ACROSS such a multi-national country as China with 56 ethnic groups, up to one third of those in the press circle are women journalists, among whom 56.2 percent are in the broadcasting and television arenas, 42.5 percent in newspapers and magazines and 1.3 percent in news agencies. Statistics from National Unity shows that 42 of China's minority groups have produced female
Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne
Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…
H. A. Mohammad
Full Text Available Problem statement: Many previous studies tried to define and put specific measurements for dental arches dimension in different ethnics groups. However, these studies may be specific to an ethnic group and cannot always be applied to other ethnic types. The aim of this study: is to obtain specific dental arch dimensions for Malaysian Malay ethnic groups and compare between both genders. Approach: Involved clinical examination, collection and analysis of 60 dental cast of Malaysian Malay subjects from pure ethnic group (30 males and 30 females, 20-24 years old. All dental landmarks were located and determined and subsequently measurements had been done according to specific points have been selected. Statistical analysis were done using t-test. Results: Dental arch dimension were established in normal occlusion for Malaysian Malay ethnic group in this study. No significant difference was observed in arch dimensions between male and female of Malaysian Malay. Conclusion: These measurement should be considered during treatment, especially in prosthodontics and orthodontics where arch dimension can be modified appreciably.
Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn
An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…
People of the Chinese Miao ethnic group, dwelling in southeast Guizhou Province, enjoy many ancient and distinctive traditions. A couple of favorite customs are playing/usheng (reed-pipe wind) and the stool dance, which both continue to be highlights of Miao festivals and major events.
Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L
Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25090147
Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D. Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Wei HUANG; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis a...
Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival. PMID:25305475
Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah
This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample. PMID:12416322
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.
Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry. PMID:20098698
Full Text Available Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.
Bolt, G.S.; Kempen, R. van
The degree of spatial segregation and concentration of minority ethnic groups in European cities is well documented. However, little is known about the residential mobility between neighbourhoods that brings about changes in the patterns of ethnic segregation. In this paper we analyse the residentia
A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant re...
... us at: https://info.ahrq.gov . Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your ... Disparities in Healthcare Quality Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups Selected Findings ...
Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.
Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…
Garcia-Jimenez, Carlos I.; Mishra, Ashok K.
Farmers and food companies need to assess their production and marketing strategies for nurturing business opportunities that will arise from the simultaneous increase in population and income of Hispanics in the United States. Previous studies on demand for meat products have not received much attention on the determinants of meats purchase behavior by Hispanics in relation to other ethnic groups. This study investigates the impact of ethnicity and the determinants of meats purchase behavior...
MA YiNa; GE JianQiao; XU XiaoJing; FAN Yan; YANG ShengMin; HAN ShiHui
To investigate asymmetric neurocognitive representation of ethnic in-group and out-group members,we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to faces in a perceptual task after the faces had been primed with positive or negative affective links. The affective link priming did not influence the ERPs to ethnic out-group faces. However, relative to the positive affective link priming, the negative affective link priming increased the amplitudes of an early frontal negativity (N100) and a following central negativity but decreased the amplitude of a late positive potential elicited by ethnic in-group faces.Moreover, the N100 amplitude correlated with the degree of negative attitudes towards ethnic in-group faces. The findings suggest that multiple-level neural mechanisms are involved in individuation of heterogeneous ethnic in-group faces.
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…
STEPHEN M. SAIDEMAN
Why do some ethnic groups in conflict (those that are mobilized or face discrimination) receive more external support than others do? This is an important question that has been overlooked despite the crucial role international support has played. Which characteristics of groups and their host states cause them to receive more support? I consider three explanations. First, separatist groups are less likely to receive support owing to their threat to regional stability and international norms....
Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik
Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women’s cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a seco...
Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart
Production sectors are interdependent and the benefits of output growth for poverty reduction therefore spread over the economy. The role of such interdependencies is explicitly studied in this paper. A social accounting matrix for Malaysia that distinguishes between the major ethnic groups in Malay
Stefanac-Papić, J; Alkadri, K Z; Legović, M; Galić, N
Dental maturity is one of the indicators of the craniofacial region growth and development. The aim of the study was to identify and compare dental growth and development in two ethnic groups. The material consisted of 480 orthopantomograms; 240 selected from orthodontic and dental patients from Zagreb (Croatia) and Damascus (Syria) each. Each ethnic group included 120 boys and 120 girls, while the radiographs were classified into 6 groups of 20 each, according to sex and chronologic age (8-13 years). Dental maturity was evaluated by the method of Nolla. The results were statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The subjects from Damascus showed a delay in dental maturity by 1 (girls) to 2 (boys) years compared to the homologous group from Zagreb. The reference values determined in the study may serve as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic tool in the orthodontics and pedodontics of the respective cities. PMID:9951152
Tsang, Wing-tung; 曾穎彤
This research aims to examine racial discrimination against ethnic minority groups in Hong Kong. It focuses on different generations, especially on adults and the elderly in order to provide a detailed picture of what they have experienced and how they respond to it. Primary research is adopted and data are collected through semi-structured interviews and existing literature analysis. Everyday racism has been used as the conceptual framework throughout this research. Minority groups experienc...
Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan
The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic
David W Lawson
Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological
Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram
Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources. PMID:26974023
Artefacts of pottery belonging to the Guarani ethnic group were investigated by XRF techniques. The Tupi-Guarani, is one of the three main representatives of the Neolithic culture in the Amazonian scope. Such an ethnic group dispersed towards the South; in the Paraguayan area between the Paraguay and the Parana Rivers several Guarani ethnic movements by both rivers and their tributaries are perceived. The lithology and ceramics typology have contributed to support that perception. The archaeological findings help to clarify prehistoric cultural aspects and dispersal areas. In that context, the knowledge of the chemical composition of the found ceramic devices, in particular of the rare earth elements (REE) and other refractory ones provide information on this dispersion and its expansion. Selected trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, and Nd) were determined in samples from thirteen archaeological sites with XRF using an Am-241 source. Their spidergrams have allowed identifying four different sets of samples according to their areas of provenance. (author)
Using the CBS-micro survey, ethnic and gender wage differentials in the Netherlands are examined between native Dutch labourers and 7 ethnic minority groups that are highly differentiated in their human capital endowment and immigration history. Estimations indicate that wage discrimination occurs mainly on the basis of their ethnic background rather than gender. Moroccans suffer the largest wage gap due to discrimination. This result is likely an indication of employer’s response on...
Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana
This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed. PMID:21895704
S. Dex; Lindley, J
The paper devises a new method of calculating whether individuals are over educated using a parametric model. This new method is applied to men and women from different ethnic groups using data drawn from 4 pooled cross-sections of the UK Labour Force Survey. Calibrated against existing mean-mode methods, the new approach leads to lower levels of over education, more so for men than women. The model is then extended to include non-qualification elements of human capital such as employment exp...
Full Text Available The following article deals with the current situation of the Sorbs – a Slavic ethnic group leaving in Lusatia, which is a region belonging to former East Germany. The development of this ethnic group – starting from the end of the 19th Century and considering both Nazi times and former East Germany situation – will be shown. The article discusses on the one hand the attempts to maintain the Sorbian language, among others due to the activities of the Language Centre WITAJ, and on the other hand it stresses the consequences of the brown coal mining in the region of Lusatia. In addition, the attitudeof German natives towards the Sorbs is analysed. On basis of the own research conducted by the author in the year 2010 near the Sorbian town Slepo (ger. Schleife, dilemmas of the local people, who feel dependent on energy concern Vattenfall, are shown. Although the concern guarantees work places, it also jeopardizes the existence of local people’s houses and the cultivation of the Sorbian tradition. The coal mines destroy the natural and social environment. More and more villages are demolished and social networks are being broken by people’s displacements. The current situation makes the Sorbs even more cautious about their own culture and motivates them to fight for their cultural survival.
Yang, S; Zhu, H
The ethnic population of China increased from 35 million in the early 1950s to more than 90 million in 1990. They make up about 8% of China's population. The changes in the fertility levels of the Mongolian, the Tibetan, the Zhuang, the Hui, and the Uygur ethnic peoples inhabiting autonomous regions were investigated. The total fertility rates (TFRs) of the Mongolian, the Zhuang, and the Hui had declined to below 3.5 by the late 1980s. The TFR of the Mongolians dropped from 6.5 in the early 1970s to 3.0 in the late 1970s, rose to 3.6 in 1981 and 1982, and fell again to 2.3 in 1989. During 1985-89 the TFR of the Uygurs was 5.09 compared to 2.42 of the Han (Chinese) women in the region. The average life-time births during this period were: 2.7 for Mongolians, 3.5 for the Zhuang, 3.6 for the Hui, 0.8 higher than for the Han women. The average TFR of the Han women declined to 3.19 during 1985-89. Implementation of the same family planning program could account for the similar fertility levels of the latter 2 groups. The TFR of the Hui women was 7.0 before 1976, staying at 6.7 during the 1970s. However, it dropped from 6.5 in 1983 to 3.58 during 1985-89. The TFR of Tibetans was 5.0 in the early 1960s, and 30 years later it hovered between 4.0 and 5.0. The Uygurs maintained a TFR of 5.0 to 6.0 in the 20 years prior to 1993, although in 3 successive years after 1985 a decline started. 10% of Uygur women aged 18 already had 1 child. 5% of Hui women aged 20 in 1988 had born children. The infertility rates of ethnic women aged 49-57 in 1988 were; 14% for the Tibetans, 5% for the Uygurs, 2% for the Mongolians, and 1% each for the Hui and the Zhuang. The decline of fertility of ethnic groups started in the 1980s, and it was rather uneven as a consequence of implementation of family planning programs after a major decline of the fertility rate of the national population in the 1970s. PMID:12287606
Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.
Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...
Lee, Richard M.
This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…
Gutiérrez Rubio Enrique
Full Text Available The starting point for this study is that (the majority of conventional figurative units (CFUs are conceptual in nature and that they somehow record and preserve the knowledge and even worldview of diverse cultures. The aim of this paper is to take a first step towards answering the question whether it is true not only that phraseology preserves the way a given culture understands the world (or understood it in the past, but if it works the other way round, i.e. if people using/knowing CFUs involving stereotypes - in this case, Czech idioms and collocations regarding nations and ethnic groups - tend to extend these stereotypes and attitudes beyond the linguistic sphere. For this purpose a survey questionnaire was created, by means of which the stereotypes underlying a varied sample of 13 Czech CFUs were related to the prejudices of the respondents
Karlsen, S; Nazroo, J. Y.; McKenzie, K; Bhui, K.; Weich, S
Background. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between risk of psychosis, common mental disorder (CMD) and indicators of racism among ethnic minority groups in England and how this relationship may vary by particular ethnic groups.Method. A multivariate analysis was carried out of quantitative, cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community sample of people aged between 16 and 74 years from the largest ethnic minority groups in England: those of Caribbean, ...
For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life satisfaction. Using data from two studies the present paper shows that ethnic minority group members (Turkish-Dutch) have lower general life satisfaction than a comparable majority group (Dutch) bec...
Bates, Lucy A; Sayialel, Katito N; Njiraini, Norah W; Moss, Cynthia J; Poole, Joyce H; Byrne, Richard W
Animals can benefit from classifying predators or other dangers into categories, tailoring their escape strategies to the type and nature of the risk. Studies of alarm vocalizations have revealed various levels of sophistication in classification. In many taxa, reactions to danger are inflexible, but some species can learn the level of threat presented by the local population of a predator or by specific, recognizable individuals. Some species distinguish several species of predator, giving differentiated warning calls and escape reactions; here, we explore an animal's classification of subgroups within a species. We show that elephants distinguish at least two Kenyan ethnic groups and can identify them by olfactory and color cues independently. In the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya, young Maasai men demonstrate virility by spearing elephants (Loxodonta africana), but Kamba agriculturalists pose little threat. Elephants showed greater fear when they detected the scent of garments previously worn by Maasai than by Kamba men, and they reacted aggressively to the color associated with Maasai. Elephants are therefore able to classify members of a single species into subgroups that pose different degrees of danger. PMID:17949977
Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao
As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331
Lee, Richard M.
Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…
Jackson, Bruce A; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Kirbah, Salwa; Sidney, Sheree S; Rosenberger, Joshua; Bassie, Larry; Alie, Joe A D; McLean, David C; Garvey, W Timothy; Ely, Bert
Although there are numerous ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the Mende and Temne together account for approximately 60% of the total population. To see if genetic differences could be observed among ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable 1 (HV1) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined from samples of the two major ethnic groups, the Mende (n=59) and Temne (n=121), and of two minor ethnic groups, the Loko (n=29) and Limba (n=67). Among these 276 HV1 sequences, 164 individual haplotypes were observed. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the distribution of these haplotypes within the Limba sample was significantly different from that of the other ethnic groups. No significant genetic variation was seen between the Mende, Temne, and Loko. These results indicate that distinguishing genetic differences can be observed among ethnic groups residing in historically close proximity to one another. Furthermore, we observed some mitochondrial DNA haplotypes that are common among the Sierra Leone ethnic groups but that have not been observed in other published studies of West African ethnic groups. Therefore, we may have evidence for mtDNA lineages that are unique to this region of West Africa. PMID:15761855
Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea
Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. PMID:26264820
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L
Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549
Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk
Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…
McManus, Vicki; Savage, Eileen
Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in healthcare, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic ...
Mihaela Luminiţa Sandu
Full Text Available The Romanian people, especially ethnic belonging of the people was one of the people subject to the proletarian dictatorship, which has claimed over a long period study in this area. In the last decade we are witnessing a revival of studies on ethnic groups in Romania. This is due not only progress and the spread of democracy, encouraging linguistic, but also some deeper theoretical perspectives on diversity of ethnicity seen as opposed unification that could bring world economic globalization and scientific and technological. Ethnic groups, social organizations with specific characteristics becomes more pronounced as, the strongest influence their component elements (organizations and institutions and through their people. Differences between ethnic groups become noticeable if we refer to the organization and functioning of families in urban and rural communities, ways to produce goods or ways to spend your free time. The difference of the ethnic groups, however, does not stop here. They are obvious and if it investigates the ways in which group members analyze and interpret them. By how they are managing their own ethnic groups, rules of internal organization, the statuses and roles of men, the ways in which they are sanctioned adverse behaviors and encourage behaviors that may be favorable, the illustrations and pictures about them, they generate especially the people involved in their operation, ethnic organizations causes people to act as their members, maintain self-awareness and ethnic groups to preserve. Currently in Romania live, learn and work together membership of several ethnicities such as Romanian, Hungarian, Saxon, Székely, Bulgarians, Armenians, Russians, Turks, Tatars, Roma, Macedo and so on, each with its own cultural particularities, characteristics known little or unknown to others.
Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean
The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…
This paper has analyzed the discrepancies of the perception of English learning between ethnic students and Han studens in a trilingual language context. The research results will be expected to broaden our understanding of the ethnic group students in the minority regions, and to provide some empirical references and implications for teachers.
Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben
Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…
Linkham Douangsavanh; Vongpaphane Manivong; Anan Polthanee; Roengsak Katawatin; Yoshio Inoue
The objectives of this study were to demonstrate ethno-scientific elicitation techniques in retrieving indigenous knowledge at village-level, and to document the indigenous soil classification systems of different ethnic groups in Luang Prabang province in the Lao PDR. The study area comprised three villages - Nambo, Huaymaha and Thapo, in the Phonxay district of Luang Prabang province. Three ethnic groups were covered by the study - Hmong,Khmu and Lao Loum. All three ethnic groups used soil color as main criteria for soil classification.However, even within the same ethnic group,sometimes different villages have differences in the way they classify soils; this was apparent for the Hmong ethnic group in the villages of Huaymaha and Nambo. A significant difference of the Lao Loum ethnic group from the other two, was the emphasis used in classifying soil types according to their water holding capabilities. In contrast, the Khmu and Hmong classified many soil types in relation to their rock content ('with rock' or 'pure rock' sometimes being used). The results of the study suggest that the ethnic groups classify the soils in relation to their potential for different types of agricultural production.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular etiology of thyroid carcinoma (TC and other thyroid diseases which may present malignant precursor lesions is not fully explored yet. The purpose of this study was to estimate frequency, type and clinicopathological value of BRAF exon 15 mutations in different types of cancerous and non-cancerous thyroid lesions originating in an ethnically diverse population. Methods BRAF exon 15 was sequenced in 381 cases of thyroid lesions including Hashimoto´s thyroiditis, nodular goiters, hyperplastic nodules, follicular adenomas (FA, papillary TC (PTC, follicular variant PTC (FVPTC, microcarcinomas of PTC (micro PTC; tumor size ≤ 1 cm, follicular TC (FTC, and non-well differentiated TC (non-WDTC. Results We identified BRAF mutations in one of 69 FA, 72 of 115 (63% PTC, seven of 42 (17% FVPTC, 10 of 56 (18% micro PTC, one of 17 (6% FTC, and one of eight (13% non-WDTC. Most of the cases showed the common V600E mutation. One case each of PTC, FVPTC, and FTC harbored a K601E mutation. A novel BRAF mutation was identified in a FA leading to deletion of threonine at codon 599 (p.T599del. A rare 3-base pair insertion was detected in a stage III PTC resulting in duplication of threonine at codon 599 (p.T599dup. Patients with PTC harboring no BRAF mutation (BRAFwt were on average younger than those with a BRAF mutation (BRAFmut in the PTC (36.6 years vs. 43.8 years. Older age (≥ 45 years in patients with PTC was significantly associated with tumor size ≥ 4 cm (P = 0.018, vessel invasion (P = 0.004, and distant metastasis (P = 0.001. Lymph node (LN involvement in PTC significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.044, and vessel invasion (P = 0.013. Of notice, taken the whole TC group, family history of thyroid disease positively correlated with capsular invasion (P = 0.025. Conclusions Older age is manifold associated with unfavorable tumor markers in our series. The K601E identified in a PTC, FVPTC, and FTC seems
Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818
John Stillwell; Serena Hussain; Paul Norman
Internal migration propensities of ethnic groups are examined using three types of census data. Special Migration Statistics show variation in aggregate propensities whereas commissioned age-specific flow data indicate age variations by ethnic group. Micro data from Samples of Anonyms Records confirm low Asian propensities and suggest convergence between 1991 and 2001. Inter-district net migration reveals familiar counter urbanisation trends for whites but more complex patterns for non-whites...
Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane
Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...
Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris
Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the...
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony
Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Desig...
Booth, Alison L; Leigh, Andrew; Varganova, Elena
We conduct a large-scale audit discrimination study to measure labor market discrimination across different minority groups in Australia -- a country where one quarter of the population was born overseas. To denote ethnicity, we use distinctively Anglo-Saxon, Indigenous, Italian, Chinese, and Middle Eastern names, and our goal is a comparison across multiple ethnic groups rather than focusing on a single minority as in most other studies. In all cases, we applied for entry-level jobs and subm...
Hsiao, James; Wittig, Michele Andrisin
This study compares Latino host, Latino immigrant, Asian-American host, Asian-American immigrant and European-American host groups of adolescents with respect to four acculturation-related variables: ethnic identity exploration, ethnic identity affirmation/belonging, outgroup orientation, and American identity. Using the five ethno-generational categories as a grouping variable, we conducted analyses of 313 survey responses to the acculturation items at two time periods, 9 weeks apart. Result...
religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.
Nielsen, T. Rune; Waldemar, Gunhild
OBJECTIVE: Older people from ethnic minorities are underrepresented in dementia care. Some of the determinants of access to care are knowledge and perceptions of dementia, which may vary between ethnic groups in the population. The aims of this study were to compare knowledge and perceptions of...... dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark, and to assess the influence of education and acculturation. METHODS: Quantitative survey data from 260 participants were analyzed: 100 native Danish, and 47 Polish, 51 Turkish, and 62 Pakistani immigrants. Knowledge and...... variance at most and had only minor influence on perceptions of AD. CONCLUSIONS: Lacking knowledge and certain perceptions of dementia and AD may hamper access to services in some ethnic minority groups. Ongoing efforts to raise awareness that dementia and AD are not part of normal aging, particularly...
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously. PMID:25046125
Huijnk, W.J.J.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.
Ethnic distance refers to the extent to which people wish to avoid contact with members of ethnic out-groups (Bogardus, 1959). Kinship by mairiage is one of the most intimate relationships and, therefore, tbe domain of life with the highest distance between ethnic groups in society. Marriage is an i
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…
Leon David A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel
This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender. PMID:24375383
Full Text Available There is a great social debate regarding possible legal privileges favouring some ethnic groups over othersin a particular society. This fact may negatively influence citizens’ perceptions about fairness and legitimacyof the mainstream legal system and, thus, compliance with established social norms. The main purpose ofthe present study was to analyse the perception of the mainstream legal system in citizens belonging todifferent ethnic groups. In particular, this work had two objectives. First, the purpose was to explore interethnicperceptions of legal authorities and the justice system by examining the following variables:procedural justice, distributive justice, legitimacy of the legal system, contact with police, and reasons forobeying the law. A second objective was to test the predictive power of perceived procedural justice,distributive justice, and contact with police in the subsequent perception of legitimacy across the differentethnic groups. The sample was composed of 351 participants, who were split into two groups: White-Europeans (76.4% and ethnic minorities (23.6%. Results revealed ethnic group differences in all studyvariables, showing ethnic minorities a more general negative attitude towards the legal system in terms ofprocedural justice, distributive justice and legitimacy conceded to the legal system, in comparison with themajority group. Moreover, legitimacy conceded to legal authorities was predicted by procedural justice, butnot by distributive justice neither contact with police, in both groups. Practical and policy implications arediscussed based on the importance of citizens’ perceptions about the legal authorities in order to legitimatethe mainstream legal system.
Wan Isa Hatin
Full Text Available Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678
Wan Isa Hatin; Ab Rajab Nur-Shafawati; Mohd-Khairi Zahri; Shuhua Xu; Li Jin; Soon-Guan Tan; Mohammed Rizman-Idid; Bin Alwi Zilfalil
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic grou...
Phung, Viet-Hai; Windle, Karen; Ortega, Marishona; Essam, Nadya; Barot, Mukesh; Kai, Joe; Johnson, Mark; Siriwardena, Niro
ABSTRACT Background Despite its increasing importance, equity remains an unrealised aspiration in healthcare. People from minority ethnic groups are proportionately less likely to access emergency and hospital services than the majority White population, despite higher levels of need. Our systematic literature review and narrative synthesis aimed to identify the barriers or facilitators to accessing ambulance and paramedic care for minority ethnic patients. In doing so, the review expl...
Jean-Louis Arcand; Béatrice D'Hombres
The purpose of this paper is to examine inter-ethnic differences in the returns to education for the three main ethnic groups in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador (MRS), Bahia state, in Northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that sheepskin effects take the traditional form of an additional return to the completion of a diploma for whites, whereas for blacks the additional return stems entirely from the sheepskin-like effect associated with admission to university. We show that it is possi...
Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance ...
Junger, Marianne; Polder, Wim
Since 1950 there has been large-scale immigration to Western Europe, mainly from Muslim countries. This paper focuses on the degree of involvement in crime of ethnic minority boys as compared to indigenous boys and on the possible causes of these crime involvements. A random sample from three ethnic minority boys (Moroccans, Turks, Surinamese) was taken. A control group consisted of indigenous boys with a comparable socioeconomic background as the minority respondents. Data were gathered abou...
Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz
Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations. PMID:25561680
Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui
Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…
Simonenkova Irina Petrovna
Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.
Gladkova A. A.
