Sample records for belleville sur loire-2 reactor

  1. Belleville-sur-Loire plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Belleville-sur-Loire plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  2. Experiments with the SUR 100 training reactor

    This paper contains a compilation of various experiments using the SUR - 100 reactor for training purposes, which have been widly proved in practical work at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  3. Belleville rouge, Belleville noir, Belleville rose: The Complex Identity of a Parisian quartier

    Carolyn Stott


    Full Text Available The Parisian quartier of Belleville has long been the subject of scholarly literature and popular culture due to its colourful history and diverse population. Its symbolic boundaries extend beyond the geographical limits imposed by its administrative demarcation. Myths abound as to the extent of its rebellious past, its contemporary image as a melting pot and its prevalence as a décor for the noir genre. In this article a three-tiered categorisation of Belleville is adopted which corresponds to various representations of the suburb in literature, popular culture and from the perspective of its inhabitants. Belleville rouge reflects the quartier’s revolutionary past and the late 20th century struggle associated with its physical metamorphosis. Belleville noir focusses on the quartier’s criminal face, as it is depicted in Parisian film and roman noir and as it exists in reality. Belleville rose highlights the pleasures of the quartier: its cosmopolitan character whose representation verges at times on utopian.    In his Malaussène series (1985-1995, writer and former resident Daniel Pennac portrays Belleville as a unique blend of rouge, noir and rose. This fusion of fairy tale, detective fiction, myth and reality establishes a complex Bellevillois identity distinct from other contemporary representations. The article concludes that it is impossible to associate a single identity with Belleville. The quartier’s contemporary face is inextricably linked to its past, the memory of which is preserved by its inhabitants and by social and literary commentators such as Pennac. In keeping with historian Pierre Nora’s concept of cultural memory, Pennac thus assumes the role of guardian of Belleville’s cultural memory in the face of the quartier’s perpetual evolution.

  4. Belleville powerhouse electrical systems and controls

    Clemen, D.M. [Harza Engineering Co., Chicago, IL (United States)


    The 42 MW Belleville Hydroelectric Project is a run-of-river plant located on the West Virginia side of the existing Corps of Engineers Belleville Lock and Dam on the Ohio River. The plant consists of two 21 MW bulb units with 7.3 meter diameter runners manufactured by Voest Alpine Machinery Construction Engineering (VAMCE). The plant will generate approximately 245 GWhr of electricity each year. Many unique features associated with the electrical power equipment at the Belleville Hydroelectric Project are a direct result of the FERC license requirement that allows flood waters to run over the top of the powerhouse. Consequently, no exterior decks, roofs, or adjacent lands were available as equipment areas for the Generator Step-Up (GSU) transformers or the 138 kV SF6 substation.

  5. Radiolysis studies at Belleville (PWR 1300) water chemistry with low hydrogen concentration

    This study has been carried out because operators sometimes find it difficult to comply with the aimed value of 25/35 ml/kg (NTP) and because the calculation codes used in the eighties did not agree on the threshold where radiolysis appeared (7 to 12 ml/kg (NTP) according to codes which were used). The aim of this document is to describe the testing conditions consisting in the observation of the effects of a decreased hydrogen concentration in primary coolant at 100% PN in reactors 1 and 2 of the Belleville plant. (authors). 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  6. Elastic guides reduce hysteresis effect in Belleville spring package

    Mc Glashan, W. F., Jr.; Toth, L. R.


    Peripheral support guides that elastically flex with the slight breathing on radial displacement during actuation can greatly reduce the hysteresis present in a Belleville spring package. This technique provides a control device that enhances the precision of pressure regulating valves, pressure switches, and vacuum actuators.

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2014

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2013

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others


    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  10. Public debate on the EPR reactor; Debat public sur le reacteur EPR



    In the framework of the new EPR European Pressurized Reactor implementation in France, the public asked the first Ministry on the protection of nuclear matters, transports and installations against the terrorism and the spiteful actions. This document provides information on the subject and shows the safety of the new reactor. (A.L.B.)

  11. Retours sur la posture

    David Vrydaghs; Denis Saint-Amand


    Ce huitième numéro de la revue COnTEXTES se propose de s’arrêter sur le concept de posture. L’occasion de revenir sur la genèse de cette notion, d’en interroger les usages, mais aussi de dégager ses limites. Pour ce faire, amorçons ici la réflexion en nous fondant sur trois axes problématiques : un axe purement métacritique, tout d’abord, qui invite à une réflexion épistémologique générale sur les enjeux et les limites du concept de posture ; deux axes directement liés à des questions particu...

  12. Reactors

    Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Static seals and their application in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

    Information relative to six types of static seals commonly used in the primary cooling systems of nuclear reactors is compiled. This information includes a description of each type of seal, its material of construction, design features, operating experience, and advantages and disadvantages. The types covered include spiral-wound asbestos-filled gaskets, hollow metallic O-rings, Belleville spring type of gasketed joints, integrated elastomer and metal retainer gaskets, and solid metal gaskets with heavy cross sections. Omega, canopy, and lip seals are discussed briefly, and information on flange design for gasketing is also presented

  14. El Banco del Sur

    Espejo, Silvana


    En este trabajo abordaremos las características principales del Banco del Sur como una institución financiera sudamericana. Primero presentaremos sus principales características y explicaremos las características de un banco de desarrollo regional. Luego, expondremos el proceso de conformación del mismo haciendo un recorrido por sus principales antecedentes. Por último, cerraremos con una evaluación sobre el estado actual del Banco del Sur. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)...

  15. Altiplano Sur de Bolivia

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; CRUZ, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles (ed.); Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François


    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quin...

  16. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor; Spectrometrie gamma haute resolution et hauts taux de comptage sur primaire de reacteur de type generation 4 au sodium liquide

    Coulon, R.


    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [French] Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides refroidis au sodium sont en developpement en vue d'assurer une quatrieme generation de reacteurs repondant a la demande energetique, tout en assurant la preservation des ressources d'uranium par un fonctionnement en surgenerateur. L'objectif de la filiere est egalement d'ameliorer la gestion de la radiotoxicite des dechets produits par transmutation des actinides mineurs et de controler la non-proliferation par un fonctionnement en cycle ferme. Une instrumentation de surveillance et de controle de ce type de reacteur a ete etudiee dans cette these. La spectrometrie gamma de nouvelle generation permet, par les hauts taux de traitement aujourd'hui accessibles, d'envisager de nouvelles approches pour suivre avec une precision accrue la puissance neutronique et de detecter plus precocement des ruptures de gaine combustible. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees et une campagne d'essai a ete menee a bien sur le reacteur Phenix de Marcoule. Des perspectives prometteuses ont ete mises en exergue pour ces deux problematiques

  17. ALIBABA, an assistance system for the detection of confinement leaks in a PWR reactor; ALIBABA, un systeme d`aide a la detection des voies de fuites du confinement sur un reacteur a eau sous pression

    Bedier, P.O.; Libmann, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie


    The objective of the Crisis Technical Center (CTC) of the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) is to estimates the consequences of a given nuclear accident on the populations and the environment. ALIBABA is a data processing tool available at the CTC and devoted to the detection of confinement leaks in 900 MWe PWR reactors using the activity values measured by the captors of the installation. The heart of this expert system is a structural and functional representation of the different components directly involved in the leak detection (isolating valves, ventilation systems, electric boards etc..). This tool can manage the availability of each component to make qualitative and quantitative balance-sheets. This paper presents the ALIBABA software, an industrial prototype realized with the SPIRAL knowledge base systems generator at the CEA Reactor Studies and Applied Mathematics Service (SERMA) and commercialized by CRIL-Ingenierie Society. It describes the techniques used for the modeling of PWR systems and for the visualization of the survey. The functionality of the man-machine interface is discussed and the means used for the validation of the software are summarized. (J.S.). 6 refs.

  18. Study of water radiolysis in relation with the primary cooling circuit of pressurized water reactors; Etude sur la radiolyse de l`eau en relation avec le circuit primaire de refroidissement des reacteurs nucleaires a eau sous pression

    Pastina, B


    This memorandum shows a fundamental study on the water radiolysis in relation with the cooling primary circuit of PWR type reactors. The water of the primary circuit contains boric acid a soluble neutronic poison and also hydrogen that has for role to inhibit the water decomposition under radiation effect. In the aim to better understand the mechanism of dissolved hydrogen action and to evaluate the impact of several parameters on this mechanism, aqueous solutions with boric acid and hydrogen have been irradiated in a experimental nuclear reactor, at 30, 100 and 200 Celsius degrees. It has been found that, with hydrogen, the water decomposition under irradiation is a threshold phenomenon in function of the ratio between the radiation flux `1` B(n, )`7 Li and the gamma flux. When this ratio become too high, the number of radicals is not sufficient to participate at the chain reaction, and then water is decomposed in O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a irreversible way. The temperature has a beneficial part on this mechanism. The iron ion and the copper ion favour the water decomposition. (N.C.). 83 refs.

  19. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident; Contribution des essais en materiaux prototypiques sur la plate-forme Plinius a l'etude des accidents graves de reacteurs nucleaires

    Journeau, Ch


    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  20. First remarks on the initiative of conception and evaluation of the safety of the reactors of the fourth generation; Premieres reflexions sur la demarche de conception et d'evaluation de la surete des reacteurs de quatrieme generation

    Clement, Ch.; Maliverney, B.; Mulet-Marquis, D.; Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guesdon, B. [Technical Secretary (France); Carluec, B.; Ehster, S. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Anzieu, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rozenholc, M.; Vitton, F.; Rouyer, J.L


    The objectives of the nuclear systems of the fourth generation impose ambitious requirements which concern the sustainable development, the competitiveness, the safety, the reliability, the resistance to proliferation and the physical protection. The examination of the policies of safety applicable to these systems is led at the same moment to the national and international levels. In France, thoughts on the safety is organized within the French consultative group of safety (G.C.F.S.) which collects the industrial actors and of research and development involved in the development of the new systems. Within the framework of the initiatives of international harmonization, the G.C.F.S. suggests defining recommendations common to all the concepts of the fourth generation reactors then on the basis of this neutral frame towards the technologies, establishing specific recommendations for each of the systems. (N.C.)

  1. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others


    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  2. Modelling of the hydrogen effects on the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor; Modelisation des effets de l'hydrogene sur la morphogenese des nanostructures de silicium hydrogene dans un reacteur plasma

    Brulin, Q


    This work pursues the goal of understanding mechanisms related to the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor through modeling techniques. Current technologies are first reviewed with an aim to understand the purpose behind their development. Then follows a summary of the possible studies which are useful in this particular context. The various techniques which make it possible to simulate the trajectories of atoms by molecular dynamics are discussed. The quantum methods of calculation of the interaction potential between chemical species are then developed, reaching the conclusion that only semi-empirical quantum methods are sufficiently fast to be able to implement an algorithm of quantum molecular dynamics on a reasonable timescale. From the tools introduced, a reflection on the nature of molecular metastable energetic states is presented for the theoretical case of the self-organized growth of a linear chain of atoms. This model - which consists of propagating the growth of a chain by the successive addition of the atom which least increases the electronic energy of the chain - shows that the Fermi level is a parameter essential to self organization during growth. This model also shows that the structure formed is not necessarily a total minimum energy structure. From all these numerical tools, the molecular growth of clusters can be simulated by using parameters from magnetohydrodynamic calculation results of plasma reactor modeling (concentrations of the species, interval between chemical reactions, energy of impact of the reagents...). The formation of silicon-hydrogen clusters is thus simulated by the successive capture of silane molecules. The structures formed in simulation at the operating temperatures of the plasma reactor predict the formation of spherical clusters constituting an amorphous silicon core covered by hydrogen. These structures are thus not in a state of minimum energy, contrary to certain experimental

  3. Nuclear Reactors

    Hogerton, John


    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  4. La piraterie sur le web


    Les échanges de toutes sortes sont facilités à l'extrême par le web: des forums, des vidéoconférences, le commerce à distance, ou tout simplement la célérité des courriers électroniques ou la convivialité des chats, tout cela participe de la société de communication. Une certaine partie du monde découvre le nouvel horizon des échanges quasi instantanés, mais... les transactions sur le web sont-elles vraiment s res?

  5. Le Subdray - Saint-Florent-sur-Cher

    Ranger, Olivier; Multiple,


    Code INSEE commune : 18255 Lien Atlas (MCC) :;46.986;2.340;47.051 L'opération d'évaluation archéologique localisée sur les communes de Saint-Florent-sur-Cher et du Subdray (Cher) précède les travaux de mise à 4 voies de la route nationale 151 entre Bourges et Saint-Florent-sur-Cher par la Direction Départementale de l’Equipement du Cher. Le tracé totalise 3,5 km, ce qui porte la surface à évaluer à 6,...

  6. Impact des incendies sur l'environnement

    Vennetier, M.


    This presentation aimed at presenting all potential impacts of wild fires on the environment, as an introduction to this seminar. / Cette présentation était destinée à présenter en introduction du séminaire l'ensemble des impacts des incendies sur l'environnement.

  7. N Reactor

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  8. Enquêtes sur les soucoupes volantes

    Lagrange, Pierre


    La dispute autour du mot « preuve » se réduit à une question : Qu'est-ce qui constitue une preuve ? Faut-il qu'un ovni atterrisse à l'entrée du Pentagone, près des bureaux des chefs d'État-Major ? Ou bien est-ce une preuve quand une station de radar au sol détecte un ovni, envoie un jet l'intercepter, que le pilote du jet le voit et le suit sur son radar pour finir par le voir disparaître à une vitesse phénoménale ? Ou est-ce une preuve quand un pilote tire sur un ovni et maintient son histoi...

