Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells
Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik
structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions and...
Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells
Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik
A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions and...
Pure plate bending in couple stress theories
Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F
2016-01-01
In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...
Improving bending stress in spur gears using asymmetric gears and shape optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2010-01-01
Bending stress plays a significant role in gear design wherein its magnitude is controlled by the nominal bending stress and the stress concentration due to the geometrical shape. The bending stress is indirectly related to shape changes made to the cutting tool. This work shows that the bending...... stress can be reduced significantly by using asymmetric gear teeth and by shape optimizing the gear through changes made to the tool geometry. However, to obtain the largest possible stress reduction a custom tool must be designed depending on the number of teeth, but the stress reductions found are not...
Stress intensity factors under combined bending and torsion moments
Al Emran ISMAIL; Ahmad Kamal ARIFFIN; Shahrum ABDULLAH; Mariyam Jameelah GHAZALI; Mohammed ABDULRAZZAQ; Ruslizam DAUD
2012-01-01
This paper discusses stress intensity factor (SIF) calculations for surface cracks in round bars subjected to combined torsion and bending loadings.Different crack aspect ratios,a/b,ranging from 0.0 to 1.2 and relative crack depths,a/D,ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 were considered.Since the loading was non-symmetrical for torsion loadings,a whole finite element model was constructed.Then,the individual and combined bending and torsion loadings were remotely applied to the model.The equivalent SIF method,F* EQ,was then used explicitly to combine the individual SIFs from the bending and torsion loadings.A comparison was then carried out with the combined SIE F* FE,obtained using the finite element analysis (FEA) under similar loadings.It was found that the equivalent SIF method successfully predicted the combined SIF for Mode (I).However,discrepancies between the results determined from the different approaches occurred when FⅢ was involved.It was also noted that the predicted F* FE using FEA was higher than the F* EQ predicted through the equivalent SIF method due to the difference in crack face interactions.
The reversibility of residual bending stresses is revealed in ribbon samples of cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11 and Fe57Co31Si2.9B9.1: the ribbons that are free of applied stresses and bent under the action of residual stresses become completely or incompletely straight upon annealing at the initial temperatures. The influence of annealing on the relaxation of bending stresses is studied. Preliminary annealing is found to sharply decrease the relaxation rate of bending stresses, and the initial stage of fast relaxation of these stresses is absent. Complete straightening of preliminarily annealed ribbons is shown to occur at significantly higher temperatures than that of the initial ribbons. Incomplete straightening of the ribbons is explained by the fact that bending stresses relaxation at high annealing temperatures proceeds due to both reversible anelastic deformation and viscous flow, which is a fully irreversible process. Incomplete reversibility is also caused by irreversible processes, such as the release of excess free volume and clustering (detected by small-angle X-ray scattering). The revealed differences in the relaxation processes that occur in the cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys are discussed in terms of different atomic diffusion mobilities in these alloys
Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil’nikov, P. S., E-mail: pavel-mog@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
The reversibility of residual bending stresses is revealed in ribbon samples of cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys Co{sub 69}Fe{sub 3.7}Cr{sub 3.8}Si{sub 12.5}B{sub 11} and Fe{sub 57}Co{sub 31}Si{sub 2.9}B{sub 9.1}: the ribbons that are free of applied stresses and bent under the action of residual stresses become completely or incompletely straight upon annealing at the initial temperatures. The influence of annealing on the relaxation of bending stresses is studied. Preliminary annealing is found to sharply decrease the relaxation rate of bending stresses, and the initial stage of fast relaxation of these stresses is absent. Complete straightening of preliminarily annealed ribbons is shown to occur at significantly higher temperatures than that of the initial ribbons. Incomplete straightening of the ribbons is explained by the fact that bending stresses relaxation at high annealing temperatures proceeds due to both reversible anelastic deformation and viscous flow, which is a fully irreversible process. Incomplete reversibility is also caused by irreversible processes, such as the release of excess free volume and clustering (detected by small-angle X-ray scattering). The revealed differences in the relaxation processes that occur in the cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys are discussed in terms of different atomic diffusion mobilities in these alloys.
Residual stress measurements of U-bends and correlation with accelerated stress corrosion tests
Various experimental techniques have been used to determine the residual stresses in U-bends of steam generator tubing. These include x-ray diffraction, strain gage sectioning, and strain gage sectioning with layer removal. The relative merits of each are discussed and the results from several investigations are presented. There is a large variability, even for a given technique, but most residual stress values are compressive or low tension implying little concern for stress corrosion cracking due to fabrication
Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2009-01-01
For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth. In this...... work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction of...... the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...
Mehmet AKTAŞ
2001-03-01
Full Text Available In this study; the stress intensity factor was computed for a cylindrical object that was under effect of bending moment, axial stress and internal pressure. In order to make the calculations easy, the stress intensity factor was calculated individually for bending moment, axial stress and internal pressure. Then, the result were superimposed to have a final stress intensity factor for the concerned object. The calculated stress intensity factor is known as Mode I, which corresponds to "opening mode". Furthermore, it was assumed that there were some initial radial cracks around the center line for a given object and the amount of change on the stress intensity factor was discussed.
Stress Corrosion Cracking of Basalt/Epoxy Composites under Bending Loading
Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Memar, Mahdi
2010-04-01
The purpose of this research is to study the stress corrosion behavior of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in 5% sulfuric acid corrosive medium. There are limited numbers of research in durability of fiber reinforced polymer composites. Moreover, studies on basalt fibers and its composites are very limited. In this research, mechanical property degradation of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in acidic corrosive medium is investigated. Three states of stress, equal to 30%, 50% and 70% of the ultimate strength of composites, are applied on samples. High stress states are applied to the samples to accelerate the testing procedure. Mechanical properties degradation consists of bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity and fracture energy of samples are examined. Also, a normalized strength degradation model for stress corrosion condition is presented. Finally, microscopic images of broken cross sections of samples are examined.
Effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar
An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. The linear couple-stress theory, the origins of which go back to the turn of the last century, adds linear relations between couple-stresses and rotation gradients to the classical stress-strain law. By adopting the classical assumption that the plane cross section remains plane after deformation, the pure-bending problem is reduced to a plane couple-stress problem with traction-free boundary conditions. A general solution for an isotropic elastic prismatic bar under pure bending is then obtained using the Airy stress function and another stress function wich accounts for the couple-stresss. For a cylindrical bar, it reduces to a simple series solution. The moment-curvature and stress-curvature relations derived for a cylindrical bar from the general solution are used to examine the effect of couple-stresses. Numerical compilation of relations indicates that the couple stress parameters can be practically determined by measuring the moment-curvature ratio of various diametered specimens under bending. Although there is not sufficient data for such evaluation at present, it appears that the theory is consistent with the limited bend and tensile strength data of cylindrical specimens for H-451 graphite
Standard Practice for Making and Using U-Bend Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 This practice covers procedures for making and using U-bend specimens for the evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking in metals. The U-bend specimen is generally a rectangular strip which is bent 180° around a predetermined radius and maintained in this constant strain condition during the stress-corrosion test. Bends slightly less than or greater than 180° are sometimes used. Typical U-bend configurations showing several different methods of maintaining the applied stress are shown in Fig. 1. 1.2 U-bend specimens usually contain both elastic and plastic strain. In some cases (for example, very thin sheet or small diameter wire) it is possible to form a U-bend and produce only elastic strain. However, bent-beam (Practice G 39 or direct tension (Practice G 49)) specimens are normally used to study stress-corrosion cracking of strip or sheet under elastic strain only. 1.3 This practice is concerned only with the test specimen and not the environmental aspects of stress-corrosion testing which are discus...
The induction heating bending process, which has been recently applied to nuclear piping, can generate residual stresses due to thermomechanical mechanism during the process. This residual stress is one of the crack driving forces that have important effects on crack initiation and propagation. However, previous studies have focused only on geometric shape variations such as the change in thickness and ovality. Moreover, very few studies are available on the effects of process variables on residual stresses. This study investigated the effects of process variables on the residual stress distributions of induction heating bended austenitic stainless steel (316 series) piping using parametric finite element analysis. The results indicated that the heat generation rate and feed velocity have significant effects on the residual stresses whereas the moment and bending angle have insignificant effects
Stress Distribution on Sandwich Structure with Triangular Grid Cores Suffered from Bending Load
Cui Xu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Triangular grid reinforced by carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP was designed and manufactured. The sandwich structure was prepared by gluing the core and composite skins. The mechanical properties of the sandwich structure were investigated by the finite element analysis (FEA and three-point bending methods. The calculated bending stiffness and core shear stress were compared to the characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The results indicated that the triangular core ultimately failed under a bending load of 11000 N; the principal stress concentration was located at the loading region; and the cracks occurred on the interface top skin and triangular core. In addition, the ultimate stress bearing of the sandwich structure was 8828 N. The experimental results showed that the carbon fiber reinforced triangular grid was much stiffer and stronger than the honeycomb structure.
Xifeng LI; Kaifeng ZHANG; Changli WANG; Wenbo HAN; Guofeng WANG
2007-01-01
The amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons were bend stress relaxed at various temperature well below the crystallization temperature (Tx) for different time. The effect of pre-annealing on the subsequent bend stress relaxation was examined. The variation of the microstructure and microhardness during bend stress relaxation process was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Vickers microhardness test,respectively. Curvature radius of the amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons decreased with increase bend stress relaxation temperature and time. The microhardness of the stress relaxed specimens increased with time at 300℃ due to the forming of nanocrystals during bend stress relaxation. The pre-annealing reduced the decrease rate of the curvature radius of stress relaxed specimens.
Stress relaxation and recovery behaviour of composite orthodontic archwires in bending.
Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P
2000-02-01
The viscoelastic behaviour of prototype composite orthodontic archwires was evaluated using a bend stress relaxation test. Archwires having 10 different volume fractions of reinforcement were subjected to constant bending radii in a water bath at 37 degrees C for time periods of up to 90 days. The wires were subsequently released and left unconstrained for the same testing conditions. Creep-induced changes in the unconstrained bending radii of the wires were measured at specific times during both phases (stress relaxation and recovery) of the test. The statistical analysis showed that stress relaxation behaviour was strongly correlated with the archwire reinforcement level. The final relaxation varied, with decreasing reinforcement, from 2 to 8 per cent. Archwire recovery was not correlated with reinforcement level, and revealed a final viscous loss of only 1 per cent. The relaxed elastic moduli in bending of the composite wires were similar to the elastic moduli in bending of several conventional orthodontic archwire materials. Losses that were associated with the viscoelastic behaviour varied with decreasing reinforcement level from 1.2 to 1.7 GPa. Because these modulus losses were minimal, each archwire retained sufficient resilience to be applicable to the early and intermediate stages of orthodontic treatment. PMID:10721240
Laser bending of pre-stressed thin-walled nickel micro-tubes
Che Jamil, M. S.; Imam Fauzi, E. R.; Juinn, C. S.; Sheikh, M. A.
2015-10-01
Laser forming is an innovative technique of producing bending, spatial forming and alignment of both metallic and non-metallic parts by introducing thermal stresses into a work piece with a laser beam. It involves a complex interaction of process parameters to mechanical and thermal characteristics of materials. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical study of laser bending process of thin-walled micro-tubes. The effect of input parameters, namely laser power, pulse length and pre-stress constraint, on the process and the final product characteristics are investigated. Results of the analysis show that the bending angle of the tube increases considerably when a constraint is imposed at the tube's free end during the heating period. The introduction of compressive pre-stresses (from mechanical bending) in the irradiated region increases the final deformation which varies almost linearly with the amount of pre-stress. Due to high thermal conductivity and thin-walled structure of the tube, the heat dissipates quickly from the irradiated region to its surrounding material. Therefore, a combination of short pulse duration and high power is preferable to generate a higher thermal gradient and induce plastic strain. Design of experiment and regression analysis are implemented to develop an empirical model based on simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the influence of independent variables on output response. It is evident that initial displacement and pulse length have a stronger positive effect on the output response as compared to laser power.
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2015-01-01
different standards, with the ISO standard probably being the most common one. Gears are manufactured using two principally different tools: rack tools and gear tools. In this work, the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimization made directly on the final gear. This optimized shape...
Corrosion test qualification for in situ stress relief of recirculating steam generators' U-bends
Highly stressed alloy 600 is susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-purity water at nuclear steam generator (NSG) operating temperatures. Two regions in recirculating steam generators (RSG) are particularly prone to primary-side-initiated SCC: tube expansion transitions of the tube in the tubesheet and tight radii tube bends. One remedial measure to improve IGSCC in these regions is to heat the tubes and thus relieve the residual stresses that contribute significantly to the cracking problem. This article describes a corrosion test program using the accelerated SCC environments of sodium tetrathionate and sodium hydroxide to qualify an in situ stress-relief process for the most SCC-susceptible U-bends in an RSG
The indentation crack length approach was adopted and further elaborated to evaluate residual stress and toughness of the brittle coatings: two kinds of glass coatings on steel. The influence of the residual stress on indentation cracking was examined in as-received coating condition and by in-situ superimposing a counteracting tensile stress. For purpose of providing reference toughness values stress-free pieces of separated coating material have also been examined. Thus results of the two complementary sets of experiments were assumed to prove self-consistently toughness and residual stress data of the coating. In particular, the in-situ bending of specimen in combination with the indentation test allowed us to vary deliberately the residual stress situation in glass coating. Thus experiments which utilized the combination of bending test and micro-indentation were introduced as a method to provide unambiguous information about residual compressive stress. Toughness and residual compressive stress of glass coatings used in this study were 0.46-0.50 MPa·m1/2 and 94-111 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a thermoelastic calculation of the residual compressive stress was performed and it is found that the value of residual compressive stress at coating surface of specimen was 90-102 MPa. (author)
Nucleation and Crystallization as Induced by Bending Stress in Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers
Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol W.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.
2003-01-01
Glass Fibers of Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) and Li2O.1.6SiO2 (LS1.6) compositions were heated near, but below, the glass transition temperature for different times while subjected to a constant bending stress of about 1.2 GPa. The nucleation density and the crystallization tendency estimated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a glass sample in the vicinity of the maximum of the bending stress increased relative to that of stress-free glass fibers. LS2 glass fibers were found more resistant to nucleation and crystallization than the Ls1.6 glass fibers. These results are discussed in regards to shear thinning effects on glass stability.
Stress analysis of ultra-thin silicon chip-on-foil electronic assembly under bending
In this paper we investigate the bending-induced uniaxial stress at the top of ultra-thin (thickness ⩽20 μm) single-crystal silicon (Si) chips adhesively attached with the aid of an epoxy glue to soft polymeric substrate through combined theoretical and experimental methods. Stress is first determined analytically and numerically using dedicated models. The theoretical results are validated experimentally through piezoresistive measurements performed on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors built on specially designed chips, and through micro-Raman spectroscopy investigation. Stress analysis of strained ultra-thin chips with CMOS circuitry is crucial, not only for the accurate evaluation of the piezoresistive behavior of the built-in devices and circuits, but also for reliability and deformability analysis. The results reveal an uneven bending-induced stress distribution at the top of the Si-chip that decreases from the central area towards the chip's edges along the bending direction, and increases towards the other edges. Near these edges, stress can reach very high values, facilitating the emergence of cracks causing ultimate chip failure. (paper)
Stress Intensity Factors of Semi-Circular Bend Specimens with Straight-Through and Chevron Notches
Ayatollahi, M. R.; Mahdavi, E.; Alborzi, M. J.; Obara, Y.
2016-04-01
Semi-circular bend specimen is one of the useful test specimens for determining fracture toughness of rock and geo-materials. Generally, in rock test specimens, initial cracks are produced in two shapes: straight-edge cracks and chevron notches. In this study, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factors of semi-circular bend specimen (SCB) with straight-through and chevron notches are calculated. First, using finite element analysis, a suitable relation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack is presented based on the normalized crack length and half-distance between supports. For evaluating the validity and accuracy of this relation, the obtained results are then compared with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature. Subsequently, by performing some experiments and also finite element analysis of the SCB specimen with chevron notch, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factor of this specimen is obtained. Using the new equation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack and an analytical method, i.e., Bluhm's slice synthesis method, the minimum (critical) dimensionless stress intensity factor of chevron notched semi-circular bend specimens is calculated. Good agreement is observed between the results of two mentioned methods.
Selected data showing typical macroscopic residual stress distributions in U-bent Inconel 600 and 90 degrees bends in Incoloy 800 are presented. The results indicate regions of both high magnitude tension and compression in the longitudinal direction around the circumference of the bends at the apex. The microscopic residual stress, or percent plastic strain and macroscopic residual distributions in the surface of cross-roll straightened and ground Inconel 600 tubing are described. The results indicate a compressive surface layer accompanied by a yield strength gradient from 90 ksi at the surface to 30 ksi at a depth of 0.003 in
Interpretation of bend strength increase of graphite by the couple-stress theory
This paper presents a continued evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress constitutive theory to graphite. The evaluation is performed by examining four-point bend and uniaxial tensile data of various sized cylindrical and square specimens for three grades of graphites. These data are superficially inconsistent and, usually, at variance with the predictions of classical theories. Nevertheless, this evaluation finds that they can be consistently interpreted by the couple-stress theory. This is compatible with results of an initial evaluation that considered one size of cylindrical specimen for H-451 graphite
Seçil ERİM
1998-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a beam subjected to pure bending with a circular hole on its transverse axis, is analyzed by the Finite Element Method. The hole is shifted to various locations along the transverse axis and two different materials, namely isotropic (steel and orthotropic (graphite-epoxy, are used as beam material. Stress distribution and stress concentration factors around the hole are determined for each case. In order to establish the effect of fiber reinforcing angle on the stress distribution, the examination is repeated at various reinforcing angles between 0° and 90° for graphite-epoxy. Denoting the distance between the longitudinal axis and the center of the hole as b, the value of the critical hole diameter which leads to the maximum theoretical bending moment is determined by using the Finite Element Method. Furthermore, the critical distance b which will create the maximum theoretical bending moment for a constant hole diameter of 10 mm, is calculated for steel and each reinforcing angle of the composite beam.