Full Text Available This article examines the exposure of Russian public to reports about ethnic groups in current mainstream Russian media by analyzing the amount of such reports today, as well as results of an online survey (n = 1040 aimed at revealing to what extent the public is indeed exposed to them by the respondents’ own estimations. The survey showed that generally users tend to lack information about ethnicities in mainstream media and demonstrate a certain interest in learning more about other ethnic groups in Russia through media channels. We argue thus that the public’s exposure to information about ethnic issues, although relatively high on a quantitative level (i.e., in terms of the actual number of reports, is lower on a qualitative one (i.e., the share of the respondents who actually come across such reports. The paper also reveals a number of tendencies from analyzing users’ age groups and their regions of living. In general, we believe that singling out both specifics of the public’s exposure to information about ethnicities and the connection between this exposure and the public’s attitudes toward ethnicities (which is planned as the second stage of the current research project may contribute to better understanding of the effects media can have on their audience in terms of agenda-setting and psychological influence. The current research can also be of interest when discussing the role mass media play in building harmonious relationships between representatives of different ethnic groups in a multiethnic society such as the Russian one.
Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.
Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn
This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research
Full Text Available Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes
HUANG Caiwen; LIANG Rui
heritage resources: The first is whether or not the cultural heritage resources could be “systematized”” or digitized using present tech-niques; the second is whether or not the cultural heritage has the value to be “systemematized” or digitized . For the purpose of systematizing the management of the resource and information of the ethnic cultural resources , doing a digital collection of cultural resources is the first step .Then , after making an assessment of the value of the ethnic cultural resources , we should adopt different “sys-tematized information resource management ” tech-niques with regard to the different types of re-sources. Taking the systematized management of “Bu-lang singing with playing stringed instruments tra-dition” as an example , in addition to the digitiza-tion of the melodic text of the folk song , the related cultural space , the inheritors , musical instru-ments, other objects (such as costume, other arti-cles for use ) should also be protected through digi-tization .The digitization of “Bulang ’ s singing with playing stringed instruments” should be done on several levels .The first level is the digitization of text;the second is the digitization of image;the third is the building of a three -dimensional im-age;and the fourth is making virtual products . Ethnic culture is not only a representation of the ethnic spiritual world , but is also a crystalliza-tion of material culture and spiritual culture created by the ethnic group .This discussion of the digiti-zation of the cultural resources of the Bulang , an ethnic group with a small population , can provide some experience and reference for the protection and transmission of China ’ s ethnic cultures .
Mitochondrial DNA is a small genome, 16569 base pairs in length, which is found in high quantities within mitochondria inside a typical somatic cell. Mitochondrial DNA is also unilaterally inherited via the maternal line. As such, mitochondrial DNA is inherited relatively unmolested from mother to offspring, with exception to mutational episodes, enabling the historical analysis of a population, group of populations or a species. Mitochondrial DNA analysis examines both the coding and non-cod...
SHI; Hong; (石宏); DONG; Yongli; (董永利); LI; Weixiang; (李卫翔); YANG; Jie; (杨洁); LI; Kaiyuan; (李开源); ZAN; Ruiguang; (昝瑞光); XIAO; Chunjie; (肖春杰)
The genetic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus in 25 ethnic groups (33 populations) of China were analyzed in a total of 1294 samples. The average YAP+ frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations. Primi has the highest YAP+ frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP+ among all the eastern Asian populations studied. The YAP+ occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). The other 15 populations are YAP? including Lahu (2 populations), Hani, Achang, Drung, Lisu, Sui, Bouyei, Va, Bulang, Deang, Man and Hui and Mongol of Yunnan and Bai of Hunan. The YAP+ frequencies varied among the different ethnic groups studied, and even different among the same ethnic group living in different geographic locations. Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed.
Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel
With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…
The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general
Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica
Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem
There is a considerable body of research that has explored the impact of school characteristics on the self-esteem of racial and ethnic minority group children. This work, however, has been mainly conducted among African Americans and has various conceptual and methodological problems. The present large-scale study in 182 classes from 82 schools…
Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A
Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552
Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart
A new social accounting matrix is constructed for Malaysia for the year 2000 to analyze sources of income inequality among ethnic groups in Malaysia. The analysis reveals that income inequality can be decomposed into the interaction of: (i) hourly wages; (ii) working hours per week; and (iii) number
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney
This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…
Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.
This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…
Rubin Gatufovich Saifullin
Full Text Available The main provisions of the biosocial approach to the study of the polity dynamics in its conflict aspect areformulated in this article. Its essence consists in the assertion of the dependence of the polity dynamics on thepopulation quality. The L. N. Gumilev concept, which explores this dependence, is considered, and its shortcomings are opened in this paper. On the basis of this concept the universal, invariant with respect to ethnicgroups, types of polities and eras law - numerical algorithm of ethnopolitogenesis is formulated.Ethnopolitogenesis of Egyptian and ancient Mesopotamian (Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians and othersethnic groups is analyzed in order to verify the numerical algorithm. The conclusion that it developed as a wholein accordance with a numerical algorithm is formulated.
Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.
Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063
Full Text Available There is a long running debate on the significance of ethnic residential segregation levels in Britain. These phenomena have been related to the extent of community cohesion in British cities, and particularly to the riots of 2001 in the north of England. Further light is cast on these issues by examining ethnic segregation by age in the case of Bradford, the location of the largest riot. Both the dissimilarity index and the exposure index are used to consider relations between the White British and the largest minorities at ward level and at census output area level. The level of segregation is shown to vary with age, usually in a consistent direction. The direction varies between ethnic groups however.
Zhu Bofeng; Lü Guiping; Yao Guifa; Zhu Jun; Dong Hongwang; Sun Qingdong; Huang Lei; Liu Yao
Objective To study genetic polymorphism of 6 Y chromosomal STR in Hui ethnic group living in Ningxia Hui ethnic autonomous region, in order to evaluate their usefulness in forensic science and enrich the Chinese genetic information resources. Methods We investigated 101 unrelated, healthy, male individuals of Hui ethnic group and studied their allelic frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of 6 Y chromosomal STR. Primer for each loci was labeled with the fluorescent by FAM (blue) or TAMRA(yellow). The data of Hui ethnic group were generated co-amplification, GeneScan, genotype, and genetic distribution analysis. Results 31 alleles and 43 phenotype(DYS385) were detected, with the frequencies ranging from 0.0099-0.7129. Out of a total of 101 individuals, 96 showed different haplotypes; 91 were unique; 5 were found 2 times. The haplotype diversity for 6 Y-STR loci was 0.9990. Conclusion The date obtained can be valuable for individual identification, paternity testing in forensic fields and for population genetics because of 6 Y-STR loci high polymorphism.
Gajwani, Ruchika; Parsons, Helen; Birchwood, Max; Singh, Swaran P
Purpose: There is substantial evidence to suggest that Black and minority ethnic (BME) patients are disproportionately detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA). We examined ethnic differences in patients assessed for detention and explored the effect of ethnicity after controlling for confounders. Methods: A prospective study of all MHA assessments conducted in 1 year (April 2009–March 2010) within Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Foundation Trust, UK. Proportion of assessment...
Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.
This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups, certain members were found to use discursive strategies questioning the omnipresence of discrimination and problematizing its causes, whereas others employed devices that made discrimination appear factu...
Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A
The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background. PMID:18489287
Horry, Ruth; Wright, Daniel B; Tredoux, Colin G
People are more accurate at recognizing faces from their own ethnic group than at recognizing faces from other ethnic groups. This other-ethnicity effect (OEE) in recognition may be produced by a deficit in recollective memory for other-ethnicity faces. In a single study, White and Black participants saw White and Black faces presented within several different visual contexts. The participants were then given an old/new recognition task. Old responses were followed by remember-know-guess judgments and context judgments. Own-ethnicity faces were recognized more accurately, were given more remember responses, and produced more accurate context judgments than did other-ethnicity faces. These results are discussed in a dual-process framework, and implications for eyewitness memory are considered. PMID:20173186
Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie;
Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. Setting. A cross-sectional study...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...
Population genetic studies were performed using five VNTR loci (D2S44, D4S163, D14S13, D17S79, D18S27). The populations examined were Caucasian (Australia, Brazil and U.S.A.), Australian aborigine, Chinese, Amerindian (Cheyenne, Maya, Navajo, Pima, Tobas/Wicnis), North American Black, North American Hispanic (California, Miami, New York, Texas). The overall size range of the alleles for these loci, in PstI-digested DNA, was the same in all populations. The major difference among populations was the relative frequency of particular groups of alleles. These differences were small among similar ethnic groups, while sometimes varying several fold among some of the more distinct populations. However, groups of alleles that were rare in the major ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Chinese) were also rare in the other populations. The frequency databases generated by typing individuals for 4 loci were used to compare the random DNA profile frequencies among populations. The results show that the estimated frequency of any 4 locus profile is very low in all populations examined (e.g., median value < 10(-8)). Analysis of relative genetic similarity among populations was used to create the most likely clustering of these ethnic groups. Results show an uncanny similarity between the clusters generated and genetic distance measurements obtained with traditional calculations of conventional genetic markers. PMID:8104559
Full Text Available Ali M Soltani, Cameron S Francis, Arash Motamed, Ashley L Karatsonyi, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, John F Reinisch, Mark M UrataDivision of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Although hypertrophic scar (HTS formation following cleft lip repair is relatively common, published rates vary widely, from 1% to nearly 50%. The risk factors associated with HTS formation in cleft patients are not well characterized. The primary aim of this retrospective study of 180 cleft lip repairs is to evaluate the frequency of postoperative HTS among various ethnic groups following cleft lip repair.Methods: A retrospective chart view of patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair over a 16-year period (1990–2005 by the senior surgeon was performed. The primary outcome was the presence of HTS at 1 year postoperatively. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate potential risk factors for HTS, including ethnicity, type and laterality of cleft, and gender.Results: One hundred and eighty patients who underwent cleft lip repair were included in the study. The overall rate of postoperative HTS formation was 25%. Ethnicity alone was found to be an independent predictor of HTS formation. Caucasian patients had the lowest rate of HTS formation (11.8% and were used as the reference group. HTS rates were significantly higher in the other ethnicities, 32.2% in Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–8.85, and 36.3% for Asian patients (OR 4.27; 95% CI: 1.36–13.70. Sex, cleft type, and cleft laterality were not associated with increased rates of HTS.Conclusions: Differences in ethnic makeup of respective patient populations may be a major factor influencing the wide variability of reported
Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven
Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers. PMID:23456249
Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Børsting, C;
A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds....... However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs...... Asian populations in the MDS plot drawn from the FST values. Statistical parameters of forensic interest calculated for the Iranian ethnic groups showed values of the same order of magnitudes as those obtained for Asians. The mean match probability calculated for the 49 SNPs ranged from 1.7x10(-18) for...
Patsdaughter, C A; Christensen, M H; Kelley, B R; Masters, J A; Ndiwane, A N; Paatsdaughter, C A
Since the Nazi medical experiments in Europe and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in the United States, members of ethnic groups have been reluctant to participate in research. However, a National Institutes of Health policy mandates that researchers develop and implement strategies to insure the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical investigations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss methods found to be effective in recruiting and retaining members of ethnic groups as participants in three research projects. The three studies were: (a) Gambling Behaviors in African American Elders and Perceived Effects on Health, (b) Adolescent Risk Behavior, Self Esteem, and Social Influence: Comparison of Dominican Youth in Their Homeland and in the United States, and (c) A Multicultural Study of Support for Alzheimer's Caregivers. PMID:11908076
Race-based preferential policies have been employed in the United States and other countries such as Malaysia, South Africa, Brazil, and India to foster economic development among economically marginalized ethnic groups. This research applies a two-player signaling model to help understand labor-market effects of race-based preferential policies used in college admissions. The model shows that in the context of imperfect information in the labor market, purely race-based forms of preferential...
Speakers of English often understand ethnic and racial differences in terms of food imagery. It is quite common in this language to encounter metaphors presenting different groups of people in terms of beans, rice, bread, cheese, apples or chocolate. Given the cognitive and social force of metaphor in our understanding of the world and of ourselves as well as the important role language plays as a channel through which ideas and beliefs are transmitted and perpetuated, such food images may of...
Barker Judith C; Weintraub Jane A; Butani Yogita
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigo...
Celenk, Ozgur; Vijver, Fons J.R.