  9. Mise en oeuvre du krigeage sur arbre.

    Polus, Edwige; de Fouquet, Chantal


    Un modèle de fonctions aléatoires définies sur une topologie d'arbre (de Fouquet & Bernard-Michel, 2006) a été développé pour l'estimation de concentrations le long d'un réseau hydrographique. Le principe consiste à décomposer le réseau en filets élémentaires joignant chaque " source " à " l'exutoire ". La concentration Z au point x s'exprime comme une combinaison linéaire Z(x)=$\\Sum$ wiYi(x) de variables aléatoires élémentaires Yi définies sur ces filets, dont les coefficients wi dépendent d...

  10. Roles des contraintes sur les signaux de transition de phase

    Regnard, V


    Ce papier presente la notion de signal de transition de phase pour un systeme de taille finie. Il se concentre sur le role des contraintes physiques sur ces signaux et la robustesse quant au changement d'ensemble statistique. Des resultats obtenus avec un modele de gaz sur reseau sont presentes en analogie avec les observations effectuees en collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires.


    Kusdhianto SETIAWAN


    Considering the heteroscedasticity and cross-correlation in the error terms of international stock market returns, International Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is reinvestigated under Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) and SUR with GARCH (SUR-GARCH) framework.We modified Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) estimator to take into account multivariate GARCH error structure in estimating the model. World market portfolio was constructed to ensure that the market portfolio is mean-vari...

  12. Reactor Physics

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  13. Reactor Physics

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  14. Reactor Physics

    Ait Abderrahim, A


    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  15. El (los Sur buscando al Sur. Una construcción entre estereotipos y realidad.

    Mabel Franzone


    Full Text Available Todas las lecturas que podamos hacer del Sur, de sus propias representaciones, de aquellas vehiculizadas por el Norte, de sus creaciones, de sus reacciones, de su búsqueda constante de identidad, son lecturas de múltiples situaciones, que llaman a cruces insoslayables entre pueblos, entre distintas etnias, entre disciplinas, entre sentimientos que van desde el rechazo hasta la atracción casi magnética entre los dos hemisferios. Nuestra intención primera era la de reunir de manera aproximativa las problemáticas actuales de los Sur, ligadas a lo imaginario.

  16. Remesas Sur-Sur: Importancia del Corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar


    El presente estudio, procura brindar un poco de luz en el campo del impacto de los flujos de remesas en América Latina, al estudiar la importancia relativa del corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua (sur-sur) mediante el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta estadísticamente representativa a una muestra de hogares nicaragüenses receptores de remesas desde Costa Rica, comisionada por los autores durante el primer semestre del año 2009, así como contrastar estos resultados con aquellos de la litera...

  17. Reactor operation

    Shaw, J


    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  18. Reactor safeguards

    Russell, Charles R


    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  19. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them; Le risque de penurie de radioelements a usage medical ne doit pas conduire a faire l'impasse sur la surete des reacteurs qui les produisent



    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  20. Research Reactors

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.


    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.


    Tugui, Alexandru


    International audience Dans la future société basée sur la connaissance, les connaissances constitueront des pièces de travails habituées qui seront manipulées très facilement. La comptabilité ne fait pas exception à cette pratique et aboutira à cet état suite à la standardisation des procédures, des pratiques et des méthodes comptables, au traitement intégré des données de l'entreprise, du niveau de plus en plus performant des technologies de communication, des réalisations du domaine de ...

  2. Stercula setigera Del. : effet sur les cultures

    Bakhoum, Charles; Samba Arona Ndiaye Samba,; Ndour, Babou


    En zone soudano-sahélienne plusieurs espèces ligneuses sont maintenues dans les champs pour diverses raisons. Leur effet sur les cultures demeure cependant inconnu pour la plupart d'entre elles. Une étude menée au Sénégal a montré que la densité des cultures (arachide, mil et sorgho) augmente avec la distance au tronc de Sterculia setigera. La hauteur du sorgho, l'étalement de l'arachide, sa biomasse en gousses ainsi que les biomasses en épis et en tiges de mil et de sorgho augmentent égaleme...

  3. Lithiase géante sur enterocystoplastie

    Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi


    La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante sur néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pou...

  4. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)


    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.

  5. Research reactors

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  6. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  7. Sur8 mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    Lee, Young-Mi; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Kug Hwa; Park, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Kang-Yell


    Sur8, a scaffold protein of the Ras pathway, interacts with Ras and Raf and modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that Sur8 is overexpressed in established human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and CRC patient tissues. Moreover, Sur8 expression is increased during liver metastasis in CRC patients. Sur8 knockdown decreases ERK and Akt activities in CRC cell lines, regardless of their K-Ras, B-Raf or PI3K mutation status. Overexpression or knockdown of Sur8 increases or decreases, respectively, the proliferation or transformation of CRC cell lines. Sur8 knockdown attenuates the migration and invasion of HCT116 CRC cells. Subcutaneous or orthotopic injection of HCT116 cells harboring a doxycycline (Dox)-mediated Sur8 knockdown system in nude mice resulted in decreased tumorigenic potential and inhibited the liver metastatic potential of HCT116 cells. Taken together, our data support the role of Sur8 as a promoter of tumorigenesis and liver metastasis in CRC through its modulation of the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27469030

  8. Research reactors

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world's research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted

  9. Reactor container

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Reactor building

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  11. Heterogeneous reactors

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author)

  12. Recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc

    Michel Abitbol


    Le Centre de recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc (CRJM) a été créé, en mai 1994, à Paris à l’initiative de Monsieur Robert Assaraf, après de longs mois de concertations, de discussions et d’études préalables. Il s’agit d’une institution internationale, à vocation universitaire et scientifique qui s’est fixé pour but essentiel de développer, par tous les moyens, la connaissance et l’étude de l’histoire des Juifs du Maroc. Une histoire trois fois millénaire qui remonte à la destruction du premier ...

  13. Retour sur l'Etat local

    REIGNER, H; Epstein, R.


    L'Etat local, dont l'étude a été à l'origine de travaux fondateurs sur le système politico-administratif, ne figure plus parmi les objets privilégiés de la science politique française. Ce constat renvoie moins à un désintérêt des politistes qu'à la fragmentation de leurs approches et à la dilution de l'objet qui en découle. L'hypothèse de cette Section Thématique est que l'Etat local demeure un objet fécond pour la recherche, permettant en particulier d'alimenter et d'articuler deux controver...

  14. Lithiase géante sur enterocystoplastie

    Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi


    La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante sur néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. PMID:25932070

  15. Enquête LMD sur le web

    Colette Cauvin


    Full Text Available En relation avec la mise en place des LMD, une enquête sur le web a été entreprise en janvier 2003 afin de connaître les orientations et les choix des diverses universités délivrant des diplômes de géographie ou d’une discipline similaire. Grâce à R. Schlumberger (laboratoire Image et Ville de nombreux sites ont été consultés et analysés. Qu’elle en soit remerciée.   Cependant, la lecture des informations a été plus malaisée que prévue en raison, en particulier, de la multiplicité des langue...

  16. Epistemologías del Sur

    Boaventura de Sousa Santos


    Full Text Available Es un hecho irreversible que el logos eurocéntrico ha implosionado en sus propias fuentes de desarrollo político y económico. El peligro de esta crisis es total porque abarca su hegemonía y a la humanidad y a la naturaleza. ¿De qué alternativas disponemos para superar este fin de milenio y su hecatombe? Es evidente que estamos viviendo los "tiempos póstumos" o de "filosofía finisecular" de una Modernidad que luce, por otra parte, rebasable desde otra episteme histórico-cultural que reconozca la relación ecosistema del hombre en el conjunto de la diversidad existencial de los seres vivos que pueblan este planeta. Esta otra epistemología que tiene su génesis en la Teoría Crítica y se recrea enAmérica Latina, desde el Sur, se asume desde la praxis de un logos emancipador que fractura los límites hegemónicos del "capitalismo sin fin" y del "colonialismo sin fin", ya que hace posible recuperar desde la "sociología de las emergencias", la presencia de los pueblos milenarios que han logrado la recreación de su habitat a través de una relación simbiótica directa, con los ciclos o procesos de génesis y muerte de la Madre Tierra (Pachamama. La sabiduría ancestral que porta el pensamiento de estos pueblos originarios, expresados por sus tradiciones, ritos, magias, hasta sus representaciones antropomórficas de la realidad, son síntomas de que el ocaso de la civilización, nomuere con Occidente, sino que renace desde el Sur con el "Sumak Kawsay".

  17. Plasma reactor

    Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán Serra, Enric


    [EN] A plasma reactor that can operate in a wide pressure range, from vacuum and low pressures to atmospheric pressure and higher pressures. The plasma reactor is also able to regulate other important settings and can be used for processing a wide range of different samples, such as relatively large samples or samples with rough surfaces.

  18. Reactor physics

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  19. Compact Reactor

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  20. de Baja California Sur, México

    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza


    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido 2001-2003 en un suelo Yermosol Háplico en barbecho prolongado, se condujo una investigación con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes sistemas de manejo sobre el estado físico del suelo. El empleo de técnicas convencionales (Arado de disco monocultivo y fertilización Mineral generó cambios en las propiedades físicas mediante dos tipos de manejo (Compactación, humedad, Da entre otras, sin embargo el empleo de alternativas (Manejo Ecológico con la aplicación de abono verde en 50 t ha-1, unido a técnicas de prepararon del suelo sin inversión del prisma, mostraron recuperación de los indicadores afectados por el manejo convencional. Se concluye que el manejo ecológico es una alternativa para la recuperación de los suelos degradados para una zona árida de Baja California Sur, México.

  1. Réflexions sur la science contemporaine

    Darriulat, Pierre


    L'auteur y brosse à grands traits un tableau de la science contemporaine : réductionnisme, déterminisme, abstraction, méthodes, mécanismes de validation et interactions entre observation et théorie... ainsi qu'un portrait de ses artisans et une critique des stéréotypes les plus courants (philistin, iconoclaste, apprenti sorcier...) L'accent est mis sur le fait que la science, dont une des missions consiste à dénoncer les illusions du sens commun, ne poursuit pas une quête de vérité absolue mais se contente aujourd'hui d'une vérité simplement meilleure que celle d'hier. La circularité de la science lui interdit de répondre à des questions essentielles comme «Pourquoi ce monde plutôt que rien ?» Pour tenter d'y répondre, le physicien Pierre Darriulat entreprend, avec candeur et bienveillance, un voyage chez les philosophes. Comment la métaphysique s'évade-t-elle du cercle ? Quelle connaissance autre que scientifique nous propose-t-elle ? La circularité condamnant la science au silence...


    Anderson, H.L.


    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.


    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.


    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  4. Nuclear reactors

    This draft chart contains graphical symbols from which the type of (nuclear) reactor can be seen. They will serve as illustrations for graphical sketches. Important features of the individual reactor types are marked out graphically. The user can combine these symbols to characterize a specific reactor type. The basic graphical symbol is a square with a point in the centre. Functional groups can be depicted for closer specification. If two functional groups are not clearly separated, this is symbolized by a dotted line or a channel. Supply and discharge lines for coolant, moderator and fuel are specified in accordance with DIN 2481 and can be further specified by additional symbols if necessary. The examples in the paper show several different reactor types. (orig./AK)

  5. Nitrogen treatment from digestat of biogas plants in a moving bed biofilm reactor; Projet de recherche pilote. Traitement de l'azote des digestats issus d'installations de biogaz au moyen d'un reacteur a biofilm sur support mobile - Rapport final

    Roches, S.; Bakx, T.; Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Baggenstos, M.; Chappaz, A. [Wabag Water Technology Ltd, Winterthur (Switzerland); Holliger, Ch. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Ammonia emissions are a source for polluting ecosystems, causing in particular acidification and eutrophication of the affected areas. In Switzerland 90% of the atmospheric ammonia emissions are due to agriculture, mostly during storage and use of animal manures and slurries. Anaerobic digestion of these manures and slurries produces renewable energy and stabilises the agricultural effluents. However, it does not solve the ammonia problem; on the contrary, it releases an additional amount of ammonium while mineralizing a large part of the organic nitrogen. A previous study dealing with the biological removal of ammonia from digested manures was conducted at the Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, EPFL. It has shown that it is possible to obtain simultaneously a conversion of ammonium and nitrogen removal in a same continuously aerated aerobic reactor, using a mobile support for fixing the biomass. The obtained efficiencies were high, with 90% of the ammonium being converted of which 80% as N{sub 2}-gas. This current study proposed to test the process at pilot scale, to evaluate the transferability of the technique to a full-scale application and to determine the operating parameter. The results are as follows: (i) It is possible to obtain high nitrification and denitrification rates without pre-treating the digestat or adding a carbon source; (ii) Biochemical reactions are extremely sensitive to the oxygenation rate, which in turn is very sensitive to the liquid characteristics in the reactor, such as the dry matter content. It fairly complicates maintaining simultaneous nitrification and denitrification; (iii) At a minimum hydraulic residence time of 4 days, over 90% of the ammonium is converted and 85% of it is removed. These results provide the basic design parameters for a full-scale installation. Depending on the performance desired, it would have a volume going from 30 to 60 m{sup 3} for a 400 m{sup 3} digester. The aeration rate would be between 300

  6. Multifunctional reactors

    Westerterp, K.R.


    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much emphasis in research in the last decade. A survey is given of modern developments and the first successful applications on a large scale. It is explained why their application in many instances is ...


    Anderson, C.R.