The effect of applied stress on damage mode of 3D C/C composites under bend-bend fatigue loading
LIAO XiaoLing; LI HeJun; XU WenFeng; LI KeZhi
2007-01-01
The bend-bend fatigue behavior of 3D integral braided carbon/carbon composites (3D C/C) was examined. Fatigue test was conducted under load control at a sinusoidal frequency of 10 Hz to obtain stress-fracture cycles (S-N) relationship. The fatigue limit of the C/C was found to be 203 MPa (92% of the static flexural strength), the lag loops of fatigue load-displacement were transformed from elasticity to anelasticity and the flexibility of specimens were enhanced with increase in applied stress. It is revealed that the interfacial sliding abrasion played an important role in the fatigue failure process, and the extent and speed of sliding abrasion were controlled by the level of applied stress.
The effect of applied stress on damage mode of 3D C/C composites under bend-bend fatigue loading
2007-01-01
The bend-bend fatigue behavior of 3D integral braided carbon/carbon composites (3D C/C) was examined. Fatigue test was conducted under load control at a sinu-soidal frequency of 10 Hz to obtain stress-fracture cycles (S-N) relationship. The fatigue limit of the C/C was found to be 203 MPa (92% of the static flexural strength), the lag loops of fatigue load-displacement were transformed from elasticity to anelasticity and the flexibility of specimens were enhanced with increase in applied stress. It is revealed that the interfacial sliding abrasion played an important role in the fatigue failure process, and the extent and speed of sliding abrasion were con-trolled by the level of applied stress.
Stress intensity factors of three parallel edge cracks under bending moments
This paper reports the study of stress intensity factors (SIF) of three edge cracks in a finite plate under bending moments. The goal of this paper was to analyze the three edge crack interactions under such loading. Several studies can be found in literature discussing on mode I SIF. However, most of these studies obtained the SIFs using tensile force. Lack of SIF reported discussing on the SIFs obtained under bending moments. ANSYS finite element program was used to develop the finite element model where singular elements were used to model the cracks. Different crack geometries and parameters were utilized in order to characterize the SIFs. According to the present results, crack geometries played a significant role in determining the SIFs and consequently induced the crack interaction mechanisms
Effect of heat treatment on bend stress relaxation of pure tungsten
Highlights: • Bend stress relaxation test was performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. • Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500–800 °C. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900–1000 °C. • The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. -- Abstract: Bend stress relaxation (BSR) tests at temperatures of 500, 600, 800, 900 and 1000 °C for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 h in vacuum were performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief at 900 °C for 1 h. The degree of stress relaxation increased with test temperature. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500, 600 and 800 °C. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900 and 1000 °C and it was close to that of the as-received specimen. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen and the as-received specimen exhibited similar trend of time-evolution. The stress was exponentially relaxed with increasing test time. The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. Higher activation energy of stress relaxation evaluated by cross-cut method was obtained for the higher temperature
Koneva, N. A., E-mail: koneva@tsuab.ru; Kozlov, E. V. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 634003, Tomsk, Solyanaya Sq., 2 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
Generalization of the results of electron microscopy investigations of the crystal lattice bending-torsion (χ) and the internal stresses (IS) was conducted. The deformed polycrystalline alloys and steels were investigated. The sources of χ and IS origin were established. The regularities of their change with the distance from the sources and the evolution with deformation were revealed. The contribution of IS into the deformation resistance was determined. The nature of formation of two sequences of dislocation substructure transformations during deformation of alloys was established.
Numerical analysis of stress state during single point bending in DMTA examinations
A. Gnatowski
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Determination of stresses at the change of Young′s modulus values in temperature function for samples made of PA 6.6 filled with glass fibre, by DMTA method, was the aim of work.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were carried out for samples subjected to the one-axial bending. The change in the value of the dynamic Young modulus and the mechanical loss tangent in function of temperature and oscillation frequency by the DMTA method was determined. The computer simulations of changes of the stress and strain distribution within the range of elastic strains and the glass transition phase were done.Findings: Examinations made possible the determination of dynamic mechanical proprieties PA 6.6 filled with glass fibre and changes in the stress distribution during the dynamic loading of the sample in function of temperature. Higher values of the Young modulus were observed within the range of elasticity and the glass transition phase. The stress increased with the increase in Young′s modulus, at the strain generated from push rot oscillation.Research limitations/implications: The accuracy of used approximate method for computer simulations was not sufficient to indicate the Bielajew point.Practical implications: Investigated polymeric composite is characterized by viscoelastic properties, so all indicators of the physical and chemical properties depend on not only the time but and also the temperature.Originality/value: To characterize properties of investigated composite and to estimate the composite usage in particular conditions, dependences of the storage module and the mechanical losses tangent was determined in function of temperature at the one-axial bending.
Singh, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fitzsimmons, M. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lookman, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Jeen, Hyoung Jeen [ORNL; Biswas, A [University of Florida, Gainesville; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL
2012-01-01
We measured the magnetization depth profile of a (La{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}){sub 1-y}Ca{sub y}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0.60 {+-} 0.04, y = 0.20 {+-} 0.03) film using polarized neutron reflectometry as a function of applied elastic bending stress and temperature. We found unequivocal and until now elusive direct evidence that the exclusive application of compressive or tensile bending stress along the magnetic easy axis increases or decreases, respectively, the saturation magnetization of the film. Furthermore, we obtained a coupling coefficient relating strain to the depth-dependent saturation magnetization.
Phan Duy Nguyen; A. E. Polikutin; Yu. M. Borisov
2011-01-01
Problem statement. An experimental study on reinforced concrete bending elements shown that progressive increase in external load involves three typical stages of the stress-strain state. We es-tablished, however, that these stages insufficiently reflect the operation of two-layer caoutchouc concrete-concrete bending elements.Results and conclusions. The program of research and experimental results of stress-strain state of normal cross-sections of two-layer bending caoutchouc concrete and co...
Two-parameter fracture mechanics: Evaluation of T-stress for a general three-point-bend specimen
Seitl, Stanislav; Viszlay, Viliam; Cifuentes, H.; Canteli, A.
Zamora: Grupo Espanol de Fractura, 2015, s. 310-315. ISSN 0213-3725. [32 SCFSI/32 GEF Spanish Conference on Fracture and Structural Integrity Encuentro del Grupo Espanol de Fractura /32./. Zamora (ES), 27.04.2015-29.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fracture * stress intensity factor * T-stress * constraint * three point bending test * FEM Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
The dynamic fracture toughness KId of material is used to assess the integrity of a structure under impact loading. It is evaluated from instrumented impact tests such as pre-cracked Charpy tests or pre-cracked drop weight tests together with a numerical analysis of the dynamic stress intensity factor using a load-time history obtained from the tests. A two-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis is often utilized for this purpose. It requires large computer storage and run time. Therefore, it is inadequate to the quick evaluation of test data. In the present paper, a method for calculating the dynamic stress intensity factor of a pre-cracked bending specimen used in instrumented impact tests is newly proposed by making use of a line-spring model. A pre-cracked bending specimen is modeled by one-dimensional beam finite elements and a line-spring representing the stiffness or compliance of a cracked part. The present method enables the one-dimensional analysis of a two dimensional crack problem and thus the time variation of the dynamic stress intensity factor of a pre-cracked bending specimen can be obtained by making use of a personal computer within a few minutes. The present method is applied to the dynamic stress intensity factor analysis of a pre-cracked three-point bending specimen and a pre-cracked four-point bending specimen. The results obtained from the present method are in reasonably good agreement with the two-dimensional finite element solutions or the experimental results. A quick evaluation system for dynamic fracture toughness can be made by combining an instrumented impact test apparatus with a computer program based on the present method which runs on a personal computer. (author)
Parametric peak stress functions of 90o pipe bends with ovality under steady-state creep conditions
Stress-based life prediction techniques are commonly used to estimate the failure life of pressurised pipe-related components, such as welds and bends, under creep conditions. Previous research has shown that reasonable life predictions can be obtained, based on the steady-state peak stresses, compared with the life predictions obtained from creep damage modelling. In this work, a series of parametric steady-state peak rupture stress functions of right-angled pipe bends with ovality are presented, which are based on the results obtained from finite element (FE) analyses, covering a number of material property and geometry parameters in practical ranges. Methods used to determine the stress functions are described. The FE analyses have been performed using axisymmetric models, subjected to internal pressure only, with a Norton creep law. Typical examples of parametric peak stress curve fitting are shown. In particular, the accuracy of the interpolation and extrapolation abilities of the stress functions is assessed. The results show that in most cases the interpolated and extrapolated peak stresses are accurate to within ±3% and ±5%, respectively.
The advent of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has replaced the traditional design basis event of Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. The use of LBB concept requires postulation of largest credible cracks at highly stressed locations and demonstration of its stability under the maximum credible loading conditions. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of piping connections by computing Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in literature. However, the same type of solutions for elbows and tees are limited in open literature. In the present work, a database is generated to evaluate SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. Different parameters to characterise a cracked elbow are pipe factor (h), pipe bore radius to thickness ratio (r/t) and crack length. Another parameter (σ) is used to consider the relative magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and remote bending moment. The database has been used to derive closed form expressions to evaluate SIF for elbow with cracks in terms of the aforementioned parameters. (author). 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
Ochiai, S. E-mail: ochiai@iic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miyazaki, N.; Doko, D.; Nagai, T.; Nakamura, M.; Okuda, H.; Oh, S.S.; Hojo, M.; Tanaka, M.; Osamura, K
2004-08-01
The influence of bending and tensile damage introduced at room temperature on the critical current at 77 K under zero magnetic field of a multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy superconducting composite tape was studied. From the analysis of the tensile stress-strain curve, the residual strain and intrinsic tensile-fracture strain of Bi2223 filaments were estimated, with which the measured change of critical current with tensile strain was accounted for. A simple model, in which the damage evolution in both tensile and compressive sides was incorporated, was proposed to describe the change in critical current with bending strain. The application of the model to the experimental result indicated that the intrinsic compressive-strength of Bi2223 filaments, determining damages in the compressive side, is about five times higher than the tensile strength.
The aim of the research project was to study the bending tensile strength behaviour of concrete reinforced with steel fibres under extreme thermal loads. The high temperature range up to temperatures of 800deg C was particularly researched experimentally. (orig./MM)
Stress state analysis of sub-sized pre-cracked three-point-bend specimen
Stratil, Luděk; Kozák, Vladislav; Hadraba, Hynek; Dlouhý, Ivo
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, 2/3 (2012), s. 121-129. ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/10/0361 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : KLST * three-point bending * side grooving * Eurofer97 * J-integral Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
The advent of the leak-before-break (LBB) concept has widely replaced the traditional design basis event of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of such piping connections by computing their stress intensity factors (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of the SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in the literature. However the same type of solution for elbows and tees is limited in the open literature. In the present work a database is generated to evaluate the SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. (author)
A comparison of two reciprocating instruments using bending stress and cyclic fatigue tests
Pantaleo SCELZA
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bending resistance at 45º, the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue life, and the fracture type of the WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland 25-08 and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany 25-08 instruments. A total of 60 nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments (30 Reciproc and 30 WaveOne from three different lots, each of which was 25 mm in length, were tested. The bending resistance was evaluated through the results of a cantilever-bending test conducted using a universal testing machine. Static and dynamic cyclic fatigue testing was conducted using a custom-made device. For the static and dynamic tests, a cast Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy metal block with an artificial canal measuring 1.77 mm in diameter and 20.00 mm in total length was used. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the type of fracture. Statistical analyses were performed on the results. The WaveOne instrument was less flexible than the Reciproc (p < 0.05. The Reciproc instrument showed better resistance in the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests (p < 0.05. The transverse cross-section and geometry of the instruments were important factors in their resistance to bending and cyclic fracture. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics. It can be concluded that the Reciproc 25-08 instrument was more resistant to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue than the WaveOne 25-08 instrument, while the WaveOne 25-08 instrument was less flexible. Bending and resistance to cyclic fracture were influenced by the instruments’ geometries and transverse cross-sections. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics.
The effects of relative density of metal foams on the stresses and deformation of beam under bending
Aiyu Zhu; Tianyou Fan
2007-01-01
The exact analytic solution of the pure bending beam of metallic foams is given. The effects of relative den-sity of the material on stresses and deformation are revea-led with the Triantafillou and Gibson constitutive law (TG model) taken as the analysis basis. Several examples for indi-vidual foams are discussed, showing the importance of com-pressibility of the cellular materials. One of the objects of this study is to generalize Hill's solution for incompressible plas-ticity to the case of compressible plasticity, and a kinematics parameter is brought into the analysis so that the velocity field can be determined.
A contribution for stress analysis in bend acessories of piping systems
Analytical and numerical studies of the linear elastic behavior of bend pipes, with tangent pipes or flanged ends, such as used in nuclear power plants are presented. Two analytical techniques were developed; one is based on the integration of Euler equation and the other one is based on a Fourier analysis. The results obtained using these approaches are compared with results obtained by a finite element code for 'semiloof shells. (Author)
Gou, Xiaofan; Shen, Qiang
2012-05-01
An analysis model of the bending strain dependence of the critical current in multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag composite tapes is presented. To investigate the effect of the mechanical properties of the Bi2223 superconducting filament, the actual part for carrying current, its damage stress and elastic modulus are introduced. The calculated result of the variation of the critical current with the bending strain is well agreed with the experimental one. The further studies find that the mechanical properties of the filament have a remarkable effect on the bending strain dependence of the critical current. Specifically, the larger the damage stress and elastic modulus of the filament are, the higher the critical current is, when the bending strain increases to a larger value beyond the critical one.
Gou Xiaofan, E-mail: xfgou@hhu.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098 (China); Shen Qiang [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098 (China)
2012-05-15
An analysis model of the bending strain dependence of the critical current in multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag composite tapes is presented. To investigate the effect of the mechanical properties of the Bi2223 superconducting filament, the actual part for carrying current, its damage stress and elastic modulus are introduced. The calculated result of the variation of the critical current with the bending strain is well agreed with the experimental one. The further studies find that the mechanical properties of the filament have a remarkable effect on the bending strain dependence of the critical current. Specifically, the larger the damage stress and elastic modulus of the filament are, the higher the critical current is, when the bending strain increases to a larger value beyond the critical one.
Results of u-bend stress-corrosion-cracking specimen exposures in coal-liquefaction pilot plants
Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; Allen, M.D.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.
1982-04-01
Pilot plants with capacities of up to 600 tons/d are currently demonstrating the engineering feasibility of several coal liquefaction processes including Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal. These plants are the first step toward commercial production of synthetic fuels. Among other factors, development of the technology depends on reliable materials performance. A concern is the application of those austenitic stainless steels necessary for general corrosion resistance, because they are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This cracking results from tensile stresses in combination with offensive agents such as polythionic acids, chlorides, and caustics. To screen candidate construction materials for resistance to stress corrosion cracking, we exposed racks of stressed U-bend specimens in welded and as-wrought conditions at four coal liquefaction pilot plants. Results from exposures through June 1980 were described in a previous report for exposures in the SRC plants. This report summarizes the on-site test results from June 1980 through October 1981 for the two SRC pilot plants and the H-Coal and Exxon coal liquefaction pilot plants.
Salau Tajudeen A.O.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study reported a simulation approach to the understanding of the interactions between a buried pipe and the soil system by computing the bending stress variation of harmonically-excited buried pipes. The established principles of linear dynamics theory and simple beam theory were utilised in the analysis of the problem of buried pipe bending stress accumulation and its dynamics. With regards to the parameters that influence the bending stress variations, the most important are the isolation factor, uniform external load, and the corresponding limiting conditions. The simulated mathematical expressions, containing static and dynamic parameters of the buried pipe and earth, were coded in Fortran programming language and applied in the simulation experiment. The results obtained showed that harmonically-excited buried thick-walled pipe became stable and effective when the ratio of the natural frequency of vibration to the forced frequency is greater than 2.0, whenever the damped factor is used as the control parameter for the maximum bending stress. The mirror image of the stress variation produces variation in the location of the maximum bending stress in quantitative terms. The acceptable pipe materials for the simulated cases must have yield strength in bending greater than or equal to 13.95 MPa. The results obtained in this work fill a gap in the literature and will be useful to pipeline engineers and designers, as well as to environmental scientists in initialising and controlling environmental issues and policy formulation concerning the influence of buried pipe on the soil and water in the environment.
Fatigue and creep cracking of thick-walled tubes under bending stress
In the scope of safety certification of an HTR plant for power generation, fracture mechanical tests were conducted on the creep and fatigue crack growth behaviours of the material X10 NiCrAlTi32 20 (Alloy 800). This involved the use of pipes of the dimensions 197 mm O.D. and 23.5 mm wall thickness. They were provided with a 180deg circumferential defect each and subjected to static or cyclic loads under 4-point-bending. For the specimen geometry used here several approximative solutions known from literature were investigated in respect of their applicability. This involved a finite element calculation which considered the true defect geometry and load condition. The line spring model delivered in the KI-values the best correlation with the FE-calculation and therefore was used for recalculating the component tests conducted. (orig./DG)
Flow Stress Analysis and Hot Bending of P11 Alloy Steel
Ma, Fu-ye; Jin, Kai; Wang, Hui; Pei, Wen-Jiao; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Tao, Jie; Guo, Xun-Zhong
2016-07-01
Based on the growing application value of the P11 alloy steel in the nuclear power field, its dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior was firstly investigated by means of isothermal hot compression experiments, under the conditions of a testing temperature range between 800 and 950 °C, and a strain rate range between 0.01 and 2/s. Furthermore, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were also employed to analyze the effect of the mechanism of the strain rate on DRX. The results indicated that the grain size could be significantly refined with the increase of strain rate. Also, the recrystallized volume fraction was increased and the dislocation density decreased with the decrease of strain rate, for the same strain values. Subsequently, numerical simulations, under the assistance of experimental results on DRX behavior, were successfully used to study the hot push bending process and simultaneously obtain the processing parameters of the actual work-pieces. Finally, some comparative analyses were performed and discussed in parallel with the deformed actual work-pieces. The EBSD results on the deformed P11 alloy steel were emphasized for exploring the forming properties of this alloy steel.