This study examines predictors of life satisfaction that are more distal (spousal normative beliefs and attitudes) and more proximal (marital satisfaction) in 404 mainstreamers, 375 Western, and 195 non-Western immigrants living in the Netherlands. In the immigrant groups, we used ethnic and mainstream identity and perceived discrimination as distal predictors. Results revealed that path models in which proximal variables mediated the relation between distal variables and outco...
de Jong Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S; Keating, N.
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant g...
Wendy Cunningham; Joyce P. Jacobsen
Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana), we demonstrate (using Theil index decompositions as well as Gini indices, and 90/10 and 50/10 percentile comparisons) that within-group in...
M Dejman; AS Forouzan; Sh Assari; Malekafzali, H; Sh Nohesara; N Khatibzadeh; Falahat, K; Ekblad, S
Background: Depressive disorder is globally estimated to be as many as one in five visits to primary health care. Approximately more than 50% of depressed women in primary care are not diagnosed. As a part of a major investigation into perceptions of women’s depression, this study explored how female patients and their relatives conceptualize patients’ conditions in three ethnic groups in Iran (Fars, Kurds and Turks). Methods: Qualitative methods were used for data collection. Depressed women...
FREDDY PATTISELANNO; JOHAN FREDRIK KOIBUR
Study on cuscus hunting as a form of wildlife utilization by Biak ethnic group surrounding the North Biak Strict Nature Reserce (CABU) was carried out through direct observation and interview with hunter respondents and other key respondents among four villages that purposively chosen i.e. Inswambesi, Kayomi, Wasani, dan Sansundi at the Warsa District of Biak Numfor, Papua. Two species of cuscus occurs in the study site were common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis) and spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus...
Full Text Available Background: Anthropometric variables are important biometric characteristics that varies with age, sex, and tribe. Aim: Following the paucity of research in cephalometry as subdivisions of biological and forensic anthropology, this study was undertaken due to lack of adequate cephalometry among Nigerians. Methods: Four hundred and twenty five subjects were used for the study of which 158 were Igede and 267 were Idoma with mean age of 22.6, 0.45 and 23.0 0.47 year respectively. The anthropometric variables measured were head length, head width, bizygomatic distance, upper facial length, lower facial length, total facial length, nose width and skull height from which the cephalometric indices were calculated. Result: The result showed that there were statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in some of the measured variables between the Igede and Idoma tribes of Benue State as head length, head width. The result also showed a positive correlation between the head width and bizygomatic distance and other anthropometric variables which could be used to predict cephalic indices among the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups of Benue State, Nigeria. These results showed that the dominant head form among the Idoma and Igede Ethnic groups were mexocephalic respectively. Facial indices showed dominant hypereuriprosopic face. Conclusion: The present study could be used in forensic anthropology, establishing ancestral relationship and reconstructive surgeries of the face, head and neck of the two ethnic groups of Idoma and Igede of Benue State in north-central of Nigeria.
Full Text Available Background: Depressive disorder is globally estimated to be as many as one in five visits to primary health care. Approximately more than 50% of depressed women in primary care are not diagnosed. As a part of a major investigation into perceptions of women's depression, this study explored how female patients and their relatives conceptualize patients' conditions in three ethnic groups in Iran (Fars, Kurds and Turks.Methods: Qualitative methods were used for data collection. Depressed women and their relatives were purposively selected from the public psychiatric clinics affiliated to university of medical sciences in the three study cities. Twenty-five depressed women and 14 relatives were interviewed in three ethnic groups.Results: One theme "illness meaning", including three categories: perceived symptoms, label of the illness, and effects of the illness was found through the content analysis. The participants perceived symptoms of illness as somatic and psychological depending on the participant's assumed reason for the onset of the illness. There were most similarities in term used for of the illness in the three ethnic groups. Most of the study participants described the illness in terms of nerve problems/illness, and depression "afsordehgi". The most important effects that depressed women had experienced because of their illness were marital conflict or a guilt feeling originating from their inability to support family.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to recognize and choose appropriate diagnostic approach for depressed women in the context of Iran.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.
Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie
The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…
Cliona Ni Mhurchu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.
Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas
Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953
Caporino, Nicole E; Chen, Jason I; Karver, Marc S
Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents' ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. PMID:23834256
Full Text Available Speakers of English often understand ethnic and racial differences in terms of food imagery. It is quite common in this language to encounter metaphors presenting different groups of people in terms of beans, rice, bread, cheese, apples or chocolate. Given the cognitive and social force of metaphor in our understanding of the world and of ourselves as well as the important role language plays as a channel through which ideas and beliefs are transmitted and perpetuated, such food images may offer a window on the (deconstruction of ethnic identi-ties and, ultimately, hide racist views against others who are different because of their skin color, physical features, languages and, obviously, diets.
Gershoni-Baruch, R. (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Rosenmann, A. (Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)); Droetto, S.; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Spritz, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))
The authors have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. They detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, they detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense substitution, Gly47Asp (G47D). This mutation occurs on the same haplotype as in patients from the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico, suggesting that the G47D mutation in these ethnically distinct populations may stem from a common origin. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Houshmand, Massoud; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh; Soltani, Niloofar Jahangir; Golalipour, Massoud
Variation of a VNTR in the DAT1 gene in seven ethnic groups of the Middle East was used to infer the history and affinities of these groups. The populations consisted of Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, and Arab peoples of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait. Three hundred forty subjects from these seven ethnic groups were screened for DAT1. DAT1 VNTR genotyping showed 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 alleles in the samples. Analysis of these data revealed differentiation and relationship among the populations. In this region, which covers an area of 2-2.5 million km2, the influence of geography and especially of linguistic characteristics has had potentially major effects on differentiation. Religion also has played a major role in imposing restrictions on some ethnic groups, who as a consequence have maintained their community. Overall, these ethnic groups showed greater heterogeneity compared to other populations. PMID:18505046
Ad de Bruijne
Full Text Available Analyses ethnic residential patterns, in terms of spatial segregation, in Paramaribo, as these developed historically, and their correlation to the changing socioeconomic position of the various ethnic groups. Authors first point out how Paramaribo is at present one of the most multiethnic and multicultural cities of the Caribbean, and discuss the continuing importance of ethnic identity and boundaries. They further describe the history of Paramaribo's development since the period of slavery and after abolition, when many Creoles migrated to the city. Hindustani started migrating in higher numbers to Paramaribo since the early 20th c., mainly to the urban periphery, and since the 1960s also more Javanese. More recently (since the 1980s migrants to Paramaribo include Maroons, Amerindians, Chinese, and Brazilians. Authors examine in how far the residential patterns were determined by socioeconomic factors, and/or by ethnicity. They conclude that socioeconomic factors have overall become more influential in residential patterns than ethnicity. They point out that residential ethnic mixing has increased, as almost half of Paramaribo's neighbourhoods are mixed, with no dominant ethnic group, although some ethnic concentration continues, as a quarter of the neighbourhoods can be called Creole, one-fifth of them Hindustani, and Creoles (and Maroons reside for a higher percentage in the city centre, and Hindustani and Javanese more in the urban periphery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Methods Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871, Turkey (n = 387, Vietnam (n = 553, Sri Lanka (n = 879 and Pakistan (n = 420. Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. Results The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men: Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7/20.0% (14.9-25.2; Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9/20.7% (17.3-24.2, Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7/12.0% (7.6-16.4, Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2/10.4% (6.6-14.1 and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7/6.4% (4.6-8.1. The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p Conclusions A high prevalence of diabetes was found in 30-to 60-year-olds from ethnic minority groups in Oslo, with those from Sri Lanka and Pakistan at highest risk. For all levels of adiposity, a higher susceptibility for diabetes was observed for ethnic minority
McShall, Jared R; Johnson, Matthew D
The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736
Joe Gfroerer, BA
Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.
Abdul Sattar Khan; Maisa Al-Sweilem; Zekeriya Akturk
Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) livi...
Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos Arturo; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo; Navarro-Navarro, Moisés; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana
Background Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Methods Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the...
Steven Prus; Zhiqiu Lin
The study of health differences across a wide-range of ethnic, racial, and cultural groups has received relatively little attention in the literature. Twenty-one ethnocultural groups are examined in the current study, providing one of the most comprehensive analyses to-date on ethnicity and physical health in Canada. Two specific research questions are addressed. First, what is the extent of ethnocultural-based health inequalities in Canada? Second, do ethnocultural differences in health refl...
Leader, Tirza; Mullen, Brian; Rice, Diana
Ethnophaulisms (A. A. Roback, 1944) are the words used as ethnic slurs to refer to out-groups in hate speech. The results of previous archival research have suggested that it is the complexity, more so than the valence, of ethnophaulisms that predicts the exclusion of ethnic immigrant out-groups from the receiving society. This article reports the results of 3 experimental examinations of the relative contributions of complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms to the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group was increased by the use of low-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group decreased by the use of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 3 confirmed the demonstration that exclusion decreased by the use of a different set of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. The results of these three experiments converge to indicate that low complexity exerts more of an effect than negative valences on the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. The implications of these results for theoretical approaches to intergroup behavior are considered. PMID:19210073
Marissa Janine Carter
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.
Gershoni-Baruch, R; Rosenmann, A; Droetto, S; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R K; Spritz, R.A.
We have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. We detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, we detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense...
Abraham P. Buunk
Full Text Available This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks and Moroccans than among the Dutch, but females in both ethnic groups were less in favor of parental influence on mate choice than males were. Overall, males showed a higher opposition against interethnic dating than females did, and the Turks showed a higher level of opposition to interethnic mating than both the Moroccans and the Dutch. In addition, the effect of opposition against interethnic mating on preferred parental influence on mate choice was especially pronounced among the Turks, somewhat less so among the Moroccans, and least strong among the Dutch. Especially young males with a Turkish and Moroccan background seem to hold on to the values of the cultures they come from, and particularly Turkish immigrants seem keen on keeping the cohesion of their ethnic group intact by opposing interethnic dating, and by favoring parental influence on mate choice as a way to achieve this goal.
J. Torabizade maatoghi
Conclusion: Our study showed ethnicity-related prevalence. Overall, the blood group O had the highest prevalence and AB the lowest percentage among the ethnicities, indicating a significant difference with studies in other parts of the world.
Glycemic Associations With Endothelial Function and Biomarkers Among 5 Ethnic Groups: The Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Studies
Kanaya, Alka M.; Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Ganz, Peter; Creasman, Jennifer; Gupta, Ritu; Nelacanti, Vidya; Vogel‐Claussen, Jens; Herrington, David
Background The association of prediabetic states with endothelial dysfunction measured by flow‐mediated dilation (FMD) or endothelial biomarker levels remains controversial. We examined data from 5 ethnic groups to determine the association between glucose categories and FMD or endothelial biomarkers. We determined whether these associations vary by ethnic group or body mass index. Methods and Results We used data from 3516 participants from 5 race/ethnic groups with brachial FMD, endothelial...
Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke
Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan
Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous health research has often explicitly excluded individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds due to perceived cultural and communication difficulties, including studies where there might be language/literacy problems in obtaining informed consent. This study addressed these difficulties by developing audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent and recording data. This report outlines 1 our experiences with securing recruitment to a qualitative study investigating alternative methods of data collection, and 2 the development of a standardised process for obtaining informed consent from individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds whose main language does not have an agreed written form. Methods Two researchers from South Asian backgrounds recruited adults with Type 2 diabetes whose main language was spoken and not written, to attend a series of focus groups. A screening tool was used at recruitment in order to assess literacy skills in potential participants. Informed consent was obtained using audio-recordings of the patient information and recording patients' verbal consent. Participants' perceptions of this method of obtaining consent were recorded. Results Recruitment rates were improved by using telephone compared to face-to-face methods. The screening tool was found to be acceptable by all potential participants. Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent were easy to implement and accepted by all participants. Attrition rates differed according to ethnic group. Snowballing techniques only partly improved participation rates. Conclusion Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent are an acceptable alternative to written consent in study populations where literacy skills are variable. Further exploration of issues relating to attrition is required, and a range of methods may be necessary in order to maximise response and participation rates.
Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516
Noor, Sufian K; Elsugud, Nada A; Bushara, Sarra O; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Ahmed, Mohamed H
Objective Hypertension is an emerging non-communicable disease in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in order to prevent complications. For instance, premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases could be prevented by the effective control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Nuba ethnic group living in Atbara city, north Sudan and to identify the associated risk factors. Subject and methods All consenting 500 adults from Nuba tribe who live in El Wihda District, Atbara were included. Blood pressure (BP) and body mass index were measured. Standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic data, and lifestyle characteristics. Results Among the 500 participants, females were 364 (72.8%) and males were 136 (27.2%). The overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 49.4% (30.8% stage 1 hypertension and 18.6% stage 2 hypertension). In addition, 41% of the population was having prehypertension. The significant risk factors for high BP were: male sex, age above 45 years, overweight, illiteracy, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Undiagnosed high BP is very common among Nuba ethnic group; therefore, active screening and early management are recommended to prevent complications. PMID:26738696
Full Text Available Study on cuscus hunting as a form of wildlife utilization by Biak ethnic group surrounding the North Biak Strict Nature Reserce (CABU was carried out through direct observation and interview with hunter respondents and other key respondents among four villages that purposively chosen i.e. Inswambesi, Kayomi, Wasani, dan Sansundi at the Warsa District of Biak Numfor, Papua. Two species of cuscus occurs in the study site were common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis and spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus and they were observed as hunting target in CABU. Hunting was performed partly as routine activity used various traditional tools (slash blade, trap, spear, and calling cuscus and modern weapon (firearm. Cuscus hunting was done to supply animal protein for households, inspite some hunting results raised for consumption and market purposes. For one period of hunting 3-4 cuscus were caught and it was lower than five years ago. It was indicated that the population condition was vulnerable on overharvest and at the present time cuscus population tend to decreased. Traditional wisdom of Biak ethnic group should be explored and practiced again as the form of local law in order to manage cuscus hunting for the future cuscus conservation program.
CAO Shang; LUO Peng-fei; LI Wei; TANG Wan-qin; CONG Xiao-na; WEI Ping-min
Background In epidemiological studies,tuberculosis (TB) appears intimately with vitamin D insufficiency whereas its relationship with vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism caused by radical difference remains unspecified.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis in Han ethnic group.Methods Meta-analysis was adopted in the synthetic quantitative analysis of documents home and abroad on the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphisms and tuberculosis,which were openly published during June 2000 to January 2010.Random effect model and fixed effect model analyses were used to calculate the incorporated odds ratio (OR) based on the heterogeneity test data.Results A total of 6 eligible studies were included in this analysis.The Fokl-ff genotype showed a significant marginal association (Fixed effect model:OR 1.91,95％ CI 1.44-2.52; Random effect model:OR 1.91,95％ CI 0.94-3.88),yet Taql polymorphisms was not significantly related to TB.Conclusion The interaction between FoKI genotype polymorphism and TB observed demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency might exist as a risk factor during the development of TB in Han ethnic group and more evidences needed to validate the conclusion.
Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C
In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895
Daker-White, G; Beattie, A M; Gilliard, J; Means, R
Sixty-seven English language articles were obtained for the review, the majority of which (44, 65.7%) had US origins. Broadly, the main issues covered in the literature were the under-utilization of services by minority ethnic groups; the prevalence of dementia in different ethnic groups; the experience of care giving in different racial groups and language as a factor in cognitive assessment. Although it has been argued that the instruments used to assess cognitive function are culturally biased, the available published evidence would seem to suggest that the fundamental issue is language ability, rather than minority group membership per se. Studies into the care giving experience amongst different ethnic or racial groups suffer from theoretical and methodological weaknesses. Studies of help-seeking among various ethnic groups in the US have found that many do not prioritize dementia as a health problem in the face of more pressing concerns. There was little consensus amongst the articles about whether services should be provided specifically for different ethnic groups, reflecting a lack of evidence concerning the efficacy of different models of service provision. PMID:12028878
Poulsen, Lena; Farzad, Maryam Sharafi; Børsting, Claus;
individuals were grouped according to their ethnic group. The Iranian population grouped closely to populations living geographically near to Iran based on pairwise FST distances. The matching probabilities ranged from 1 in 3.2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosomal haplogroups to 1...
Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh
Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who refe...
Koceva, Daniela; Mirascieva, Snezana; Petrova Gjorgjeva, Emilija
This research has to give an answer to the questions that have a causality relation with the better educational achievements of the people from other ethnic groups. I have chiefly considered the parents’ social status which means that I will mostly look into the parents’ level of education, although this status encompasses much more. The basic aim of the research is to examine the differences of students’ educational achievements based on ethnicity in the Primary Schools in Macedonia. The res...
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees amongst the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups. PMID:21967527
González-Andrade, Fabricio; Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Sánchez, Dora; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña
Twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were studied in the three major ethnic groups from Ecuador: Mestizos, Native Amerindians (Kichwas, Quichuas) and Afro-Ecuadorians aiming to construct a representative database for this region in Latin America. All three populations exhibit high haplotypes diversities. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals significant differentiation between the Mestizos, the Kichwas and the Afro-Ecuadorians. The analysis of a hunter-gatherer group of Native Amerindians from the Amazonian provinces of Ecuador, the Waoranis (Huaorani) revealed markedly reduced haplotypes variability and a large genetic distance to the major Ecuadorian populations. PMID:19414158
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants. PMID:25982532
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze how the tourism development has marginalized the Tharu, an indigenous and ethnic group in the Terai region of Nepal. The research for this study was carried out in Chitwan National Park in Nepal, where the Tharu has been residing for a long time. The research work was based on the key informant interviews, participant observation and an analysis of secondary data taken from a variety of sources. The study reveals that the expansion of tourism has led to social differentiation developing between the Tharu and the hill migrants, as most of the business activities in the area are controlled by the hill migrants, while the Tharu have been marginalized. The study also shows that tourism has empowered the hill migrant women more than the Tharu women; as both the group women previously used to depend on their husband’s finances but now the hill migrant women are more financially independent.
Gloria A. Miranda-Zambrano
Full Text Available The work exposes some forms of indigenous groups participation on entrepreneurial family businesses, mainly in the region of Laja - Bajío where the family plays an important role in these organizations. The work point out the approach on technical ethnic division of labour to locate such actors in labour circuits, in economic activities or guilds that have been built in various social processes. To analyze the ways in which they operate, the role of the family, their knowledge (cultural capital, its forms of linkage with the community of origin and with the Group (social capital, as well as the existence of certain differences with business in common. This research is part of a larger work on family businesses.
Alejandra López Salazar
Full Text Available The work exposes some forms of indigenous groups participation on entrepreneurial family businesses, mainly in the region of Laja - Bajío where the family plays an important role in these organizations. The work point out theapproach on technical ethnic division of labour to locate such actors in labour circuits, in economic activities or guilds that have been built in various social processes. To analyze the ways in which they operate, the role of the family, their knowledge (cultural capital, its forms of linkage with the community of origin and with the Group (social capital, as well as the existence of certain differences with business in common. This research is part of a larger work on family businesses.
Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.
This explorative study describes time use and time management behaviour of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as possible explanations for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared to those of majority students. We used a diary approach in a small sample to examine students' daily time use in both a lecture week…
Che Lah Salasiah
Malaysia provides ethnic tourism which is related to the more popularly known as nature or eco-tourism where an indigenous or traditional group of people who live in this environment will interact with and provide services to the tourists who would like to experience ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism refers to travel motivated by the search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and/or cultural background is different from the tourists. Tourists are...
Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles
Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account. PMID:26370238
Full Text Available Orientation: Researching entrepreneurship using a network perspective is important, as social networks are assets for small business owners struggling to survive in competitive markets.Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context.Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital.Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses.Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted.Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking.Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.
Leff, H Stephen; Chow, Clifton; Wieman, Dow A; Ostrow, Laysha; Cortés, Dharma E; Harris, Treniece
Measurement of patient satisfaction is now considered essential for providing patient centered care and is an important tool for addressing health care disparities. However, little is known about how ethnically and racially diverse (ERD) groups differ in how they perceive quality, and widely used instruments for measuring perceived quality give little attention to cultural elements of care. This study examined the relationship between the culturally determined beliefs and expectations of four ERD groups (African Americans, Latinos, Portuguese-speakers, and Haitians, total N = 160) and the technical quality of treatment for depression provided in four "culturally-specific" primary care clinics. Using data from the Experiences of Care and Health Outcomes survey, chart reviews and focus groups, the study addressed a set of questions related to the psychometric properties of perceived care measures and the technical quality of care. The groups differed in preferred cultural elements except all preferred inclusion of religion. They did not differ in overall perceived quality. Technical quality was higher for Portuguese and Haitians than for African Americans and Latinos. Implications of group differences for measuring quality are discussed. PMID:26748509
Gooren, Louis J
Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187
Yi, Zhou; Jun, Wang; XingBo, Song; XiaoJun, Lu; Liu, Ding; BinWu, Ying
We have co-amplified and analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) in 132 healthy unrelated autochthonous male individuals of Chinese Tibetan ethnic group residing in Lassa area of China. The gene diversity values for the Y-STRs loci ranged from a minimum 0.206 for DYS391 locus to a maximum of 0.912 for DYS385a/b locus in the populations. A total of 123 haplotypes were identified, among which 115 were unique and 8 occurred more than once. The overall haplotype diversity for 17 Y-STRs loci was 0.998. Research results will be valuable for forensic use in the regions and for Chinese population genetic study. PMID:20116321
Deutekom Marije; Hosper Karen; Stronks Prof
Abstract Background Lack of physical activity is an important risk factor for overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. In the Netherlands, ethnic minority groups are generally less physically active and rate their own health poorer compared to ethnic Dutch. This applies in particular to women. For this reason women from ethnic minority groups are an important target group for interventions to promote physical activity. In the Netherlands, an exercise referral...
Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A. Terry
Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are descr...
Rauchbauer, Birgit; Majdandžić, Jasminka; Stieger, Stefan; Lamm, Claus
Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry. Experiment 2 demonstrated that these effects were not confounded by general aspects of response conflict, as a Simon task resulted in different response patterns than the SAMT. Experiment 2 and pooled analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 also corroborated the finding of enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces. Experiment 3 tested whether this effect was related to perceptions of threat, by framing angry persons as physically threatening, or not. Selective enhancement of mimicry to out-group persons framed as physically threatening confirmed this hypothesis. Further support for the role of threat was derived from implicit measures showing, in all experiments, that black persons were more strongly associated with threat. Furthermore, enhanced mimicry was consistently related to response facilitation in the execution of congruent movements. This suggests that mimicry acted as a social congruency signal. Our findings suggest that mimicry may serve as an appeasement signal in response to negative affiliative intent. This extends previous models of mimicry, which have predominantly focused on its role in reciprocating affiliation. It suggests that mimicry might not only be used to maintain and establish affiliative bonds, but also to ameliorate a negative social situation. PMID:27557135
Smith, Justin D; Knoble, Naomi B; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A
Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007 ). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent-child interactions for diverse cultural groups. A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6-8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120
Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen; McKenzie, Kwame; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James; Weich, Scott
Objectives. We measured perceived discrimination and its association with common mental disorders among workers in the United Kingdom. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of a national sample of 6 ethnic groups (n=2054). Discrimination was measured as reports of insults; unfair treatment at work; or job denial stemming from race, religion, or language. The outcome assessed was presence of common mental disorders. Results. The risk of mental disorders was highest among ethnic minority individuals reporting unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 3.2) and racial insults (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.6). The overall greatest risks were observed among Black Caribbeans exposed to unfair treatment at work (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.2, 7.3) and Indian (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.4, 7.2), Bangladeshi (OR=32.9; 95% CI=2.5, 436.0), and Irish (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.1, 7.6) individuals reporting insults. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic discrimination shows strong associations with common mental disorders. PMID:15727983
Ana L. Miranda-Vilela
Full Text Available Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp*2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp*1F and Hp*1S, that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56, Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70 and an urban population (n = 132 were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3% and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%. The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of FST (0.0291 indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp *1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians.