    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  8. Nuclear reactor

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  9. Breeder reactors

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components

  10. Modelling the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod; Etude de l'impact de la fissuration des combustibles nucleaires oxyde sur le comportement normal et incidentel des crayons combustible

    Helfer, Th


    This thesis aims to model the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod. Fuel cracking has two main consequences. It relieves the stress in the pellet, upon which the majority of the mechanical and physico-chemical phenomena are dependent. It also leads to pellet fragmentation. Taking fuel cracking into account is therefore necessary to adequately predict the mechanical loading of the cladding during the course of an irradiation. The local approach to fracture was chosen to describe fuel pellet cracking. Practical considerations brought us to favour a quasi-static description of fuel cracking by means of a local damage models. These models describe the appearance of cracks by a local loss of rigidity of the material. Such a description leads to numerical difficulties, such as mesh dependency of the results and abrupt changes in the equilibrium state of the mechanical structure during unstable crack propagations. A particular attention was paid to these difficulties because they condition the use of such models in engineering studies. This work was performed within the framework of the ALCYONE fuel performance package developed at CEA/DEC/SESC which relies on the PLEIADES software platform. ALCYONE provides users with various approaches for modelling nuclear fuel behaviour, which differ in terms of the type geometry considered for the fuel rod. A specific model was developed and implemented to describe fuel cracking for each of these approaches. The 2D axisymmetric fuel rod model is the most innovative and was particularly studied. We show that it is able to assess, thanks to an appropriate description of fuel cracking, the main geometrical changes of the fuel rod occurring under normal and off-normal operating conditions. (author)

  11. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    Mac Glashan, W. F.


    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  12. Research reactors - an overview

    West, C.D.


    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Reactor utilization

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  14. Reactor Neutrinos

    Lasserre, T; Lasserre, Thierry; Sobel, Henry W.


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrino oscillation physics in the last years. It is now widely accepted that a new middle baseline disappearance reactor neutrino experiment with multiple detectors could provide a clean measurement of the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle theta13. We conclude by opening on possible use of neutrinos for Society: NonProliferation of Nuclear materials and Geophysics.

  15. Retour sur la logique de l’usage

    Perriault, Jacques


    Publié il y a vingt-cinq ans, l’ouvrage « La logique de l’usage » a connu un succès important dans les recherches portant sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication. Néanmoins, ce succès s’est souvent traduit par une assimilation à la sociologie des usages, dont l’ouvrage se distingue pourtant fortement. L’entretien, reposant sur le travail de retour sur les textes majeurs des SIC s’étant intéressés à la technique entrepris dans le séminaire Usages des Dispositifs Sociotechn...

  16. Sur les Ecrits de Jean Carbonnier (1908-2003

    Robert Pageard


    Full Text Available Cette centaine de textes divers, présentés et commentés par une équipe de juristes, d’historiens, de sociologues ou d’anthropologues, donne une très vivante vision de la personnalité et des activités d’un penseur qui joua un rôle important dans l’enseignement et l’ évolution de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle.Tout est dit dans cet ouvrage sur l’exceptionnelle érudition de Jean Carbonnier en maints domaines, sur l’élégance et la finesse de sa langue, sur la clarté de son expression. Cette clar...

  17. Nuclear reactors

    A nuclear reactor has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. A reactor core assembly of a plurality of fluid-tight fuel elements is located within a water-filled tank. Each fuel element contains a solid homogeneous mixture of 50-79 w/o zirconium hydride, 20-50 w/o uranium and 0.5-1.5 W erbium. The uranium is not more than 20 percent enriched, and the ratio of hydrogen atoms to zirconium atoms is between 1.5:1 and 7:1. The core has a long lifetime, E.G., at least about 1200 days

  18. Nuclear reactors

    In a liquid cooled nuclear reactor, the combination is described for a single-walled vessel containing liquid coolant in which the reactor core is submerged, and a containment structure, primarily of material for shielding against radioactivity, surrounding at least the liquid-containing part of the vessel with clearance therebetween and having that surface thereof which faces the vessel make compatible with the liquid, thereby providing a leak jacket for the vessel. The structure is preferably a metal-lined concrete vault, and cooling means are provided for protecting the concrete against reaching a temperature at which damage would occur. (U.S.)

  19. Sur: uma minoria cosmopolita na periferia ocidental Sur: a cosmopolitan minority on the western periphery

    Maria Teresa Gramuglio


    Full Text Available Este artigo explora as condições e as disposições que tornaram possível o surgimento da revista Sur e a formação do grupo cultural de mesmo nome. Propõe critérios para uma periodização que leve em conta, junto com os indícios materiais, as circunstâncias históricas e culturais cambiantes pelas quais a publicação passou durante sua longa vida (1931-1991. Assinala alguns dos principias temas ideológicos e estéticos que foram abordados em suas páginas. Caracteriza o projeto inicial e as transformações imprimidas pela vontade de sua diretora, Victoria Ocampo, e as mudanças nas relações e problemáticas do campo intelectual.This article explores the conditions and dispositions that enabled the emergence of the magazine Sur and the formation of the cultural group of the same name. It sets out the criteria for a periodization that takes into account, along with material factors, the shifting historical and cultural circumstances experienced by the publication over its 60-year life-span (1931-1991. The text highlights some of the main ideological and aesthetic themes to have filled the magazine's pages. It describes the original project and the transformations introduced by its chief editor, Victoria Ocampo, as well as the changes in the relations and problematics of the intellectual field.

  20. Sur le concept d’engagement

    Howard S. Becker


    Full Text Available Le terme « engagement » connaît un succès grandissant dans les débats sociologiques. Dans ce texte, l’auteur examine les utilisations du concept d'engagement afin de comprendre les raisons de sa popularité grandissante, il signale la nature d'un des mécanismes sociaux auquel le terme se réfère implicitement, et développe une théorie embryonnaire des conditions et des processus sociaux impliqués dans le fonctionnement de ce mécanisme. Étant donné la variété sémantique du terme, il s'avère infructueux de spéculer sur son « véritable » sens. Une des images évoquées par « l'engagement » a été retenue pour en préciser la signification.On the Concept of CommitmentThe term "commitment" is experiencing a growing success in sociological debates. In this article, the author examines the uses of the concept of commitment in order to understand the reasons for its growing popularity. He also points out the nature of one of the social mechanisms to which the term implicitly refers, and he develops a preliminary theory of the social conditions and processes implied in the functioning of this mechanism. Given the semantic variety of the term, it proves useless to speculate on its “true” meaning. In order to clarify the meaning of the term, the author adopts one of the images evoked by “commitment”.Sobre el concepto de compromisoEl término “compromiso” goza de un éxito creciente en los debates sociológicos. En este texto el autor analiza las utilizaciones de este concepto con el fin de comprender las razones de esta creciente popularidad e indica la naturaleza de uno de los mecanismos sociales indicados por ese término, desarrollando seguidamente una teoría embrionaria de las condiciones y de los procesos sociales inherentes a este mecanismo. Teniendo en cuenta la variedad semántica del término es inútil especular acerca de su “verdadero” significado. Con el fin de precisar su significado, el autor

  1. Hacia una Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur

    German Rozas


    Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer algunos caminos hacia un ámbito que hemos llamado simbólicamente una “Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur”, es decir una disciplina que deje atrás los planteamientos venidos desde los países desarrollados, dado que alojan principalmente una mirada eurocéntrica. La referencia del Sur, es una propuesta metafórica, que no tiene un asidero geográfico, sino que apela a un otro, los del Sur, que significan la relación entre países de una manera diferente...

  2. La fachada sur en clima mediterráneo

    Soro Espín, Mikel


    Esta tesina investiga la fachada Sur del clima mediterráneo y los elementos constructivos flexibles que hacen que esta fachada tenga un correcto funcionamiento térmico durante los diferentes periodos climáticos del año. Concretamente, la tesina ha centrado la investigación en la fachada Sur de edificios residenciales plurifamiliares del clima Mediterráneo. Se ha definido la función térmica de la fachada, sus requerimientos térmicos en diferentes periodos del clima Mediterráneo ...

  3. Bibliographie sur la bonne foi en droit international public


    Note. Cette bibliographie ne comprend que les études sur la bonne foi en droit international public et quelques ouvrages marquants sur la bonne foi en général. Les ouvrages et articles consacrés à ses divers aspects particuliers sont cités dans la bibliographie spéciale qui suit. OUVRAGES Buza, L., Bona fides és joggal való visszaéles a nemzetközi jogban (Bona fides et abus de droit en droit international), Szeged, 1940. Cavaré, L., La notion de bonne foi et quelques-unes de ses applications ...

  4. Nuclear reactor

    In an improved reactor core for a high conversion BWR reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type rector, FEBR type reactor, etc., two types of fuel assemblies are loaded such that fuel assemblies using a channel box of a smaller irradiation deformation ratio are loaded in a high conversion region, while other fuel assemblies are loaded in a burner region. This enables to suppress the irradiation deformation within an allowable limit in the high conversion region where the fast neutron flux is high and the load weight from the inside of the channel box due to the pressure loss is large. At the same time, the irradiation deformation can be restricted within an allowable limit without deteriorating the neutron economy in the burner region in which fast neutron flux is low and the load weight from the inside of the channel box is small since a channel box with smaller neutron absorption cross section or reduced wall thickness is charged. As a result, it is possible to prevent structural deformations such as swelling of the channel box, bending of the entire assemblies, bending of fuel rods, etc. (K.M.)

  5. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    Michel, Roberta M.


    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  6. Decree n. 2007-534 of the 4. april 2007 allowing the creation of the base nuclear installation named Flamanville 3, including a EPR type reactor, on the site of Flamanville (Manche); Decret no 2007-534 du 10 avril 2007 autorisant la creation de l'installation nucleaire de base denommee Flamanville 3, comportant un reacteur nucleaire de type EPR, sur le site de Flamanville (Manche)



    This decree gives the authorization to EDF to create on the site of Flamanville a nuclear installation including a PWR type reactor for a power of 4500 MW and devoted to the electric production. This reactor will can use uranium oxide or a mixture of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide. Considerations concerning the safety are given, as well as the control of the impact of this exploitation on the populations and the environment. (N.C.)

  7. Closing down and dismantling of research - material testing - and teaching reactors. Stillegung und Beseitigung von Forschungs-, Materialpruef- und Unterrichtsreaktoren

    Petrasch, P.; Seidler, M.; Stasch, W.


    This study is subdivided in six topics: - determination of mass and radioactivity of the parts to be dismantled, - identification of future tasks of research and development, - estimation of radiation exposure for workers charged with dismantling, - determination of cost for closing-down and dismantling of research reactors. In total, 22 research-, materials testing- and traning reactors are taken into consideration here. Only those component that belong directly to the reactor proper plus the auxiliary - and service plants are dismantled. The reactor buildings will only be dismantled if the are a direct reactor component serving for example as a biological shield. The waste quantity created by closing-down and dismantling of all research reactors comes up to about 25200 Mg out of that 720 Mg are radioactive wastes. Planning and carrying out of closing-down and dismantling of all research reactors need about 4870 man-months the total cost will be about 86,4 Mio DM. There are vast differences between the individual research reactors. On 10 Mg will have to be disposed in the case of the Siemens training-reactor 100 (SUR-100) of which a very small share consists of radioactive waste; in the case of the research reactor Neuherberg (FRN) there are about 3500 Mg, about 94 Mg out of it is radioactive waste. The work needed per reactor varies between 26 man-months (SUR-100) and about 740 man-months (FRN). Costs for dosing-down and dismantling range between 0,4 Mio DM (SUR-100) and about 13 Mio DM (FRN).

  8. Conférence sur l'efficacité

    Jullien, François


    Philosophe et sinologue, François Jullien présente ici une conférence qu'il a prononcée auprès de chefs d'entreprise et dans le milieu du management. D'un côté, la conception européenne de l'efficacité est liée à la modélisation comme à la finalité et revendique l'action jusqu'à l'héroïsme ; de l'autre, la pensée chinoise de l'efficience, indirecte et discrète, s'appuie sur le potentiel de situation et induit des " transformations silencieuses ", sans éclat ni même événement. Par-delà cet écart, il s'agira d'interroger la nature de l'effectivité ; ou comment l'intervention humaine réussit à se brancher sur la propension des choses et s'y laisse intégrer. Ce propos se garde donc de séparer tant soit peu l'art d'opérer sur des situations et l'exercice de la philosophie ; en résultent des effets de lecture portant sur l'histoire du XXe siècle ainsi que la géopolitique - et géoéthique - à venir.

  9. Reactor container

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  10. Reactor building

    The present invention concerns a structure of ABWR-type reactor buildings, which can increase the capacity of a spent fuel storage area at a low cost and improved earthquake proofness. In the reactor building, the floor of a spent fuel pool is made flat, and a depth of the pool water satisfying requirement for shielding is ensured. In addition, a depth of pool water is also maintained for a equipment provisionally storing pool for storing spent fuels, and a capacity for a spent fuel storage area is increased by utilizing surplus space of the equipment provisionally storing pool. Since the flattened floor of the spent fuel pool is flushed with the floor of the equipment provisionally storing pool, transfer of horizontal loads applied to the building upon occurrence of earthquakes is made smooth, to improve earthquake proofness of the building. (T.M.)

  11. Nuclear reactors

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor cooled by a freezable liquid has a vessel for containing said liquid and comprising a structure shaped as a container, and cooling means in the region of the surface of said structure for effecting freezing of said liquid coolant at and for a finite distance from said surface for providing a layer of frozen coolant on and supported by said surface for containing said liquid coolant. In a specific example, where the reactor is sodium-cooled, the said structure is a metal-lined concrete vault, cooling is effected by closed cooling loops containing NaK, the loops extending over the lined surface of the concrete vault with outward and reverse pipe runs of each loop separated by thermal insulation, and air is flowed through cooling pipes embedded in the concrete behind the metal lining. 7 claims, 3 figures


    Anderson, J.B.


    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  13. Nuclear reactor

    The liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactor has got fuel subassemblies which are bundled and enclosed by a common can. In order to reduce bending of the sides of the can because of the load caused by the coolant pressure the can has got a dodecagon-shaped crosssection. The surfaces of the can may be of equal width. One out of two surfaces may also be convex towards the center. (RW)

  14. Nuclear reactor

    A detector having high sensitivity to fast neutrons and having low sensitivity to thermal neutrons is disposed for reducing influences of neutron detector signals on detection values of neutron fluxes when the upper end of control rod pass in the vicinity of the neutron flux detector. Namely, the change of the neutron fluxes is greater in the thermal neutron energy region while it is smaller in the fast neutron energy region. This is because the neutron absorbing cross section of B-10 used as neutron absorbers of control rods is greater in the thermal neutron region and it is smaller in the fast neutron region. As a result, increase of the neutron detection signals along with the local neutron flux change can be reduced, and detection signals corresponding to the reactor power can be obtained. Even when gang withdrawal of operating a plurality of control rods at the same time is performed, the reactor operation cycle can be measured accurately, thereby enabling to shorten the reactor startup time. (N.H.)