A finite-difference program for stresses in anisotropic, layered plates in bending
Salamon, N. J.
1975-01-01
The interlaminar stresses induced in a layered laminate that is bent into a cylindrical surface are studied. The laminate is modeled as a continuum, and the resulting elasticity equations are solved using the finite difference method. The report sets forth the mathematical framework, presents some preliminary results, and provides a listing and explanation of the computer program. Significant among the results are apparent symmetry relationships that will reduce the numerical size of certain problems and an interlaminar stress behavior having a sharp rise at the free edges.
The applicability of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics to stress corrosion crack growth rate measurements was studied. Several test series were performed on small elastic-plastically loaded SEN(B) specimens in high temperature water. One test was performed on a 25 mm C(T) specimen under linear-elastic loading. The tests on the SEN(B) specimens were performed using either rising displacement or a combination of rising and constant displacement loading. The test on the 25 mm C(T) specimen was performed using a combination of constant load and constant displacement. The studied materials were AISI 304 steel in sensitized, mill-annealed and irradiated conditions, AISI 316 in cold-worked condition, Inconel 82 and 182 weld metals in as-welded and thermally aged conditions and ferritic low activation steel F82H in tempered condition. The crack growth rate tests were performed in simulated pure BWR water and simulated BWR water with 10-100 ppb SO42- at 230-290 deg C. It was shown that intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility can be determined using an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics approach. Fracture surface morphology in sensitized AISI 304 and welded AISI 321 steels depends on the applied loading rate in BWR water. The fracture surface morphology changes from transgranular to intergranular, when J-integral increase rate is decreased. However, extremely slow displacement rate is needed for the fracture surface morphology to be fully intergranular. Rising J results in transgranular stress corrosion cracking (or strain-induced corrosion cracking) also in the mill-annealed AISI 304 and 321 steels. Tests on irradiated AISI 304 steel showed that welding together with exposure to low neutron fluence in the BWR operating conditions results in a higher susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking than welding or irradiation alone. Ferritic low activation steel F82H (in tempered condition) is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under static loading
Assma Hassan Ismail
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental methodologies were assessed to test curved beam made of layered composite material. The maximum stress and maximum deflection were computed for each layer and the effect of radius of curvature and curve shape on them. Because of the increase of the use of composite materials in aircraft structures and the renewed interest in these types of problems, the presented theoretical assessment was made using three different approaches: curved beam theory and an approximate 2D strength of material equations and finite element method (FEM analysis by ANSYS 14.5 program for twelve cases of multi-layered cylindrical shell panel differs in fiber orientations and number of layers. One case of E-glass composite material was experimentally made and tested to verify the relation between applied load and maximum deflection and four models were made of poly carbonyl to determine stresses under bending loads in polar scope, all results were compared with each other, the percentage accuracy was very good. The curved beam theory and strength of material equation formulas results were reasonable for the bottom surface, while it seems not enough for the top surfaces. Also, results explained positions and cases more affected by delaminating and the most preferred part of ellipse shape beam in resisting loads.
Bending analysis of laminated and sandwich plates using a layer-wise stress model
Nguyen, D. T.; Caron, Jean-François
2013-01-01
In this paper, the behavior of laminated composites is investigated using several high order or layer-wise finite element calculations. A layer-wise model and its dedicated C0 eight-node finite element have been originally specifically developed for interlaminar stresses analysis in free edge problem and or recently for bonding study. This model is the core of the present comparisons. It is based on a typical layer-wise description which represents the laminate as a superposition of Reissner ...
In-service stresses in 900 MWe PWR steam generator U-bends
The alloy 600 steam generator tube bundles of PWRs are the subject of particular attention owing to their importance for safety and their potential to affect outage. To ensure safety, the utility seeks to minimize the tube rupture risk and, as regards availability, the utility seeks to minimize the number of reactor shutdowns for primary to secondary leakage. This paper presents studies designed to determine the stresses and to identify the influence of the various contributing parameters
Toivonen, Aki
2004-01-01
The applicability of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics to stress corrosion crack growth rate measurements was studied. Several test series were performed on small elastic-plastically loaded SEN(B) specimens in high temperature water. One test was performed on a 25 mm C(T) specimen under linear-elastic loading. The tests on the SEN(B) specimens were performed using either rising displacement or a combination of rising and constant displacement loading. The test on the 25 mm C(T) specimen was ...
A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine
Chang Hwan Choi; Lawrence Kulinsky; Joon Soo Jun; Jin Ho Kim
2014-01-01
Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending...
Zhou, Gang; Lloyd, Peter
2009-07-01
An experimental study has been conducted to design and fabricate smart composite beams embedded with prestrained nitinol wire actuators. The fabrication process developed allowed both quasi-isotropic E-glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy hosts to be eccentrically embedded with 10 parallel prestrained wires with a purpose-made alignment device and cured successfully in an autoclave. Smart composite beams of three different lengths were made for each type of host. Both single-cycle and multi-cycle thermomechanical bending actuations of these beams in the cantilever set-up were characterised experimentally by applying various levels of electric current to the nitinol wires. The performance characteristics showed that the present fabrication process was repeatable and reliable. While the end deflections of up to 41 mm were easily achieved from smart E-glass/epoxy beams, the limited end deflections were observed from the smart carbon/epoxy beams due primarily to our inability to insulate the nitinol wires. Moreover, it seemed necessary to overheat the prestrained wires to much higher temperatures beyond the complete reverse transformation in order to generate recovery stress.
Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214. ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014
拉伸和弯曲耦合层合梁应力分析%ANALYSIS OF STRESS FOR LAMINATE BEAM WITH TENSION AND BEND COUPLING
马功勋
2001-01-01
The differentiating equations of displacements have been developed for laminate beam under the coupling of tension and bend. For laminate beam with tension and bend coupling,the calculating formula of normal stress and layer shear stress were educed. The stresses of rule-normal and asymmetrical laminate beam were analyzed. The distribution of stresses is asymmetrical.As the number of laminate series is more than 8, the distribution of asymmetrical stresses tends to symmetrical distribution.%本文建立了拉伸和弯曲耦合层合梁的位移微分方程。导出了拉弯耦合层合梁正应力和层间剪应力的计算公式，分析了规则非对称正交层合梁的应力具有非对称特性。当规则非对称正交层合梁的铺层组数大于8时，其应力趋于对称分布。
Zhen, Wu; Wanji, Chen
2010-04-01
A C0-type global-local higher order theory including interlaminar stress continuity is proposed for the cross-ply laminated composite and sandwich plates in this paper, which is able to a priori satisfy the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. Moreover, total number of unknowns involved in the model is independent of number of layers. Compared to other higher-order theories satisfying the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces, merit of the proposed model is that the first derivatives of transverse displacement w have been taken out from the in-plane displacement fields, so that the C0 interpolation functions is only required during its finite element implementation. To verify the present model, a C0 three-node triangular element is used for bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. It ought to be shown that all variables involved in present model are discretized by only using linear interpolation functions within an element. Numerical results show that the C0 plate element based on the present theory may accurately calculate transverse shear stresses without any postprocessing, and the present results agree well with those obtained from the C1-type higher order theory. Compared with the C1 plate bending element, the present finite element is simple, convenient to use and accurate enough.
Hojo, Masaki [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Mototsugu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Adachi, Taiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugano, Michinaka [Department of Electric Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ochiai, Shojiro [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Osamura, Kozo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2005-12-15
The mesoscopic stress and strain states of Bi2223/Ag/Ag-alloy superconducting composite tapes have been studied both analytically and experimentally under bending deformation. The tapes used in the present study were supplied as the standard samples for the VAMAS round-robin program (classified as VAM1 and VAM3). Detailed tape bending analysis was completed based on a damage-free initial state, and the calculated decrease of critical current, I{sub c}, due to Bi2223 filament fracture was compared to the experimental I{sub c} decrease. The calculated I{sub c} was much lower than that obtained in the experiments for both tapes. Metallography indicated the presence of delamination in as-received as well as bend-tested tapes. The analysis was therefore modified to include delamination and it was completed for the case where delamination occupied the full width of the tape mid-plane. The calculated I{sub c} with delamination was higher than the experimental results for both tapes. Delamination occupying partial width of the mid-plane explained this difference. Finally, the width ratio where delamination exists was calculated by comparing the analytical results with delamination and experimental results. This ratio increased with increasing curvature of the tape.
Andrea Bulletti
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Interdigital transducers fabricated with piezopolymer film have been realized to excite ultrasonic Lamb waves in a composite laminate subjected to pure bending stresses. Lamb waves were generated and detected in a cross-ply [0°/90°] 4 mm thick carbon-fiber composite, by using two interdigital transducers in pitch-catch configuration. We demonstrate that the choice of the piezopolymer transducer technology is suitable for this type of investigation and the advantages of the proposed transducer assembly and bonding are described. A full set-up is described to determine the relationship between the time of flight of the recorded signals and the applied bending moment. Interdigital transducers were designed according to simulations of the dispersion curves, in order to operate at a central frequency of 450 kHz. This frequency corresponds to a central wavelength of 16 mm and to a group velocity of about 6000 m/s for the first symmetric guided wave mode. The variations in the time of flight of ultrasonic recorded signals were measured as a function of the variations in the bending moment. The static and dynamic load tests were in good agreement with strain gage measurements performed in the micro deformation range (0–1400 µm/m.
Monoj Kumar Barai,; Debabrata Nag,; Jagabandhu Shit,; Abhijit Chanda; , Manoj Kr. Mitra
2011-01-01
In the present paper, the effect of two different crack geometries on dynamic stress intensity factor for a three point bend configuration in short alumina ceramic beam has been studied. The first crack geometry has a typical surface edge crack (perpendicular to the surface) and the second one has a notched configuration with a small crack at its tip like a fatigue pre-crack. Real impact-response was captured using a suitable data acquisition system and fed into a standard finite element mode...
Sobek, J.; Veselý, V.; Seitl, Stanislav
Zurich: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasová, K.; Kormanikova, E.), s. 67-72. (Advanced Materials Research. 969). ISBN 978-3-03835-147-4. ISSN 1022-6680. [SPACE 2013 - International Conference on Structural and Physical Aspects of Civil Engineering /2./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 27.11.2013-29.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1551 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fracture test * wedge splitting * bending * constraint * fracture process zone * notched specimen Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.
2016-05-01
Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting
Jung Jin Park
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011 grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ − λ⊥ of ∼280 ppm and ∼130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA. Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ∼60% to within ∼80% of λsat. The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ∼46% to ∼56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing
Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatayud, A.; Martinez, A.
2012-11-01
Die radius is a critical area from the viewpoint of friction in forming processes. Moreover the sheet, that has been previously deformed in flange area, suffers bending and unbending stresses. Then, die-sheet contact in die radius must be especially considered in order to guarantee the suitable lubrication conditions. In the present work, a test method is carried out for evaluating an AISI 304 DDQ steel under similar conditions to those existing in the die radius area and that, usually, are not really reproduced in traditional bending under tensions tests. Deformation under pure shear condition, the bending and the radius angle have been established as variables of the tests. Results allow to obtain the apparent pressure sheet-bending tool, that increases with bending angle and decreases with tool radius. This last variable is the most significant while the bending angle has lesser influence. Although experimental results present some concordances with values obtained by analytical methods, some corrections must be considered in them in order to improve the theoretical values. (Author) 18 refs.
Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.
2015-12-01
An unusual effect of the stresses of bending (toroidal sample diameter D) on the hysteretic magnetic properties ( H c , μ5) of an amorphous Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12B11 alloy with an extremely low magnetostriction (|λ s | ≤ 10-7) is revealed. These properties are measured in a dynamic regime at a magnetic-field frequency f = 0.1-20 kHz. The coercive force of the alloy H c weakly depends on D at low frequencies ( f fact that magnetization reversal via the displacement of rigid domain walls is predominant at low frequencies and during static measurements and magnetization reversal via the displacement of flexible domain walls is predominant at high frequencies.
Monoj Kumar Barai,
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of two different crack geometries on dynamic stress intensity factor for a three point bend configuration in short alumina ceramic beam has been studied. The first crack geometry has a typical surface edge crack (perpendicular to the surface and the second one has a notched configuration with a small crack at its tip like a fatigue pre-crack. Real impact-response was captured using a suitable data acquisition system and fed into a standard finite element model. The solution was done using transient dynamic analysis. It was observed that crack with notch has a lower DSIF than that with straight surface crack. The efficacy of the model was validated by checking with the experimental results of DSIF available in literature.
Hanus, E. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Eng. Mater.; Ericsson, T. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Eng. Mater.
1995-05-01
In this work, the influence of fatigue on the residual stress state of a pressure-rolled metal matrix composite has been investigated. The three-dimensional stress state measured in both matrix and reinforcement has been determined by X-ray diffraction. To estimate the efficiency of the pressure rolling treatment, Woehler curves were derived for both the heat-treated (to maximum hardness) (T6) and further rolled composites. To study the stability of the induced residual stress field, four-point bending fatigue tests were performed on a 2014 aluminium alloy reinforced with 15% SiC particles. It was found that pressure rolling increased the fatigue strength by 30% in the high-cycle region. Macrostress relaxation occurs during cyclic loading: the higher the applied load, the larger the relaxation. A more pronounced effect is observed on the compression-loaded side. As regards the microstresses, a reduction, creation and/or stabilization during cycling may occur according to the loading and metallurgical conditions. ((orig.))
It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error
Bending strength analysis of steel-composite submerged floating tunnels
Han, T H; Won, D.; Han, S. H.; Park, W. S.; Yum, K.D.
2013-01-01
A submerged floating tunnel (SFT) must have enough strength to resist to various external loadings such as bending, torsion, tension, and compression. The expected main deformation of SFT is caused by bending moment. And this bending moment makes tensile stress and compression stress on the wall of SFT. Thus, bending moment is a main affecting factor on the safety of SFT. Until now, a reinforced concrete tunnel was suggested for SFT by other researchers. In this study, an internal...
季楚凌
2015-01-01
The flow field and stress of heavy oil flowing throughout the 90-degree bend were analyzed. The viscosity of heavy oil at different temperature was measured by using Anton Paar MCR 302 rotary viscometer, and the viscosity-temperature curve was also analyzed with the regression analysis method. In addition, the fluid-solid-heat coupling of the bend was simulated by using Fluent software and Ansys software. The flow field and stress of heavy oil flowing throughout the bend at different temperature and velocity were analyzed. The research result can provide a theoretical foundation for further study on erosion mechanisms of heavy oil flowing throughout the bend.%以输送稠油的90°弯管为研究对象，对稠油流经弯管进行流场和应力的分析。利用 Anton Paar MCR 302可视化流变仪测得了稠油的粘温曲线，并借助 Fluent 与 Ansys 软件对弯管进行热流固耦合模拟计算。对稠油样品在不同温度及流速下流经管道弯头进行了流场和应力的研究和分析。研究结论可为进一步研究稠油流经弯管的冲蚀机理提供理论依据。
Estimation of tensile properties of pipe bends manufactured by cold bending
In this study, tensile tests were performed on specimens that simulated the cold bending and heat treatment of pipe bends to understand the mechanical properties of pipe bends manufactured by cold bending followed by heat treatment for relieving residual stress. The strength and ductility of cold worked materials were respectively found to be higher and lower than those of the parent material although heat treatment was carried out to relieve residual stress. In addition, the increase in strength and decrease in ductility were proportional to the applied strain levels for cold working. It was thus inferred that the intrados and extrados regions of pipe bends that were cold bended and heat treated show higher strength and lower ductility compared to the parent straight pipe and that the mechanical properties at the crown region are nearly the same as those of the parent straight pipe
Measurement of irradiation creep in bending
The major deformation modes in LMFBR fuel channels are bowing caused by neutron flux and temperature gradients and dilation due to stresses imposed by the flowing sodium. In both cases, the stress state of interest is bending. The bulk of irradiation creep data has been generated by simply loaded specimens such as tensile or biaxial pressurized tubes but it is questionable whether this data can be used to predict creep in bending. An irradiation creep experiment using beams loaded in primary bending has been designed to investigate this premise
Measurement of irradiation creep in bending. [LMFBR
McSherry, A.J.; Marshall, J.; Patel, M.R.
1980-01-31
The major deformation modes in LMFBR fuel channels are bowing caused by neutron flux and temperature gradients and dilation due to stresses imposed by the flowing sodium. In both cases, the stress state of interest is bending. The bulk of irradiation creep data has been generated by simply loaded specimens such as tensile or biaxial pressurized tubes but it is questionable whether this data can be used to predict creep in bending. An irradiation creep experiment using beams loaded in primary bending has been designed to investigate this premise.
Forming characteristics of thin-walled tube bending process with small bending radius
LI Heng; YANG He; ZHAN Mei; GU Rui-Jie
2006-01-01
Currently requirements of thin-walled tube with small bending radius cause the defects such as wrinkling,overthinning and cross-section distortion more prone to occur in bending process. Based on the analysis of the forming characteristics by analytical and experimental methods,a complete 3D elastic-plastic FEM model of the process was developed using ABAQUS/Explicit code,including bending process,balls retracting and unloading process,and thus the plastic deformation characteristics with small bending radius were investigated. The main results show that: 1) The utmost deformation feature of the NC bending process is its continuous progressive deformation. 2) The occurring conditions of the defects such as wrinkling and tension instability in the process are obtained. The wrinkling is traditional on the double compressive stresses state and the tension instability is on the double tension stresses state. 3) The enhanced non-uniform deformation in thin-walled tube with small bending radius is demonstrated by comparing the stress/ strains distributions under the 1.5D and 1D bending conditions. 4) For 1D small bending process,a new method-"stepped mandrel retraction" is proposed to improve the bending quality in experiment according to the FE simulation. The simulation results are verified by experiment.
