a potential eavesdropper and thus increase the secure communication distance. The principle of operation is that Alice uses photons as quantum carriers and interposes a decoy photon distribution within the signal. We investigate the experimental implementation of a decoy protocol. On Alice's side, a pulsed laser beam pumps a PDC process in a PPKTP wave-guide. The PDC process shows high source brightness and converts photons from the pump mode at 1550 nm in signal and idler mode of 800 nm and 1550 nm respectively. The signal mode is particularly apt for photon number measurements on Alice's side, whereas the idler mode is used for low loss transmission via telecommunication fibre to recipient Bob. The decoy subset during communication may be chosen a posteriori while performing a classical communication.

  12. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  13. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process but then switches to a denser coding structure towards the end. Our systematic mechanism maintains the sparse structure during the recombination of packets at the intermediate nodes. The performance of our protocol is compared by means of simulations of IEEE reference grids against standard master-slave protocols used in real systems. Our results show that network coding achieves 100% reliability, even for hostile network conditions, while gathering data 10 times faster than standard master-slave schemes.

  14. Soft Constraint Programming to Analysing Security Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Bella, G; Bella, Giampaolo; Bistarelli, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Security protocols stipulate how the remote principals of a computer network should interact in order to obtain specific security goals. The crucial goals of confidentiality and authentication may be achieved in various forms, each of different strength. Using soft (rather than crisp) constraints, we develop a uniform formal notion for the two goals. They are no longer formalised as mere yes/no properties as in the existing literature, but gain an extra parameter, the security level. For example, different messages can enjoy different levels of confidentiality, or a principal can achieve different levels of authentication with different principals. The goals are formalised within a general framework for protocol analysis that is amenable to mechanisation by model checking. Following the application of the framework to analysing the asymmetric Needham-Schroeder protocol, we have recently discovered a new attack on that protocol as a form of retaliation by principals who have been attacked previously. Having co...

  15. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-speient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions

  16. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements.

  17. Hybrid long-distance entanglement distribution protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Rigas, I.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements. Udgivelsesdato: 11 October

  18. ACTIVE-A Real Time Commit Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Udai Shanker; Nikhil Agarwal; Shalabh Kumar Tiwari; Praphull Goel; Praveen Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Many existing real time commit protocols try to improve system performance by allowing a committing cohort to lend its data to an executing cohort, thus reducing data inaccessibility. They block the borrower from sending WORKDONE/PREPARED message and restrict them from lending data so that transaction abort chain is limited to one. Thus, transaction execution time increases. This paper proposes a modified real time commit protocol for distributed real time database systems (DRTDBS), Allow Com...

  19. A Noval Approach on Online Transaction Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Renu; Ritu

    2014-01-01

    The increase of wireless devices, offering connectivity and convenience, continues to exert marvelous demands on merchants to deploy secure wireless applications including electronic commerce. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the protocol above TCP, which can protect user’s privacy when they sending data from a client side to a web server, this is an important protocol due to the expansion of Internet. In fact, it is a long way to make the SSL/...

  20. The obscure future of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsayem Demaze, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Since it came into effect in 2005 followed by its first period of application from 2008 to 2012, the Kyoto protocol has been subject to debates and international negotiations about its post-2012 future. Many grey areas persist, even though the Durban conference, held in December 2011, and the Doha conference, held in December 2012, ratified the principle of a second period of application of the protocol and started negotiations for a new international treaty supposed to come into effect in 2020.