    Alexis Villalobos-Monge


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los diferentes aspectos cuantitativos y cualitativos que explican la cultura de consumo actual de hortalizas en las familias residentes en la zona sur-sur de Costa Rica. Este trabajo expone resultados relacionados a la caracterización realizada en el 2011 en familias residentes en la denominada zona sur-sur de Costa Rica sobre la cultura de consumo de productos hortícolas. Se aplicaron cuestionarios a una muestra estratificada de familias; lo que permitió establecer la valoración de los precios de mercado, por parte de las familias, para consumir estos alimentos, donde se determinó un valor máximo de US$1,74 millones por semana. Los principales rubros de consumo de acuerdo al valor pagado fueron el tomate, la papa, el plátano, la cebolla y el brócoli, para citar los cinco principales. También fue posible establecer valoraciones cualitativas sobre el consumo de estos productos; por ejemplo se determinó que para el 71,2% de las familias, la frescura representa la característica de mayor valor, además, el principal sitio donde los núcleos familiares realizan las compras de estos alimentos corresponde a supermercados (38,4% de los casos.

  16. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    In a BWR type nuclear reactor, the number of first fuel assemblies (uranium) loaded in a reactor core is smaller than that of second fuel assemblies (mixed oxide), the average burnup degree upon take-out of the first fuel assemblies is reduced to less than that of the second fuel assemblies, and the number of the kinds of the fuel rods constituting the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than that of the fuel rods constituting the second fuel assemblies. As a result, the variety of the plutonium enrichment degree is reduced to make the distribution of the axial enrichment degree uniform, thereby enabling to simplify the distribution of the enrichment degree. Then the number of molding fabrication steps for MOX fuel assemblies can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost for molding and fabrication. (N.H.)

  17. Types of Nuclear Reactors

    The presentation is based on the following areas: Types of Nuclear Reactors, coolant, moderator, neutron spectrum, fuel type, pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor pressurized heavy water (PHWR), gas-cooled reactor, RBMK , Nuclear Electricity Generation,Challenges in Nuclear Technology Deployment,EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR.

  18. Nuclear reactor

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assemblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters in the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters in the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance

  19. Sur un deplacement de valeurs: traire et tirer

    André Burger


    Full Text Available L'étymologie de firer est inconnue. Celie que le regretté W. von Wart burg a ern pouvoir avancer est inacceptable: firer serait sorti de marty rier par la grâce d'une fausse coupure mar tirier. Il est plus qu'improbable que cette «étymologie populaire» eût pu se produire si la langue ne possédait pas au préalable un verbe tirier. Au surplus aucun fait n'appuie cette hypothèse. Le FEW, t. VI, 1, p. 396, donne bien pour firer le sens de «torturer sur un treteam>, au XIIIe siècle, et p. 403, «démembrer en faisant tirer les quatre membles par des chevaux» et «torturer (qn en l'étendant sur un tréteau” au XIVe siècle; ces sens sont évidemment trop tardifs pour permettre des conclusions sur l'origine de firer, d'autant plus qu'ils s'expliquent sans peine par la valeur normale du mot, attesté dès la Chanson de Roland, sans aucun rapport avec martirie, mot savant de clerc, qui, dans le même texte s'applique deux fois sur quatre exemples aux Sarrasins, vv. 501 et 1467, où il ne signifie pas «martyre» mais <sur son étymologie et non sur les textes, que tirer aurait à l'origine »einen starken affektiven unterton« (FEW XIII, 2, p. 185. L'étude des exemples de la Chanson de Roland, confrontés avec ceux de traire, nons amènera à une conclusion toute différente.

  20. Nuclear research reactors

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.)

  1. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  2. Experimental determination of the decay constant Alpha in the zero power reactor SUR 100 BE

    The paper discusses experiments with a pulsed source and Rossi-Alpha experiments. In the first case, the effects of higher harmonies and detector position are investigated. In the Rossi-Alpha method, the interest was centered on the correlation between reactivity source strength and method of measurement. (RW/AK)

  3. Nuclear reactor

    Cover gas spaces for primary coolant vessel, such as a reactor container, a pump vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger vessel are in communication with each other by an inverted U-shaped pressure conduit. A transmitter and a receiver are disposed to the pressure conduit at appropriate positions. If vibration frequencies (pressure vibration) from low frequency to high frequency are generated continuously from the transmitter to the inside of the communication pipe, a resonance phenomenon (air-column resonance oscillation) is caused by the inherent frequency or the like of the communication pipe. The frequency of the air-column resonance oscillation is changed by the inner diameter and the clogged state of the pipelines. Accordingly, by detecting the change of the air-column oscillation characteristics by the receiver, the clogged state of the flow channels in the pipelines can be detected even during the reactor operation. With such procedures, steams of coolants flowing entrained by the cover gases can be prevented from condensation and coagulation at a low temperature portion of the pipelines, otherwise it would lead clogging in the pipelines. (I.N.)

  4. Mark Rothko. Ecrits sur l’art 1934-1969

    Maldonado, Guitemie


    Déjà, la parution de La Réalité de l’artiste (2004) était venue combler un manque aussi étonnant que persistant – celui d’un texte théorique – dans la compréhension de l’œuvre de Mark Rothko ; ses écrits, publiés ou non, rassemblés ici et s’échelonnant entre 1934 et 1969, achèvent de fournir à ses tableaux la toile de fond de ses relations, artistiques ou professionnelles, et de ses réflexions sur l’art. Une large place y est accordée à des considérations sur l’enseignement artistique, reflet...

  5. Effet du sentiment de discrimination sur les trajectoires professionnelles

    Joseph, Olivier; Lemière, Séverine; Lizé, Laurence; Rousset, Patrick


    Cette recherche porte sur les individus qui estiment avoir été victimes de discrimination, c'est-à-dire avoir subi un traitement inégal, de manière intentionnelle ou non, en raison de leur origine étrangère et/ou de leur couleur de peau. L'objectif est de s'intéresser au sentiment de discrimination et de chercher à évaluer son effet sur les parcours professionnels sept ans après la sortie du système éducatif. A partir de l'enquête Génération 98 du Céreq à 7 ans, nous avons utilisé la méthode ...

  6. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  7. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. Optimisation Robuste du Routage IP avec Incertitude sur la Demande

    Zied Ben Hamouda, Mohamed; Brun, Olivier; Garcia, Jean-Marie


    International audience Nous étudions le problème d'optimisation des métriques IP dans les réseaux de télécommunications où la demande est incertaine. Nous présentons une heuristique basée sur les techniques de recherche locale pour résoudre ce problème.

  10. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier


    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  11. La vérite sur ce qui nous motive

    Pink, Daniel H


    Voici enfin la traduction française du best-seller international DRIVE ! Qu'est-ce qui nous motive vraiment ? Dans quels cas sommes-nous les plus performants et les plus enthousiastes ? La plupart d'entre nous sommes persuadés que les récompenses (salaire, primes...) sont notre meilleure motivation. La logique de la carotte et du bâton finalement... Et si nous faisions fausse route ? En s'appuyant sur quatre décennies d'études scientifiques et psychologiques sur la motivation humaine, Pink démontre que les entreprises dirigent très mal leurs équipes avec d'énormes conséquences sur notre vie (absence d'ambition, lassitude, morosité). Le secret de la performance (et de la satisfaction) dans les entreprises, l'enseignement ou dans notre vie personnelle , c'est le besoin profondément humain de diriger sa propre vie, d'apprendre, de créer de nouvelles choses et de s'améliorer. Dans ce livre, Pink examine les 3 éléments de la motivation, l'autonomie, la maîtrise et le besoin de donner un sens ...

  12. L'Avenir de la Vie sur la Terre

    CERN. Geneva


    Notre planète va mal : réchauffement climatique, épuisement des ressources naturelles, pollutions des sols et de l'eau provoquées par les industries civiles et guerrières, disparité des richesses, malnutrition des hommes, taux d'extinction effarant des espèces vivantes, etc. La situation est-elle vraiment dramatique ? Que penser des thèses qui contestent ce pessimisme ? À partir des données scientifiques les plus crédibles - et de leurs incertitudes -, Hubert Reeves dresse un bilan précis des menaces qui pèsent sur la planète. Son diagnostic est alarmant : si la vie sur Terre est robuste, c'est l'avenir de l'espèce humaine qui est en cause. Le sort de l'aventure humaine, entamée il y a des millions d'années, va-t-il se jouer en l'espace de quelques décennies ? Notre avenir est entre nos mains. Il faut réagir, et vite, avant qu'il ne soit trop tard. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur l'odyssée cosmique tel Patience dans l'azur ou Poussières d'étoiles, Hubert Reeves est astrophysicien et dire...

  13. Reactor container

    Purpose: To prevent shocks exerted on a vent head due to pool-swell caused within a pressure suppression chamber (disposed in a torus configuration around the dry well) upon loss of coolant accident in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The following relationship is established between the volume V (m3) of a dry well and the ruptured opening area A (m2) at the boundary expected upon loss of coolant accident: V >= 30340 (m) x A Then, the volume of the dry well is made larger than the ruptured open area, that is, the steam flow rate of leaking coolants upon loss of coolant accident to decrease the pressure rise in the dry well at the initial state where loss of coolant accident is resulted. Accordingly, the pressure of non-compressive gases jetted out from the lower end of the downcomer to the pool water is decreased to suppress the pool-swell. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  15. Seismic behaviour of gas cooled reactor components

    On invitation of the French Government the Specialists' Meeting on the Seismic Behaviour of Gas-Cooled Reactor Components was held at Gif-sur-Yvette, 14-16 November 1989. This was the second Specialists' Meeting on the general subject of gas-cooled reactor seismic design. There were 27 participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, the CEC and IAEA took the opportunity to present and discuss a total of 16 papers reflecting the state of the art of gained experiences in the field of their seismic qualification approach, seismic analysis methods and of the capabilities of various facilities used to qualify components and verify analytical methods. Since the first meeting, the sophistication and expanded capabilities of both the seismic analytical methods and the test facilities are apparent. The two main methods for seismic analysis, the impedance method and the finite element method, have been computer-programmed in several countries with the capability of each of the codes dependent on the computer capability. The correlations between calculation and tests are dependent on input assumptions such as boundary conditions, soil parameters and various interactions between the soil, the buildings and the contained equipment. The ability to adjust these parameters and match experimental results with calculations was displayed in several of the papers. The expanded capability of some of the new test facilities was graphically displayed by the description of the SAMSON vibration test facility at Juelich, FRG, capable of dynamically testing specimens weighing up to 25 tonnes, and the TAMARIS facility at the CEA laboratories in Gif-sur-Yvette where the largest table is capable of testing specimens weighing up to 100 tonnes. The proceedings of this meeting contain all 16 presented papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Langage du corps, corps du langage, sur une application wüsterienne

    Narcis Zărnescu


    Les recherches sur le lexique, en particulier dans le cadre des pratiques terminologiques, sont soumises à des renouvellements sous l’influence conjointe des domaines théoriques, des développements technologiques et des demandes sociales. Mon texte tente d’aborder ces questions, à partir de points de vue et de compétences diversifiés, axés davantage sur le lexique comme objet théorique et sur les pratiques terminologiques.

  17. Survey of research reactors

    A survey of reasearch reactors based on the IAEA Nuclear Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) was done. This database includes information on 273 operating research reactors ranging in power from zero to several hundred MW. From these 273 operating research reactors 205 reactors have a power level below 5 MW, the remaining 68 reactors range from 5 MW up to several 100 MW thermal power. The major reactor types with common design are: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktors, 1.2 Argonaut reactors, Slowpoke reactors, the miniature neutron source reactors, TRIGA reactors, material testing reactors and high flux reactors. Technical data such as: power, fuel material, fuel type, enrichment, maximum neutron flux density and experimental facilities for each reactor type as well as a description of their utilization in physics and chemistry, medicine and biology, academic research and teaching, training purposes (students and physicists, operating personnel), industrial application (neutron radiography, silicon neutron transmutation doping facilities) are provided. The geographically distribution of these reactors is also shown. As conclusions the author discussed the advantages (low capital cost, low operating cost, low burn up, simple to operate, safe, less restrictive containment and sitting requirements, versatility) and disadvantages (lower sensitivity for NAA, limited radioisotope production, limited use of neutron beams, limited access to the core, licensing) of low power research reactors. 24 figs., refs. 15, Tab. 1 (nevyjel)

  18. Department of reactor technology

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  19. RB reactor noise analysis

    Statistical fluctuations of reactivity represent reactor noise. Analysis of reactor noise enables determining a series of reactor kinetic parameters. Fluctuations of power was measured by ionization chamber placed next to the tank of the RB reactor. The signal was digitized by an analog-digital converter. After calculation of the mean power, 3000 data obtained by sampling were analysed

  20. MOMIS : une base de données sur la modélisation numérique des remblais sur sols compressibles et sur la confrontation calculs-mesures in situ



    Une base de données sur la modélisation numérique d'ouvrages géotechniques et sur la confrontation calculs - mesures in situ a été développée au LCPC. Cette base appelée MOMIS (Modèles numériques d'Ouvrages et Mesures In Situ) com-prend actuellement 160 fiches, dont 84 fiches concernent des remblais et digues sur sols compressibles. La constitution de MOMIS repose sur une veille technologique dans le domaine de la modélisation par les éléments finis. Chaque fiche est le fruit de l'analyse d'u...