Hojo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: hojo_cm@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugano, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ochiai, S. [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Osamura, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2005-10-01
The strain dependence of the critical current, I {sub c}, of Bi2223/Ag/Ag-alloy composite superconducting tapes has been studied both experimentally and analytically under bending deformation. The microscopic observation after bending deformation indicated that delamination existed inside Bi2223 filaments and filament/matrix interface. Then, the former bending deformation analysis was modified to fit the existence of the delamination. The calculated critical current, I {sub c}, was almost the same as the experimental results when the delamination is fully located at the mid plane of the tape though the actual situation was partial in the width direction. Then the location of the delamination was moved in the thickness direction in the analysis. The calculated I {sub c} agreed well with the experimental results when the delamination location was moved to the compressive side.
Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen
Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.
1994-01-01
The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.
Ikonen, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Engineering Lab.
1993-07-01
The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.).
Semiconductor laser beam bending
YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ
2015-01-01
This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...
Miguel, V.; Coello, J.; Martinez, A.; Calatayud, A.
2013-09-01
In this paper, a methodology has been developed for evaluating the spring back of AISI 304 DDQ stainless steel sheet based on a bending under tension test. The main difference of the methodology herein carried out is that tests are made under the multiaxial stresses state that take place in deep drawing processes. This affects to the level of stress value in the test and to the hardening state of the sheet. Springback evaluation has been done in two different areas. Bending area has been evaluated from elastic recovery ratio defined as the ratio between the bending radius after and before bending. Bending and unbending extreme has been studied from the measured curvature radius in this area and taking into account the geometric equivalence of the test with the drawing cups process. Results found allow to state that drawing ratio or deformation ratio have a negligible influence on the springback into the range of values experimented here. Bending radius has hardly influence as well while bending angle is the most significant variable. The results obtained are compared to those measured in deep-drawn cups, finding a great agreement. (Author)
The mechanical behavior of a silicon crystal under bending is investigated. For a crystal of length 30 mm and thickness 3 mm, to achieve the specified bend angle of 0.64 mrad, the appropriate angle of the aluminum punches is 0.96 mrad
The calculations for the design of nuclear power plant components in accordance with nuclear standards (ASME-BPVC III or KTA) are required to include fatigue analyses taking into account calculated primary plus secondary stress, plus stress maxima. The number of possible stress cycles can then be derived from the incipient cracking and fatigue data available in the codes and standards. The effects of temperature, surface quality, welding and size of specimens have been investigated. It was found that the nominal safety defined in the codes frequently is not attained in reality. The curves hitherto available in the ASME or KTA codes may still be taken as a basis when proper and accurate measurement of strains and stresses is assured and the correct influencing parameters are taken into account, but for psychological reasons it seems advisable to rely on new curves using Ssub(L) = 10 and S = 1.5. (orig.)
莫立新; 徐峰; 郑绍文
2014-01-01
复合材料板格作为复合材料基本板架结构力学性能的最小分析单元，是由不同厚度、不同材料和不同铺设角度的单层板叠合而成。利用材料力学理论和经典复合材料层合板理论，推导一般情况下的复合材料板格中性轴位置控制方程，并采用等效截面方法，提出复合材料板格各单层弯曲正应力的计算公式。复合材料板格各单层的最大正应力由模量比和距中性轴位置共同决定。此公式形式上和各向同性材料弯曲正应力的计算公式一致，从而将弯曲正应力计算公式由各向同性材料扩展到各向异性材料，为掌握复合材料板架结构应力水平提供方便。此公式形式简洁，便于工程应用。%Composite panel is the smallest analysis unit for the mechanical properties of the basic plate frame structure, which could be composed of different thickness, different materials, and different lamina with arbitrary angles. Based on the theory of mechanics materials and the classical theory of composite lami⁃nate, this paper derives the general control equation of neutral axis for composite panels. By employing the equivalent section method, the normal bending stress formula of each lamina is presented. To be more spe⁃cific, the maximum normal bending stress for each lamina is determined by the modulus ratio and the dis⁃tance from the neutral axis. This result is formally consistent with the isotropic material formula. Thus, the normal bending stress formulas can be extended from isotropic material application to anisotropic material application, which brings significant convenience to calculate the stress level of composite plate frames. The formula proposed in this paper is both clear and concise, which can greatly shorten the development cy⁃cle of composite structure design and be easily applied in future engineering applications.
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b)...
Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test
Naresworo Nugroho; Effendi Tri Bahtiar
2013-01-01
Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR) value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct). Ct is theratio between (SR) calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bam...
Mao, S.C. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Han, X.D. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)], E-mail: xdhan@bjut.edu.cn; Tian, Y.B.; Luo, J.F.; Zhang, Z.; Ji, Y. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Wu, M.H. [Advanced Materials Technology, Edwards Lifesciences LLC, CA 92614-5688 (United States)
2008-12-20
An inverse pole figure with tensile-compressive asymmetric Schmid factor (SF) was developed for TiNi shape memory alloys. The stress-induced martensitic transformation behaviors in polycrystalline TiNi alloys were directly visualized and mapped by in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The results clearly show that the stress-induced martensitic transformations sustaining tensile and compressive stresses are asymmetric. The observed results are well interpreted by the Schmid factor inverse pole figure (SFIPF). It was also suggested that the internal stress distribution, the inter-grain accommodation and the constrained effect on the polycrystalline system are additional factors impacting the formation and selection of stress-induced SF habit plane martensitic variants.
An inverse pole figure with tensile-compressive asymmetric Schmid factor (SF) was developed for TiNi shape memory alloys. The stress-induced martensitic transformation behaviors in polycrystalline TiNi alloys were directly visualized and mapped by in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The results clearly show that the stress-induced martensitic transformations sustaining tensile and compressive stresses are asymmetric. The observed results are well interpreted by the Schmid factor inverse pole figure (SFIPF). It was also suggested that the internal stress distribution, the inter-grain accommodation and the constrained effect on the polycrystalline system are additional factors impacting the formation and selection of stress-induced SF habit plane martensitic variants
Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending
The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail. (Auth.)
Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending
The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending
Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar
2015-11-01
The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.
A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables
Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Kotas, Agnieszka
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension and...
On the accuracy of analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipe bends with end constraints
The accuracy of theoretical analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipebends with end constraints is discussed and investigated with a view to explaining and reducing the differences between the major works. An earlier theory of the authors is improved to give more accurate answers for bends with rigid flanges. Flanged bends are then examined in some detail, quantifying for the first time the important influence of the flange rigidity on the bend flexibility and stresses. A summary of some finite element analyses is presented from which it is clear that further work is desirable. (orig.)
Dispersion suppressors with bending
Garren, A.
1985-10-01
Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.
Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires
Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.
2016-04-01
This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.
Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties
Jaroslav Kljak
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and stress in each layer was determined by using finite element method. Simulation models were developed with equal load conditions as applied during empirical measurement of bending properties of the sandwich panel. The research results show that grain direction has a great influence on bending properties of the sandwich panel, as well as on stress values in each layer. Results also indicate the importance of analyzing stress in each layer of plywood for the purpose of avoiding stress concentration in respective layers and for optimizing structural construction of the sandwich panel. Such stress analyses are not covered by standardized empirical methods for determining bending properties of sandwich panels.
Local and Global Light Bending in Einstein's and Other Gravitational Theories
Ehlers, J.; Rindler, W.
1997-01-01
To remedy a certain confusion in the literature, we stress the distinction between local and global light bending. Local bending is a purely kinematic effect between mutually accelerating reference frames tracking the same signal, and applies via Einstein's equivalence principle exactly and equally in Newton's, Einstein's, Nordström's and other gravitational theories, independently of all field equations. Global bending, on the other hand, arises as an integral of local bending and depends cr...
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.
Ultrasonic fatigue testing device under biaxial bending
C. Brugger
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A new fatigue testing device has been developed to test specimens under biaxial loading at 20 kHz. A flat smooth specimen with a disc geometry is placed on a torus frame and cyclically loaded at the center of its upper face. Disc bending generates a biaxial proportional stress state at the center of the lower face. Any positive loading ratio can be applied. A cast aluminum alloy (used to produce cylinder heads has been tested under biaxial bending using this device in order to determine its fatigue strength at 109 cycles under high hydrostatic pressure. Self-heating is moderate but macroscopic fatigue cracks after testing are very long. First results in VHCF regime are consistent with literature results obtained under similar stress state but in HCF regime and at 20 Hz.
In situ heat treatment of U-bends: Final report
Row 1 nuclear steam generator tubes of mill annealed Alloy 600 tubing were stress relief annealed at 14500F for 15 minutes using a special internally placed flexible electrical resistance heater. The U-bends were strained to simulate differential thermal expansion stresses and tested for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance in two reference accelerated test environments (6800F high purity water and 7500F superheated steam), both of which contained hydrogen partial pressures. Prototypical axial throughwall cracking at the extrados of the irregular U-bend transition tangent was produced in base line, non-stress relieved U-bends, while no throughwall cracking occurred in any stress relieved sample. An improvement in PWSCC resistance due to this stress relief of at least a factor of 30 can be inferred for the 7/8 in. tubing material that was of a highly PWSCC susceptible heat. The 3/4 in. tubing material, which was more resistant to PWSCC in the mill annealed condition, exhibited an inferred factor in PWSCC resistance, due to the 14500F stress relief, or at least 11. The program identified and qualified a lower temperature, shorter time, stress relief cycle of 13000F for five minutes. Accelerated PWSCC testing in 7500F steam indicated that 7/8 in. OD U-bends stress relieved at 13000F for five minutes exhibit a resistance to PWSCC that is at least 100 times greater than as-bent samples that were readily cracked in the steam exposures. It is concluded that in-situ stress relief of mill annealed Alloy 600 nuclear steam generator U-bends is highly beneficial in reducing, or possibly eliminating, PWSCC at the U-bend tangent points where instances of PWSCC have been documented in operating plants. 10 refs., 44 figs., 16 tabs
Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending
Le, Tung T
2014-01-01
Many structures inside the cell such as nucleosomes and protein-mediated DNA loops contain sharply bent double-stranded (ds) DNA. Therefore, the energetics of strong dsDNA bending constitutes an essential part of cellular thermodynamics. Although the thermomechanical behavior of long dsDNA is well described by the worm-like chain (WLC) model, the length limit of such elastic behavior remains controversial. To investigate the energetics of strong dsDNA bending, we measured the opening rate of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths of 40-200 bp using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). From the measured relationship of loop stability to loop size, we observed a transition between two separate bending regimes at a critical loop size below 100 bp. Above this loop size, the loop lifetime decreased with decreasing loop size in a manner consistent with an elastic bending stress. Below the critical loop size, however, the loop lifetime became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softening of the doub...
FEM Simulation of Bending Formability for Laminate Steel/Resin/Steel Lightweight Composite Sheet
Guancheng Ll; Yonglin KANG
2003-01-01
The ANSYS simulation software was used to analyze the bending formability of laminate steel/resin/steel lightweight composite sheet. The skin steel at external side produces relative slipping-off change during the bending due to its composite structure. The internal stress strain states, materials effect tools parameters and intermediate layer resin of lightweight sheet on slipping-off change were analyzed. The spring back and shear stress state after bending have also been discussed.
Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties
Jaroslav Kljak; Mladen Brezović; Alan Antonović
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm) were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and s...
Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending
Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining
2013-02-01
Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.
Factors affecting U-bend cracking
Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in pure water is assumed to be the damaging process of a large number of small radius U-bends of PWR steam generators. The possible influencing parameters are reviewed. The determining factor is a too high level of stress arising from two main origins: residual stresses; and overstresses induced by the inner pressure in deformed cross sections. The latter have been assessed by two dimensional finite elements computation and by strain gages measurements. Stress corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 sustain the previous results for outer surface overstresses. Geometrical characterizations were performed on: in service SG tubes by internal spherical gages; and laboratory samples by internal spherical gages, LVDT and ultrasonic measurements, cross sectioning
Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience
Barry, J.E.
1986-01-01
This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation.
Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience
This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation
Thiria, Benjamin
2010-01-01
Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Our measurements show that the elastic nature of the wings can lead not only to a substantial reduction of the consumed power, but also to an increment of the propulsive force. A scaling analysis using a flexible plate model for the wings points out that, for flapping flyers in air, the time-dependent shape of the elastic bending wing is governed by the wing inertia. Based on this prediction, we define the ratio of the inertial forces deforming the wing to the elastic restoring force that limits the deformation as the 'elasto-inertial number'. Our measurements with the self-propelled model confirm that it is the appropriate structural parameter to describe flapping flyers with flexible-wings.
Courant, E.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Garren, A.
1985-10-01
The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.
The evaluation of helical bending for steam generator in integral reactor
An integral reactor in comparison with loop reactor is that all of major primary components are placed in reactor vessel. It is necessary of helical bending to be manufactured once-through steam generator in the integral reactor, On the other hand dimensions variation and introduced residual stress of the part of helical bend can be serious problem. We have executed the mock-up test of Titanium tube which is being considered integral steam generator for the sake of detecting the dimension variation and residual stress of bending part. In this paper, we present the bending properties of Titanium tube and applicable possibility in integral steam generator
Bending of X65 Offshore Steel Pipes
Lofthaug, Kristoffer; Digerud, Erik
2014-01-01
This thesis is part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab and Statoil about impact loads on X65 offshore pipelines and it is a continuation of previous work.Offshore pipelines are frequently impacted by accidental loads, e.g. trawl gear or anchors. Such loads may cause severe damage to the pipe and a complex stress-strain history locally in the impacted area.Fracture have previously been found in pipes dynamically impacted. Quasi-static bending of similar pipes with the same boundary ...
Bolted flanged connections with longitudinal bending moments: Experimental results
Flanges in piping systems and on tall vertical pressure vessels such as columns or fractionators, are often subjected to external, longitudinal bending moments of considerable magnitude. In piping systems, such bending moments are usually caused by thermal expansion. On pressure vessel flanges, external bending moments are often the result of wind or seismic loadings. In the ASME Code, only Section III, the Nuclear Power Plant Code, Subsections NB, NC, and ND, contain design rules for external bending moments on flanges. In Subsections NB, NC, and ND, an empirical formula is given, expressing a longitudinal bending moment in bolted flanged connections in terms of an equivalent internal pressure to be added to the design pressure of the flange. Other sections of the ASME Code, in particular Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2, also the ASME-ANSI Piping Codes, do not contain rules for such external, longitudinal bending moments. In previous papers by the same authors, it was shown that a single empirical expression to convert external bending moments to intemal pressure, cannot include the differences between the geometries of flanges of various sizes. An attempt was also made to analyse the stresses in the flange-bolt assembly due to extemal bending moments and to compare flange thicknesses thus obtained with thicknesses required using the equivalent design pressure, specified in Subsections NB, NC, and ND. The present paper reports the findings of a series of experiments on a pair of 100 mm, Class 10 (4 inch, Class 150) pipe flanges which were subjected to various combinations of intemal pressure and extemal longitudinal bending. Measured values are compared with a proposed analytic design method and with results using the empirical formula of the ASME Code, Section III
Impact of bending strain on critical current of second generation 344 YBCO high Tc coated conductor
Second generation YBCO coated conductor has been characterized under various bending stresses. The down slope of the critical current with increasing strain has been supported by the SEM analysis of the tape. The tensile as well as flexural strength of the tape also have been determined experimentally at room temperature. The stress profile of the critically bend strip has been analyzed in ANSYS and the maximum stress on the YBCO strip in the operating condition has been quantified. (author)
Bending failure of laminated fibrous composite plates with a hole
Kwon, Y.W.; Yang, S.T. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1995-08-01
This study investigates failure modes and failure strengths of laminated fibrous composite plates with stress concentration and subjected to bending loads. Graphite/epoxy composites are used for the present study. Lamina material properties, such as stiffness and strength, of the composite are determined from experiments. A series of four-point bending tests are conducted for laminated, graphite/epoxy composite plates with and without a hole to examine their failure modes and strengths. The paper compares different failure modes and strengths of various composite specimens. In addition, finite element analyses are performed to compute stress distributions around holes of the composite plates subjected to bending loads. Numerically predicted failure loads agree well with experimental results.
Deformation analysis of springback in L-bending of sheet metal
Fuh-Kuo Chen
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, the deformation mechanics of the springback phenomenon in the L-bending ofsheet-metal was examined and a new method that could efficiently reduce springback in the L-bending of sheetmetalwas proposed.Design/methodology/approach: Both the finite element analysis and experiments were performed to analyzethe deformation mechanics and the effects of process parameters on the formation of springback.Findings: The axial stress distribution in the bent sheet obtained by the finite element simulations was classifiedinto three zones: the bending zone under the punch corner (zone I, unbending zone next to the bending zone(zone II, and the stress-free zone (zone III. It is found that the stress distribution in zone I is quite uniformand hence has little influence on the springback. While the stress distribution in zone II results in a positivespringback, whereas the stress distribution in zone III produces a negative springback. The total springbacktherefore depends on the combined effect of those produced by zone II and zone III. A reverse bend approachthat can efficiently reduce springback was also proposed to reduce the springback in the L-bending process. Thefinite element analysis performed in the present study was validated by experiments as well.Research limitations/implications: Although the reverse bend approach can reduce springback efficiently, itmay cause uneven surface at the die corner area. Hence, the use of reverse bend approach must be cautious ifhigh surface quality is required.Practical implications: The proposed reverse bend approach provides the die design engineer with a novel ideato reduce the springback occurred in the L-bending of sheet metals.Originality/value: In addition to the reverse bend approach, the analysis of defomation mechanics ofspringback performed in the present study also provides researchers with a better understanding of the formationof springback.
Effect of bending pattern on finger joint bending strength
Džinčić Igor
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Limited information is available on end gluing hardwoods in contrast to softwoods, which have been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of bending patern on bending strength of finger jointed beech wood. In structural uses finger jointing is finally the major method to end joint timber for the production of glue-laminated elements. There are no bending strength experimental results for finger-jointed hardwoods for investigations conducted in Serbia. Two finger jointed profiles were studied in accordance with DIN68140. The finger joints were made by side and by face of beam. Length jointed samples were loaded at the side and in the face. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the direction of load, gluing surface and the position of joint influence on the strength of continued longitudinal beams.
无
2000-01-01
A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.
Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface
Ogbonna, Nkem
2015-08-01
The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.
Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?
We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography
Bending characteristics of resin concretes
Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.