Kenyon, Chris; Zondo, Sizwe
The differences in HIV prevalence between South Africa's racial/ethnic groups (19.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% among 15-49-year-old blacks, coloureds and whites, respectively) are as big as those between the countries with the highest and lowest levels of HIV prevalence worldwide. These large racial/ethnic differences are largely determined by different sexual network structures. In networks among black South Africans, sexual partnerships are more likely to be arranged concurrently - a configuration that leads to exponential increases in the spread of HIV. An examination of the historical origins of polygamy (where it is normative for partnerships to be arranged concurrently) and monogamy (serial or lifetime) reveals that it is the practice of universal monogamy in stratified societies which is the outlier. The ideology and practice of universal monogamy originated in Europe as the result of several factors, most prominently conflicts between the Christian Church and the nobility. After its imposition in Europe, the European colonial project would see this ideology disseminated around the world. Under the influence of liberalism it would mutate into a secular and unacknowledged value-programme of monogamy as a universal norm. This value-programme and practice of monogamy (mostly serial) is still the norm for white South Africans; thus, this sexual behaviour 'spandrel' (by-product of other historical processes) is a large contributor to the lower levels of HIV prevalence among whites. In pre-colonial African societies, polygyny was normative, and the Christian value-programme of monogamy never achieved the hegemonic status it did in Europe and other areas of conquest. Married black African men who converted to Christianity were no less likely to have additional sexual partners, but only more likely to conceal them. The ongoing secrecy about having concurrent partners has contributed to the connectedness of sexual networks among black Africans at large and in this manner has
Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A
There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population. PMID:22128837
Meeuwisse, Marieke; Severiens, Sabine E.; Born, Marise Ph.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate a model for describing the relationships between the extent to which learning environments are activating and students' interaction with teachers and peers, sense of belonging, and study success. It was tested whether this model holds true for both ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students.…
Junger, Marianne; Polder, Wim
Since 1950 there has been large-scale immigration to Western Europe, mainly from Muslim countries. This paper focuses on the degree of involvement in crime of ethnic minority boys as compared to indigenous boys and on the possible causes of these crime involvements. A random sample from three ethnic
Teeuw, Marieke E; Loukili, Ghariba; Bartels, Edien Ac; ten Kate, Leo P; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
Consanguineous couples should be adequately informed about their increased reproductive risk and possibilities for genetic counselling. Information may only be effective if it meets the needs of the target group. This study aimed to gain more insight into: (1) attitudes of people belonging to ethnic groups in Western society towards consanguinity and their understanding of risk for offspring; and (2) their attitudes regarding reproductive information targeted at consanguineous couples. Dutch Moroccans and Turks were invited to complete an online questionnaire by snowball sampling and by placing a link on two popular Dutch Moroccan/Turkish forum websites between September and October 2011. The questionnaire was completed by 201 individuals who were, on average, neither positive nor negative towards consanguinity. Respondents with a consanguineous partner were more positive, estimated the risk for the offspring lower and were less positive about the provision of risk information to consanguineous couples when compared with respondents without a consanguineous partner. Participants of Turkish origin had a more negative attitude towards consanguinity and estimated the reproductive risk higher than Moroccan participants. More than half of the respondents thought that information should be given before marriage, whereas only 10% thought it should never be provided. The general practitioner was most often mentioned (54%) as the designated professional to inform people. Information about genetic risks related to consanguinity should be offered early, preferably before marriage. The diversity of the target population requires various strategies to disseminate information and reach consanguineous couples with the offer of genetic counselling. PMID:23921534
Mello, Zena R.
This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…
Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…
Brown, Michael T.
Family of origin is probably the single most potent determinant of career development and one means by which the sociopolitical salience of race and class are translated into individual career trajectories, perhaps most significantly for those of racial/ethnic group minorities. However, Whiston and Keller's critical analysis reveals that scholars…
Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Diouf, Boucar; Zimanyi, Monika; Samuel, Terence; McNamara, Bridgette J; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Holden, Libby; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F
We have demonstrated considerable variability in the volumes of different glomeruli in given individuals (individual glomerular volume: IGV) in a stereologic study of kidneys at forensic autopsy performed to investigate sudden or unexpected death in people without manifest kidney disease. We review some important associations of IGV by subject characteristics and by ethnic groups. IGVs were measured by the Cavalieri method in 30 glomeruli in each of 111 adult males who belonged to 4 ethnic groups, i.e. US Whites, African-Americans, Africans from Senegal, and Australian Aborigines. Correlations of pooled IGV values with certain subject characteristics were evaluated in the US Whites. Pooled IGV data were compared in subjects across the 4 ethnic groups. In US Whites, mean IGV and its variance were greater with higher age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight, and with gross obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular death. In comparisons by ethnic group, mean IGV and IGV ranges were higher in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines than in US Whites and African Senegalese subjects. We conclude that glomerular enlargement with volume heterogeneity marks more advanced age, relative nephron deficiency, lower birth weight, obesity, hypertension, and advanced cardiovascular disease. The findings in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines suggest that larger IGVs and volume heterogeneity might mark populations with accentuated susceptibility to hypertension and kidney disease, but the data need to be further examined in the context of the determining characteristics defined in the US Whites. PMID:21659730
The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Soon, Kokyung
This study investigates the relations between three academic socialisation processes and late adolescents' internal locus of control. A sample of 249 college students from four ethnic groups completed three measures. Three factors explained 46.44% of the variance in academic socialisation, and the following differences were found: emotional…
Entering the 21st century, in order to cope with the opportunities and challenges of globalization, the Chinese people have been showing an unprecedented enthusiasm in learning English, the widely acknowledged international language. Under such circumstances, English education is highly valued in today’s Chinese society. However, in a multi-ethnic country like China, there exist great differences between the country’s ethnic majority group and ethnic minority groups in terms of receiving Engl...
N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre
Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. PMID:27430549
Feng CHEN; Yong-hui DANG; Chun-xia YAN; Yan-ling LIU; Ya-jun DENG; David J. R. FULTON; Teng CHEN
The purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment-I (HVS-I) C-stretch variations and explore the significance of these variations in forensic and population genetics studies. The C-stretch sequence variation was studied in 919 unrelated individuals from 8 Chinese ethnic groups using both direct and clone sequencing ap-proaches. Thirty eight C-stretch haplotypes were identified, and some novel and population specific haplotypes were also detected. The C-stretch genetic diversity (GD) values were relatively high, and probability (P) values were low. Additionally, C-stretch length heteroplasmy was observed in approximately 9% of individuals studied. There was a significant correlation (r=-0.961, P<0.01) between the expansion of the cytosine sequence length in the C-stretch of HVS-I and a reduction in the number of up-stream adenines. These results indicate that the C-stretch could be a useful genetic maker in forensic identification of Chinese populations. The results from the Fst and dA genetic distance matrix, neighbor-joining tree, and principal component map also suggest that C-stretch could be used as a reliable genetic marker in population genetics.
Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping
STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550
Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S
Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide. PMID:26181061
康龙丽; 金天博; 陈腾; 李生斌
Objective To investigate the genetic relation among ten ethnic groups in northwest China. Methods Allele frequencies of six STR(short tandem repeat ) loci in D13S1358, VWA, FGA, D5S818, D13S317, and D7S820 were collected from Lasa Tibetan, Changdu Tibetan, Xian Han, Gansu Dongxiang, Gansu Yugu, Xinjiang Uygur, Ozbak, Kirgiz, Sibe, Ningxia Hui by the results of State Key laboratory, Forensic Science Department, school of medical, Xian Jiaotong University and internet biological information data bank, and compared with that of the Mongolian, Zhuang in China, and White and Negro in USA. The polymorphism index (H, DP, PPE, PIC) and genetic distance, then the phylogenetic tree of all population were reported. Results The resulting tree topology exhibited strong geographic and racial partitioning consistent with that obtained with HLA and classical genetic polymorphisms. Conclusion The results suggest that forensic STR loci may be particularly powerful tools and provide the necessary fine resolution for the reconstruction of recent human evolutionary history.
Sheu, Hung-Bin; Mejia, Araceli; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Primé, Dominic R; Chong, Shiqin Stephanie
Data of 306 Caucasian American, 284 Asian American, and 259 Latino/a American college students were analyzed in this study to test a modified version of Lent and Brown's (2006, 2008) satisfaction model in the academic context. In addition to the full set of variables hypothesized in the original model, the modified academic satisfaction model also included independent and interdependent self-construals to represent one's cultural orientations. Comparisons between the hypothesized model and 2 alternative models showed that direct paths from extraversion and emotional stability added significantly to the predictions of academic satisfaction and life satisfaction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups while those from independent and interdependent self-construals also had the same effects for Latino/a American students. The hypothesized model offered excellent fit to the data of all 3 racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with theoretical prediction, academic supports, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, or goal progress formed pathways that mediated the relations of personality traits and self-construals to academic satisfaction or life satisfaction across 3 groups. Although full measurement equivalence (configural invariance and metric invariance) was observed, 4 structural paths and 16 indirect effects differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Most of these differences in structural paths and indirect effects occurred between Caucasian Americans and Asian Americans. On balance, findings of the study provided evidence for the cross-racial/ethnic validity of the modified academic satisfaction model while identifying racial/ethnic differences that might have useful clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27177025
Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception.
Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai
Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487
Social integration of ethnic groups in Europe. How can concepts of place and territoriality help explain processes, policies and problems of socially integrating different ethnic groups in a European context?
International migration is changing the spatial and social topography of European cities. This paper represents an attempt to apply concepts of place and territoriality to the issue of integration of ethnic groups into a European context. Based on three examples from Oslo, Paris and Duisburg it is argued that the place concepts of location, locale and sense of place can provide a comprehensive framework for understanding current processes and problems regarding integration. The...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. SETTING: Guy's and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT. POPULATION: 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (I MATERNAL OUTCOMES: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03. Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%, and lowest for oriental women (8%. Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women.
Laila Kholid Alfirdaus
Full Text Available Generally studies on pribumi and Chinese relationship in Indonesia are dominated with conflict perspectives. In fact, in practice, the relationship between the two groups can be very dynamic. Amongst social tension arose between them, there are often stories about social harmony, social engagement and social cohesion. This is also what we found in the Minang-Chinese relationship in Padang, West Sumatra. The Minang-Chinese relationship in Padang, West Sumatra, in current period has been not only about social tension. In spite of the strong tension arose due to differences in ethnicity and religious belief, they are strongly tied in running local trading, political party, and other areas of public policy making. Competition in economy often stands together with cooperation. This similarly works in local politics, and, recently, community recovery post 2009-earthquake. Such dynamic relationships is inseparable from ethnic politics constructed throughout Padang history in the past. This paper sees that the relationships of Minang and Chinese are inseparable from the ethnic politics constructed throughout Padang history. This paper tries to portray briefly the journey of Minang and Chinese relationship in Padang and the politics that contextualizes the making of that relationship based on literature research and in-depth interviews. Despite its shortness, this paper is supposed to provide background information for those interested in discussing the issue of ethnicity in Padang and West Sumatra.
Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.;
Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... sample of Luo, Kamba, Maasai, and an ethnically mixed group from rural and urban Kenya. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using a standard OGTT. BMI, WC, AFA, AMA and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat thicknesses, physical activity and fitness were measured. Questionnaires were used to determine...... previous diabetes diagnosis, family history of diabetes, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Results: Among 1459 participants, mean age 38.6 years (range 17-68 years), the overall age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and IGT was 4.2% and 12.0%. The Luo had the highest prevalence of glucose...
Kevin M Waters
Full Text Available It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4 and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12 except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het = 3.8×10(-4. We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pouget, Enrique R.; Des Jarlais, Don D.C.; Cooper, Hannah L.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Stern, Rebecca; Strauss, Shiela M.; Hagan, Holly
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through blood-to-blood contact during injection drug use via shared contaminated syringes/needles or injection paraphernalia. This paper used meta-analytic methods to assess whether HCV prevalence and incidence varied across different racial/ethnic groups of injection drug users (IDUs) sampled internationally. The 29 prevalence and 11 incidence studies identified as part of the HCV Synthesis Project were categorized into subgroups based on similar...