  1. Research on anhydrous hydrazine synthesis; Recherche sur la synthese de l'hydrazine anhydre

    Gaussens, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The first part of this work concerns the radiolysis of pure liquid ammonia. The fundamental importance of the dose rate and of the dose on the yield of radiolytic products has been demonstrated. By using a capture solute at concentrations of between 10{sup -3} and 1.2 mole s/litre, it has been possible to determine the yields of radicals and of molecules in the irradiated pure ammonia. During later work, it was possible to determine, by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters, the most favorable conditions for carrying out the radiosynthesis; the maximum radiochemical yield of the hydrazine obtained has a value: G (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 2.2/100 eV. An analysis of the molecular yields in the presence of deuterated solutes makes it possible to explain partially the role of the capture species. A project is also described for an installation producing hydrazine continuously; it is followed by an economic study of the process. From this work it appears that the yields of hydrazine obtained justify an industrial application, especially if strong radiation sources are available, for example nuclear reactors. (author) [French] La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur la radiolyse de l'ammoniac liquide pur. Le role fondamental du debit de dose et de la dose sur les rendements des produits de radiolyse a ete mise en evidence. L'emploi de solute capteur dont les concentrations sont comprises entre 10{sup -3} et 1,2 mole/litre, a permis de determiner la valeur des rendements radicalaires et moleculaires dans l'ammoniac pur irradie. Au cours d'une etape ulterieure, une variation systematique des parametres physico-chimiques a permis de determiner les conditions les plus favorables a la radiosynthese le rendement radiochimique maximum de l'hydrazine obtenu a pour valeur: G(N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) 2,2/100 eV. L'analyse des rendements moleculaires en presence de solutes deuteres nous permet de rendre compte partiellement du role des

  2. Actualités sur la vitamine D*

    Souberbielle Jean-Claude


    Full Text Available Le déficit et l’insuffisance en vitamine D, définis respectivement par des concentrations sériques de 25 hydroxyvitamine D (25OHD inférieures à 20 ng/ml et entre 20 et 30 ng/ml, sont des situations très fréquentes qui sont associées à une augmentation du risque de développer différentes pathologies, pas seulement osseuses. Les effets d’une supplémentation en vitamine D sur la diminution du risque de fractures et de chutes sont documentés par différentes études d’intervention. Les autres effets potentiels extra-osseux de la vitamine D sont principalement documentés par des études observationnelles et expérimentales. Même s’il n’existe pas encore de consensus sur les besoins en vitamine D, tous les experts s’accordent pour considérer que les AJR (200 UI/J en France sont très insuffisants et doivent être augmentés. Cet article aborde successivement le métabolisme de la vitamine D et ses effets, la définition du statut vitaminique D basée sur la concentration sérique de 25OHD, les indications du dosage de la 25OHD (qui ne doit pas être prescrit à tout le monde et propose des modalités de traitement.

  3. Le livre sur le livre traité de documentation

    Otlet, Paul


    Paul Otlet est considéré comme le père des sciences de l'information. Ouvrage fondateur et fondamental, le Traité de documentation. Le livre sur le livre (1934) est l'aboutissement de son travail inlassable pour rassembler, classer et partager les connaissances. Otlet y propose une remarquable synthèse du savoir sur le livre et le document en même temps qu'il anticipe Internet et l'hypertexte. La réédition du Traité de documentation, 70 ans après la disparition de son auteur, coïncide avec la réouverture du Mundaneum à Mons, où le fabuleux héritage documentaire légué par Paul Otlet et Henri La Fontaine est conservé. « Ici, la table de travail n'est plus chargée d'aucun livre. À leur place se dresse un écran et à portée un téléphone. Là-bas, au loin, dans un édifice immense, sont tous les livres et tous les renseignements. De là, on fait apparaître sur l'écran la page à lire pour connaître la réponse aux questions posées par téléphone. » Préfaces de Benoît Peeters (éc...

  4. Research Nuclear Reactors

    Published in English and in French, this large report first proposes an overview of the use and history of research nuclear reactors. It discusses their definition, and presents the various types of research reactors which can be either related to nuclear power (critical mock-ups, material test reactors, safety test reactors, training reactors, prototypes), or to research (basic research, industry, health), or to specific particle physics phenomena (neutron diffraction, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography, semiconductor doping). It reports the history of the French research reactors by distinguishing the first atomic pile (ZOE), and the activities and achievements during the fifties, the sixties and the seventies. It also addresses the development of instrumentation for research reactors (neutron, thermal, mechanical and fission gas release measurements). The other parts of the report concern the validation of neutronics calculations for different reactors (the EOLE water critical mock-up, the MASURCA air critical mock-up dedicated to fast neutron reactor study, the MINERVE water critical mock-up, the CALIBAN pulsed research reactor), the testing of materials under irradiation (OSIRIS reactor, laboratories associated with research reactors, the Jules Horowitz reactor and its experimental programs and related devices, irradiation of materials with ion beams), the investigation of accident situations (on the CABRI, Phebus, Silene and Jules Horowitz reactors). The last part proposes a worldwide overview of research reactors

  5. Hacia un sistema de seguridad cooperativa en el Cono Sur

    Rial, Juan Alberto


    El autor realiza un análisis de la seguridad de la región a partir de la diferenciación y enumeración de los intereses vitales y los intereses estratégicos de la Nación. Además de una lectura de la situación internacional (tanto a nivel global, hemisférica, regional y subregional, tomando como «subregión» al área geográfica del Cono Sur) y de los escenarios estratégicos que se presentan para la Argentina.

  6. Zoom on India | Gros plan sur l’Inde


    Indian Energy Production and Consumption (in Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent) Production et consommation d’énergie en Inde (en millions de tonnes d’équivalent pétrole) Source: World Bank, World Bank Development Indicators, 2010. Indian Oil, Gas and Coal Imports (in Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent, 2008*) Importations indiennes de pétrole, de gaz et de charbon (en millions de tonnes d’équivalent pétrole, 2008*) * 2009 for coal data | 2009 pour les données sur le charbon. Sources: British P...

  7. Nollywood llega al Sur de España

    Moral, Marian


    Este trabajo se centra en cómo y por qué gentes nigerianas viviendo en las ciudades de Granada y Málaga (Sur de España), simultáneamente distribuyen y consumen Nollywood, proveniente de África. Para ello, se desentraña la naturaleza de esta industria de cine nigeriana, desde el propio contexto africano, hasta su extensión a nivel internacional. Pone especial atención en cómo este fenómeno cultural juega un rol relevante en las identidades de mujeres y hombres en la diáspora. Hay que resaltar ...

  8. Développement professionnel. Variations et usages sur Internet.

    Guy, Daniel; Ortiz, Véronique


    La question de départ interroge les variations et usages observables sur l'Internet du concept de « développement professionnel » dans des productions sociales diverses : chartres d'entreprise, offres de service, programmes de formation, articles de presse, textes réglementaires, communications scientifiques… L'objectif opérationnel est de caractériser les univers de référence sémantique des usages et d'analyser leurs correspondances pour mettre à jour l'acception du concept de développement ...

  9. Observations sur l’indéterminabilité

    Narcis Zărnescu


    Full Text Available Pour Aristote, une proposition est vraie si elle correspond à un fait. Pour les Stoïciens, un raisonnement est valide si et seulement s’il est conforme à la forme canonique d’un trope. Mais affirmer cela c’était oublier que la vérité résulte toujours d’un processus de recherche, souvent long et complexe, qui repose sur l’interrogation, le questionnement, bref le dialogue. Alors qu’en logique standard, la proposition excluait toute dimension énonciative pour se réduire à un simple porteur de valeur de vérité, en logique dialogique chaque proposition est véritablement une proposition émanant d’un interlocuteur qui s’engage sur elle par un acte d’assertion. De plus, un tel acte de discours prend place dans un jeu dialogique (dialogspiel entre proposant et opposant. Dès lors, chaque proposition prend sens en fonction de son utilisation opératoire dans le jeu dialogique. On ne pense plus en termes d’axiomes, mais de système opératoire. On a là un développement remarquable du paradigme actionnel inauguré notamment par le Frege des Recherches logiques.Notre intention est donc de démontrer comment en théorie standard des modèles la décision sur la valeur de vérité d’un connecteur ou d’une proposition atomique dans un univers de discours donné reste une décision extra-logique. Dès lors une modélisation adéquate de la dimension dialogique de l’indéterminabilité ou de la véridicité consiste à articuler de façon adéquate validité et vérité, cohérence interne du dialogue et sanction attestée de façon externe. L’indéterminabilité, ainsi que la véridicité, sera le résultat d’un accord dialogique qui suppose au niveau interactionnel que les interlocuteurs reconnaissent leur consistance mutuelle et au niveau transactionnel qu’ils acceptent mutuellement le jugement d’un tiers qui atteste de la vérité des propositions atomiques sur le monde en question.

  10. Retour "écologique" sur la question des nitrates

    Buson, Christian


    Un examen critique de la question des nitrates est proposé dans cet article, à la lumière des connaissances disponibles dans différentes disciplines. Au plan sanitaire, la norme sur l’eau potable établie depuis plusieurs décennies résulte d’une erreur ancienne aujourd’hui reconnue comme telle. Les nitrates n’engendrent aucun trouble sanitaire et les griefs tels que la méthémoglobinémie du nourrisson, ou le risque de cancer du à la formation de nitrosamines, qui les ont...

  11. La Conservación Integral Alternativa desde el Sur

    Torrealba, Isa; Carbonell, Fabricio


    Esbozamos los elementos de un nuevo modelo conceptual para entender desde la perspectiva latinoamericana qué ocasiona el desbalance entre naturaleza y sociedad y vislumbrar así las verdaderas oportunidades y amenazas de soslayar el abismo entre lo ambiental y lo social al integrar efectivamente desarrollo y conservación.  Como propuesta teórica endógena compatible con la perdurabilidad del bienestar humano y producto de 10 años de investigación en el medio rural latinoamericano (sur), present...

  12. El volcanismo del Terciario superior del sur de Mendoza

    F.E. Nullo; G. C. Stephens; J. Otamendi; P. E. Baldauf


    Se describe por primera vez la petrografía y geoquímica de unidades volcánicas terciarias del sur de la provincia de Mendoza. Se analizan la nomenclatura estratigráfica y sus edades, estableciéndose una secuencia de eventos magmáticos ocurridos durante el Neógeno, comenzando con la evolución de un retro-arco, seguido por un arco magmático más joven. Se intenta respetar la nomenclatura estratigráfica existente, sin embargo, la definición de unidades se ha realizado sobre la base de las edades ...

  13. Confiance, justification et controverse sur les OGM en Europe

    Chaklatti, Samira; Rousselière, Damien


    L'apparition des plantes génétiquement modifiées, en Europe, a donné lieu à des débats importants. Cette controverse concernant les OGM apparaît comme le résultat de la confrontation entre les intérêts des différents acteurs (mouvement associatif, lobby industriel, expert et scientifique, représentant politique) organisés en groupes de pression, s'appuyant chacun sur leur propre registre de justification des bienfaits ou des inconvénients supposés des biotechnologies agricoles. Les données d'...

  14. Reactor Physics Training

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  15. Introduction of Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    This book introduces development, status, supply and demand and resource of nuclear reactor. It deals with basic knowledge of nuclear reactor, which are reactor system, heat recovery in reactor core, structural feature in reactor, materials of structure in reactor, shielding of gamma ray, shielding of reactor, safety and environmental problem of nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel and economical efficiency of nuclear energy.

  16. Safeguarding research reactors

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  17. Research nuclear reactors

    Since the divergence of the first nuclear reactor in 1942, about 600 research or test reactors have been built throughout the world. Today 255 research reactors are operating in 57 countries and about 70% are over 25 years old. Whereas there are very few reactor types for power plants because of rationalization and standardisation, there is a great diversity of research reactors. We can divide them into 2 groups: heavy water cooled reactors and light water moderated reactors. Heavy water cooled reactors are dedicated to the production of high flux of thermal neutrons which are extracted from the core by means of neutronic channels. Light water moderated reactors involved pool reactors and slightly pressurized closed reactors, they are polyvalent but their main purposes are material testing, technological irradiations, radionuclide production and neutron radiography. At the moment 8 research reactors are being built in Canada, Germany, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Russia and Slovakia and 8 others are planned in 7 countries (France, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russia, Slovakia, Thailand and Tunisia. Different research reactors are described: Phebus, Masurca, Phenix and Petten HFR. The general principles of nuclear safety applied to test reactors are presented. (A.C.)

  18. Retour d’expérience sur la co-construction d’un guide sur la gouvernance territoriale

    Maurel, P.; Barbe, E.; Rey-Valette, H.; Chia, E; Soulard, C.; Michel, L.; Pinto, M.


    / La gouvernance territoriale est devenue un enjeu majeur et une question centrale pour la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Dans le cadre du programme de recherche en partenariat PSDR, un collectif hybride composé de chercheurs, de professionnels du développement territorial et d’acteurs locaux s’est réuni au sein du projet Gouv.Innov. En s’appuyant sur plusieurs terrains d’étude, ce collectif a progressivement construit une définition de la gouvernance territo...

  19. Retour d’expérience sur la co-construction d’un guide sur la gouvernance territoriale

    Maurel, Pierre; Rey-Valette, Hélène; Chia, Eduardo; Michel, Laura; Pinto, Mathilde; Soulard, Christophe-Toussaint; Barbe, Eric


    La gouvernance territoriale est devenue un enjeu majeur et une question centrale pour la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Dans le cadre du programme de recherche en partenariat PSDR, un collectif hybride composé de chercheurs, de professionnels du développement territorial et d’acteurs locaux s’est réuni au sein du projet Gouv.Innov. En s’appuyant sur plusieurs terrains d’étude, ce collectif a progressivement construit une définition de la gouvernance territoriale ainsi qu’une grille ...

  20. Nuclear reactor building

    Purpose: To prevent seismic vibrations of external buildings from transmitting to the side walls of a reactor container in a tank type FBR reactor building. Constitution: The reactor building is structured such that the base mat for a reactor container chamber and a reactor container is separated from the base mat for the walls of building, and gas-tight material such as silicon rubber is filled in the gap therebetween. With such a constitution, even if the crane-supporting wall vibrates violently upon occurrence of earthqualkes, the seismic vibrations do not transmit toward the reactor container chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.


    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  2. Reactor Physics Programme

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  3. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  5. Process heat reactors

    The consumption of heat, for industrial and domestic needs, takes up half of the national energy supply; direct utilization of the heat produced by nuclear reactors could therefore contribute to reduce the deficit in the energetic results. The restraints proper to heat consumption (dispersal and variety of consumers, irregular demand) involve the development of the heat transport system structures and adequate nuclear reactors. With this in view, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Technicatome are developing the CAS reactor series, pressurized water reactors (PWR), (CAS 3G reactor with a power of 420, and the Thermos reactor (100, directly conceived to produce heat at 1200C and whose technology derives from the experimental pool reactors type. In order to prove the value of the Thermos design, an experimental reactor should soon be constructed in the Saclay nuclear research centre

  6. Reactor System Design

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  7. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 11, Reactor operation

    This volume includes the following chapters describing: Organisation of reactor operation (including operational safety, fuel management, and regulatory rules for RA reactor operation); Control and maintenance of reactor components (reactor core, nuclear fuel, heavy water and cover gas systems, mechanical structures, electric power supply system, reactor instrumentation); Quality assurance and Training of the reactor personnel

  8. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  9. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  10. High solids fermentation reactor

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.


    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  11. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Maurette, M.


    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  12. Fusion reactor studies

    A review is given of fusion reactor systems studies, the objectives of these studies are outlined and some recent conceptual reactor designs are described. The need for further studies in greater depth is indicated so that progress towards a commercial fusion reactor may be consolidated. (U.K.)

  13. Reactor power measuring device

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  14. Réflexions sur la nomination des juges

    Masson, Louis; Champagne, Sylvie


    Au printemps 2010, le Barreau du Québec a décidé de participer à la réflexion menée par la Commission publique d’enquête sur le processus de nomination des juges du Québec. Il était nécessaire de revoir, après une trentaine d’années, le système québécois, qui a fait ses preuves et donné une magistrature de haute qualité. Pourquoi ? Afin de s’assurer, entre autres, d’augmenter la transparence du processus et de préserver la confiance des citoyens dans notre système de justice. Les auteurs prés...

  15. Remarques sur la publication du siècle

    Viala, Alain


    Les travaux sur les questions de réception sont en essor depuis une bonne vingtaine d'années et, ces derniers temps, des colloques et des séminaires ont été consacrés aux formes et enjeux de la réception du xviie siècle dans les périodes ultérieures, qu'il s'agisse du « siècle » dans sa globalité ou, plus souvent, de tel ou tel aspect ou tel ou tel auteur. Apporter une pierre à ce chantier est, en soi, chose utile sans aucun doute. Mais il est diverses façons de l'envisager. Or au moment où l...

  16. Sur les chemins des caféiers

    Pinard, Fabrice


    Originaire d’Afrique tropicale, le café, plante et boisson, a conquis la planète à partir du xviie siècle. C’est aujourd’hui une des matières premières les plus consommées au monde, encore largement produite, sur un mode traditionnel, par la petite paysannerie du tiers-monde, sous la contrainte de la libéralisation et des aléas du négoce international. Mis en difficulté après des crises récentes, le secteur « café » tente d’évoluer pour s’adapter à une demande moderne tournée vers la qualité....

  17. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio


    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  18. Ombres et lumières sur la Bretagne antique

    Galliou, Patrick


    fr Les découvertes archéologiques faites au cours du dernier demi-siècle en Grande-Bretagne ont montré que la « romanisation » effective de l’île, entraînée par la conquête claudienne de 43 apr. J.-C., avait été précédée d’une phase de contacts commerciaux et politiques occupant le dernier siècle avant notre ère. À la lumière des mêmes découvertes, la « romanisation » proprement dite se révèle multiforme, non-linéaire et sans doute imparfaite, sa géographie influant sur les événements qui mar...

  19. Films nématiques minces sur substrats liquides

    Delabre, Ulysse


    Ce travail de thèse analyse l'organisation des films de cristaux liquides nématiques sur substrats liquides (eau et glycérol). Dans ce cas, l'ancrage planaire au niveau du substrat liquide est plus fort que l'ancrage homéotrope à l'interface libre. En dessous d'une épaisseur critique de l'ordre de 0.5-0.6 µm, des stries qui correspondent à une modulation de l'orientation du directeur, apparaissent. La longueur d'onde de ces stries est largement supérieure à l'épaisseur du film. Nous avons ana...

  20. Retour sur l’ancien esprit du capitalisme

    Hirsch, Jean-Pierre


    Le capitalisme du XIXe siècle était-il plus “ pur ” que le nôtre et les discours tenus alors par les entrepreneurs et les théoriciens moins contradictoires ? Analysant quelques échantillons de leurs écrits, à usage public ou à usage privé, les confrontant aux pratiques de leurs auteurs, on cherche à montrer la présence constante de contradictions ou d'alternatives qui semblent indispensables à la longévité du système. Autre époque ! Mais sur la nature même de leur activité, la dimension famil...

  1. Chapitre IV. Regards sur la guerre de Candie


    Tout au long du discours de Pierre Domenisse, l’image des Turcs se construit encore largement autour d’une culture de la confrontation, qui s’appuie sur l’antagonisme traditionnel entre Occident et dâr al-Islam. Mais si la vision du capitaine reste en partie dépendante d’une perception élaborée aux xive et xve siècles, les anecdotes relatées, le ton employé et les analyses laissent cependant émerger une image de l’Autre bien ambiguë, tant en ce qui concerne les Turcs que les Vénitiens. Le Mém...

  2. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord



    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  3. Les filarioses humaines sur le territoire français


    1. La filariose lymphatique 1.1. Cycle de la maladie 1.1.1. Agent Sur les territoires français, l’agent est le nématode Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocercidae, Filarioidea. Mais deux autres espèces de filaires provoquent des filarioses lymphatiques similaires : Brugia malayi, dont l'aire d'extension va de l'Inde et du Sud-Est asiatique à la Corée, et B. timori, limité à quelques îles d'Indonésie. Les filaires mâles de W. bancrofti sont longues de 40 mm et larges de 0,1 mm, les femelles de 80-100...

  4. Un copiste inattendu à Vic-sur-Cère (Cantal

    Renaud Benoit-Cattin


    Full Text Available A Vic-sur-Cère, petit bourg du Cantal, l’hôtel du Pont et du Parc abrite au rez-de-chaussée une salle de restaurant dont les quatre murs sont ornés de dix-sept peintures d’un caractère peu ou prou monumental. Leur hauteur est d’environ 1,50 m, leur largeur variant de 0,6 à 3,5 m. Quatorze d’entre elles ont été exécutées par Antoine Cayrol entre 1909 et 1914, les trois dernières par son petit-fils, Roger Cayrol, en 1954.Le grand-père, Antoine, né en 1864, est élevé à Paris. Après son service m...

  5. Observation et analyse d'attaques sur Internet

    Studnia, Ivan


    Dans le domaine de la sécurité informatique, un pot de miel est un outil dont le but est d'attirer les attaquants et d'enregistrer leurs activités, afin de mieux connaître leurs techniques et objectifs. Dans cette optique, un pot de miel a été conçu et déployé au LAAS depuis 2006 afin d'observer le trafic malveillant utilisant le protocole ssh sur Internet. De nombreuses analyses ont été réalisées et concernent exclusivement ce site géographique. Pour compléter et enrichir ces analyses, de no...

  6. ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'', E-learning in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Mosser, Benoît; Delsanti, Audrey; Guillaume, Damien; Balança, Christian; Balkowski, Chantal


    ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'' (astrophysics made-to-measure) is a set of e-learning programmes started 4 years ago at the Paris Observatory. In order to deliver attractive and efficient programmes, we have added many multimedia tools to usual lectures: animations, Java applets. The programmes are presented on two different platforms. The first one offers the content of all the lectures in free access. A second platform with restricted access is provided to registered students taking part in the e-learning program and benefiting from the help of tutors. The development of these programs helps to increase the sphere of influence of astronomy taught at the Paris Observatory, hence to increase the presence of astronomy in various degree courses. Instead of teaching classical astronomy lectures to a happy few, we can bring astronomy and astrophysics to a wider audience.

  7. Informations sur les personnages-clés

    Hebbelinck, Thérèse


    Personnages-clés Nous proposons ci-dessous non pas des notices biographiques complètes sur les personnages cités mais nous mentionnons les fonctions qui étaient les leurs lors de la controverse du carmel d’Auschwitz. Barnas Thaddée (1944) : moine bénédictin du monastère œcuménique de Chevetogne, il prit une conscience accrue du problème des relations entre juifs et chrétiens à l’occasion de l’affaire du carmel d’Auschwitz. En 1986, il fut l’initiateur d’une importante pétition demandant le dé...

  8. La femme invisible. Sur l’imaginaire du pouvoir politique

    Derville, Grégory; Pionchon, Sylvie


    La sous-représentation politique des femmes est souvent mise sur le compte d’une résistance du champ politique à la féminisation. Si un tel sexisme est bien repérable, l’explication de ce phénomène tient surtout à la persistance de représentations sociales très largement diffusées, et qui rendent l’engagement politique au féminin difficile à penser et à admettre pour nombre de citoyens : l’image de la femme comme pivot de l’espace domestique, et plus encore l’image de la politique comme une a...

  9. Regards sur les cambriolages et les tentatives de cambriolages

    Heinz, Andreas; Steffgen, Georges; Frising, Armande; Reichmann, Liliane


    Selon l’enquête sur la sécurité 2013, 10% des ménages ont été victimes d’un cambriolage et 9% ont subi une tentative de cambriolage au cours des 5 dernières années. Il s’agit d’introductions ou de tentatives d’introduction dans leur bien immobilier au Luxembourg ou à l’étranger. La grande majorité des effractions (83%) a eu lieu au Grand-Duché et près d’un tiers (35%) se sont produites entre 22h et 6h. Dans 73% des cas, l’habitation était visée ; les installations extérieures, annexes et abri...

  10. Recherches étymologiques sur le passeur aire latine

    Thomas, Joël


    Idée générale : l’étymologie vient conforter la logique d’imaginaire : elle n’a pas seulement un intérêt sur le plan de la rigueur ou de l’érudition. On peut évoquer cinq racines et quelques constellations sémantiques connexes : La racine commune indo-européenne per = « traverser », « faire passer » (grec peirô) donne : portare, « faire passer » (mouvement), qui s’est limité à être synonyme de fero, gero, porter, et s’est substituée à eux en latin tardif (sa flexion, plus régulière, était plu...

  11. Sur un deplacement de valeurs: traire et tirer

    André Burger


    L'étymologie de firer est inconnue. Celie que le regretté W. von Wart burg a ern pouvoir avancer est inacceptable: firer serait sorti de marty rier par la grâce d'une fausse coupure mar tirier. Il est plus qu'improbable que cette «étymologie populaire» eût pu se produire si la langue ne possédait pas au préalable un verbe tirier. Au surplus aucun fait n'appuie cette hypothèse. Le FEW, t. VI, 1, p. 396, donne bien pour firer le sens de «torturer sur un treteam>, au XIIIe siècle, et p. 403, «dé...

  12. Impact du transmédia sur le dialogue interculturel

    Mbiock, Olga Marlyse Lodombe


    Au coeur de la révolution numérique où les frontières semblent s’effacer entre les médias, les producteurs et les usagers de l’information; nous constatons non seulement une évolution des médias vers le transmédia mais encore un impact du transmédia sur le dialogue interculturel. L’objectif de cette communication est de voir, à travers la question du «mariage pour tous», comment la «culture de la convergence» est de plus en plus présente via l’expression des voix dans des plate...

  13. Components of SurA required for outer membrane biogenesis in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Kristin M Watts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SurA is a periplasmic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase and chaperone of Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast to other PPIases, SurA appears to have a distinct role in chaperoning newly synthesized porins destined for insertion into the outer membrane. Previous studies have indicated that the chaperone activity of SurA rests in its "core module" (the N- plus C-terminal domains, based on in vivo envelope phenotypes and in vitro binding and protection of non-native substrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we determined the components of SurA required for chaperone activity using in vivo phenotypes relevant to disease causation by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC, namely membrane resistance to permeation by antimicrobials and maturation of the type 1 pilus usher FimD. FimD is a SurA-dependent, integral outer membrane protein through which heteropolymeric type 1 pili, which confer bladder epithelial binding and invasion capacity upon uropathogenic E. coli, are assembled and extruded. Consistent with prior results, the in vivo chaperone activity of SurA in UPEC rested primarily in the core module. However, the PPIase domains I and II were not expendable for wild-type resistance to novobiocin in broth culture. Steady-state levels of FimD were substantially restored in the UPEC surA mutant complemented with the SurA N- plus C-terminal domains. The addition of PPIase domain I augmented FimD maturation into the outer membrane, consistent with a model in which domain I enhances stability of and/or substrate binding by the core module. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm the core module of E. coli SurA as a potential target for novel anti-infective development.

  14. The Production of the Pastora in Camarines Sur, Philippines



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to document the pastora, a song-dance performance during Christmas season that calls to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ in two towns of Camarines Sur, Philippines. Specifically, it focused on its production aspect. The categories include: the handing down of oral traditions which influenced the trainers' casting, choreography, costumes, props, musical accompaniment, and performances. The researcher made use of real time data: videotaped pastora dances, observer’s notes, ex post facto data: stimulated recall and interviews. There were similarities and differences in the production of these pastora. Both of the trainers were exposed to this activity at a young age. At present, their granddaughters are members of their respective pastora groups—one way of handing down the oral tradition to the younger generations. Both groups have dresses made of silks and laces. With regard to the choice of colors, Mimay prefers to use light colors such as white, light blue, and pink while Rita favors loud colors such as red, green, and golden yellow. At present they use only one kind of musical instrument in their pastora. Pastora Baao uses a saxophone while pastora Bombon uses a guitar. The trainers also differ in standards for recruiting members. Mimay prefers to invite girls with good singing voice, good dancing ability, and good physical appearance, while Rita believes that willingness is the most important quality of a pastora. The similarities in the production of these pastora reveal the possibility that pastora in Camarines Sur came from one source. The similarities also revealed the impact of pastora in maintaining religiosity and the socio-cultural environment. The differences are influenced by the tradition handed down to trainers, the trainers’ personal outlook, geographical locations, and economic condition.

  15. Light water reactor safety

    Pershagen, B


    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  16. Nuclear reactor repairing device

    Purpose: To enable free repairing of an arbitrary position in an LMFBR reactor. Constitution: A laser light emitted from a laser oscillator installed out of a nuclear reactor is guided into a portion to be repaired in the reactor by using a reflecting mirror, thereby welding or cutting it. The guidance of the laser out of the reactor into the reactor is performed by an extension tube depending into a through hole of a rotary plug, and the guidance of the laser light into a portion to be repaired is performed by the transmitting and condensing action of the reflecting mirror. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  18. Nuclear reactor physics

    Stacey, Weston M


    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  19. Langage du corps, corps du langage, sur une application wüsterienne

    Narcis Zărnescu


    Full Text Available Les recherches sur le lexique, en particulier dans le cadre des pratiques terminologiques, sont soumises à des renouvellements sous l’influence conjointe des domaines théoriques, des développements technologiques et des demandes sociales. Mon texte tente d’aborder ces questions, à partir de points de vue et de compétences diversifiés, axés davantage sur le lexique comme objet théorique et sur les pratiques terminologiques.

  20. Observations introductives au colloque sur les transferts électroniques de fonds

    Prüm, André


    Le présent ouvrage regroupe les actes de deux colloques sur les transferts électroniques de fonds et sur les aspects juridiques des paiements par WAP. L’idée du premier colloque est venue des nombreuses questions posées sur la sécurité tant technique que juridique des paiements effectués dans le cadre du commerce électronique. Le colloque a volontairement reçu le titre très neutre de « transferts électroniques de fonds » afin de permettre la couverture de sujets très différents sans particuli...

  1. À la découverte des mangroves : regards multiples sur un objet de recherche mouvant

    Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine


    INTRODUCTION Les mangroves ont été découvertes très tardivement sur les plans écologique, esthétique et socio-économique par les observateurs étrangers. Avant le xxe siècle, les documents sur la mangrove sont peu nombreux et ce milieu suscite le plus souvent une réaction de perplexité, méfiance ou répulsion de la part des premiers explorateurs et voyageurs, des missionnaires et des colons mais également des scientifiques. A partir d’une recension bibliographique sur les mangroves et d’un trav...

  2. Crypto-processeur ECC en RNS sur FPGA avec inversion modulaire rapide

    Bigou, Karim; Tisserand, Arnaud


    Nous développons un crypto-processeur RNS pour ECC sur Fp à la fois très rapide et robuste face à certaines SCA. Dans ce article court, nous décrivons l'utilisation de RNS pour ECC, l'architecture générale de notre crypto-processeur et son implantation sur FPGA. Nous présentons un nouvel algorithme d'inversion modulaire RNS basé sur l'algorithme d'Euclide binaire étendu qui permet une accélération d'un facteur 6.

  3. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPRTM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENATM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENATM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  4. The Maple reactor project

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  5. High temperature reactors

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements

  6. Spinning fluids reactor

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  7. Reactor Safety: Introduction

    The programme of the Reactor Safety Division focuses on the development of expertise on materials behaviour under irradiation for fission and fusion oriented applications. Furthermore, as nuclear energy needs international public acceptance with respect to safety and efficient management of natural resources and wants to reduce the burden of nuclear waste, the Reactor Safety Division enhanced its efforts to develop the MYRRHA project. MYRRHA, an accelerator driven sub-critical system, might have the potential to cope in Europe with the above mentioned constraints on acceptability and might serve as a technological platform for GEN IV reactor development, in particular the Liquid Metal Fast Reactor.The Reactor Safety Division gathers three research entities that are internationally recognised: the Reactor Materials Research department, the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA department and the Instrumentation department.The objectives of Reactor Materials Research are: to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials and nuclear fuels used in present and future nuclear power industry; to perform research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material and fuel behaviour under or after irradiation; to contribute to the interpretation and modelling of the materials and fuels behaviour in order to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the Reactor Materials Research department concentrate on four distinct disciplines: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel embrittlement Stress corrosion cracking in reactor coolant environment, including Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking; Nuclear Fuel characterisation and development of new fuel types for commercial and test reactors. Development of materials for Fusion and advanced nuclear fission reactors. The safe operation of present nuclear power plants relies primarily on the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel

  8. Research reactors in Argentina

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  9. Thai research reactor

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  10. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Stacey, Weston M.


    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  11. L'UOIF:en face de la loi sur la la(i)cité

    田俊雷; 申永杰


    La socié té francaise se caracté rise par le principe de la(i)cité. 《 L' affaire du foulard 》 existe en France depuisquelques anné es. Pour 1' instant, la question du voile se focalise sur les lycé es et sur quelques les colle ges. Le voile a causé un dé sé quilibre a 1'é cole. La France est cette socié té multiculturelle. Dans ce dossier, on pré sente la motivation et 1' objet dudossier en introduction. Ensuite dans deux parties distinctes, on dé crit le panorama des articles et on les analyse. Dans une autrepartie, on de veloppe son argumentation sur le sujet, et pour finir, la conclusion sur 1' objet du dossier.

  12. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  13. CCALBATC - bathymetric contours for the central California region between Point Arena and Point Sur.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — CCALBATC consists of bathymetric contours at 10-m and 50-m intervals for the area offshore of central California between Point Arena to the north and Point Sur to...

  14. L’agriculture itinérante sur brûlis, une menace sur la forêt tropicale humide ?

    BAHUCHET, Serge; Betsch, Jean-Marie


    L’attitude des scientifiques et des gestionnaires de l’aménagement et de la conservation face à l’agriculture sur brûlis, généralement idéologique, produit un discours ambigu basé sur une image homogène et hors contexte du terme « agriculture itinérante sur brûlis » (en anglais Slash-and-burn, la « défriche-brûlis », permanente, et Shifting cultivation, l’« agriculture itinérante »). L’ambiguïté entretenue entre défrichement permanent et agriculture itinérante occulte la diversité des système...

  15. Des effets du divorce et du non divorce sur les enfants

    Martin, Claude


    The issue of divorce and its effets on children has repeatedly been raised since the 18th century. This article synthesize the main findings of current international reserach and condider the effects of non-divorcing for couples who fall out of love and experience conflict. What happens to couples who decide not to divorce for the children's sake. What about the live together apart couples? Cet article propose de revenir sur les principales conclusions des recherches internationales sur le...

  16. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  17. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.)

  18. Bornes optimales pour la diff\\'erence entre la hauteur de Weil et la hauteur de N\\'eron-Tate sur les courbes elliptiques sur \\Qbar

    Bruin, Peter


    We give an algorithm that, given an elliptic curve $E$ over $\\Qbar$ in Weierstra{\\ss} form, computes the infimum and supremum of the difference between the na\\"{\\i}ve and canonical height functions on $E(\\Qbar)$. ----- Nous donnons un algorithme qui, \\'etant donn\\'ee une courbe elliptique $E$ sur $\\Qbar$ sous la forme de Weierstra\\ss, calcule l'infimum et le supremum de la diff\\'erence entre la hauteur na\\"{\\i}ve et la hauteur canonique sur $E(\\Qbar)$.

  19. El surgimiento de la cooperación Sur-Sur: Hacia un nuevo ecosistema de cooperación para el desarrollo

    Joaquim Tres


    La Cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS) ha surgido con gran ímpetu en los últimos cinco años e iniciado su consolidación en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), contribuyendo al aumento del número de actores, de instrumentos de intercambio de conocimiento y experiencias de desarrollo y a la diversificación de enfoques, aspectos todos ellos de un ecosistema emergente de cooperación. Ante este contexto, muchos analistas se preguntan ¿por qué surgió la CSS en estos momentos? y ¿qué implicaciones puede tener p...

  20. Las economías emergentes: nuevos escenarios en la integración y la cooperación sur-sur

    Dupuy, Héctor Adolfo; Morgante, Martín Adolfo; Salessi, Maria Lucila


    Nos proponemos analizar la significación que alcanza la cooperación sur-sur, así como la situación del proceso de integración del Mercosur y su eje Argentina-Brasil, las políticas impulsadas por la Unasur y los logros de la Alianza del Pacífico, en cuanto territorios ampliados de alcance internacional. Esto en un marco de transición hacia un mundo multipolar en medio de una de las peores crisis del capitalismo, en un contexto de graves conflictos en muchos lugares del Planeta, la sostenida he...

  1. TRIGA reactor main systems

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  2. Evaluation of research reactors

    The present status of research reactors with highly enriched (93%) uranium fuel at JAERI, JRR-2 and JMTR is described. JRR-2 is a heterogeneous type of reactor, using heavy water as moderator and coolant. It uses both MTR type and cylindrical type of fuel elements. The maximum thermal power and the thermal neutron flux are 10 MW and 2x1014 n/cm2 see respectively. The reactor has been used for various experiments such as solid state physics, material irradiation, reactor fuel irradiation and radioisotope production. The JMTR is a multi-purpose tank type material testing reactor, and light water moderator and coolant, operated at 50 MW. The evaluation of lower enriched fuel and its consequences for both reactors is considered more especially

  3. Multipurpose research reactors

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The nuclear soliton reactor

    The basic reactor physics of a completely novel nuclear fission reactor design - the soliton-reactor - is presented on the basis of a simple model. In such a reactor, the neutrons in the critical region convert either fertile material in the adjacent layers into fissile material or reduce the poisoning of fissile material in such a manner that successively new critical regions emerge. The result is an autocatalytically driven burn-up wave which propagates throughout the reactor. Thereby, the relevant characteristic spatial distributions (neutron flux, specific power density and the associated particle densities) are solitons - wave phenomena resulting from non-linear partial differential equations which do not change their shape during propagation. A qualitativley new kind of harnessing nuclear fission energy may become possible with fuel residence times comparable with the useful lifetime of the reactor system. In the long run, fast breeder systems which exploit the natural uranium and thorium resources, without any reprocessing capacity are imaginable. (orig.)

  5. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel


    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  6. Fusion reactor research

    This work covers four separate areas: (1) development of technology for processing liquid lithium from blankets, (2) investigation of hydrogen isotope permeation in candidate structural metals and alloys for near-term fusion reactors, (3) analytical studies encompassing fusion reactor thermal hydraulics, tritium facility design, and fusion reactor safety, and (4) studies involving dosimetry and damage analysis. Recent accomplishments in each of these areas are summarized

  7. The Integral Fast Reactor

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. The replacement research reactor

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  9. PFBR reactor protection

    Design philosophy adopted for Prototype Fast breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a classical one and has the following features: triplicated sensors for measuring important safety parameters; two independent reactor protection Logic Systems based on solid state devices; reactivity control achieved by control rods; gas equipped modules at the core blanket interface providing negative reactivity. Design verification of these features showed that safety of the reactor can be achieved by a traditional approach since the inherent features of LMFBR make this easy

  10. Reactor BR2

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  11. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  12. Reactor Safety Analysis

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  13. Comment enquêter sur les diachronies courtes et contemporaines ?

    Wionet Chantal


    Full Text Available Abstract Diachronic studies have long focused on ancient stages of the language. But some linguists have recently claimed that the contemporary form of language should also be examined with a diachronic look. This paper raises some issues that appear when such a methodology is applied to contemporary French. Is there a specificity in trying to approach linguistic change in progress ? What kind of corpora should be searched and investigated in order to locate and analyse the diffusion of newness ? Should the researcher take into account the numerous metalinguistic remarks that the new media display ? Through the example of some changes in phraseology traced in corpora from contemporary media and throughout a limited number of years, some statements are made in this paper as regards the simultaneous exploitation of both linguistic and metalinguistic resources. Résumé Tandis que les études diachroniques se sont longtemps concentrées sur des états de langue anciens, certains linguistes, à date récente, ont estimé que l’état de langue contemporain pouvait également se prêter à ce regard. Cette communication pose quelques-unes des questions qui apparaissent alors. Y a-t-il une spécificité à l’étude diachronique du français contemporain ? Quels corpus sont susceptibles d’être exploités si l’on se fixe l’objectif de repérer les lieux d’émergence et de diffusion des nouveautés ? Le chercheur doit-il prendre en considération les nombreux commentaires méta- (ou épi- linguistiques que les nouveaux médias rendent visibles ? À travers l’exemple de quelques changements dans les phraséologies du dire étudiés dans des corpus médiatiques sur un nombre limité d’années, des propositions sont faites autour de la possibilité d’associer ressources linguistiques et ressources métalinguistiques dans ce type d’études.

  14. Hacia una Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur

    German Rozas


    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer algunos caminos hacia un ámbito que hemos llamado simbólicamente una “Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur”, es decir una disciplina que deje atrás los planteamientos venidos desde los países desarrollados, dado que alojan principalmente una mirada eurocéntrica. La referencia del Sur, es una propuesta metafórica, que no tiene un asidero geográfico, sino que apela a un otro, los del Sur, que significan la relación entre países de una manera diferente, incorporando a todos aquellas poblaciones, países, comunidades, independientes de su ubicación en el globo, que no se sienten incluidos en la categoría de países industrializados, modernos, autodenominados del norte. Desde la visibilización en América Latina de movimientos sociales asociados a comunidades indígenas, afrodescendientes y otras, la disciplina debiera reconfigurarse cualitativamente de modo que dé cuenta de estas nuevas realidades. Por un lado, algunas propuestas señalan acentuar la definición del concepto de comunidad desde una óptica más relacional. Es decir, entender comunidad como una matriz de cosmovisiones de mundo, la cual se articula con otras comunidades en una determinación mutua. Por otro lado, la intervención comunitaria ya debiera dejar atrás la solución de problemas que promuevan el progreso y el bienestar occidental, sino dirigirse más bien a trabajar la subjetividad, en el sentido de deconstruir la colonización del saber, para luego fortalecer la interpretación que hace cada comunidad desde su propia particularidad y cosmovisión situada. Finalmente, otra línea a sugerir es poner énfasis en un tipo de transformación social dirigida a la construcción de otra epistemología, que incorpore la interculturalidad, la plurinacionalidad, los derechos colectivos y por último una temática hoy día presente y en debate, el buen vivir.

  15. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  16. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  17. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  18. New reactor concepts

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  19. Reactor construction steels

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  20. Commercialization of fast reactors

    Comparative analysis has been performed of capital and fuel cycle costs for fast BN-type and pressurized light water VVER-type reactors. As a result of materials demand and components costs comparison of NPPs with VVER-1000 and BN-600 reactors, respectively, conclusion was made, that under equal conditions of the comparison, NPP with fast reactor had surpassed the specific capital cost of NPP with VVER by about 30 - 40 %. Ways were determined for further decrease of this difference, as well as for the fuel cycle cost reduction, because at present it is higher than that of VVER-type reactors. (author)

  1. Mirror fusion reactors

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  2. Natural convection type reactor

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, a reactor core is disposed such that the top of the reactor core is always situated in a flooded position even if pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured and the level at the inside of the reactor vessel is reduced due to flashing. Further, a lower dry well situated below the pressure vessel is disposed such that it is in communication with a through hole to a pressure suppression chamber situated therearound and the reactor core is situated at the level lower than that of the through hole. If pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured to cause loss of water, although the water level is lowered after the end of the flashing, the reactor core is always flooded till the operation of a pressure accummulation water injection system to prevent the top of the reactor core even from temporary exposure. Further, injected water is discharged to the outside of the pressure vessel, transferred to the lower dry well, and flows through the through hole to the pressure control chamber and cools the surface of the reactor pressure vessel from the outside. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled to surely and efficiently remove the after-heat. (N.H.)

  3. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors IAEA safety

  4. Reactor power control device

    The present invention provides a control device which can conduct scram and avoid lowering of the power of a nuclear power plant upon occurrence of earthquakes. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises, in addition to an existent power control device, (1) an earthquake detector for detecting occurrence and annihilation of earthquakes and (2) a reactor control device for outputting control rod operation signals and reactor core flow rate control signals depending on the earthquake detection signals from the detector, and reactor and plant information. With such a constitution, although the reactor is vibrated by earthquakes, the detector detects slight oscillations of the reactor by initial fine vibration waves as premonitory symptoms of serious earthquakes. The earthquake occurrence signals are outputted to the reactor control device. The reactor control device, receiving the signals, changes the position of control rods by way of control rod driving mechanisms to make the axial power distribution in the reactor core to a top peak type. As a result, even if the void amount in the reactor core is reduced by the subsequent actual earthquakes, since the void amount is moved, effects on the increase of neutron fluxes by the actual earthquakes is small. (I.S.)

  5. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  6. Fusion Reactor Materials

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  7. Le virus de l'enroulement des feuilles du cerisier, largement répandu en France sur noyer, est-il à l'origine de l'incompatibilité de greffage du noyer Juglans regia sur Juglans nigra ?

    Delbos, R; Bonnet, A.; DUNEZ, Jean


    Sur les 2 millions de noyers exploités en France, la moitié environ est cultivée en verger : 20 p. 100 des arbres du verger français de noyer sont greffés sur Juglans nigra, le reste étant greffé sur J. regia. Des symptômes de nécrose de la zone de greffe sont signalés assez couramment sur les arbres greffés sur J. nigra, surtout depuis quelques années ; ces symptômes sont tout à fait semblables à ceux décrits aux U.S.A. dans le cas d’arbres greffés sur J. hindsii ou « Paradox » (J. hinds...

  8. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño


    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  9. Wind power potential of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Jaramilli, O.A.; Saldana, R.; Miranda, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Energias No Convencionales, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    This work is an analysis of wind characteristics of Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico, during the period from February 1997 to February 1998. Fifteen wind stations located in the eastern coastal area recorded the wind speed and wind direction for this region. The wind resources of BCS were recorded and the annual average wind speed, power density, and annual energy density at 10 m above ground level are presented here. We considered the wind data from El Cardon, BCS, as a case study. This location can be considered to be representative of the 15 wind stations that were installed in BCS. Using the Weibull probability density function, we estimated the wind energy output and the capacity factor for two different wind turbines during the year. The capacity factors for both wind turbines were estimated at close to 25%. Considering the wind energy output and the capacity factor, we estimated the levelized production costs for both wind turbines. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, we developed data for the levelized production cost of both wind turbines. (Author)

  10. Contaminantes en los cuerpos de agua del sur de Sonora

    López-Ríos Olga


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Ahondar en el conocimiento sobre la incidencia de las actividades productivas del hombre en su medio, y el riesgo potencial que representa el deterioro ambiental para su propia salud y la sobrevivencia de especies animales. Material y métodos. Se utilizó el paquete informático Decision Support System for Industrial Pollution Control DSS (IPC, desarrollado por el Banco Mundial, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, que se aplicó a un estudio de caso sobre los cuerpos de agua del sur de Sonora, durante 1996. Resultados. Estos sugieren que existen al menos tres factores que han contribuido a la desaparición de criaderos naturales de pescado y camarón en el municipio de Huatabampo: a la filtración de fertilizantes y pesticidas en las aguas de los drenes; b el asolvamiento producido por el depósito continuo, en el pasado, de agua de cola de la industria, c y la descarga inapropiada de aguas negras en los drenes. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en:

  11. de La Ciénega, costa sur de Jalisco

    Peter R. W. Gerritsen


    Full Text Available Hoy día la producción agroindustrial de alimentos es una actividad que está causando gran impacto tanto en los recursos naturales como en las culturas y los tejidos sociales; mientras que el modo campesino, opuesto al agroindustrial, propone una agricultura justa con base en las prácticas y experiencias campesinas generando así alternativas sustentables de producción.En este artículo se analizan cuatro estudios de caso de agricultores en el ejido de La Ciénega en la costa sur de Jalisco, los cuales se ubican en estos dos sistemas de producción. Los resultados exponen las técnicas de producción y estrategias campesinas que se desarrollan, así como la relación de los sistemas de producción ante las políticas agropecuarias. Terminamos resaltando la importancia de las prácticas y experiencias endógenas para el fortalecimiento de un desarrollo rural sustentable

  12. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  13. Dix choses a savoir sur les regions metropolitaines du Canada : synthese de la serie de Statistique Canada

    Heisz, Andrew


    La serie de rapports intitulee fournit des renseignements de base importants sur les regions metropolitaines de recensement (RMR) du Canada pour la periode allant de 1981 a 2001. Fondee principalement sur des donnees de recensement, cette serie offre des renseignements et des analyses de fond portant sur plusieurs sujets, dont le faible revenu, la sante, l'immigration, la culture, le logement, les marches du travail, la structure industrielle, la mobilite, les transports en commun et le navet...

  14. Mice lacking sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) ATP sensitive potassium channels are resistant to acute cardiovascular stress

    Stoller, Douglas; Kakkar, Rahul; Smelley, Matthew; Chalupsky, Karel; Earley, Judy U.; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C.; McNally, Elizabeth M.


    Adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are thought to mediate stress response by sensing intracellular ATP concentration. Cardiomyocyte KATP channels are composed of the pore-forming Kir6.2 subunit and the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2). We studied the response to acute isoproterenol in SUR2 null mice as a model of acute adrenergic stress and found that the episodic coronary vasospasm observed at baseline in SUR2 null mice was alleviated. Similar results were ob...

  15. One piece reactor removal

    Japan Research Reactor No.3 (JRR-3) was the first reactor consisting of 'Japanese-made' components alone except for fuel and heavy water. After reaching its initial critical state in September 1962, JRR-3 had been in operation for 21 years until March 1983. It was decided that the reactor be removed en-bloc in view of the work schedule, cost and management of the reactor following the removal. In the special method developed jointly by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute and Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., the reactor main unit was cut off from the building by continuous core boring, with its major components bound in the block with biological shield material (heavy concrete), and then conveyed and stored in a large waste store building constructed near the reactor building. Major work processes described in this report include the cutting off, lifting, horizontal conveyance and lowering of the reactor main unit. The removal of the JRR-3 reactor main unit was successfully carried out safely and quickly by the en-block removal method with radiation exposure dose of the workers being kept at a minimum. Thus the high performance of the en-bloc removal method was demonstrated and, in addition, valuable knowhow and other data were obtained from the work. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Reactor Materials Research

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  17. The fusion reactor

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  18. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    Skaates, J. Michael


    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  19. Reactor Materials Research

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  20. Gas-cooled reactors

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  1. Light water reactor program

    Franks, S.M.


    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  2. Reactor Safety Analysis

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of two main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  3. Light water type reactor

    The nuclear reactor of the present invention prevents disruption of a reactor core even in a case of occurrence of entire AC power loss event, and even if a reactor core disruption should occur, it prevents a rupture of the reactor container due to excess heating. That is, a high pressure water injection system and a low pressure water injection system operated by a diesel engine are disposed in the reactor building in addition to an emergency core cooling system. With such a constitution, even if an entire AC power loss event should occur, water can surely be injected to the reactor thereby enabling to prevent the rupture of the reactor core. Even if it should be ruptured, water can be sprayed to the reactor container by the low pressure water injection system. Further, if each of water injection pumps of the high pressure water injection system and the low pressure water injection system can be driven also by motors in addition to the diesel engine, the pump operation can be conducted more certainly and integrally. (I.S.)

  4. Naval propulsion reactors

    This article deals with the design and exploitation of naval propulsion reactors, mainly of PWR-type. The other existing or conceivable types of reactors are also presented: 1 - specificities of nuclear propulsion (integration in the ship, marine environment, maneuverability, instantaneous availability, conditions of exploitation-isolation, nuclear safety, safety authority); 2 - PWR-type reactor (stable operation, mastered technology, general design, radiation protection); 3 - other reactor types; 4 - compact or integrated loops architecture; 5 - radiation protection; 6 - reactor core; 7 - reactivity control (core lifetime, control means and mechanisms); 8 - core cooling (natural circulation, forced circulation, primary flow-rate program); 9 - primary loop; 10 - pressurizer; 11 - steam generators and water-steam secondary loop; 12 - auxiliary and safety loops; 13 - control instrumentation; 14 - operation; 15 - nuclear wastes and dismantling. (J.S.)

  5. Iris reactor conceptual design

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  6. Research reactor DHRUVA

    DHRUVA, a 100 MWt research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, attained first criticality during August, 1985. The reactor is fuelled with natural uranium and is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. Maximum thermal neutron flux obtained in the reactor is 1.8 X 1014 n/cm2/sec. Some of the salient design features of the reactor are discussed in this paper. Some important features of the reactor coolant system, regulation and protection systems and experimental facilities are presented. A short account of the engineered safety features is provided. Some of the problems that were faced during commissioning and the initial phase of power operation are also dealt upon

  7. Reactor core monitoring method

    Mori, Michitsugu [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Ebata, Shigeo


    The present invention provides a method of monitoring the state of coolant flow in a reactor of a BWR power plant. Namely, a plurality of local power region monitors (LPRM) are disposed to the inside of the reactor core for monitoring a power distribution. Signals of at least two optional LPRM detectors situated at positions different in axial or radial positions of the reactor core are obtained. General fluctuation components which nuclear hydrothermally fluctuate in overall reactor core are removed from the components of the signals. Then, correlational functions between these signals are determined. The state of coolant flow in the reactor is monitored based on the correlational function. When the axial flowing rate and radial flow interference are monitored, the accuracy upon monitoring axial and radial local behaviors of coolants can be improved by thus previously removing the general fluctuation components from signals of LPRM detectors and extracting local void information near to LPRM detectors at high accuracy. (I.S.)

  8. Physics of nuclear reactors

    This manual covers all the aspects of the science of neutron transport in nuclear reactors and can be used with great advantage by students, engineers or even reactor experts. It is composed of 18 chapters: 1) basis of nuclear physics, 2) the interactions of neutrons with matter, 3) the interactions of electromagnetic radiations and charged-particles with matter, 4) neutron slowing-down, 5) resonant absorption, 6) Doppler effect, 7) neutron thermalization, 8) Boltzmann equation, 9) calculation methods in neutron transport theory, 10) neutron scattering, 11) reactor reactivity, 12) theory of the critical homogenous pile, 13) the neutron reflector, 14) the heterogeneous reactor, 15) the equations of the fuel cycle, 16) neutron counter-reactions, 17) reactor kinetics, and 18) calculation methods in neutron scattering

  9. Mirror reactor surface study

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  10. FBR type reactor

    A circular neutron reflector is disposed vertically movably so as to surround the outer circumference of a reactor core barrel. A reflector driving device comprises a driving device main body attracted to the outer wall surface of the reactor barrel by electromagnetic attraction force and an inertia body disposed above the driving device main body vertically movably. A reflector is connected below the reactor driving device. At the initial stage, a spontaneous large current is supplied to upper electromagnetic repulsion coils of the reflector driving device, impact electromagnetic repulsion force is caused between the inertia body and the reflector driving device, so that the driving device main body moves downwardly by a predetermined distance and stopped. The reflector driving device can be lowered in a step-like manner to an appropriate position suitable to restart the reactor during stoppage of the reactor core by conducting spontaneous supply of current repeatedly to the upper electromagnetic repulsion coils. (I.N.)