Jui-Chang Lin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The three-dimensional tube (or pipe is manufactured by CNC tube bending machine. The key techniques are determined by tube diameter, wall thickness, material, and bending radius. The obtained technique through experience and the trial and error method is unreliable. Finite element method (FEM simulation for the tube bending process before production can avoid wasting manpower and raw materials. The computer-aided engineering (CAE software ABAQUS 6.12 is applied to simulate bending characteristics and to explore the maximum stress and strain conditions. The Taguchi method is used to find the optimal parameters of bending. The confirmation experiment is performed according to optimal parameters. Results indicate that the strain error between CAE simulation and bending experiments is within 6.39%.
Static Pull and Push Bending Properties of RTM-made TWF Composite Tee-joints
LUO Chuyang; XIONG Junjiang
2012-01-01
This paper deals with static pull and push bending tests on two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal EW220/5284 twill weave fabric (TWF) composite tee-joints processed with the resin transfer moulding (RTM) technique.Static pull and push bending properties are determined and failure initiation mechanism is deduced from experimental observations.The experiments show that the failure initiation load,on average,is greater for push bending than for pull bending,whereas the scatter is smaller for push bending than for pull bending.The failure mode of RTM-made tee-joints in pull bending tests can be reckoned to be characteristic of debonding of resin matrix at the interface between the triangular resin-rich zone and the curved web of tee-joint until complete separation of the curved web from the bottom plate.In contrast,as distinct from the products subject to pull bending loading,the RTM tee-joints in push bending tests experience matrix cracking and fibre fracture from outer layers to inner layers of the bottom plate until catastrophic collapse resulting from the bending.Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models are presented to simulate the load transfer path and failure initiation mechanism of RTM-made TWF composite tee-joint based on the maximum stress criterion.Good correlation between experimental and numerical results is achieved.
Effects of repeated bending load at room temperature for composite Nb{sub 3}Sn wires
Awaji, Satoshi [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazuo [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Katagiri, Kazumune [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8511 (Japan)
2003-09-01
In order to realize a react and wind (R and W) method for Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, the influences of a bending load at room temperature are investigated. Usually, the superconducting wires undergo bending loads at room temperature repeatedly during winding and insulation processes. We define these bending loads as 'pre-bending' treatments. We applied the pre-bending strain of 0 and 0.5% to the highly strengthened CuNb/(Nb, Ti){sub 3}Sn wires, and measured the stress/strain properties and critical currents. The improvements of stress dependence of normalized critical current and the increase of the maximum critical current by the pre-bending treatments were found. The model based on the distribution of the local tensile strain as a bending strain describes the experimental results well without the increase of the maximum critical current. When the pre-bending strain was applied, the calculated results indicate that the mechanical properties are improved due to the local work hardening, and hence the stress dependence of I{sub c} increases.
A composite of liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can convert absorbed photon energy into thermal energy to trigger the phase transition of the LCE, resulting in photo-thermo-mechanically actuated devices. We model the transient temperature distribution and the bending kinetics of a straight cantilever beam actuator under the radiation of a laser diode (LD) light. Three possible bending modes of the beam for various LD light powers are identified. The temperature distribution and the bending modes are found to be in good agreement with the reported experimental observations. The underlying deformation mechanisms and bending modes are manifested by probing the stress evolution and propagation of nonzero stress regions during the bending process. For a beam that is initially slightly curved, we also predict the possibility of snap-through instability, and three typical phases of snapping are captured. This procedure paves the way for the design of LCE-based soft actuators. (paper)
Simultaneously bending and tensile strain effect on critical current in YBCO coated conductors
YBCO coated conductors have been expected for the application to a coil for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). In the application to a superconducting coil, the coated conductors experience bending, uniaxial tensile strain and their combined strain. Therefore, the influence of simultaneous bending and tensile strain on critical current should be revealed. In this work, we developed the test method of critical current under such combined strain state. As a result, it was confirmed that compressive pre-bending can improve the stress tolerance of the YBCO coated conductors. On the other hand, compressive bending strain suppresses the initial critical current by the intrinsic strain effect. These results indicate that optimal bending radius should be selected in order to realize superior stress tolerance and high current capacity simultaneously
Bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in germanium nanowires.
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min
2014-08-13
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on the one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics and on the other the electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending the GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion. PMID:25025296
Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.
2014-08-01
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.
Contact and Bending Durability Calculation for Spiral-Bevel Gears
Vijayakar, Sandeep
2016-01-01
The objective of this project is to extend the capabilities of the gear contact analysis solver Calyx, and associated packages Transmission3D, HypoidFaceMilled, HypoidFaceHobbed. A calculation process for the surface durability was implemented using the Dowson-Higginson correlation for fluid film thickness. Comparisons to failure data from NASA's Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue rig were carried out. A bending fatigue calculation has been implemented that allows the use of the stress-life calculation at each individual fillet point. The gears in the NASA test rig did not exhibit any bending fatigue failure, so the bending fatigue calculations are presented in this report by using significantly lowered strength numbers.
Combustion engineering: steam generator tube bending practices
The tube bending practices and procedures employed by Combustion Engineering (CE), when bending inconel tubing is discussed. CE has two different type tube geometries in the steam generator. The innermost tubes are 1800 U-bends while the majority of the tubes have two (2) 900 bends with a straight leg between these 900 bends. The first 18 rows have U-bends (2 1/2'' to 11''R), while the remaining tubes have the double 900 geometry. All double 900 bends are bent to a 10'' radius. This presentation will address the following important parameters necessary to achieve a high quality bent tube: fabrication requirements at the tube mill; tube bending equipment; tube bending operation; inspection and final preparation; and packaging
Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending
Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.
Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending
Experimental investigations on dynamic effects in impact notch bending tests
The dynamic behaviour of three point bending samples under impact stresses is examined experimentally. Various measuring processes, above all the shadow optics etching process are used. A quasi-static analysis is made by a simple spring/mass model to describe the stress behaviour quantitatively. Based on this, the dynamic effects in model experiments are measured quantitatively with dynamic correction functions and are discussed with reference to the wave processes in the sample. A systematic view of the effect of the many system parameters on the dynamic stress behaviour is obtained. Finally, examples show that the results of this model investigation can be transferred to other experimental conditions. (orig./HP)
Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams
Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-01-01
Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.
Static Fatigue of Optical Fibers in Bending
Roberts, D.; Cuellar, E.; Middleman, L.; Zucker, J.
1987-02-01
While delayed fracture, or static fatigue, of optical fibers is well known, it is not well understood, and the prediction of the time to failure under a given set of conditions can be problematic. Unlike short term fracture, which is quite well understood and quantified in terms of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the long term strength remains empirical. The goal of this study is to determine the design criteria for optical fibers subjected to long term applied mechanical loads. One difficulty in making lifetime predictions, as pointed out by Matthewson (Reference 1) and others, is that predictions made from data taken in tension and in bending do not agree. Another difficulty is the statistical nature of the fracture of glass. In making lifetime predictions it becomes important therefore that one (a) have ample data for statistical analysis and (b) have data for the loading configuration of interest. This is the purpose of our work. Since there is less data available in bending, and since several applications (such as wiring in aircraft and missiles) require bending, the data are taken in that configuration. The most significant finding in our work so far is the very large difference in static fatigue behavior between buffer coatings. Chandan and Kalish (Reference 2) and others have reported static fatigue curves, log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress), which are not linear, but rather bimodal. Our study confirms this result, but so far only for acrylate coated fibers. Silicone coated fibers show unimodal behavior. That is, the log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress) curve is linear, at least on the time scale studied so far. Data for acrylate coated fibers at 80°C in water are linear only for time scales of about one day, where a pronounced "knee" is observed. Data for silicone coated fibers under the same conditions are linear up to at least 6 months. Longer time scale tests and tests on fibers with other buffer materials
Wood bending using microwave heating
This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load
Sutherland, H. J.
The load spectrum unposed upon a horizontal-axis wind turbine blade is typically decomposed into two primary bending moments; flap and edgewise bending. The critical fatigue loads (stress cycles) imposed on the blade may not be on one of these axes, especially if die two bending loads are in-phase with one another. To quantify the correlation of these two bending moments and determine the impact of this correlation on off-axis fatigue loads, an extensive data set for a typical wind turbine blade is examined. The results are compared using their respective cycle count matrices. These results illustrate that the harmonic components of die principal bending stresses are correlated, and that the random components are not. The analysis techniques described in the paper provide the turbine designer with a spectral technique for combining primary bending spectra into off-axis fatigue loads.
The bending of rod fuel elements in gas-cooled fast reactors under the action of temperature gradients radiation-induced swelling non-uniform over the perimeter of fuel cans is evaluated. It is pointed out that the radiation-induced swelling gives the main contribution to the bending of fuel elements. Calculated data on the bending of the corner fuel element in the assembly of the fast reactor with dissociating gas coolant are given. With the growth of temperature difference over the perimeter, the bending moment and deformation increase, resulting in the increase of axial stresses. The obtained data give the basis for accounting the stresses connected with thermal and radiation bending when estimating serviceability of fuel elements in gas cooled fast reactors. Fuel element bending must be also taken into account when estimating the thermal hydrualic properties
Bending Characteristics of Foldable Touch Display Panel with a Protection Structure Design
Hsien-Chie Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel (TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability. The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The elastic properties of the components in the TDP structure are derived from nanoindentation and uniaxial tensile/compressive testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively. The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. The simulation results show that bending would create significant tensile and compressive bending stresses on the indium tin oxide/dielectric layers, which are the main cause of several commonly observed failures, such as thin film cracking and delamination, in a thin rigid film coating on a thick compliant substrate. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress.
Flexible thick-film glucose biosensor: influence of mechanical bending on the performance.
Chuang, Min-Chieh; Yang, Yang-Li; Tseng, Ta-Feng; Chou, Tzuyang; Lou, Shyh-Liang; Wang, Joseph
2010-04-15
The influence of the bending-induced mechanical stress of flexible Nafion/GOx/carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) upon the performance of such glucose biosensors has been examined. Surprisingly, such flexible enzyme/polymer-SPEs operate well following a severe bending-induced mechanical stress (including a 180 degrees pinch), and actually display a substantial sensitivity enhancement following their mechanical bending. The bending-induced sensitivity enhancement is observed only for the amperometric detection of the glucose substrate but not for measurements of hydrogen peroxide, catechol or ferrocyanide at coated or bare SPEs. These (and additional) data indicate that the bending effect is associated primarily with changes in the biocatalytic activity. Such sensitivity enhancement is more pronounced at elevated glucose levels, reflecting the bending-induced changes in the biocatalytic reaction. Factors affecting the bending-induced changes in the performance are examined. While our data clearly indicate that flexible enzyme/polymer-SPEs can tolerate a severe mechanical stress and hold promise as wearable glucose biosensors, delivering the sample to the active sensor surface remains the major challenge for such continuous health monitoring. PMID:20188880
Iwai, H.; Uemura, M. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology); Uemura, S. (Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1994-04-15
Advanced composite materials are strongly anisotropic and have high strength, high rigidity and many other fracture mechanisms, hence they show shortcomings such as generation of local fracture due to stress concentration at the point immediately below the loading point in case of application of the widely-used 3-point and 4-point bending tests, indicating their unsuitableness for the bending fracture test by the axial stress. In this article, bending testing methods of advanced composite materials, which can load the pure bending stress with no stress concentration, nor shearing stress component in the entire testing region, have been developed by test manufacturing a jig for pure bending. As a result of the experiment, no fracture due to local stress concentration like the 3-point and 4-point bending tests has occurred, the obtained bending strength has been more than 30% higher than that obtained by the 3-point and 4-point bending and a constant value has been obtained irrespective of its span. Also concerning the elastic coefficient obtained by this pure bending testing methods, the constant value has been obtained irrespective of span and plate thickness. Regarding the developed bending jigs, there are the sliding frame (SF) type and the rack and pinion (RP) type. For the SF and RP1 types, correction is required, but the RP2 type requires no correction. 3 refs., 15 figs.
Mathematical aspects of bending of plates with transverse shear deformation
The boundary integral equation method is applied to investigate the existence and uniqueness of regular solutions of a two-dimensional theory of bending of plates with transverse shear deformation. The stress function technique is then used to obtain the general analytic solution of the equilibrium equations and to elucidate the physical meaning of the mathematical restrictions arising in the analysis of the model. (orig.)
Bending and compressive behaviours of a new cement composite
P. Rossi; ARCA, A; PARANT, E; FAKHRI, P
2005-01-01
The Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC) has recently developed and patented a new cement composite, the CEMTECmultiscale, which is stress hardening in tension and has a very high uniaxial tensile strength, more than 20 MPa. This paper is about the determination of the compressive and bending behaviors of the CEMTECmultiscale used in the frame of ribbed slabs. The principal results obtained are the following: - the characteristic modulus of rupture is equal to 42 MPa for the "sla...
FEM equivalent model for press bend forming of aircraft integral panel
YAN Yu; WAN Min; WANG Hai-bo
2009-01-01
An original plastic equivalent model was proposed to solve the problem of excessive FEM simulation time when designing the press bend forming path and optimizing the process parameters of press bend forming of the integrally stiffened aircraft panels. Based on the in-depth analysis of the mechanics of the bending and springback of the detailed model and the equivalent model of the integral panels, the plastic equivalent model of the virtual material with special initial yield stress and hardening coefficients was constructed. FEM results indicate that the objective of getting the similar contour with the same press bend forming path is achieved with the error less than 6%, and the efficiency of FEM simulation is improved by more than 80%. The plastic equivalent model is valuable and essential for the further research on the press bend forming process of large scale complicated integral panels.
Crack opening displacement of a through-wall crack in a plate subjected to bending load
This study was performed in order to clarify crack opening displacement (COD) of through-wall cracks in a plate subjected to bending load. The former COD evaluation methods were mainly developed corresponding to tensile load, but there has been nothing that has been developed corresponding to bending load. Therefore, the authors evaluated CODs of the through-wall cracks in plates which were subjected to a bending load using finite element method (FEM) analyses, and proposed a simplified COD evaluation method accounting for both tensile and bending loads. The proposed method is useful for leakage evaluation at a crack opening of an elbow crown or in the vicinity of the coolant surface of a vessel in which the bending stress is relatively large
Keller, Hanne Dauer
2015-01-01
Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....
Highlights: ► A simplified plastic collapse assessment procedure for pipe bends with a local thin area is proposed. ► Conditions under combined internal pressure and external in-plane bending moment are considered. ► The procedure is using the p–M diagram method (pressure ratio and external bending moment ratio). ► The p–M diagram is derived from the reference stresses based on the Tresca theory. ► The plastic collapse loads are ascertained by results of the full scale testing with pipe bends and FEA. - Abstract: Pipe bends are common elements in piping systems such as power or process piping, and local thinning typically occurs on pipe bends due to erosion and/or corrosion. Therefore, it is important to establish the plastic collapse condition for pipe bends having a local thin area (LTA) under combined internal pressure and external bending moment. In this paper, a simplified plastic collapse assessment procedure in the p–M (internal pressure ratio and external bending moment ratio) diagram method for pipe bends with a local thin area simultaneously subjected to internal pressure, p, and external in-plane bending moment, M, due to earthquake, etc., is proposed, which is based on the reference stresses derived from the Tresca theory under a three axes condition. The plastic collapse loads derived from the proposed p–M diagram method are ascertained by comparing with the results of experimental testing with full-scale pipe bends and those of FEA for the same sized pipe bends with an LTA having various dimensions as well.
Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth
Savage, Michael; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.
1995-01-01
Internal spur gear teeth are normally stronger than pinion teeth of the same pitch and face width since external teeth are smaller at the base. However, ring gears which are narrower have an unequal addendum or are made of a material with a lower strength than that of the meshing pinion may be loaded more critically in bending. In this study, a model for the bending strength of an internal gear tooth as a function of the applied load pressure angle is presented which is based on the inscribed Lewis constant strength parabolic beam. The bending model includes a stress concentration factor and an axial compression term which are extensions of the model for an external gear tooth. The geometry of the Lewis factor determination is presented, the iteration to determine the factor is described, and the bending strength J factor is compared to that of an external gear tooth. This strength model will assist optimal design efforts for unequal addendum gears and gears of mixed materials.
Bending and stretching of plates
Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S
2014-01-01
The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a
刘贤玉; 于永南; 宋作苓; 孙建忠
2012-01-01
According to the situation of riser subjected to large bending load at the ocean circumstance ,the 3D contact finite element analysis model for premium threaded connections which is the most likely to become failure is established with the finite element software of ANSYS. The characteristic of Stress distribution on threaded connections under bending loads is obtained. The result reveals that the maximum stress exists on the first or the last round of thread root in the tensile side of connections; the relations of thread root stress distribution in the tensile side and compressive side of the connections with circular angle is represented as approximately half sine respectively. On this basis,detailed analysis is given on the effect of the threaded parameter such as wall thickness.depth of thread,thread pitch,number of thread teeth and taper on the maximum equivalent stress. Thus it can be taken as references in design and optimization of premium threaded connections.%针对海洋环境中隔水管存在较大弯曲载荷的情况,采用有限元软件ANSYS对隔水管最易失效的特殊螺纹接头建立了三维接触有限元模型,得到了在弯曲载荷作用下螺纹接头的应力分布.结果表明:最大应力出现在接头本体拉伸侧的第1圈或最后1圈螺纹的根部；接头本体拉伸侧与压缩侧的螺纹根部应力分别与环向角近似成1/2个正弦波函数关系.在此基础上进一步分析了壁厚、螺高、螺距、螺纹圈数和锥度等参数对螺纹处最大等效应力的影响,为隔水管特殊螺纹接头的设计与优化提供了理论依据.