Ismail, Khadijah I
OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were
Feng Chen; Yajun Deng; Yonghui Dang; BO Zhang; Haofang Mu; Xiaoguang Yu; Lin Li; Chunxia Yan; Teng Chen
We analyzed the two hypervariable segments HVS-Ⅰ and HVS-Ⅱ of 108 Chinese Tu ethnic minority group samples for forensic and population genetics purposes.Comparing with Anderson sequence,79 polymorphic loci in HVS-Ⅰ and 40 in HVS-Ⅱ were found in Chi-nese Tu ethnic minority group mtDNA sequences,and 90 and 64 haplotypes were then defined.Haplotype diversity and the mean pair-wise differences were 0.9903:±0.0013 and 5.7785 in HVS-Ⅰ,and 0.9777±0.0013 and 3.5819 in HVS-Ⅱ,respectively.By analyzing the hypervariable domain from nucleotide 1,6180 to 1,6193 in HVS-Ⅰ,we defined some new types of sequence variations.We also compared the relationship between Tu population and other populations using mtDNA HVS-Ⅰ sequences.According to Rst genetic distances,the phylogenetic tree showed that the Tu population,the Xi'an Han population,the Chinese Korean,and the Mongol ethnic group were in a clade.This indicated a close genetic relationship between them.There were far relations between the Tu population and other Chinese southern Han populations,Siberian,European,African,and other foreign populations.The results suggest that Tu population has a multi-origin and has also merged with other local populations.
Zhang Hongbo; Li Shengbin
Objective To investigate HLA-A,-B and -DRB1 allele and HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotype frequencies in Mongolia ethnic group. Methods HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype in the Mongolia ethnic group were investigated based on 93 individuals by PCR- sequence-based typing (SBT) method. Results Twenty-one alleles were detected for HLA-A, 44 for HLA-B, and 26 for HLA-DRB1. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*2402(0.2097), HLA-B*1302(0.0699), and HLA-DRB1*0701(0.1237). The most common HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotype were A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701, A*0101-B*3701-DRB1*1001, followed by the A*0201-B*4601-DRB1*0901, A*2402-B*4801-DRB1*1101, A*2402-B*5201-DRB1*1501, A*3201-B*3503-DRB1*1301, and A*3303-B*5801-DRB1*0301, which were also presented in Chinese populations. Conclusion The data can be used in forensic and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a DNA profile or anthropologic research. The characteristics of the distribution of HLA alleles revealed that Mongolia ethnic group is characterized by northern Mongolian Chinese.
Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.
The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…
Devillé Walter L
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In
Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S
Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM. PMID:25789978
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…
Vilnius, 1997 - (Jekantaité-Kuzmickiene, L.). s. - [Cultural Pluralism and Culture of Peace . 03.12.1997-04.12.1997, Vilnius] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA8058504 Keywords : ethnic identity * immigrantion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography
This research tests the self-esteem argument for multiculturalism: the idea that acceptance and recognition of cultural diversity is crucial for personal self-feelings because of its support for ethnic identity. Results from three studies using two different methodologies (correlational and experime
Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others
A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…
Cunningham, Wendy; Joyce P. Jacobsen
Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which stratification by race...
The relationship of HLA-A, -Cw alleles on HIV infection and AIDS disease progression in the Chinese Yi ethnic group of Sichuan province were investigated. The genetic polymorphisms of HLA-A, -Cw alleles of 102 unrelated healthy Chinese Yi ethnic individuals, 68 HIV-1 infected and 21 HIV positive long-time survivors were typed by PCR-SSP assay. Statistic signifiance was determined by the χ2 test with the SPSS software. No significant differences were observed between the HLA-A, -Cw alleles of the 68 HIV-1 infected and 102 non-infected Chinese Yi control individuals. Whereas the prevalence of A*3601,Cw*14(01-03)and Cw*0304 was significantly higher in 21 long time survivors compared with 102 healthy controls with P values of 0.016, 0.016 and 0.000 by χ2 or the Fisher exact test respectively. The result implies that A*3601,Cw*14(01-03) and Cw*0304 may be associated with slow AIDS disease progression in the Chinese Yi ethnic group, further studies on this association may yield insight on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.
Kuan-Chun Chiang, RN, MS
Full Text Available IntroductionEnhanceFitness (EF (formerly the Lifetime Fitness Program is an evidence-based community exercise program for older adults. From 1998 to 2005, participation of ethnic older adults increased significantly. However, little research is available about what ethnic older adults want or need to continue participation in exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how physical environment, social environment, and individual biology and behavior influence adherence to exercise for ethnic older adults participating in EF.MethodsSix focus groups were conducted with 52 older adults participating in EF. Facilitators asked questions about factors that helped participants continue exercising in EF. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis.ResultsFocus group participants were Chinese (n = 21, 40%, African American (n = 18, 35%, white (n = 10, 19%, and Japanese (n = 3, 6%. Mean (SD age was 76 years (7.4. Participants had, on average, participated in EF for 44 months (SD = 37.8. Results revealed four themes related to adherence. First, environmental factors that promoted adherence were location of the classes, transportation, weather, and the facility. Second, design of the exercise program that encouraged adherence included exercise content and type of delivery. Third, social support factors that encouraged adherence were the socializing and support between class participants and support from family, health care providers, and the class instructors. Finally, individual factors that encouraged adherence were personality traits and feelings, past physical activity experience, health benefits, and mental stimulation.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest strategies for developing community-based physical activity programs for older adults from ethnically diverse communities.
de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey
Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed. PMID:22515273
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem
Using data from a nation-wide study, this article examines the extent of racist victimization among Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese children (10-13 years) in The Netherlands. The responses indicate that ethnic minority children are more often victim of racist name-calling and social exclusion than are Dutch children. Furthermore, Turkish children are more likely to face racism than Surinamese and Moroccan children. Using multilevel analysis, the effects of multicultural education and ...
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the e...
Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A
Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to describe an awareness and level of oral hygiene of children of Romany ethnic group and subsequently optimize the care of oral cavity leading to the reduction in frequency of hanging apparatus illnesses. The other target of this thesis is a preparation of educational program that would motivate children to correct and regular dental hygiene. The thesis deals with history and characteristic of Romany ethnic group, issues of Romany children and low...
Sharma, Sangita; Pakserescht, Mohammadreza; Cruickshank, Kennedy; Green, Deborah M.; Kolonel, Laurence N
Background Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. and stroke mortality rates differ substantially by ethnic group. The impact of adherence to the USDA dietary guidelines on risk for fatal stroke among different ethnic groups has not previously been examined. Methods A prospective cohort design was used to examine associations between adherence with dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake and risk for stroke mortality among 174,888 men and women representing fiv...
Tröbs, M.; d'Arcio, L.; Barke, S.; Bogenstahl, J.; Diekmann, C.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Hennig, J.; Hey, F. G.; Hogenhuis, H.; Killow, C. J.; Lieser, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Nikolov, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Sohmer, A.; Taylor, A.; Ward, H.; Weise, D.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.
Each LISA satellite carries optical benches, one for each test mass, that measure the distance to the local test mass and to the remote optical bench on the distant satellite. Currently, an elegant bread board of the optical bench is developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by EADS Astrium, TNO Science and Technology, University of Glasgow and the Albert Einstein Institute. To test the optical bench the two interferometers mentioned above must be completed by an external simulator, the test mass and telescope simulator. We give an overview of the simulator layout and performance predictions.
Veghari, Gholam Reza; Jafar Golalipour, Mohammad
Undernutrition and obesity are two most children health problems in world. Several agents can effect on food pattern among ethnic groups. This study was designed to determine nutritional status among rural children by two ethnic groups (Turkman and Non-Turkman) in north of Iran in 2004. We chose 20 villages of 118 by cluster and simple sampling. All of 2-5 years old children in this area were considered in this study. Sample size was 1446 cases (551 = Turkman and 895 = non-Turkman). Height, weight and personal identification were recorded by questioner. BMI percentile and under -1SD, -2SD and -3SD from NCHS were used for comparison. X2-test and T-test were used to analyze by software SPSS. Turkman children are about 426 g heavier and 4.9 cm taller than non-Turkman in all of age groups. T-test is significant between two groups by weight and height (pmalnutrition is the most health problem in rural area in north of Iran and nutritional intervention is necessary for solving these problems. BMI values are not suitable for children with stature failure.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups were herded from Lanchang Region to Siam Region. In recent time, they settled down in Central Thailand. The objectives of this research were to study: (1 historical background of Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups, (2 their lifestyle facilitating tourism and (3 development of cultural tourism model as Home Stay of the Ethnics. Approach: the research area included Pechaburi, Nakonpatom, Saraburi, Supanburi and Kanchanaburi Provinces. The key informants were selected by Purposive Sampling including: 30 experts, 40 practitioners and 50 general villagers. The research design was Qualitative Research. Data were collected by techniques of interview, observation and focus group discussion. They were analyzed by using Triangulation technique. The findings were presented by descriptive analysis. Results: (1 Lao Wieng and Lao Songe Ethnic Groups, were herded from Vientiene City, Lao Country abut 200 years ago. They settled down in Middle Thailand by doing rice farm. For their living, they maintained their traditional culture of community since then, (2 lifestyle facilitating tourism consisted of identity including household, relatives relationship, dressing, language, religious, custom and beliefs, (3 the model of inherited local cultural tourism as Home Stay, each ethnic group should be organized as the following model: For Lao Wieng Ethnic, the conservation and inheritance of local culture should be focused using major lifestyle factor based on household, food and dressing. For Thai Songedam Ethnic Group, major lifestyle factor should be based on lifestyle and cultural factor with identity including living place, food, dressing, tradition, ritual, local item selling and play. Conclusion/Recommendations: The ethnic group identity was necessary for cultural tourism. But, the scenery, culture, custom and tradition with identity should be emphasized so that it would be prominent by focusing on
Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K
The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767
Bing, Long; Liang, Weibo; Pi, Jianhua; Zhang, Deming; Yong, Dai; Luo, Haibo; Zhang, Lushun; Lin, Zhang
In this study, 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR(®)Y-filerTM)-DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 were analyzed in 424 unrelated males from Luzhou Han ethnic group, Southwest China. 365 haplotypes were observed. The discrimination capacity was 0.8608 and the haplotype diversity was 0.9992. PMID:23298877
Since modern times, due to the natural environment, medical and health conditions, living habits and other reasons, the diseases were prevalent in the region of Inner Mongolia, including fulminating infectious diseases like plague; chronic diseases like syphilis, trachoma; along with many common chronic disorders like stomach disease and rheumatism etc. The high incidence of some of these diseases in Inner Mongolia region, especially plague and venereal diseases, greatly affected the growth of the population of Mongolian ethnic group in modern times, and also seriously hindered the development of social economy in this region. PMID:24135476
Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V
The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217
Parker, Alison E; Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Townley, Greg; Bryant, Alfred; Thompson, Julie A; Beale, Karen S
We conducted a qualitative study to explore parental beliefs about emotions in the family across three cultures (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian), using the underutilized yet powerful methodology of focus groups. The main goal of this monograph is to understand parents’ beliefs about the role of emotions in the family and how cultural or ethnic background may influence those beliefs. Based on philosophical traditions and previous research, three dimensions of parental beliefs were predicted: Value of Emotion, Socialization of Emotion, and Controllability of Emotion. We expected new themes to emerge during the focus groups.Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 parents from the three cultural groups mentioned above. Groups met for two sessions scheduled 2 weeks apart. Focus group discussions were led by same-ethnicity moderators. Aninductive analysis was conducted; key themes and subthemes were identified.All three theoretically derived dimensions were well represented in each focus group. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included children’s appropriate expression of negative emotions, role of emotion in the home, children’s capacity for controlling emotions, and parents’ role in socialization of emotion. Cultural variations included concern about parents’ expression of negative emotion, children’s modulation of positive emotion, the role emotions play in behavior, and choice in emotional experience. Two new dimensions also emerged: Relational Nature of Emotions and Changeability of Emotions. Cultural similarities in themes within these dimensions included emphasis on emotional connections with children, emotional contagion in families, developmental change in children’s emotions, and intergenerational change in emotion socialization. Cultural variation included discussion of emotions as guides for action and children’s emotional privacy. Dimensions and the themes and subthemes within them
The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress.