Cross talk between bending, twisting, and buckling modes of three types of microcantilever sensors
Jeon, Sangmin; Braiman, Yehuda; Thundat, Thomas
2004-11-01
Microcantilevers generally deflect in three ways: bending, twisting, and buckling. Among these, the accurate measurement of bending is essential for atomic force microscopy imaging and sensing applications. However, it was found that the bending of certain cantilevers can be coupled with twisting and buckling of the cantilever. In this article, cross talk between bending and twisting modes of microcantilevers of three different designs such as rectangular, triangular, and piezoresistive cantilevers is described. For the experiments, a thermal stress was applied to the rectangular and triangular cantilevers, and a Lorentz force was exerted on the triangular and the piezoresistive cantilevers. While the bending of the rectangular cantilever induced a negligible amount of twisting when heated, the triangular cantilevers showed nonlinear twisting responses during bending. This nonlinear response of the triangular cantilever was attributed to the variations in the spring constants between the two legs. When a Lorentz force was exerted on the triangular cantilevers, coupling of the bending and twisting modes depended on the direction of a magnetic field. For the piezoresistive cantilevers, a Lorentz force induced the in-phase buckling which accompanied both the bending and twisting modes.
Analytic solution for bending-compression/tension members with different moduli
In this paper, based on elastic theory of different tension-compression moduli, formulas for calculation of stress and displacement are obtained for bending-compression/tension members under complex stress and subject to combined loadings. An example is given and the obtained analytical solution is compared with numerical results, showing high accuracy of the obtained analytic solution
Charge-induced reversible bending in nanoporous alumina-aluminum composite
Cheng, Chuan; Ngan, A. H. W.
2013-05-01
Upon electrical charging, reversible bending was found in nanoporous anodic alumina-aluminum foil composites, as directly observed by an optical microscope and detected by in situ nanoindentation. The bending is thought to be the result of charge-induced surface stresses in the nanoporous alumina. The results suggest the possibility of a type of composite foil materials for applications as micro-scale actuators to transform electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor
Guido Gioberto
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.
Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene
An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)
Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene
Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)
2009-05-21
An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)
Bending magnets design of cERL
We are now constructing Compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL) to start commissioning in March of 2013. We started constructing 35MeV, 10mA, 1loop design, and after step by step reinforcement, we will complete 245MeV, 100mA, and 2loop facility of cERL. We use 2 type bending magnets, sector type magnet and branch bend. Both magnets are trapezoid shape and bending radiuses are 1m, bending angles are 45degree. After constructing second loop, we use the branch bend to separate low energy electron to first loop and high energy electron to second loop. We report these two type bending magnets design of cERL. (author)
Minimum Membrane Bending Energies of Fusion Pores
Jackson, Meyer B.
2009-01-01
Membranes fuse by forming highly curved intermediates, culminating in structures described as fusion pores. These hourglass-like figures that join two fusing membranes have high bending energies, which can be estimated using continuum elasticity models. Fusion pore bending energies depend strongly on shape, and the present study developed a method for determining the shape that minimizes bending energy. This was first applied to a fusion pore modeled as a single surface and then extended to a...
Kuroda, Tsuneo; Katagiri, Kazumune; Shin, Hyung-Seop; Itoh, Kikuo; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Wada, Hitoshi
2005-12-01
The results of two test methods were compared among three laboratories to determine a standard measurement method of critical current (Ic) as a function of bending strain for Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconductors. The VAMAS round-robin-test method (RRT) and the bending-rig method developed by Goldacker were used. The Ic degradation started with less bending strain for RRT than for bending-rig. Average irreversible strains (ɛirr) were 0.30% for RRT and 0.37% for bending-rig. Another test identified parameters that affected the results. A modified RRT method, with a current connection between the sample and the electrode, was used to avoid some thermal stresses of the test procedure. The ɛirr values increased to the level of the bending-rig, but the modified RRT Ic degradation rate with bending strain was higher. The stress states during sample bending differed between these methods. The shear stress was examined as a source of the Ic degradation rate differences with strain in terms of the crack propagation and delamination defects of oxide filaments from the Ag sheath.
Bending and rotational behaviour of semi-continuous composite beams
2008-01-01
Stresses and deflections were measured in various semi-continuous composite beams.The bending and rotational capacities of the composite connections were measured in terms of beam curvatures and deflections by using two full-scale semi-rigid composite frames with monotonic loadings.The effect of semi-rigid connections on the performance of composite beams with various loadings was compared with predictions and codes.The tests show that the semi-continuous composite beams are more economic and effective than the simple or continuous composite beams.The semi-rigid connections affect the bending capacities and beam deflections,so the connection behavior should be considered in the design of composite beams.Yielding analysis of the steel beam bottom flange has some influence on the deflection calculation of composite beams.
Flow resistance in a compound gravel-bed bend
Hossein Afzalimehr; Manouchehr Heidarpour; Alireza Salimi
2006-12-01
In this paper, the effect of a gravel-bed in a compound bend (similar to sinusoidal top view) of a natural river (Zayandehrud River ﬂowing through Isfahan, Iran) has been investigated for ﬂow resistance analysis, measuring the velocity with a micro current meter. The data were analysed and the following observations were made. In a compound bend, the law of the wall can be valid for up to 66% of the ﬂow depth from the bed. The parabolic law is the most effective method for the determination of shear velocity. Based on the existing criteria for verifying the equilibrium boundary layer, the ﬂow cannot be in equilibrium. The shear stress distribution and the sediment transport parameters have considerable inﬂuence on resistance to ﬂow. Froude number and the ﬂow depth relative to the representative gravel size have little effect on the ﬂow resistance estimation.
Motz, C. [IZBS, University of Karlsruhe - TH, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Erich Schmid Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria)], E-mail: motz@unileoben.ac.at; Weygand, D.; Senger, J.; Gumbsch, P. [IZBS, University of Karlsruhe - TH, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2008-05-15
Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations in three dimensions are performed on micro-sized bending beams and the results are compared with experiments. A strong size dependence of the flow stress {sigma}{sub f} (or bending moment) is found. The flow stress scales approximately inversely with the beam thickness t. The simulations show that the dislocation structure exhibits pronounced pile-ups around the neutral plane of the beam. The back stress from these pile-ups on the dislocation sources is analyzed by means of an analytical pile-up model. It is shown that the scaling behavior {sigma}{sub f}{proportional_to}t{sup -1} can be explained by a combination of pile-up and source size limitation. Subsequently, the applicability of strain gradient plasticity models on micro-bending is discussed.
Impact compressive and bending behaviour of rocks accompanied by electromagnetic phenomena.
Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Ogawa, Kinya; Watanabe, Keiko
2014-08-28
It is well known that electromagnetic phenomena are often observed preceding earthquakes. However, the mechanism by which these electromagnetic waves are generated during the fracture and deformation of rocks has not been fully identified. Therefore, in order to examine the relationship between the electromagnetic phenomena and the mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compression and three-point bending tests for two kinds of rocks with different quartz content, granite and gabbro, have been carried out at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Especially, in the bending tests, pre-cracked specimens of granite were also tested. Using a split Hopkinson pressure bar and a ferrite-core antenna in close proximity to the specimens, both the stress-strain (load-displacement) curve and simultaneous electromagnetic wave magnitude were measured. It was found that the dynamic compressive and bending strengths and the stress increase slope of both rocks were higher than those observed in static tests; therefore, there is a strain-rate dependence in their strength and stress increase rate. It was found from the tests using the pre-cracked bending specimens that the intensity of electromagnetic waves measured during crack extension increased almost proportionally to the increase of the maximum stress intensity factor of specimens. This tendency was observed in both the dynamic and quasi-static three-point bending tests for granite. PMID:25071241
Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends
Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;
2004-01-01
An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...
2010-10-01
....1 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). This shall not prohibit the use of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will...
Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides
Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger;
2013-01-01
We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...
Chambers, David W
2008-01-01
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841
Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2010-06-01
We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term γr in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.
Xia, Xingda; Yang, Bingchu; Zhang, Xiang; Zhou, Conghua
2015-07-01
Bending is usually used to test durability of flexible transparent and conductive films. Due to the large stress incurred by this technique, bending has always been observed to deteriorate conductance of electrodes such as indium tin oxide film. In contrast, we here demonstrate that bending could be used to improve conductance of silver nanowire-based flexible transparent and conductive films. The enhanced conductance is due to improved contact between nanowires, which was favored by the hydrogen bond formed between residential polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on silver nanowire and TiOx nanoparticles pre-coated on the substrate. The enhanced conductance was found to be affected by bending direction; bending towards the substrate not only yielded quicker decrease in sheet resistance, but also showed better film conductance than bending towards the nanowires. Then, with assistance of surface modification of substrate and ultra-long silver nanowires (averaged at 124 μm, maximum at 438 μm), optoelectronic performance of 90.2% (transmittance at 550 nm) and 12.5 Ω sq-1 (sheet resistance) has been achieved by bending. Such performance was better than commercialized flexible ITO films, and even competed with that obtained from thermal annealing at temperature of 200 °C. Moreover, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study showed strong coordination between C=O (heterocyclic ring of PVP) and silver atoms, showing obvious capping behavior of PVP on silver nanowires.
Bio-inspired bending actuator for controlling conical nose shape using piezoelectric patches.
Na, Tae-Won; Jung, Jin-Young; Oh, Ii-Kwon
2014-10-01
In this paper, a bio-inspired bending actuator was designed and fabricated using piezoelectric patches and cantilever-shaped beam for controlling nose shape. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the bending actuator. PZT and single crystal PMN-PT actuators were used to generate translational strain and shear stress. The piezoelectric patches were attached on the clamped cantilever beam to convert their translational strains to bending motion of the beam. First, finite element analysis was performed to identify and to make an accurate estimate of the feasibility on the bending actuation by applying various voltages and frequencies. Based on the results of the FEM analysis, the experiments were also performed. Static voltages and dynamic voltages with various frequencies were applied to the bending actuators with PZTs and PMN-PTs, and the rotation angles of the nose connected to the top of bending actuators were measured, respectively. As the results, the bending actuator using PMN-PT patches showed better performances in all cases. With the increases of signal frequency and input voltage, the rotation angle also found to be increased. Especially at the frequency of 5 Hz and input voltage of 600 V, the nose generated the maximum rotation angle of 3.15 degree. PMID:25942810
Marnette, Jascha; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter; Weiss, Matthias
2013-12-01
The common grades of steel used in roll forming are: hot rolled, high strength low alloy and recovery annealed cold rolled sheet. These steels are prone to ageing and are often skin passed and/or roller leveled to eliminate ageing as this can lead to problems in forming. Shape defects such as bow, twist and camber can be increased due to a change of the elastic-plastic transition point of the material. In consideration of this effect the knowledge of the material properties in the elastic plastic transition range is necessary if the processes are to be modelled accurately. Previous studies have indicated that residual stresses are not well identified in the standard tensile test, but were shown clearly in a bending test. The elastic plastic transition in bending and the moment curvature characteristic were changed significantly by a light cold rolling reduction. In this work the FEA package Abaqus is used to investigate the effect of residual stresses introduced through skin passing and/or roller leveling on the bending/yielding behaviour of mild steel. Therefore, a skin passing/ roller leveling process is simulated, followed by a subsequent bending test. Residual stress free sheet is compared in bending to just "skin passed", "roller leveled" and a combined "skin passed and roller leveled" strip. Skin passing significantly reduces the bending yield stress due to residual stresses. This has a softening effect on subsequent bending operations. A roller level process prior to roll forming can restore the bending yield stress by reducing the residual stress across the thickness. This has implications for forming aged material.
49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2)...
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend... tested either before or after the bending process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and...
Irradiation creep in bending of cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel at low neutron fluence
The results from the first and second interim examinations of a test to measure irradiation creep in bending of 20 percent cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel are presented. These low-fluence results indicate that irradiation creep in bending exhibits a larger primary creep component of the total strain as compared with creep in biaxial pressurized tubes of the same heat of material, but the secondary creep rates in the two cases appear to be similar. The data also indicate that the bending strains have a linear fluence and stress dependency, and strains measured on beams fabricated parallel to and transverse to the direction of cold work are similar, indicating that material texture anisotropy does not effect irradiation creep in bending. 6 refs
Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test
Naresworo Nugroho
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct. Ct is theratio between (SR calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bamboo beam. This study resulted mathematical formulae to calculate the Ct value for overall range of bamboo taper based on six species namely Tali (Gigantochloa apus (Bl.Ex Schult.f Kurz, Hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae Widjaja, Andong (Gigantochloa psedorundinaceae, Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, Gombong (Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd Munro, and Mayan (Gigantochloa robusta Kurz. The first tree species were obtained from the Bogor market, while the others were harvested from bamboo clumps in Arboretum Bamboo – Bogor Agricultural University. Then the formula was applied to sketch the graphical style in order to simplify the result.
BENDING ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE PLATES USING HIGHER ORDER THEORY
N UPENDRA
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical formulation and solutions are developed to investigate the bending characteristics of laminated composite plates based on higher order shear deformation theory. The equation ofmotion of laminated plates is deduced using Hamilton’s principle. Closed-form solutions are obtained by using the Navier’s technique for simply supported boundary conditions. The effect of side to thickness ratio, aspect ratio, degree of orthotropic, stacking sequence ad no of layers on deflection and stresses are investigated. The results predicted by the present theory are in good agreement with the solutions of other plate theories available in the literature.
Measurement of developing turbulent flow in a U-bend of circular cross-section
Hot-wire measurements of the full mapping of the velocity and Reynolds stress components are reported for developing turbulent flow in a strongly curved 180 deg pipe and its tangents. A slanted wire is rotated into 6 orientations and the voltage outputs from wires are combined to obtain the mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. The strength of secondary flow reaches up to the 28% of bulk mean velocity. The strong counter-rotating vortex pair induced by the transverse pressure gradient and centrifugal force imbalance grows up to θ = 67.5 .deg. into the bend. But the vortex pair breaks down into two cell pattern after θ=90 .deg. Core vortex formation and reversal of secondary flow direction along the bend symmetry plane is cleanly found in the secondary vector plot. At θ=67.5 .deg. and θ = 90 .deg. into bend a large 'trough' develops in the longitudinal velocity toward the inside of the bend due to the breakdown of secondary flow. In the bend, the mean longitudinal velocity component changes little after θ=90 .deg., but secondary flow never achieves fully-developed state. Similar behaviors are observed in the radial and circumferential stresses
Numerical Evaluation of Bending Load Effect on the Failure Pressure of Wall-Thinned Pipe Bends
During the normal operating conditions, piping systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are subject not only to internal pressure but also to bending loads induced by deadweight, thermal expansion, and internal pressure. Bending is thus considered to be an important factor in evaluating the integrity of piping components in NPPs. Local wall-thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion is a main degradation mechanism of carbon steel piping components in NPPs, and the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned piping components has become an important issue. This study investigated the effects of bending load on the failure of wall-thinned pipe bends under internal pressure. Our previous study experimentally evaluated the bending load effects on the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows under displacement controlled in-plane bending load, but the numbers of experimental data were insufficient to determine the effects of bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe bends. Therefore, the present study systematically evaluates the effects of bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe bends using parametric finite element analyses
A derivation of the generalized model of strains during bending of metal tubes at bending machines
Śloderbach Z.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available According to the postulate concerning a local change of the “actual active radius” with a bending angle in the bend zone, a generalized model of strain during metal tube bending was derived. The tubes should be subjected to bending at tube bending machines by the method of wrapping at the rotating template and with the use of a lubricated steel mandrel. The model is represented by three components of strain in the analytic form, including displacement of the neutral axis. Generalization of the model during bending metal tubes at the tube bending machines as compared with the existing papers (Śloderbach, 1999; Śloderbach and Rechul, 2000 consists in including the neutral axis displacement and possibility of determination of strains at each point along the thickness of the wall of the bent tube in the bending and bend zone. The derived scheme of strain satisfies initial and boundary kinematic conditions of the bending process, conditions of continuity and inseparability of strains. The obtained analytic expressions can be classified as acceptable from the kinematic point of view
Bending Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Plates
Bouazza MOKHTAR
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the classical plate theory, it is assumed that the plane cross sections initially normal to the plate midsurface before deformation remain plane and normal to that surface during deformation. This is the result of neglecting the transverse shear strains. However, in thick and moderately thick laminated plates, significant transverse shear strains occur, and the theory gives inaccurate results for the plates. So, it is obvious that the shear strains have to be taken into account. There are numerous theories of plates and laminated plates that include the transverse shear strains. One of them is the Reissner and Midlin theory , known as the first-order shear deformation theory, which defines the displacement field as linear variations of midplane displacements. This theory, where the relation between the resultant shear forces and the shear strains is obtained by using shear correction factors, has some advantages due to its simplicity and low computational cost. Some other plate theories, namely the higher-order shear deformation theories, include the effect of transverse shear strains . For example, the theory developed by Reddy allows not only for the transverse shear strains, but also for parabolic variations in the strains across the plate thickness, and thus there is no need to use shear correction coefficients in computing the shear stresses. The present stud is a survey of plate bending of cross-ply laminate by using the finite element method (F.E.M. Using ANSYS, the most known software in the domain for it, two types of modeling are proposed: the first is modeling using a type of shell element, Shell 99 and the second is an approach based on a of type solid element, Solid 46. The results obtained are compared with the results of the theory of Reddy.
Jin, LiMin; Yao, Yao; Yu, YiMin; Rotich, Gideon; Sun, BaoZhong; Gu, BoHong
2014-03-01
This paper reports the structural effects of three-dimensional (3-D) angle-interlock woven composite (3DAWC) undergoing three-point bending cyclic loading from experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) approaches. In experiment, the fatigue tests were conducted to measure the bending deflection and to observe the damage morphologies. By the FEA approach, a micro-structural unit-cell model of the 3DAWC was established at the yarn level to simulate the fatigue damage. The stress degradation at the loading condition of constant deformation amplitude was calculated to show the degradation of mechanical properties. In addition, the stress distribution, fatigue damage evolution and critical damage regions were also obtained to qualitatively reveal the structural effects and damage mechanisms of the 3DAWC subjected to three-point bending cyclic loading.
A flexible sensor measuring displacement and bending
Nishijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro
2009-04-01
This paper proposes a new sensor that is capable of measuring both linear displacement and bending. The sensor is designed to be used with an electrostatic film motor that features mechanical flexibility, but can also be used as an independent sensor. The sensor employs three-phase electrodes both in sliding and stationary parts and estimates displacement and bending from the change of the capacitance between the electrodes. The paper describes an equivalent capacitance-network model for the sensor. Based on the model, sensing principles for both displacement and bending are presented and analyzed. The analyses are experimentally verified using a prototype sensor. The experimental results show that the prototype sensor could measure both displacement and bending with little interference between them.
This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.
Pipes under internal pressure and bending
Catinaccio, A
2009-01-01
This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.
Bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps.
Ikebe, K; Kibi, M; Ono, T; Nokubi, T
1993-12-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the bending profiles of composite resin coating cast clasps. The cobalt-chromium alloy cast clasps were made using tapered wax pattern. Silane coupling method (Silicoater MD, Kulzer Co.) was used to attach composite resin to metal surface. The breakage and the bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps were evaluated. Results were as follows: 1) After the repeated bending test to the tips of clasp arm at 10,000 times in 0.25 mm deflection, neither crack on composite resin surface nor separation at resin/metal interface was observed in any specimen. 2) There was no significant difference in the bending rigidity of clasp arms between before and after composite resin coating. From these results, it was demonstrated that the composite resin coating cast clasp was available in clinical cases and coating with composite resin had little influence on the bending rigidity of clasp arms. Therefore, it was suggested that our clasp designing and fabricating system to control the bending rigidity of clasp arms could be applied to composite resin coating clasps. PMID:8935086
New Equation for Bending Development of Arbitrary Rods and Application to Palm Fronds Bending
Abdullah, Mikrajuddin
2016-01-01
A new general equation to explain bending of arbitrary rods (from arbitrary materials, cross sections, densities, strengthnesses, bending angles, etc) was proposed. This equation can solve several problems found in classical equations, which have many limitations such as only applies for small bending angles or must be solved using very complex schemes. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the theoretical predictions. The equation might be used to explain bending of palm fronds in a very simple way. The proposed equation may be used to obtain solution of several problems which are usually obtain with iteration procedures.
How Does The Bone Shaft Geometry Affect its Bending Properties?
Kaveh P. Saffar
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this research, ten fresh specimens of sheep tibiae were provided from slaughtered animals. Whole bone specimens were loaded in three-point bending according to standard wet bone test protocols. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with the results which were obtained from two dry bone tests. The results showed that fracture bending moment and bone extrinsic stiffness had significant relations with fracture cross-section dependent parameters (i.e., cross-section area and area moment of inertia. Where, fracture energy and ultimate strength did not have such a relation with these parameters. Finite element modeling of bone shaft was made with simplified geometry (neglecting cross-section variations along bone shaft in two steps: First, by elliptical cross-section and second, by circular cross-section, assuming linear elastic and isotropic properties for the specimens. Elastic (Youngs modulus and fracture load, evaluated from curves obtained from tests, were applied to the finite element model and close results of maximum stress in both test specimen and first (elliptical cross-section model showed up. There was an average difference of about 2% between ultimate strength of wet bone specimens and maximum (tensile stress occurred in the elliptical models. However, this value for circular models was about 16%.
Shin, Hyung-Seop; Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.
2016-01-01
The effects of low cyclic loading on the critical current, I c, under uniaxial and transverse loadings, and bending deformations in GdBCO coated conductor (CC) tapes were evaluated. Under monotonic continuous bending deformation, CC tapes exhibit a high tolerance of I c up to the lowest bending diameter of 12 mm using the Goldacker bending test rig. However, when the CC tape was subjected to alternate tension-compression bending, a lower irreversible bending strain limit was measured. This was also observed when cyclic bending was applied to the CC tapes which showed a significant decrease in I c just after 10 cycles of alternate tension-compression bending at 20 mm bending diameter. Such different I c degradation behavior under different bending deformation procedures gave insight into the proper handling of CC tapes from manufacturing, coiling and up to operating conditions. In the case of uniaxial tension, when electromechanical properties of CC tape were evaluated by repeated loading based on a critical stress level obtained under monotonic loading, I c also did not show significant change in its degradation behavior up to the irreversible stress limit. The GdBCO CC tape adopted can allow cyclic loading up to 100 cycles without significant irreversible degradation below the monotonic irreversible limit. In the case of the transverse cyclic test, with regard to the large scattering of data especially in the tensile direction, a different cyclic loading procedure was established. For 10 repeated loadings, the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the GdBCO CC tapes showed similar values within the reversible range under the monotonic loading. I c degraded abruptly indicating that no delamination occurred at the REBCO film during the subcritical cyclic loading. Different fracture morphologies were observed under cyclic loading depicting branch-like patterns of the remaining REBCO layer on the substrate of the CC tape.
Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer
Cao, Shuying, E-mail: shuying-cao@hebut.edu.cn; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei [Province-Ministry Joint Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)
2015-05-07
A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.
Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer
A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device
Bending analysis of shallow sperical shells by BEM
The problem of investigation of the stress-strain state of shells and plates is a problem of importance for structures. This problem has been established by finite element method, asymptotical analysis, etc. In the present paper the boundary element technique is used as a tool for numerical analysis of elastic shell bending problem. Using well known linear shallow shell theory for determination of normal displacement w and the membrane stress function f (or their complex combination-the function ψ, the inverse formulation for single fundamental equation and the fundamental solution for a weighing function) the new coupled set of integral equations is applied to the determination of the functions w and f by BEM
Rheology of a Twist-bend Nematic Liquid Crystal
Salili, Seyyed Muhammad; Kim, Chanjoong; Sprunt, Samuel; Gleeson, James; Parri, Owain; Jakli, Antal; Kim Lab Team; Merck Lab Team
2015-03-01
First detailed flow shear alignment studies and rheological measurements in the twist-bend nematic (Ntb) liquid crystalline phase of odd numbered flexible dimer molecules is presented. It is found that the Ntb phase is strongly shear-thinning. At shear stresses below 1 Pa the apparent viscosity of the Ntb phase is 1000 times larger than in the nematic phase. At stresses above 10 Pa the Ntb viscosity drops by two orders of magnitude and the material exhibits Newtonian fluid behavior. The results are consistent with the behavior of a system with pseudo-layer structure with layer spacing determined by the heliconical pitch. From the measurements of dynamic modulus we estimate the compression modulus of the pseudo-layers to be B ~ 2 kPa this value is discussed within the context of a simple theoretical model based upon a coarse-grained elastic free energy. www.jakligroup.com.
Stresses of steam generator U-tubes affecting stress corrosion cracking
Stress factors affecting U-bend cracking in the steam generators of PWR type reactors are discussed based on the results of stress corrosion cracking tests of Inconel 600 U-bend tube in polythionic acid solution subjected to the actual operating loads
Microstructure-Based RVE Approach for Stretch-Bending of Dual-Phase Steels
Huang, Sheng; He, ChunFeng; Zhao, YiXi
2016-03-01
Fracture behavior and micro-failure mechanism in stretch-bending of dual-phase (DP) steels are still unclear. Representative volume elements (RVE) have been proved to be an applicable approach for describing microstructural deformation in order to reveal the micro-failure mechanism. In this paper, 2D RVE models are built. The deformation behavior of DP steels under stretch-bending is investigated by means of RVE models based on the metallographic graphs with particle geometry, distribution, and morphology. Microstructural failure modes under different loading conditions in stretch-bending tests are studied, and different failure mechanisms in stretch-bending are analyzed. The computational results and stress-strain distribution analysis indicate that in the RVE models, the strain mostly occurs in ferrite phase, while martensite phase undertakes most stress without significant strain. The failure is the results of the deformation inhomogeneity between martensite phase and ferrite phase. The various appearance and growth of initial voids are different depending on the bending radius.
Behavior of concrete filled FRP tubes under fully reversed cyclic bending
Concrete filled Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) tubes (CFFT) are currently being used as piles in corrosive marine applications and as columns in bridge piers, and could be used in overhead sign structures. CFFTs provide a non-corrosive alternative to conventional materials. Studies conducted on CFFTs in the past decade have been mostly focused on the short-term monotonic behavior of this system in bending and under axial loads, with hardly any information available on their fatigue behavior. In this paper the details of a research program that was conducted to address this issue and its results are presented. The program included the testing of two full-scale specimens under reversed cyclic bending. The program also included the testing of several coupons, cut from the tubes in tension-tension fatigue. The full scale tests showed that CFFTs seem to have a relatively short fatigue life under bending moments of 40% and higher of their ultimate static bending moment capacities and that strains and deflections tend to increase gradually during cyclic bending indicating a stiffness degradation behavior. The coupon test showed that rapid stiffness degradation occurs initially then reduces due to the cracking of matrix in the hoop layers and that a fatigue life of millions of cycles could be reached for stresses less than 30% of the ultimate tensile stress. (author)
Mass transfer coefficient factor in pipe bend - 3 D CFD analysis
In power industries Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) has been a concern for pipe wall thinning where high velocity fluid at elevated temperatures is used. Even straight pipes are found to have non uniform corrosion and this is enhanced in junctions such as bends, orifices etc. Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) which defines the amount of corrosion changes from its value in straight pipe (with same fluid parameters) for flow in bends, orifice etc due to changes in velocity profile in axial direction. In this paper, 3 D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is carried out for an experiment on 58° bend angle and 2D bend radius circular carbon steel pipe carrying water at 120°C under neutral pH conditions. The turbulent model K-ω with shear stress transport was used for this purpose. The mass transfer boundary layer (MTBL) thickness δmtbl depends on Schmidt number (Sc), as δmtbl ∼ δh/(Sc1/3). MTBL is significantly smaller than hydrodynamic boundary layer δh for large Sc, hence boundary layer meshing was carried out deep into δmtbl. Uniform velocity was applied at the inlet. The flow velocity was 3 m/s at room temperature while the experimental fluid velocity was 7 m/s. Lower value of fluid velocity is chosen due to the limitations of grid size since it depends inversely on fluid velocity. The ratio of MTC in bend to straight pipe is not strongly dependent on Sc. CFD simulation at lower temperature is sufficient to get approximate MTC in bends. The ratio of the mass transfer coefficient at some locations in bend to the straight pipe coefficient (MTCR) is determined through simulation. The MTC increased in the extrados of the bend towards the outlet. (author)
Scraping technique for clarinet reeds derived from a static bending simulation
Taillard, Pierre-André; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre
2012-01-01
Reed scraping is an art mastered only by a few clarinetists. The published empirical methods do not agree on how to determine where to scrape. In order to understand the problematic more clearly, a purely mechanical and simplified approach is attempted. The reed is modeled by finite elements and a simulation of free static bending shows that the longitudinal flexural stress dominates the problem. By targeting a stress field on different areas of the reed, it is observed that the strain is mai...
The effect of skin passing on the material behavior of metal strip in pure bending and tension
Weiss, Matthias; Ryan, Will; Rolfe, Bernard; Yang, Chunhui
2010-06-01
The metal strip used in roll forming has often been preprocessed by (tension or roller) leveling or by skin-pass rolling, and as a consequence, may contain residual stresses. These stresses are not well observed by the tensile test, but could have a significant effect on the bending and springback behavior. With the advent of improved process design techniques for roll forming, including advanced finite element techniques, the need for precise material property data has become important. The major deformation mode of roll forming is that of bending combined with unloading and reverse bending, and hence property data derived from bend tests could be more relevant than that from tensile testing. This work presents a numerical study on the effect of skin passing on the material behavior of stainless steel strip in pure bending and tension. A two dimensional (2-D) numerical model was developed using Abaqus Explicit to analyze the affect of skin passing on the residual stress profile across a section for various working conditions. The deformed meshes and their final stress fields were then imported as pre-defined fields into Abaqus Standard, and the post-skin passing material behavior in pure bending was determined. The results show that a residual stress profile is introduced into the steel strip during skin passing, and that its shape and stress level depend on the overall thickness reduction as well as the number of rolling passes used in the skin passing process. The material behavior in bending and the amount of springback changed significantly depending on the skin pass condition.
Apri Malani Putri; Imam Rochani; Heri Supomo
2012-01-01
Proses bending banyak digunakan dalam proses produksi pada pipa. Proses ini akan menghasilkan peristiwa tensile dan compress, maka stress yang terjadi akibat gaya tekan atau gaya tarik ini akan bekerja simultan pada lingkungan korosif yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya korosi. Deformasi yang terjadi ini akan mengakibatkan perbedaan tingkat laju korosi pada setiap perubahannya, yaitu dengan sudut bending yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu, untuk membuktikannya dilakukanlah penelitian dengan tiga sud...
Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent
2015-12-01
Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated.
Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes
Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated. (paper)
Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons
潘长宁; 何军; 方卯发
2016-01-01
The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic–semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quan-tum interference effect occurs in the metallic–metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene.
Gilkison, J.M.
1983-04-01
U-bend leakage in Row 1 steam generator tubes has been reported at some operating plants. The leakage in these U-bends has been attributed to stress corrosion cracking that initiated at the ID surface of the tubes. The objective of Project S191-3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of heating the U-bends from the bore of the tube to a temperature that will reduce the residual stresses at the U-bend and thereby provide added resistance to stress corrosion. A number of U-bends fabricated from 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch O.D. mill annealed Inconel Alloy 600 tubing were heated to 788/sup 0/C (1450/sup 0/F) for 15 minutes using specially designed electrical resistance heaters. The results of these tests showed that the resistance heaters were capable of heating the U-bends to the desired temperatures and thus cause a significant reduction in the residual stresses. However, a desired improvement in microstructure was not detected. No significant distortion in the U-bends was detected, but the tube support plate was heated sufficiently to possibly cause unacceptable local thermally induced stresses.
U-bend leakage in Row 1 steam generator tubes has been reported at some operating plants. The leakage in these U-bends has been attributed to stress corrosion cracking that initiated at the ID surface of the tubes. The objective of Project S191-3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of heating the U-bends from the bore of the tube to a temperature that will reduce the residual stresses at the U-bend and thereby provide added resistance to stress corrosion. A number of U-bends fabricated from 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch O.D. mill annealed Inconel Alloy 600 tubing were heated to 7880C (14500F) for 15 minutes using specially designed electrical resistance heaters. The results of these tests showed that the resistance heaters were capable of heating the U-bends to the desired temperatures and thus cause a significant reduction in the residual stresses. However, a desired improvement in microstructure was not detected. No significant distortion in the U-bends was detected, but the tube support plate was heated sufficiently to possibly cause unacceptable local thermally induced stresses
Kim, Byoung-Joon; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Joo, Young-Chang
2016-06-01
The electrical reliability of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate during cyclic inner bending and outer bending is investigated using a bending fatigue system. The electrical resistance of a Cu film on a polymer substrate during cyclic outer bending increases due to fatigue damage formation, such as cracks and extrusion. Cyclic inner bending also leads to fatigue damage and a similar increase in the electrical resistance. In a sample having a NiCr under-layer, however, the electrical resistance increases significantly during outer bending but not during inner bending mode. Cross-sectional observations reveal that brittle cracking in the hard under-layer results in different fatigue behaviors according to the stress mode. By applying an Al over-layer, the fatigue resistance is improved during both outer bending and inner bending by suppressing fatigue damage formation. The effects of the position, materials, and thickness of the inter-layer on the electrical reliability of a multi-layer sample are also investigated. This study can provide meaningful information for designing a multi-layer structure under various mechanical deformations including tensile and compressive stress.
Polycrystalline Cu samples 20 × 20 μm2 in size were cyclically bent inside a scanning electron microscope until fracture occurred. The microstructural changes were investigated by secondary electron imaging and electron backscatter diffraction. The in situ experiments revealed that, for the coarse-grained samples, it is not the external stress that dominates the cyclic deformation, but the local internal strength. This is in strong contrast to macroscopic bending samples, where deformation always happens near the fixed end of the bending beam and decreases constantly with increasing distance from the fixation. For micron-sized polycrystalline samples, the grain dimensions, dislocation density evolution and grain orientation (Taylor factor) can define the location of failure if the grain size and sample diameter become similar in size. A comparison with cyclic in situ tension–tension experiments (ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress R ≈ 0) reveals that cyclic bending experiments (R ≈ −1) undergo bulk-like fatigue deformation with extrusions/intrusions, in contrast to the experiments with R ≈ 0. Both the cyclic tension–tension and bending experiments can be described by a Basquin equation, although different mechanisms lead to failure of the samples
Photomechanical bending mechanics of polydomain azobenzene liquid crystal polymer network films
Glassy, polydomain azobenzene liquid crystal polymer networks (azo-LCNs) have been synthesized, characterized, and modeled to understand composition dependence on large amplitude, bidirectional bending, and twisting deformation upon irradiation with linearly polarized blue-green (440-514 nm) light. These materials exhibit interesting properties for adaptive structure applications in which the shape of the photoresponsive material can be rapidly reconfigured with light. The basis for the photomechanical output observed in these materials is absorption of actinic light by azobenzene, which upon photoisomerization dictates an internal stress within the local polymer network. The photoinduced evolution of the underlying liquid crystal microstructure is manifested as macroscopic deformation of the glassy polymer film. Accordingly, this work examines the polarization-controlled bidirectional bending of highly concentrated azo-LCN materials and correlates the macroscopic output (observed as bending) to measured blocked stresses upon irradiation with blue-green light of varying polarization. The resulting photomechanical output is highly dependent on the concentration of crosslinked azobenzene mesogens employed in the formulation. Experiments that quantify photomechanical bending and photogenerated stress are compared to a large deformation photomechanical shell model to quantify the effect of polarized light interactions with the material during static and dynamic polarized light induced deformation. The model comparisons illustrate differences in internal photostrain and deformation rates as a function of composition and external mechanical constraints.
Strength Characteristics of OSB in Bending – Difference between Upper and Lower Panel Faces
Martin Böhm
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This article is focused on evaluating the differences between the upper and lower faces of OSB/3 – Superfinish in the course of bending stress. OSB is a material manufactured from wood chips of a large surface area, irregular shape and unequal length, which are partly randomly distributed and at the same time not perfectly oriented. Differences regarding the content of OSB surface layers cause unequal properties, which can be demonstrated, especially under bending load. The measurements made show that OSB positioned with upper face downwards in the course of the bending test are capable of withstanding a higher load, and reaching an evidentially lower deflection, compared to those with lower face downwards.
Study on vibration phenomena of guide vane inside bend by fluid structure interaction analysis
Vibration phenomena of a guide vane seem to be generated by a fluid exciting force working on the guide vane in unsteady flow field. Thus, in order to understand the vibration mechanism of the guide vane, it is important to reveal unsteady field inside a bend having the guide vane. In this paper, vibration phenomena of the guide vane inside the bend were considered by using numerical simulation. In order to decide analysis conditions of Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the results of LES were compared to the ones of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for the downscaling model. Moreover, Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis was conducted for the mitre bend having the guide vane modelled in actual scale. As a result, stress fluctuation at the centre of the trailing edge of the guide vane was largest. This result indicates that vibration phenomena are possible to occur on the trailing edge of the guide vane.
Lower bound limit load solutions for surface cracks in plates under combined end force, cross-thickness bending moment and tensile/compressive membrane stress parallel to the crack are derived based on the von Mises yield criterion. From these solutions, particular limit loads for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks or uncracked plates under the same loading conditions are obtained. The limit load solutions for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and bending due to Lei and Fox can be reproduced from the solutions in this paper by setting the stress parallel to the crack plane to zero. - Highlights: • Lower bound global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates. • Combined biaxial stress/force and cross-thickness bending moment. • Solutions based on lower bound limit load theorem and von Mises yield criterion. • Solutions valid for proportional/non-proportional loading
Electrical Bending and Mechanical Buckling Instabilities in Electrospinning Jets
Han, Tao; Reneker, Darrell H.
2007-03-01
The electrospinning jet was a continuous fluid flow ejected from the surface of a fluid when the applied electrical force overcomes the surface tension. The jet moved straight away from the tip and then became unstable and bent into coils. This phenomenon is the electrical bending instability [1]. When the distance between the tip and collector was reduced to less than the maximal straight segment length, the electrical bending instability did not occur. The periodic buckling of a fluid jet incident onto a surface is a striking fluid mechanical instability [2]. When axial compressive stress along the jet reached a sufficient value, it produced the fluid mechanics analogue to the buckling of a slender solid column. In the electrospinning, the buckling instability occurred just above the collector where the jet was compressed as it encountered the collector. The buckling frequencies of these jets are in the range of 10^4 to 10^5 Hz. The buckling lengths of these jets are in the range of 10 to 100μm. *Reneker,D.H.; Yarin, A. L.; Fong, H.; Koombhongse, S., Journal of Applied Physics, 87, 4531, 2000 *Tchavdarov B.; Yarin, A. L.; Radev S., Journal of Fluid Mechanics; 253, 593,1993
Composite failure prediction of π-joint structures under bending
HUANG Hong-me; YUAN Shen-fang
2012-01-01
In this article,the composite π-joint is investigated under bending loads.The "L" preform is the critical component regarding composite π-joint failure.The study is presented in the failure detection of a carbon fiber composite π-joint structure under bending loads using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor.Firstly,based on the general finite element method (FEM)software,the 3-D finite element (FE) model of composite π-joint is established,and the failure process and every lamina failure load of composite π-joint are investigated by maximum stress criteria.Then,strain distributions along the length of FBG are extracted,and the reflection spectra of FBG are calculated according to the strain distribution.Finally,to verify the numerical results,a test scheme is performed and the experimental spectra of FBG are recorded.The experimental results indicate that the failure sequence and the corresponding critical loads of failure are consistent with the numerical predictions,and the computational error of failure load is less than 6.4％.Furthermore,it also verifies the feasibility of the damage detection system.
Composite failure prediction of π-joint structures under bending
Huang, Hong-mei; Yuan, Shen-fang
2012-03-01
In this article, the composite -joint is investigated under bending loads. The "L" preform is the critical component regarding composite -joint failure. The study is presented in the failure detection of a carbon fiber composite -joint structure under bending loads using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. Firstly, based on the general finite element method (FEM) software, the 3-D finite element (FE) model of composite -joint is established, and the failure process and every lamina failure load of composite -joint are investigated by maximum stress criteria. Then, strain distributions along the length of FBG are extracted, and the reflection spectra of FBG are calculated according to the strain distribution. Finally, to verify the numerical results, a test scheme is performed and the experimental spectra of FBG are recorded. The experimental results indicate that the failure sequence and the corresponding critical loads of failure are consistent with the numerical predictions, and the computational error of failure load is less than 6.4%. Furthermore, it also verifies the feasibility of the damage detection system.
Dust deposition in ventilation and air-conditioning duct bend flows
Highlights: ► We study particle deposition on the four inner surface of the duct bend. ► We analyse the effect of five ways of placements of the bend on particle deposition. ► Gravity and inertia force enhance the deposition as relaxation time rises. ► Deposition coefficient increases as air velocity or particle diameter increases. - Abstract: Particles carried by airflows in ventilation and air-conditioning systems have adverse effects on the quality of air in buildings and hence the health of building occupants. Gaining insight on particle deposition onto ventilation and air-conditioning duct bends is important for controlling pollutant dispersion. Based on the Reynolds stress transport model (RSM), this paper has taken into account the effects of drag, lift force, gravity, inertia force, turbulent diffusions, particle size and air velocity on the dimensionless deposition velocity of particles in smooth duct bends using fully developed velocity profiles. At two different air velocities of 3.0 m/s and 7.0 m/s, the aforementioned effects were predicted by Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-Lagrangian simulation on square shaped duct bends with different ways of placement. Preliminary results suggest that gravity and inertia force enhance the dimensionless deposition as dimensionless relaxation time rises. Change tendency of the dimensionless particle deposition velocity on different surfaces of bend duct agrees well with previous studies. As air velocity and particle diameter increase, a significant increase of particle deposition coefficient in the duct bends is observed. Particle deposition to intrados can be intensified by the combined action of gravity and inertia force in different direction.
Anharmonic effects in the optical and acoustic bending modes of graphene
Ramírez, R.; Chacón, E.; Herrero, C. P.
2016-06-01
The out-of-plane fluctuations of carbon atoms in a graphene sheet have been studied by means of classical molecular dynamic simulations with an empirical force field as a function of temperature. The Fourier analysis of the out-of-plane fluctuations often applied to characterize the acoustic bending mode of graphene is extended to the optical branch, whose polarization vector is perpendicular to the graphene layer. This observable is inaccessible in a continuous elastic model of graphene but it is readily obtained by the atomistic treatment. Our results suggest that the long-wavelength limit of the acoustic out-of-plane fluctuations of a free layer without stress is qualitatively similar to that predicted by a harmonic model under a tensile stress. This conclusion is a consequence of the anharmonicity of both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes of the lattice. The most striking anharmonic effect is the presence of a linear term, ωA=vAk , in the dispersion relation of the acoustic bending band of graphene at long wavelengths (k →0 ). This term implies a strong reduction of the amplitude of out-of-plane oscillations in comparison to a flexural mode with a k2 dependence in the long-wavelength limit. Our simulations show an increase of the sound velocity associated to the bending mode, as well as an increase of its bending constant, κ , as the temperature increases. Moreover, the frequency of the optical bending mode, ωO(Γ ), also increases with the temperature. Our results are in agreement with recent analytical studies of the bending modes of graphene using either perturbation theory or an adiabatic approximation in the framework of continuous layer models.
Finger-jointed beams in bending
Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben
1997-01-01
An investigation of the dynamic and static fatique of finger-jointed beams in bending was carried out. Results were obtained for five different frequencies from static loading to a load cycle period of two minutes. A total of seven series were long-term tested and five series were short-term tested...
Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.
Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends
Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.
1987-03-24
A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process
Giannini Oliviero
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.
Bending of a thin flexible plate
Pobedria, B.E.
1990-12-01
A system of equations is derived which describes the one-dimensional deformation of thin shells. The analysis does not impose any constraints on the relative elongation and deflections. As an example, a solution is presented for the problem of the bending of a thin plate under uniform pressure.
Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench
Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.
2014-12-01
We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032
The Problem of Bending of Rectangular Plate Taking into Account the Transversal Shear
Baghdasaryan Z.R.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available In this work the problems on the bending of rectangular plate on the basis of classical theory by Kirchhoff and Ambartsumyan’s theory is observed. It is shown, that when the plate is leaned free on two opposite sides, and on two others is hinge joint, the exactness of Kirchhoff's hypothesis is the neglecting of a related thickness in comparison with unit. Formulas for a deflection and also for shear stress resultant and generalized shear stress resultant are received. In different private cases expressions of maximal deflection and shear stress resultant are received.
Apri Malani Putri
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Proses bending banyak digunakan dalam proses produksi pada pipa. Proses ini akan menghasilkan peristiwa tensile dan compress, maka stress yang terjadi akibat gaya tekan atau gaya tarik ini akan bekerja simultan pada lingkungan korosif yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya korosi. Deformasi yang terjadi ini akan mengakibatkan perbedaan tingkat laju korosi pada setiap perubahannya, yaitu dengan sudut bending yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu, untuk membuktikannya dilakukanlah penelitian dengan tiga sudut bending yang berbeda yaitu 60°, 90°, dan 135°. Material yang digunakan adalah pipa bawah laut API 5L Grade X65. Pipa ini dibending dengan sudut di atas, kemudian dipotong tiga spesimen pada setiap intrados dan ektsrados pipa untuk setiap sudut bending. Pengujian laju korosi dengan menggunakan sel tiga elektroda dengan campuran larutan FeCl3 dan 0,3% aquades. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh nilai laju korosi untuk intrados bending pipa ; sudut bending 60° adalah 0,75 mm/year, sudut 90° adalah 0,64 mm/year, dan untuk sudut 135° adalah 0,43 mm/year. Sedangkan untuk ekstrados pipa; sudut 60° nilai laju korosinya adalah 0,59 mm/year, sudut 90° adalah 0,49 mm/year, dan untuk sudut bending 135° nilai laju korosinya adalah 0,4 mm/year. Analisa surface morfologi yang dilakukan pada spesimen menyimpulkan bahwa semakin tinggi nilai laju korosi, maka bentuk permukaan dari spesimen akan semakin kasar,begitupun sebaliknya
Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending
Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana
2015-12-01
Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).
A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending
P. S. Valvo
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.
Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending*
Baltov Anguel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model’s plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB.
Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects
Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.
Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects
Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2016-01-01
This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to...... maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the...... reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the...
We study the Bauschinger effect on a bent and straightened micro-sized single-crystal copper beam (width: 8.64 μm; thickness: 7.05 μm) over three consecutive cycles. The reverse yield strengths (straightening step) are much smaller than those in forward loading (bending step). An upper bound estimate shows a load drop of 73% (1st cycle), 76% (2nd cycle) and 83% (3rd cycle) relative to the forward yield stress. Electron backscatter diffraction reveals a dramatic reduction in the bending-induced misorientation gradients upon load reversal (straightening), documenting an unexpected form of microstructure reversibility. The observed Bauschinger softening is interpreted in terms of two effects. The first consists of internal backstresses that support load reversal. They are created by polarized dislocation arrays that are accumulated during forward bending. The second effect is the reduced requirement to activate dislocation sources during reverse loading as the dislocations that were stored during bending did not participate much in cross-hardening and, hence, serve as mobile dislocations upon reverse loading. After straightening the misorientation gradients are largely removed but the non-polarized dislocations remain. We therefore introduce a revised terminology, namely the 'mechanical Bauschinger effect' and the 'microstructural Bauschinger effect'. The former term describes a yield stress drop and the latter one the degree of microstructure reversibility upon load path changes.
Hanzon, Drew Wyatt
This work consists on the quantification of sheet metal uniaxial stress-strain reversals from pure bending tests. Bending strains to approximately 10% were measured by strain gages and interferometry. Bending-unbending moments and strains were modeled and compared closely to the experimental data. The reverse uniaxial stress-strains curves were determined from the optimal fit of the model. Bauschinger effects were described by the reverse uniaxial response at the elasto-plastic range, between the elastic and the large strain, power fit ranges. Arc and straight line fittings on the lnsigma-lnepsilon scale proved accurate to describe the elasto-plastic behavior. Reverse uniaxial data determined for DP590 and DP780 steels and two Aluminum alloys showed significant Bauschinger effects with distinct features. For the DP steels the magnitudes of the reverse compressive sigma-epsilon curves compared moderately higher, and merging to a power curve with parameters K, n previously defined by tension testing. Bauschinger effects at small reversed strains were less pronounced for the aluminum alloys. However, at higher strains the reverse elasto-plastic response softened considerably, and during the unbending span the magnitudes of the reverse compressive strains remained below the corresponding K, n tensile values. The results showed pure bending as an efficient, simple to use technique to generate sigma-epsilon data for sheet metal at large reverse strains without the complicating restraining hardware required by direct compression methods.
Plastic collapse loads in shape-imperfect pipe bends under in-plane opening bending moment
The combined effect of ovality and thinning/thickening on collapse load of pipe bends under in-plane opening bending moment was investigated using finite element limit analysis considering large geometric change effect. The material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. Twice-elastic-slope method is used to obtain collapse moment from moment–rotation curves drawn for each bend. Variation of thickness due to thinning in the cross section of pipe bend produces negligible effect on collapse load. The effect of ovality is significant except for pipe ratio 20 with λ = 0.5. A new closed-form solution is proposed to determine collapse moment of pipe bends with ovality and it is validated with existing experimental data. -- Highlights: • Collapse loads for shape-imperfect pipe bends is determined. • Ovality and thinning are the shape imperfections considered. • Finite element limit analysis uses large geometry change effects. • Twice-elastic-slope method was used to obtain plastic loads. • Ovality needs to be considered to determine collapse load while thinning produces negligible effect
When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease
... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...
Fukuda, H. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
1998-05-15
In the second generation report of 1982 fiscal year, most of testing methods at that time are included. For bending test, not only the bending testing method of hard plastics in ISO 178-1975, that of woven glass roving reinforced plastics in ISO 3597-1971, that of hard plastics in JIS K7203-1982, and that of plastics and electrical insulating materials in ASTM D790-80, but also private companies` specifications as well as BS, DIN, NF and so forth are recorded. In this paper, to avoid duplication with them, those established after them are describe. In JIS K7055-1987 established in following of JIS K7203, only glass fiber reinforced plastics is limited to specify the three points bending (A method) and the four points bending (B method). In JIS K7074-1988, a bending testing method of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is specified. As a research on bending test, stress distribution at bending test, effect of insert material, simple bending, compression bending and so on are conducted. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Quantitative Evaluation of Photoinduced Bending Speed of Diarylethene Crystals
Daichi Kitagawa
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We investigated photoinduced crystal bending behavior of various photochromic diarylethenes. In all the diarylethene derivatives we used in this work, the relationship between the initial photoinduced bending speed and the crystal thickness was well explained by the easy-handled Timoshenkoʼs bimetal model. Moreover, we proposed a quantitative analysis method to reveal the relationship between the bending speed and the molecular structure of diarylethenes. These results provide the quantitative evaluation method of the photoinduced crystal bending speed.
The design of an agent to bend DNA.
Akiyama, T; Hogan, M E
1996-01-01
An artificial DNA bending agent has been designed to assess helix flexibility over regions as small as a protein binding site. Bending was obtained by linking a pair of 15-base-long triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by an adjustable polymeric linker. By design, DNA bending was introduced into the double helix within a 10-bp spacer region positioned between the two sites of 15-base triple helix formation. The existence of this bend has been confirmed by circular permutation and phas...
Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip
Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo
Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.
Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests
Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro
2016-05-01
This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic CiEj surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Ober, Raymond; Waks, Marcel; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-06-01
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic CiEj surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
Characterization and study of photonic crystal fibres with bends
Analysis of a photonic crystal fibre (PRCF) with bends is presented. Using the versatile finite difference time domain method, the modal characteristics of the PCFs are found. Possibilities of employing PCFs with bends in sensing are discussed. It is found that a large evanescent field is present when the bend angle exceeds 45o
Superconducting beam bending magnets at CERN
1977-01-01
The photo shows Gerhard Kesseler with the cyogenic vessels for one of the 10.8 Tesla-metre beam bending magnets. The magnet itself (not visible) is sitting inside the superinsukated helium vessel (white). The next larger shell and the biggest tubular structure (with the largest part behind the person) is the insulation vacuum tank. See CERN Courier 1970 pp. 228-229 CERN Courier 1973 pp. 144-145 Yellow Report CERN 78-03, 1978
AA, assembly of wide bending magnet
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.
Large deformation dynamic bending of composite beams
Derian, Edward J.
1985-01-01
The large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load was studied. The beams were loaded with a moderate amount of eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied in order to determine the difference between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different la...
Drag Reduction, from Bending to Pruning
Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien; de Langre, Emmanuel
2013-01-01
Most plants and benthic organisms have evolved efficient reconfiguration mechanisms to resist flow-induced loads. These mechanisms can be divided into bending, in which plants reduce their sail area through elastic deformation, and pruning, in which the loads are decreased through partial breakage of the structure. In this work, we show by using idealized models that these two mechanisms or, in fact, any combination of the two, are equally efficient to reduce the drag experienced by terrestrial and aquatic vegetation.
More on the bending of light !
Lake, Kayll
2007-01-01
Recently, Rindler and Ishak have argued that the bending of light is, in principle, changed by the presence of a cosmological constant since one must consider not only the null geodesic equation, but also the process of measurement. I agree with the fact that both must be considered. Here, on the basis of the mathematically exact solution to the classical bending problem, and independent of the cosmological constant, I show that the approximate argument found in the vast majority of texts (new and old) for the measured value of the bending of light for a single source is, despite getting a good answer, bogus. In fact, the measured value for a single source is in part the result of the almost perfect cancelation of two terms, one of which is seldom considered. When one considers two sources, this cancelation is of no consequence, and if the sources are opposite with the same associated apsidal distance, the approximate argument gives the rigorously correct answer (up to numerical evaluation), an answer which i...
First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration
The first proposed lattice for a ‘diffraction-limited light source’ is reported. This approach has now more or less been used for the MAX IV project. By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 1022 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ∊x = 0.5 nm rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400 m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6 m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce > 5 h beam lifetime at 100 mA stored beam current