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or "mainstream American" identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674
Zhang, X-X; Zhao, Q; Shi, C-W; Yang, W-T; Jiang, Y-L; Wei, Z-T; Wang, C-F; Yang, G-L
A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2013 to August 2015 to determine the seroprevalence and possible risk factors for human Toxoplasma gondii infection in Korean, Manchu, Mongol and Han ethnic groups in eastern and northeastern China. A total of 1842 serum samples, including Han (n = 802), Korean (n = 520), Manchu (n = 303) and Mongol (n = 217) groups, were analysed using enzyme-linked immunoassays to detect IgG and IgM T. gondii antibodies. The overall T. gondii IgG and IgM seroprevalences were 13·79% and 1·25%, respectively. Of these groups, Mongol ethnicity had the highest T. gondii seroprevalence (20·74%, 45/217), followed by Korean ethnicity (16·54%, 86/520), Manchu ethnicity (13·86%, 42/303) and Han ethnicity (11·35%, 98/802). Multiple analysis showed that the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, the consumption of raw/undercooked meat and the source of drinking water were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the Han group. Likewise, having a cat at home was identified as being associated with T. gondii infection in the Korean, Manchu and Mongol groups. Moreover, the consumption of raw/undercooked meat was identified as another predictor of T. gondii seropositivity in the Mongol group. The results of this survey indicate that T. gondii infection is prevalent in Korean, Manchu, Mongol and Han ethnic groups in the study region. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies with efficient management measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this region of China. Moreover, this is the first report of T. gondii infection in Korean, Manchu, and Mongol ethnic groups in eastern and northeastern China. PMID:26833424
Gavalas, V; Rontos, K; Nagopoulos, N
The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant deviation from this 'global average' is considered to be unnatural and is attributed to sex-selective under-reporting of births, sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide or other man-made factors. The present paper uses data on civil registration from 2004-2011 to investigate the sex ratio at birth in modern Greece. It was found that the SRB is extremely masculine when the parents originate from the Indian sub-continent and China. The SRB is also unnaturally high (more than 113 boys per 100 girls) in the case of legitimate births born to Greek mothers who are illiterate. These findings are strong evidence that sex-selective abortions are taking place in Greece within population groups with a certain ethnic and social profile. Other parameters, such as age of mother at birth, birth order, legal status of birth and geographical location, were also investigated and they were found to play a role in the variation of SRB, but not to the extent education and ethnic group do. PMID:24849079
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health. PMID:27250955
Gholamreza Veghari; Mehdi Sedaghat; Siavash Maghsodlo; Samieh Banihashem; Pooneh Moharloei; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Ebrahim Tazik; Abbas Moghaddami
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences of obesity rate among three ethnic groups in northern adults in IR Iran in 2010. Methods: The present cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted on 2994 cases of the same age and sex in three ethnic proportions (Fars-native=1625, Turkman=977, and Sisstani=392). The subjects aged between 15 and 65 years old and were selected by multistage cluster sampling techniques including 150 clusters each containing 20 subjects in ...
Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.
Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...
The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination–psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic ...
Natalia P. Koptseva
Full Text Available In 2010-2015, scientists, students, post-graduate students of Siberian Federal University carried out field research in the village and the settlements Farkovo and Turukhansk (Krasnoyarsk Krai. We investigated the ethnic and cultural characteristics of the Northern Selkups, Kets, Evenks. Field research scientists of the Siberian Federal University to reconstruct the elements of the historical memory of the Northern Selkup, who live in the settlement Farkovo. Due to the reconstruction of the historical memory of the Northern Selkups can clarify some of the causes of ethnic migration in the Northern Selkups of Krasnoyarsk Krai in the early twentieth century History memory of Northern Selkups stores the memory of the battle that took place between the various ethnic tribes in the early twentieth century. The historical event of the battle (as a cause of ethnic migration between the Northern Selkups and other indigenous peoples of the North and Siberia has not yet been reflected in historical descriptions. Proof that the historical memory of the Northern Selkup keeps memory of significant events that have a sword that Selkups, inhabitants of settlement Farkovo of Turukhansk district, found in places where the legendary battle took place. Historical memory can be of great importance for the reconstruction of ethnic history of the indigenous peoples of the Central Siberia.
L V Osadchuk
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare hormonal, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in men of the komi ethnic group with (n=23, BMI ≥25 kg/м2 or without (n=39, 18.4≤BMI <25 kg/м2 obesity. Totally 62 males living in Komi Republic were included in the study. It has been established that obesity was accompanied by an increase in serum concentrations of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with control group indicating metabolic disturbance. The data shows the significant effect of BMI on testosterone and FSH serum concentration, but not on LH, estradiol, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxin and triiodthyronin levels. Overweight and obese men had lower circulating testosterone and higher FSH level in comparison with the controls. The reproductive hormone changes in overweight and obese men can result in deleterious effects on sexual functions including erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and alteration in spermatogenesis
Christensen, D L; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Faerch, K; Mwaniki, D L; Boit, M K; Kilonzo, B; Tetens, I; Friis, H; Borch-Johnsen, K
Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic differences in insulin indices. The Maasai had 32 and 17% higher insulin resistance than the Luo and Kamba, respectively (p Maasai compared to the Luo (p Maasai compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1-7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5-14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution. PMID:23563691
HPV has been found repeatedly in esophageal carcinoma tissues. However, reported detection rates of HPV DNA in these tumors have varied markedly. Differences in detection methods, sample types, and geographic regions of sample origin have been suggested as potential causes of this discrepancy. HPV L1 DNA and HPV genotypes were evaluated in 435 esophageal carcinoma specimens collected from four geographic regions with different ethnicities including Anyang in north China, Shantou in south China, Xinjiang in west China, and the United States. The HPV L1 fragment was detected using SPF1/GP6+ primers. HPV genotyping was performed using genotype specific PCR. Two hundred and forty four of 435 samples (56.1%) tested positive for HPV L1. Significant differences in detection rate were observed neither among the three areas of China nor between China and the US. HPV6, 16, 18, 26, 45, 56, 57, and 58 were identified in L1 positive samples. HPV16 and 57 were the most common types in all regions, followed by HPV26 and HPV18. HPV infection is common in esophageal carcinoma independent of region and ethnic group of origin. Findings in this study raise the possibility that HPV is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Further investigation with a larger sample size over broader geographic areas may be warranted
To determine the existence of autosomal recessive deafness loci in different ethnic tribes of the Punjab. Study Design: Descriptive observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Genetics and Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from July 2009 to March 2012. Methodology: Healthy willing subjects with autosomal recessive deafness loci were studied for selected deafness loci. Those who were unhealthy and gave history of infectious disease were excluded. DNA extraction was carried out using the inorganic method. Fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers were used for amplification of desired regions by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Automated allele assignment was performed using the ABI PRISM GeneScan Analysis Software Version 3.7 for Windows NT Platform. Two-point LOD scores were calculated using the FASTLINK computer package (Schaffer 1996) and MLINK was used for calculation and 95% CI (confidence intervals) were calculated. Results: One hundred and thirty two individuals of 8 families were analyzed. Three families (SAPun-03, SAPun-10 and SAPun-15) were found linked to DFNB12; two families (SAPun-05 and SAPun-17) were found linked to DFNB8/10, while three families (SAPun-06, SAPun-13 and SAPun-19) were found linked to DFNB29, DFNB36 and DFNB37 respectively. Conclusion: The genotyping results revealed that DFNB12 locus was the most common followed by DFNB8/10 locus, while the Loci DFNB29, DFNB36 and DFNB37 were less common. (author)
Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng
In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background. PMID:25651970
Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy
The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…
Full Text Available This study was set out to investigate entrepreneurial passion, achievement motivation goals and behavioural engagement among Malaysian entrepreneurs. In addition, this empirical study was also intended to compare entrepreneurial passion with goal settings and behavioural engagement of Malay and Chinese Malaysians. From a sample of 305 entrepreneurs, the findings show there is a significant difference between the two ethnic groups in terms of passion, goals and need for creativity, ambition and daring. Malaysian Chinese were found to harbour higher harmonious passion than their counterparts, while both Malay and Chinese Malaysians share a moderate perception of obsessive passion. Furthermore, Chinese Malaysians perceive a strong relationship with the dimensions of mastery, performance and performance avoidance goals. On the other hand, Malay Malaysians have a high perception of mastery and performance goals but moderate perception of performance avoidance goals. The estimation coefficients also indicate that Malaysian entrepreneurs perceive strong relationships with their need for independence, ambition, daring and creativity.
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim
The aim of this study was to develop a model of identity formation comprising three structural dimensions: commitment, in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment. A new tool, the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale, was designed to assess these processes. Early and middle adolescents (N=1952) participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the three-factor model provided a better fit than alternative one- and two-factor models. The model applied not only to the whole adolescent sample, but also to male and female subsamples and to early and middle adolescent age groups. Additionally, we established interethnic equivalence of the model, in that it also fit well for ethnic minority adolescents. In accordance with hypotheses, regression analyses showed that commitment, in-depth exploration and reconsideration of commitment were significantly related to measures of self and personality, psychosocial problems and parent-adolescent relations. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:17959238
Nishi, Takeki; Nakamura, Takako; Honda, Katuya
DNA testing of X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) polymorphisms has been the focus of attention in several studies, mainly due to its applicability in the investigation of complex kinship cases. Studies of X-STR in analyses of DNA sequences, population studies and DNA testing applications have been reported. We performed detection and population genetic study of a novel tetranucleotide X-STR locus in the present study. We identified a unique X-STR locus consisting of two tetranucleotides in Xq28. Although the STR is a simple tetranucleotide, its polymorphism was comparatively high [polymorphism information content (PIC)=0.7140] in Japanese subjects. In addition, the STR varied in structure among ethnic groups. We conclude that this locus will be useful for forensic DNA testing and anthropological studies. PMID:26980253
Full Text Available Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.
Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry
Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564
Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly
Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas
Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented ...
Siburian Marlinang D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117 was C (72.6% followed by B (24.8% and co-infection with B and C (2.6%. The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively. From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among
I Wayan Wirata
Full Text Available This research is entitled “The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok”.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1 how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2 what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3 what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci,the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida, and the theory of discourse (Foucault.The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the
Hu, Chun-Ting; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Wang, Hong-Dan; Yin, Cai-Yong; Fan, Han-Ting; Hu, Ling-Li; Shen, Chun-Mei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng
SNaPshot minisequencing is a rapid and robust methodology based on a single base extension with a labeled ddNTP. The present study detected 15 selected SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control and coding regions by minisequencing methodology using SNaPshot for forensic purpose. The samples were collected from 99 unrelated individuals of the Yi ethnic minority group in Yunnan Province. We have predominantly found high-frequency transitions (91.7%) and a significantly lower frequency of transversions (8.3%). The nt152, 489, 8701, 10,398, 16,183, and 16,362 loci were highly polymorphic, while the nt231, 473 and 581 loci were not polymorphic in the studied population. Based on these 15 SNPs, a total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes were defined in 99 individuals with the haplotype diversity of 0.9136. Also, we compared the mtDNA sequences of Yi group and other 9 populations worldwide and drew a Neighbor-Joining tree based on the shared 12 mtDNA SNP loci, which demonstrated a close relationship between Yi and Bai groups. In conclusion, the analysis of the 15 selected SNPs increases considerably the discrimination power of mtDNA. Moreover, the SNaPshot minisequencing method could quickly detect mtDNA SNPs, and is economical and sensitive. The set of selected 15 SNPs is highly informative and is capable for anthropology genetic analysis. PMID:26432004
Manuel S Ortiz
Full Text Available We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS.Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388 that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen in predicting risk for MetS were conducted.In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group.Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups.