Vakharia, Kavita; Vakharia, Kalpesh
2016-02-01
Bell's palsy is unilateral, acute onset facial paralysis that is a common condition. One in every 65 people experiences Bell's palsy in the course of their lifetime. The majority of patients afflicted with this idiopathic disorder recover facial function. Initial treatment involves oral corticosteroids, possible antiviral drugs, and protection of the eye from desiccation. A small subset of patients may be left with incomplete recovery, synkinesis, facial contracture, or hemifacial spasm. A combination of medical and surgical treatment options exist to treat the long-term sequelae of Bell's palsy. PMID:26611696
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Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
We analyze foundational consequences of recently announced loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. By the conventional one "Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality." However, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will attract attention of the experts in quantum foundations and convince them to come with their own comments on the final Bell's test.
2013-01-22
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC...
2011-12-29
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
2s-1, 10 times as much as we obtain now. This presentation describes Belle's efficient computing operations, struggles to manage large amount of raw and physics data, and plans for Belle computing for Super KEKB/Belle.
A probability is defined for an event in which m neutrons exist at time t sub(f) in core I of a coupled-core system, originating from a neutron injected into the core I at an earlier time t; we call it P sub(I,I,m)(t sub(f)/t). Similarly, P sub(I,II,m)(t sub(f)/t) is defined as the probability for m neutrons to exist in core II of the system at time t sub(f), originating from a neutron injected into the core I at time t. Then a system of coupled equations are derived for the generating functions G sub(Ij)(z, t sub(f)/t) = μP sub(Ijm)(t sub(f)/t).z sup(m), where j = I, II. By similar procedures equations are derived for the generating functions associated with joint probability of the following events: a given combination of numbers of neutrons are detected during given series of detection time intervals by a detector inserted in one of the cores. The above two kinds of systems of equations can be regarded as a two-point version of Pal-Bell's equations. As the application of these formulations, analyzing formula for correlation measurements, namely (1) Feynman-alpha experiment and (2) Rossi-alpha experiment of Orndoff-type, are derived, and their feasibility is verified by experiments carried out at KUCA. (author)
Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem
Barukčić, Ilija
2012-12-01
In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.
Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi
2015-12-01
The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.
The two Bell's theorems of John Bell
Many of the heated arguments about the meaning of ‘Bell's theorem’ arise because this phrase can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the dual assumptions of locality and determinism. His 1976 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the unitary property of local causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with that single, and indivisible, assumption of local causality (even if not by that name). While there are other forms of Bell's theorems—which I present to explain the relation between Jarrett-completeness, ‘fragile locality’, and EPR-completeness—I maintain that Bell's two versions are the essential ones. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not, and the different versions of the theorem suggest quite different conclusions, which are embraced by different communities. For realists, the notion of local causality, ruled out by Bell's 1976 theorem, is motivated implicitly by Reichenbach's principle of common cause and explicitly by the principle of relativistic causality, and it is the latter which must be forgone. Operationalists pay no heed to Reichenbach's principle, but wish to keep the principle of relativistic causality, which, bolstered by an implicit ‘principle of agent-causation’, implies their notion of locality. Thus for operationalists, Bell's theorem is the 1964 one, and implies that it is determinism that must be forgone. I discuss why the two ‘camps’ are drawn to these different conclusions, and what can be done to increase mutual understanding. (review article)
Particle Identification with BELLE
Satpathy, A
1999-01-01
The working principle and performance of the BELLE particle identification device (PID), based on a hybrid system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are satisfactory and Monte Carlo tests of meeting physics objectives of BELLE are promising. Prior to the real experiment which is expected to commence in spring 1999, the BELLE PID is taking cosmic ray data for calibration and fine tuning.
Percival, Ian C.
2000-01-01
Experiments over three decades have been unable to demonstrate weak nonlocality in the sense of Bell unambiguously, without loopholes. The last important loophole remaining is the detection loophole, which is being tackled by at least three experimental groups. This letter counters five common beliefs about Bell experiments, and presents alternative scenarios for future developments.
Kazuo Abe
2003-02-01
The Belle experiment continues to explore the origin of CP violation and test all aspects of standard model in meson decays. Recent results on CP violating paramter sin 21 and other measurements are presented.
Concrete incompleteness & Bell's theorem
Geurdes, Han
2014-01-01
For a subset of 2 dimensional unit parameter vectors, Bell's correlation formula with local hidden variables reproduces the quantum correlation. This is unexpected considering a general no-go LHV claim derived from the same function.
孔雪伟
2004-01-01
A tiny, two-year-old blonde, recovering from surgical removal (外科切除) of her cancerous left eye, discovers in her mailbox a brightly colored package with a big sticker of hugging bears under a rainbow. Tearing open the box, Belle cries "Mama, look, it's teddy bears! " The bears (and the goodie package of gifts) bring about something that hadn't happened in quite a while: Belle smiles!
Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-01
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.
2016-03-01
A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.
The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.
Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem
Wang, Zheng-Chuan
2006-01-01
We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theor...
Software Development at Belle II
Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas
2015-12-01
Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.
The Bell Inequality and Entanglement
Munro, W J; Nemoto, K.; White, A. G.
2001-01-01
Entanglement is a critical resource used in many current quantum information schemes. As such entanglement has been extensively studied in two qubit systems and its entanglement nature has been exhibited by violations of the Bell inequality. Can the amount of violation of the Bell inequality be used to quantify the degree of entanglement. What do Bell inequalities indicate about the nature of entanglement?
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge influence Bell had on my own work, in particular on entanglement and Bell inequalities in particle physics and their experimental verification, and on mathematical physics, where some geometric aspects of the quantum states are illustrated.
Teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability
Relations between teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability are investigated. It is shown that any mixed two spin-1/2 state which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality is useful for teleportation. The result is extended to any Bell's inequalities constructed from the expectation values of products of spin operators. It is also shown that there exist inseparable states which are not useful for teleportation within the standard scheme. (orig.)
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge inf...
Rossing, Thomas D.
2001-05-01
The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality
Brown, Harvey R
2015-01-01
Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...
Electron Identification in Belle
Hanagaki, K; Ikeda, H; Iijima, T; Tsukamoto, T
2002-01-01
We report on electron identification methods and their performance in the Belle experiment at the KEK-B asymmetric B-Factory $e^{+} e^{-}$ storage ring. Electrons are selected using a likelihood approach that takes information from the electromagnetic calorimeter, the central drift chamber, and the silica aerogel Cherenkov counters as input. We achieve an electron identification efficiency of $(92.4 \\pm 0.4)%$ with a $\\pi^{\\pm}$ fake rate of $(0.25 \\pm 0.02)%$ for the momentum range between 1.0 GeV/$c$ and 3.0 GeV/$c$ in laboratory frame.
Bell's palsy before Bell : Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683
van de Graaf, RC; Nicolai, JPA
2005-01-01
Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th centu
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
Electroweak physics from Belle
We report a study of τ- to π- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- K+ π- ν and τ- to K- K+ K- ν decays using a 666 fb-1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. We present the branching fractions as well as the unfolded mass spectra of the total hadronic system for these four decay modes. We also report the result of a search for a second class current (SCC) via τ to π η' ν decays. Sensitivity at the 10-5 level can be achieved, while the branching fraction for a SCC is predicted to be at the 10-6 - 10-5 level in several phenomenological models. (author)
On the 50th anniversary of Bell’s monumental 1964 paper, there is still widespread misunderstanding about exactly what Bell proved. This misunderstanding derives in turn from a failure to appreciate the earlier argument of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. I retrace the history and logical structure of these arguments in order to clarify the proper conclusion, namely that any world that displays violations of Bell’s inequality for experiments done far from one another must be non-local. Since the world we happen to live in displays such violations, actual physics is non-local. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Peres, A
1999-01-01
Bell inequalities are derived for any number of observers, any number of alternative setups for each one of them, and any number of distinct outcomes for each experiment. It is shown that if a physical system consists of several distant subsystems, and if the results of tests performed on the latter are determined by local variables with objective values, then the joint probabilities for triggering any given set of distant detectors are convex combinations of a finite number of Boolean arrays, whose components are either 0 or 1 according to a simple rule. This convexity property is both necessary and sufficient for the existence of local objective variables. It leads to a simple graphical method which produces a large number of generalized Clauser-Horne inequalities corresponding to the faces of a convex polytope. It is plausible that quantum systems whose density matrix has a positive partial transposition satisfy all these inequalities, and therefore are compatible with local objective variables, even if th...
Bansal, Vikas
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab$^{-1}$ of e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a run I high-p$_T$ LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of such grids in North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and high speed networking. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 3 ab$^{-1}$ equivalent luminosity will be described
Belle II Technical Design Report
Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O
2010-01-01
The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.
Causarum Investigatio and the Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell
Wiseman, Howard M
2015-01-01
"Bell's theorem" can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the joint assumptions of Locality and Predetermination. His 1976 theorem is their incompatibility with the single property of Local Causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with the assumption of Local Causality, even if not by that name. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not. Hence, the earlier and later theorems suggest quite different conclusions, embraced by operationalists and realists, respectively. The key issue is whether Locality or Local Causality is the appropriate notion emanating from Relativistic Causality, and this rests on one's basic notion of causation. For operationalists the appropriate notion is what is here called the Principle of Agent-Causation, while for realists it is Reichenbach's Principle of common cause. By...
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho; Carlos Newton D. Pinheiro; Ezon V.A.P. Ferraz; José Luiz Alonso-Nieto
1997-01-01
The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil), from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribu...
Bell's Palsy (Beyond the Basics)
... changes caused by Bell's palsy will affect the appearance of your face, including how you smile. These ... are comfortable with some medical jargon. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Shingles (Beyond ...
Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series
P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi
2013-05-01
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.
Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations
We present a simple way based on the joint global probability distribution to derive CHSH inequalities. Inspired by this derivation we develop a simple method that gives a set of conditions which are necessary for a model to be a local variable theory. This method generates candidate Bell inequalities for models of arbitrary situations in which there are an arbitrary number of particles, measurements and outcomes. With the help of a type of distribution it will be clear that all necessary conditions are Bell inequalities. This work gives a unified way to write Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations. - Highlights: • Constructing CHSH inequalities based on joint global probability distribution. • Constructing conditions which are necessary for a model to be local and realistic. • Bell inequalities for general situations
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics
Francesco Poppi
2010-01-01
During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before. Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...
Choudhury, Sayantan; Singh, Rajeev
2016-01-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell's inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in presence of additional time dependent mass contribution. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in presence of new time dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a fut...
Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality
Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)
Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation
We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)
Optical Bell Measurement by Fock Filtering
Paris, M G A; Jonathan, D; Bose, S; D'Ariano, G M; Paris, MGA
2000-01-01
We describe a nonlinear interferometric setup to perform a complete optical Bell measurement, i.e. to unambigously discriminate the four polarization entangled EPR-Bell photon pairs. The scheme is robust against detector inefficiency.
John Bell and the Identical Twins
1984-01-01
A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.
Cinabro, David [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)
2016-01-01
The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64 channel PIN diode based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Houston, Paul
1996-01-01
Selfishness has spawned a new breed of racism, driven by fear, fed by scarcity, and manifested through economic imperatives. California's Proposition 187 and Herrnstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" are built on racist foundations. Our current obsession with race is driven by an economy and an elitist social system that is dismantling the…
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribution of cases. There was a predominance of cases in the 31 - 60 age bracket (40.59 %. The female gender was responsible to 70.71 % of cases. There was a predominance of cases in winter (31.38 % and autumn (30.13 %, which was statiscally significant. These findings let us to suppose that Bell's palsy predominates in females, in 41-60 years age bracket, and occurs predominantly in cold months. There are groups of clusters throughout temporal distribution of cases and cases are dependent on one each other or on factors affecting them all, which reinforces the infectious hypothesis (there is a rise in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection during cold months.A paralisia facial idiopática ou paralisia de Bell se instala abruptamente ou em algumas horas, sem causa aparente. Corresponde a aproximadamente 75% de todos os casos de paralisia facial. Três teorias tentam explicar sua patogenia: vásculo-isquêmica, autoimune e viral. Nós revisamos os arquivos do Setor de Eletromiografia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo de 1985 a 1995, encontrando 239 casos de paralisia de Bell. Dados foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo, distribuição sazonal. Houve predominância dos casos na faixa etária de 31 a 60 anos (40,59 %. O sexo feminino foi responsável por 70,71 % dos casos. Houve predominância de casos no inverno (31,38 % e outono (30,13 %, estatisticamente sigmficante. Estes achados levam-nos a supor que a paralisia de Bell
One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell
Richard Zenith
2008-01-01
By his talents and intense activity, Lindolf Bell became the recognized leader of the Poetic Catechesis movement. Founded in 1964 in a defunct Sao Paulo nightclub, it quickly established itself as a major artistic current in Brazil. The movement is concerned not so much with the poem's form as with its role and diffusion in society. To fulfill the movement's original proposal to "take the poem to the people," poets declaimed their works in auditoriums, parks, streets, and other public places....
Bell Palsy and Acupuncture Treatment
Betul Battaloglu Inanc
2013-08-01
A 22-year-old female patient, a midwifery student, had treatment with corticosteroid and antiviral agents as soon as Bell Palsy (BP was diagnosed (House-Breckman stage 6. Six weeks later, patient didn’t recover, while in House-Breckman stage 3, acupuncture was perfomed and local and distal acupoints were used with ears, body and face. Ear acupuncture point was used two times with detection. In the course of six sessions body and face points were stimulated by electroacupuncture. After ten acupuncture treatments, the subjective symptoms and the facial motion on the affected side improved. There was an spotting ecchymosis the ST2 points on. The symmetry of the face is a determinant of facial charm and influences interpersonal attraction for adults, children and pregnant women. Medical options for the sequelae of BP are limited. Acupuncture’s effectively in Bell palsy patients’ should be shown with more clinical and electrophysiological studies.
Time-Continuous Bell Measurements
Hofer, Sebastian G; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens
2013-01-01
We combine the concept of Bell measurements, in which two systems are projected into maximally entangled states, with the concept of continuous measurements, which concerns the evolution of a continuously monitored quantum system. For time continuous Bell measurements based on homodyne detection of light we derive the corresponding stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations, as well as the unconditional feedback master equations. Our results cover in particular the two scenarios of time-continuous quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping. We apply our results to show that (i) two two-level systems can be deterministically entangled via homodyne detection of light, even including photon loss approaching the fundamental limit of 50%, and (ii) a quantum state of light can be continuously teleported to a mechanical oscillator. This time-continuous remote quantum state preparation works under the same conditions as are required for optomechanical ground state cooling.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Mohanty, Gagan B
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by a vertex detector, which comprises two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector that is aimed to be commissioned towards the middle of 2017.
Bell's Theorem from Moore's Theorem
Fields, Chris
2012-01-01
It is shown that the restrictions of what can be inferred from classically-recorded observational outcomes that are imposed by the no-cloning theorem, the Kochen-Specker theorem and Bell's theorem also follow from restrictions on inferences from observations formulated within classical automata theory. Similarities between the assumptions underlying classical automata theory and those underlying universally-unitary quantum theory are discussed.
Bell inequality and complementarity loophole
Czachor, Marek
1997-01-01
A simple classical, deterministic, local situation violating the Bell inequality is described. The detectors used in the experiment are ideal and the observers who decide which pair of measuring devices to choose for a given pair of particles have free will. The construction uses random variables which are not jointly measurable in a single run of an experiment and the hidden variables have a nonsymmetric probability density. Such random variables are complementary but still fully classical. ...
Bell inequalities and incompatible measurements
Morgan, Peter
2003-01-01
Bell inequalities are a consequence of measurement incompatibility (not, as generally thought, of nonlocality). In classical terms, this is equivalent to contextuality -- measurement devices do have a significant effect. Contextual models are reasonable in classical physics, which always took the view that we ignore measurement devices whenever possible, but if that isn't good enough then we do have to model measurement devices. It is also argued that quantum theory should only be taken with ...
Common questions about Bell palsy.
Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen
2014-02-01
Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful. PMID:24506123
Speakable and unspeakable after John Bell
Percival, I C
2000-01-01
`Philosophy' was speakable for John Bell but is not for many physicists. The border between philosophy and physics is here illustrated through Brownian motion and Bell experiments. `Measurement', however, was unspeakable for Bell. His insistence that the physics of quantum measurement should not be confined to the laboratory and that physics is concerned with the big world outside leads us to examples from zoology, meteorology and cosmology.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Bell Canyon test summary report
The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 104 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites
Belle II and Hadron spectroscopy
Križan, Peter, E-mail: peter.krizan@ijs.si [J. Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2015-08-15
Asymmetric B factories, PEP-II with BaBar and KEKB with Belle, made a decisive contribution to flavour physics. In addition, they also observed a long list of new hadrons, some of which do not fit into the standard meson and baryon schemes. The next generation of B factories, the so called Super B factory will search for departures from the Standard model. For this task, a 50 times larger data sample is needed, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 50 ab{sup −1}. With such a large data sample there are many more topics to explore, including searches for new and exotic hadrons, and investigation of their properties.
Contemporary management of Bell palsy.
Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A
2015-04-01
Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. PMID:25958893
Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states
Kato, Kentaro [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)
2014-12-04
An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.
George Boole and the Bell inequalities
Rosinger, E E
2004-01-01
As shown by Pitowsky, the Bell inequalities are related to certain classes of probabilistic inequalities dealt with by George Boole, back in the 1850s. Here a short presentation of this relationship is given. Consequently, the Bell inequalities can be obtained without any assumptions of physical nature, and merely through mathematical argument.
Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements
Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim
2013-05-28
The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.
A model with cosmological Bell inequalities
Maldacena, Juan
2015-01-01
We discuss the possibility of devising cosmological observables which violate Bell's inequalities. Such observables could be used to argue that cosmic scale features were produced by quantum mechanical effects in the very early universe. As a proof of principle, we propose a somewhat elaborate inflationary model where a Bell inequality violating observable can be constructed.
Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment
Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze
2012-01-01
The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.
Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.
Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-04-01
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.
The design of bells with harmonic overtones.
McLachlan, Neil; Nigjeh, Behzad Keramati; Hasell, Anton
2003-07-01
Musical bells have had limited application due to the presence of inharmonic partials in the lower part of their acoustic spectra. A series of bells has been designed that contains up to seven partial frequencies in the harmonic series beginning at the fundamental frequency. This was achieved by choosing geometries for finite-element analysis models in which as many purely circumferential bending modes as possible occurred at frequencies below any mode with an axial ring node. The bell models were then fine tuned using gradient projection method shape optimization and the resulting profiles were cast in silicon bronze. A range of bell geometries and timbres is analyzed using psycho-acoustic models and is discussed in relation to European carillon bells. PMID:12880061
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)
According to Maudlin, Bell showed that it is the World which is non-lcoal, and not just some particular theories of it. I argue that this conclusion is arrived at by taking for granted all assumptions of realism or ‘classicality’. If these are taken into account the resulting conclusion that ‘a classical world which allows for Bell inequality violations must be non-local’ is in good agreement with the mainstream perception of Bell's theorem(s). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (comment)
Violating a Bell inequality with classical states
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2011-01-01
A strong probe for limits of classical physics is the Bell inequality between measurements of separated particles. Its violation can be used to secure a shared secret between two parties, but a fair-sampling assumption has to be made for limited detection efficiencies. Here, we present an experimental violation of a Bell inequality by classical states, exploiting imperfections in common photodetectors. We also propose measurements to obtain violations exceeding those allowed by quantum physics for ideal Bell tests. This exploit demonstrates that device-independent quantum cryptography requires the detection loophole be closed.
Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy
J Gordon Millichap
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.
Nonlinear Bell Inequalities Tailored for Quantum Networks
Rosset, Denis; Branciard, Cyril; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Pütz, Gilles; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas
2016-01-01
In a quantum network, distant observers sharing physical resources emitted by independent sources can establish strong correlations, which defy any classical explanation in terms of local variables. We discuss the characterization of nonlocal correlations in such a situation, when compared to those that can be generated in networks distributing independent local variables. We present an iterative procedure for constructing Bell inequalities tailored for networks: starting from a given network, and a corresponding Bell inequality, our technique provides new Bell inequalities for a more complex network, involving one additional source and one additional observer. We illustrate the relevance of our method on a variety of networks, demonstrating significant quantum violations, which could not have been detected using standard Bell inequalities.
Helicopter attempts tow of Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Marine helicopter appears to have Liberty Bell 7 in tow after Virgil I. Grissom's successful flight of 305 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. Minutes after 'Gus' Grissom got out of the spacecraft, it sank.
On the failure of Bell's theorem
Bene, Gyula
1997-01-01
Using a new approach to quantum mechanics we revisit Hardy's proof for Bell's theorem and point out a loophole in it. We also demonstrate on this example that quantum mechanics is a local realistic theory.
Software and Physics Simulation at Belle II
Fulsom, Bryan; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-03-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start taking physics data in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e-collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The new detector will use GEANT4 for Monte Carlo simulation and an entirely new software and reconstruction system based on modern computing tools. Examples of physics simulation including beam background overlays will be described.
BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March
The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs
van de Graaf, R. C.; IJpma, F. F. A.; Nicolai, J-P A.; Werker, P. M. N.
2009-01-01
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of
Bell tests with optimal local hidden variable models
Wang, Fuming
2014-01-01
An alternative method for detection-loophole-free Bell test is proposed using local hidden variable (LHV) models with optimal detection efficiencies. A framework for constructing such optimal LHV models is presented. Optimal LHV models for maximally and non-maximally entangled twopartite states are constructed and compared with Bell inequalities. The equivalence between Bell tests based on Bell inequalities and on optimal models is demonstrated. Testable LHV models with detection efficiencies lower than that of the Bell inequalities are demonstrated for the first time. Applications in Bell tests and in device-independent quantum information processing are discussed.
Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields
Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław
2016-08-01
The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector: Mechanics
Full text: The Belle experiment at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan and its precision measurements have led to the justification of the Nobel Prize earned by Kobayashi and Maskawa in 2008. In June 2010, the machine was brought to a halt for a promising future, namely an upgrade to Belle II which will be completed until 2015. By this time all important components are to be exchanged for an unprecedented performance boost of the accelerator (KEKB) and the Belle Detector. With this upgrade, KEKB will become SuperKEKB and beat its own luminosity world record (2.11 x 1034 cm-1s-1) by a factor of 40. The core of the Belle II Experiment is composed of a DEPFET Pixel Detector, which is surrounded by the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD). The SVD is located close to the beam pipe to allow high precision vertex reconstruction. The proximity to the beam pipe and the high beam currents result in a very high level of background radiation for the SVD that both, the electronics and the mechanics have to cope with. The Origami sensor design was developed to provide a fast readout system at a very good signal to noise ratio. This design comes with a great performance increase that is able to fulfill with the new Belle II requirements. Nevertheless it is important to implement a light and yet stable mechanical construction that can withstand the radiation and temperature conditions without compromising the detector capabilities. (author)
Relations between entanglement witnesses and Bell inequalities
Bell inequalities, considered within quantum mechanics, can be regarded as nonoptimal witness operators. We discuss the relationship between such Bell witnesses and general entanglement witnesses in detail for the Bell inequality derived by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. We derive bounds on how much an optimal witness has to be shifted by adding the identity operator to make it positive on all states admitting a local hidden variable model. In the opposite direction, we obtain tight bounds for the maximal proportion of the identity operator that can be subtracted from such a CHSH witness, while preserving the witness properties. Finally, we investigate the structure of CHSH witnesses directly by relating their diagonalized form to optimal witnesses of two different classes
Belle/KEKB status and performance
The BELLE detector has been in operation at the KEKB asymmetric B-factory for about one year. At present the luminosity of the collider reached the value about 2x1033 cm-2s-1. All systems of the BELLE detector demonstrate their good performance and parameters which are close to the original design specifications. This provides a possibility to collect large data sample and to perform various analyses of B-mesons decays as well as to study other kind of processes
Clinical Practice Guideline of Acupuncture for Bell's Palsy
Xi Wu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Backgroud: Acupuncture is common used for Bell's palsy in clinic, however, recent systematic reviews all shows that there is no sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of acupuncture for Bell's palsy because ofthe poor quality and heterogeneity. It's urgently necessary to develop a guideline of acupuncture for Bell's palsy based on principles of evidence-based medicine to optimize acupuncture treating, standardize outcomes evaluating and to improve the quality of acupuncture for patients with Bell's palsy under general circumstances.
John Bell and the Nature of the Quantum World
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2014-01-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also will recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's Theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities.
The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics
Greenwald, Brian H.
2009-01-01
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
Are Bell inequalities also violated for neutral kaons?
Full text: The first part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality similar to the famous photon system. Unfortunately, due to the given constants in this system this Bell inequality cannot be violated. The second part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality which has no similarities to the photon case. This inequality is violated by the CP-violating parameter. (author)
Rath, Barbara; Linder, Thomas; Cornblath, David; Hudson, Michael; Fernandopulle, Rohini; Hartmann, Katharina; Heininger, Ulrich; Izurieta, Hector; Killion, Leslie; Kokotis, Pangiotis; Oleske, James; Vajdy, Michael; Wong, Virginia
2007-01-01
Bell's palsy has been reported as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI). Review of the published literature reveals that several characteristics have been used to describe Bell's palsy, which differ significantly from author to author. Evidently, the definition of "Bell's palsy" remains con
Generalized Bell States and Quantum Teleportation
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2001-01-01
We make a brief comment on measurement of quantum operators with degenerate eigenstates and apply to quantum teleportation. We also try extending the quantum teleportation by Bennett et al [5] to more general situation by making use of generalized Bell states.
Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy
J. A. Bueri
1984-12-01
Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.
Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?
Nataša Intihar Klančar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?
Communication cost of simulating Bell correlations.
Toner, B F; Bacon, D
2003-10-31
What classical resources are required to simulate quantum correlations? For the simplest and most important case of local projective measurements on an entangled Bell pair state, we show that exact simulation is possible using local hidden variables augmented by just one bit of classical communication. Certain quantum teleportation experiments, which teleport a single qubit, therefore admit a local hidden variables model. PMID:14611317
Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance
LoPresto, Michael C.
2014-01-01
The effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and…
Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.
Kessler, Jack
1993-01-01
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
MIDAS™ DEMONSTRATION PLOTS IN BELL PEPPER
A demonstration trial comparing MIDAS™ (methyl iodide:chloropicrin 50:50) to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (67:33) was conducted in Saint Lucie County, FL on a commercial bell pepper production farm. Methyl bromide:chloropicrin was shank injected into performed beds at 392 kg/ha using three 25 cm dee...
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
1995-01-01
Presents an interview with Bell Yung, a scholar of Chinese music and ethnomusicology. Maintains that world music (music from many nations and cultures) should be taught as early as possible in the schools and at home. Includes two lesson plans for teaching about Chinese music. (CFR)
Engineering professor Amy Bell honored by IEEE
Crumbley, Liz
2006-01-01
Amy Bell, an associate professor in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, has received a 2006 Outstanding Student Branch Advisor Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE), the world's largest professional organization for electrical and computer engineers.
Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.
Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun
2016-07-01
Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity. PMID:26319412
Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.
Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments
Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph
2007-01-01
The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.
Bell-inequality violation with "thermal" radiation
Filip, Radim; Dusek, Miloslav; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista, Ladislav
2001-01-01
The model of a quantum-optical device for a conditional preparation of entangled states from input mixed states is presented. It is demonstrated that even thermal or pseudo-thermal radiation can be entangled in such a way, that Bell-inequalities are violated.
Global track finder for Belle II experiment
We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.
Quantum cloning, Bell's inequality and teleportation
We analyse the possibility of using the two-qubit output state from the Buzek-Hillery quantum copying machine (not necessarily a universal quantum cloning machine) as a teleportation channel. We show that there is a range of values of the machine parameter ξ for which the two-qubit output state is entangled and violates the Bell-CHSH inequality and for a different range it remains entangled but does not violate the Bell-CHSH inequality. Further, we observe that for certain values of the machine parameter the two-qubit mixed state can be used as a teleportation channel. The use of the output state from the Buzek-Hillery cloning machine as a teleportation channel provides an additional appeal to the cloning machine and motivation for our present work
Bell's inequalities definitely proved
According to quantum physics, two bonded particles instantly adopt the same behaviour when we measure them, whatever be the distance between them. For Einstein, this phenomenon could only be explained by the existence of hidden parameters which were not taken by quantum physics into account. Since the 1970's, experiments have been testing these ideas, based on the Bell's inequalities theorem which states that Einstein's assumptions are true within specific limits. The article more particularly presents and comments a recent experiment performed in Orsay which demonstrates that these hidden variables do not exist and prove the validity of Bell's inequalities. The researchers explain why previous experiments did not reach these results: they displayed detection and localisation defects
CP symmetry and the BELLE experiment
Full text: The violation of CP symmetry was first observed in the K0 meson system more than 30 years ago. A new generation of experiments now seeks to observe this symmetry violation in the system of neutral B mesons and various experiments are scheduled to take data in the near future. BELLE is one such experiment being constructed at KEK in Japan. It will be fully commissioned early 1999 and the Australian Experimental High Energy Physics Consortium is actively participating in this exciting venture. This review will cover the significance of CP violation to particle physics and describe the special features of the BELLE experiment, highlighting the special contributions that are being made by the Australian group
Computing System for the Belle Experiment
Adachi, I; Katayama, N; Tsukamoto, T; Hibino, T; Yokoyama, M; Hinz, L; Ronga, F
2003-01-01
We describe the offline computing system of the Belle experiment, consisting of a computing farm with one thousand IA-32 CPUs. Up to now, the Belle experiment has accumulated more than 120 fb$^{-1}$ of data, which is the world largest $Bbar{B}$ sample at the $Upsilon(4S)$ energy. The data have to be processed with a single version of reconstruction software and calibration constants to perform precise measurements of $B$ meson decays. In addition, Monte Carlo samples three times larger than the real beam data are generated. To fullfill our computing needs, we have constructed the computing system with 90(300) quad(dual) CPU PC servers from multiple vendors as a central processing system. The details of this computing system and performance of data processing with the current model are presented.
A Modest View of Bell's Theorem
Boughn, Stephen
2016-01-01
In the 80 years since the seminal Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paper, physicists and philosophers have mused about the `spooky action at a distance' aspect of quantum mechanics that so bothered Einstein. In his formal analysis of EPR-type entangled quantum states, Bell (1964) concluded that any hidden variable theory designed to reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics must necessarily be nonlocal and allow superluminal interactions. This doesn't immediately imply that nonlocality is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics let alone a fundamental property of nature; however, many physicists and philosophers of science do harbor this belief. Experts in the field often use the term `nonlocality' to designate particular non-classical aspects of quantum entanglement and do not confuse the term with superluminal interactions. However, many physicists seem to take the term more literally. I endeavor to disabuse the latter of this notion by emphasizing that the correlations of Bell-type entangleme...
A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality
Romero-Rochin, Victor
2015-01-01
We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...
The Belle II VXD production database
The construction and commissioning of the Belle II Vertex Detector (VXD) is a huge endeavor involving a large number of valuable components. Both subsystems PXD (Pixel Detector) and SVD (Silicon Vertex Detector) deploy a large number of sensors, readout electronic parts and mechanical elements. These items are scattered around the world at many institutes, where they are built, measured and assembled. One has to keep track of measurement configurations and results, know at any time the location of the sensors, their processing state, quality, where they end up in an assembly, and who is responsible. These requirements call for a flexible and extensive database which is able to reflect the processes in the laboratories and the logistics between the institutes. This talk introduces the database requirements of a physics experiment using the PXD construction workflow as a showcase, and presents an overview of the database ''HephyDb'', which is used by the groups constructing the Belle II VXD.
Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood
Joshi Prashant
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.
EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review
The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Lay Nam Chang
2011-01-01
We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.
Bell Experiments with Random Destination Sources
Sciarrino, F.; Vallone, G.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that sources sending randomly two particles to one or two different observers, named here random destination sources (RDS), cannot by used for genuine quantum nonlocality tests because of the postselection loophole. We demonstrate that Bell experiments not affected by the postselection loophole may be performed with: (i) RDS and local postselection using perfect detectors, (ii) RDS, local postselection, and fair sampling assumption with any detection efficiency, and (i...
Perfect bell nozzle parametric and optimization curves
Tuttle, J. L.; Blount, D. H.
1983-01-01
Nozzle contour data for untruncated Bell nozzles with expansion area ratios to 6100 and a specific heat ratio of 1.2 are provided. Curves for optimization of nozzles for maximum thrust coefficient within a given length, surface area, or area ratio are included. The nozzles are two dimensional axisymmetric and calculations were performed using the method of characteristics. Drag due to wall friction was included in the final thrust coefficient.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector
The Japanese flavour factory (KEKB) accumulated a total integrated luminosity of 1000 fb-1 over more than a decade of operation. Despite this great success, an upgrade of the existing machine is under construction, and is foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2015. This new electron-positron machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the huge number of events and measure precisely the decay vertex of the B mesons in a large background environment, the SuperKEKB partner, the Belle detector, will be also upgraded. In the Belle II project, a highly granular silicon vertex detector (PXD) based on the DEPFET pixel technology, will be the innermost subsystem, operated very close to the interaction point. The new pixel detector has to have an excellent single point resolution (10 μm) and a fast readout (20 μs), while keeping the material budget under very low levels (0.2% X0). This talk summarizes the Belle II pixel detector concept, from the DEPFET sensor to the laboratory tests results, all the way up the electronics chain, the DAQ system and the cooling concept.
Bell's palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Tashika Kushraj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Bell's palsy is considered as a disease of exclusion. It is a form of lower motor neuron paralysis affecting the facial muscles. Rapid onset of paralysis causes panic to the patients. For speedy recovery, correct diagnosis and early treatment are crucial. Here a case of Bell's palsy is reported and the literature on Bell's palsy is reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 581-588
The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem
Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including even nonlocal hidden...
Experimental Bell inequality violation without the postselection loophole
Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2009-01-01
We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes, but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].
Closing the Detection Loophole in Bell Experiments Using Qudits
Vértesi, Tamás; Pironio, Stefano; Brunner, Nicolas
2010-01-01
We show that the detection efficiencies required for closing the detection loophole in Bell tests can be significantly lowered using quantum systems of dimension larger than two. We introduce a series of asymmetric Bell tests for which an efficiency arbitrarily close to 1/N can be tolerated using N-dimensional systems, and a symmetric Bell test for which the efficiency can be lowered down to 61.8% using four-dimensional systems. Experimental perspectives for our schemes look promising conside...
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, M.; Sekatski, Pavel; Buraczewski, A.; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, G.
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to...
Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems
We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ>app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information
Emile Galle ja legendaarne Belle Epoque / Kärt Kross
Kross, Kärt
2008-01-01
1811. aastal rajatud Perrier-Jouet shampanjamajast ja shampanjast Belle Epoque, mille lillemotiividega pudeli disainis prantsuse klaasikunstnik Emile Galle (1846-1904). Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2014-10-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
An Asymptotic Formula for r-Bell Numbers with Real Arguments
Corcino, Cristina B.; Corcino, Roberto B.
2013-01-01
The r-Bell numbers are generalized using the concept of the Hankel contour. Some properties parallel to those of the ordinary Bell numbers are established. Moreover, an asymptotic approximation for r-Bell numbers with real arguments is obtained.
CHEN Chang-Yong; GAO Ke-Lin
2005-01-01
A state-dependent proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities using the product state of any two maximally entangled states (Bell states) of two qubits for two observers in an ideal condition, each of which possesses two qubits,is proposed. It is different from the other proofs in which there exists a fundamental requirement that certain specific suitable Bell states have been chosen. Moreover, in any non-ideal situation, a common Bell inequality independent of the choices of the 16-product states is derived, which is used to test the contradiction between quantum mechanics and local reality theory in the reach of current experimental technology.
Jørgensen, C. Barker
History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...
78 FR 34286 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB 407-05-67, which contains procedures for installing a placard on the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (Np... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in...
78 FR 34280 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. Related Service Information Bell... the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that...
78 FR 34282 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB No. 206L-05-134, Revision A, dated... main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for inserting the RFM changes into the... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3....
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others
2013-12-21
The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.
Sandra Fischer
2000-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the film Belle de jour, by Luis Buñuel, based on the text “Sobre a poética da carnaval ização em Luis Buñuel” by Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal, on Mikhail Bakhtin’s theoretical conception about carnival, on Gaston Bachelard’s ideas about the oneiric, on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis and on the notion of the frame structure sustained by Groupe p.
Optimal randomness generation from optical Bell experiments
Genuine randomness can be certified from Bell tests without any detailed assumptions on the working of the devices with which the test is implemented. An important class of experiments for implementing such tests is optical setups based on polarization measurements of entangled photons distributed from a spontaneous parametric down conversion source. Here we compute the maximal amount of randomness which can be certified in such setups under realistic conditions. We provide relevant yet unexpected numerical values for the physical parameters and achieve four times more randomness than previous methods. (fast track communication)
Reconciling local realism and quantum physics: a critique to Bell
A Metatheoretical Generalized Principle (MGP) is stated that formalizes an operational non-standard way of looking at the laws of physics. In Quantum Physics MGP leads to the invalidation of Bell's Inequality without renouncing to a minimal form of realism or to locality. Therefore the violation of Bell's Inequality predicted by Quantum Physics does not appear paradoxial if MGP is accepted
Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
2001-01-01
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…
Bell Inequalities Classifying Bi-separable Three-qubit States
Sun, B Z; Sun, Bao-Zhi; Fei, Shao-Ming
2006-01-01
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible bi-separable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube.
Bell inequalities classifying biseparable three-qubit states
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible biseparable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube
Bell clapper impact dynamics and the voicing of a carillon
Fletcher, N. H.; McGee, W. T.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.
2002-03-01
The periodic re-voicing of the bell clappers of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra provided an opportunity for the study of the acoustic effects of this operation. After prolonged playing, the impact of the pear-shaped clapper on a bell produces a significant flat area on both the clapper and the inside surface of the bell. This deformation significantly decreases the duration of the impact event and has the effect of increasing the relative amplitude of higher modes in the bell sound, making it ``brighter'' or even ``clangy.'' This effect is studied by comparing the spectral envelope of the sounds of several bells before and after voicing. Theoretical analysis shows that the clapper actually strikes the bell and remains in contact with the bell surface until it is ejected by a displacement pulse that has traveled around the complete circumference of the bell. The contact time, typically about 1 ms, is therefore much longer than the effective impact time, which is only a few tenths of a millisecond. Both the impact time and the contact time are reduced by the presence of a flat on the clapper.
Indistinguishability of orthogonal time-separated bell states
Tan Yong-Gang; Cai Qing-Yu; Shi Ting-Yun
2008-01-01
This paper proves that it is impossible to identify orthogonally time-separated Bell states.If two qubits of a Bell state interact with the measurement apparatus at different time,any attempt to identify this state will disturb it.
Violation of Bell's inequality in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Kang, Kicheon; Lee, Kahng Ho
2007-01-01
We propose a possible setup of testing the Bell's inequality in mesoscopic conductors. The particular implementation uses two coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers in which electrons are injected into the conductors in the quantum Hall regime. It is shown that the Bell's inequality is violated for an arbitrary coupling strength between the two interferometers.
John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity
Whitaker, Andrew
2016-01-01
John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.
Bell inequality for pairs of superselection rule restricted states
Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter
2010-01-01
Proposals for Bell inequality tests on systems restricted by superselection rules often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this paper, we derive a new Bell inequality, where pairs of states are used to by-pass the superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in the pair when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.
The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier
de la Cruz, Ivan Heredia
2016-01-01
After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2007-03-23
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent
Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.
Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C
2010-04-15
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian
2007-03-01
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989 The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5 10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an
Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.
1998-01-01
The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.
Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell
Sourabh Bhutani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics
Hofer, Sebastian G.; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-01
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments.
Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality
Kupczynski, Marian
2014-01-01
The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics.
Hofer, Sebastian G; Lehnert, Konrad W; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-19
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments. PMID:26943516
Progress of Belle II – detector and performance
The progress on the detector and accelerator in the Belle II experiment is presented. The B factories have successfully accumulated the experimental data at ϒ(4S) and achieved the world highest sensitivity on the search for lepton flavor violating tau decays and other new physics searches. The Belle II experiment will obtain 50 times larger data samples compared to the Belle experiment and improve the detector sensitivity. The construction of the detector and accelerator is in progress. The commissioning will start in 2014 and the expected integrated luminosity is 50ab−1 by 2022
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Searches for New Physics at the Belle II Experiment
Wang, Boqun
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment. It will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. The physics programs have a wide range of areas for new physics, such as more constraints on CKM Unitarity Triangle, searching for charged Higgs, direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter.In this monograph, we will review the current status of Belle II and SuperKEKB construction and introduce the main physics opportunities at this facility.
Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention
Gray, Charlotte
2011-01-01
The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h
Qubits from Number States and Bell Inequalities for Number Measurements
Larsson, Jan-Ake
2002-01-01
Bell inequalities for number measurements are derived via the observation that the bits of the number indexing a number state are proper qubits. Violations of these inequalities are obtained from the output state of the nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier.
Iris Murdoch’s The Bell: Tragedy, Love, and Religion
Kenneth Masong
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The novel begins as follows:"Dora Greenfield left her husband because she was afraid of him. She decided six months later to return to him for the same reason. The absent Paul, haunting her with letters and telephone bells and imagined footsteps on the stairs had begun to be the greater torment. Dora suffered from guilt, and with guilt came fear. She decided at last that the persecution of his presence was to be preferred to the persecution of his absence."Murdoch's novel The Bell is about Imber Court. It is a small Anglican religious community of lay people whose lives were transformed, not just by the arrival of a couple of dissimilar visitors, not just by the arrival of a new bell to be installed at Imber Abbey located beyond the lake, but more significantly by the discovery of a centuries-old bell the story of which is engulfed in a terrible legend.
Help Desk Answers: Do corticosteroids relieve Bell's palsy?
Soch, Kathy; Purtle, David; Ara, Mary; Dabbs, Kimberly
2016-03-01
Yes, but not severe disease. Corticosteroids likely improve facial motor function in adults with mild to moderate Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids are probably ineffective in treating cosmetically disabling or severe disease. PMID:27158696
Classical probabilistic realization of "Random Numbers Certified by Bell's Theorem"
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
We question the commonly accepted statement that random numbers certified by Bell's theorem carry some special sort of randomness, so to say, quantum randomness or intrinsic randomness. We show that such numbers can be easily generated by classical random generators.
The silicon strip vertex detector of the Belle II experiment
Onuki, Yoshiyuki
2014-11-01
The Belle II upgrade of the Belle experiment will extend the search for physics beyond the standard model. The upgrade is currently under construction, and foreseen to complete in time for the physics run scheduled for 2016. The vertex detector of the Belle II comprises two types of silicon detectors: the pixel detector (PXD) and the strip detector (SVD) using double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). One of the most characteristic features of the SVD is a unique chip-on-sensor scheme which enabling good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio while reducing the material budget. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme, status and future prospects of the Belle II SVD.
Position-momentum Bell nonlocality with entangled photon pairs
Schneeloch, James; Knarr, Samuel H.; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.
2016-01-01
Witnessing continuous-variable Bell nonlocality is a challenging endeavor, but Bell himself showed how one might demonstrate this nonlocality. Although Bell nearly showed a violation using the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with sign-binned position-momentum statistics of entangled pairs of particles measured at different times, his demonstration is subject to approximations not realizable in a laboratory setting. Moreover, he does not give a quantitative estimation of the maximum achievable violation for the wave function he considers. In this article, we show how his strategy can be reimagined using the transverse positions and momenta of entangled photon pairs measured at different propagation distances, and we find that the maximum achievable violation for the state he considers is actually very small relative to the upper limit of 2 √{2 } . Although Bell's wave function does not produce a large violation of the CHSH inequality, other states may yet do so.
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-22
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479
NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...
A note on the geometric interpretation of Bell's inequalities
Pra, Paolo Dai; Pavon, Michele; Sahasrabudhe, Neeraja
2013-01-01
Using results of Pitowsky and Gupta, we show in a direct, elementary fashion that, in the case of three spins, Bell's inequalities indeed provide a representation of the tetrahedron of all spin correlation matrices as intersection of half-spaces.
Bell's inequalities; 3, Logical loophole in their formulation
Kracklauer, A F
2000-01-01
In a remarkably insightful pair of papers recently, Sica demonstrated that: dichotomic data that violates Bell's inequalities ``cannot represent any data streams that could possibly exist or be imagined'' if it is to be consistent with the derivation of the inequalities. The present writer maintains, however, that because of quirks in the formulation of Bell's analysis, this statement is, strictly speaking, not correct although the thrust of Sica's analysis remains fundamentally true. Moreover, it is argued that the resolution proposed by Sica for the conflict arising from the fact that real data does violate Bell inequalities, namely that the the functional form of the correlations considered by Bell must be amended, is on physical grounds, untenable. Finally, an alternate resolution is proposed.
Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary noncyclic networks
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-03-01
Bell inequalities bound the strength of classical correlations between observers measuring on a shared physical system. However, studies of physical correlations can be considered beyond the standard Bell scenario by networks of observers sharing some configuration of many independent physical systems. Here, we show how to construct Bell-type inequalities for correlations arising in any tree-structured network, i.e., networks without cycles. This is achieved by an iteration procedure that in each step allows one to add a branch to the tree-structured network and construct a corresponding Bell-type inequality. We explore our inequalities in several examples, in all of which we demonstrate strong violations from quantum theory.
The Software Framework of the Belle II Experiment
Moll, Andreas
2011-12-01
The future of CP-Violation experiments is to begin in 2014 with the launch of the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan. As a part of this process the BELLE experiment will undergo an upgrade, giving rise to the BELLE II experiment. The BELLE II detector will include improvements and redesigns of various subdetectors, as well as the addition of an entire new subdetector for precise vertexing. In order to reflect these changes in the existing BELLE software framework, major modifications of nearly all parts of the software would have been necessary. As a result the decision was made to completely rewrite the software framework. In this article the main concepts of the new framework and the applied technologies are presented.
A Zoology of Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency
Massar, S; Roland, J; Gisin, B V; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard
2002-01-01
We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and 2 or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described in Collins et all (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404) to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than one. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one must in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is one.
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, Magdalena; Buraczewski, Adam; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, Gerd; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.034104
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by the classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell test and quantum...
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
Extending Bell's Theorem: Ruling out Paramater Independent Hidden Variable Theories
Leegwater, G. J.
2016-03-01
Bell's Theorem may well be the best known result in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here, it is presented as stating that for any hidden variable theory the combination of the conditions Parameter Independence, Outcome Independence, Source Independence and Compatibility with Quantum Theory leads to a contradiction. Based on work by Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner, an extension of Bell's Theorem is considered. In this extension the theorem is strengthened by replacing Outcome Independence by a strictly weaker condition.
All entangled pure states violate a single Bell's inequality.
Yu, Sixia; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Chengjie; Lai, C H; Oh, C H
2012-09-21
We show that a single Bell's inequality with two dichotomic observables for each observer, which originates from Hardy's nonlocality proof without inequalities, is violated by all entangled pure states of a given number of particles, each of which may have a different number of energy levels. Thus Gisin's theorem is proved in its most general form from which it follows that for pure states Bell's nonlocality and quantum entanglement are equivalent. PMID:23005926
Bell-type inequalities for cold heteronuclear molecules
Milman, Perola; Keller, Arne; Charron, Eric; Atabek, Osman
2006-01-01
We introduce Bell-type inequalities allowing for non-locality and entanglement tests with two cold heteronuclear molecules. The proposed inequalities are based on correlations between each molecule spatial orientation, an observable which can be experimentally measured with present day technology. Orientation measurements are performed on each subsystem at diferent times. These times play the role of the polarizer angles in Bell tests realized with photons. We discuss the experimental impleme...
Three-dimensional Quantum Polarization Tomography of Macroscopic Bell States
Kanseri, Bhaskar; Agafonov, Ivan; Chekhova, Maria; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-01-01
The polarization properties of macroscopic Bell states are characterized using three-dimensional quantum polarization tomography. This method utilizes three-dimensional inverse Radon transform to reconstruct the polarization quasiprobability distribution function of a state from the probability distributions measured for various Stokes observables. The reconstructed 3D distributions obtained for the macroscopic Bell states are compared with those obtained for a coherent state with the same mean photon number. The results demonstrate squeezing in one or more Stokes observables.
Statistical practice at the Belle experiment, and some questions
The Belle collaboration operates a general-purpose detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider, performing a wide range of measurements in beauty, charm, tau and 2-photon physics. In this paper, the treatment of statistical problems in past and present Belle measurements is reviewed. Some open questions, such as the preferred method for quoting rare decay results, and the statistical treatment of the new B0/B-bar0→π+π- analysis, are discussed. (author)
Quantum Communication Complexity Advantage Implies Violation of a Bell Inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Lukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classi...
Partial list of bipartite Bell inequalities with four binary settings
Brunner, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: nicolas.brunner@physics.unige.ch; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2008-04-28
We give a partial list of 26 tight Bell inequalities for the case where Alice and Bob choose among four two-outcome measurements. All tight Bell inequalities with less settings are reviewed as well. For each inequality we compute numerically the maximal quantum violation, the resistance to noise and the minimal detection efficiency required for closing the detection loophole. Surprisingly, most of these inequalities are outperformed by the CHSH inequality.
Bell tests with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency and homodyne measurements
Araújo, Mateus; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Santos, Marcelo França; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra
2011-01-01
We show that hybrid local measurements combining homodyne measurements and photodetection provide violations of a Bell inequality with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency. This is shown in two different scenarios: when one part receives an atom entangled to the field mode to be measured by the other part and when both parts make similar photonic measurements. Our findings definitely put the hybrid measurement scenario as a strong candidate for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell test.
Bell's inequalities II: logical loophole in their interpretation
Sica, Louis
2001-01-01
Assumed data streams from a delayed choice gedanken experiment must satisfy a Bell's identity independently of locality assumptions. The violation of Bell's inequality by assumed correlations of identical form among these data streams implies that they cannot all result from statistically equivalent variables of a homogeneous process. This is consistent with both the requirements of arithmetic and distinctions between commuting and noncommuting observables in quantum mechanics. Neglect of the...
Quantum Teleportation with a Complete Bell State Measurement
Kim, Yoon-Ho; Kulik, Sergei P.; Shih, Yanhua
2000-01-01
We report a quantum teleportation experiment in which nonlinear interactions are used for the Bell state measurements. The experimental results demonstrate the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that \\emph{all} four Bell states can be distinguis...
Two-step complete polarization logic Bell-state analysis.
Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan
2015-01-01
The Bell state plays a significant role in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, such as the nonlocality of the quantum world. The Bell-state analysis is of vice importance in quantum communication. Existing Bell-state analysis protocols usually focus on the Bell-state encoding in the physical qubit directly. In this paper, we will describe an alternative approach to realize the near complete logic Bell-state analysis for the polarized concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state with two logic qubits. We show that the logic Bell-state can be distinguished in two steps with the help of the parity-check measurement (PCM) constructed by the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. This approach can be also used to distinguish arbitrary C-GHZ state with N logic qubits. As both the recent theoretical and experiment work showed that the C-GHZ state has its robust feature in practical noisy environment, this protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communication based on the logic-qubit entanglement. PMID:26307327
Effects of Bell Speed and Flow Rate on Evaporation of Water Spray from a Rotary Bell Atomizer
Rajan Ray
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A phase doppler anemometer (PDA was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min or 300 L/min, bell speed was set to 30, 40 or 50 thousand rotations per minute (krpm and water flow rate was varied between 100, 200 or 300 cubic centimeters per minute (cm3/min. The total evaporation between 22.5 and 37.5 cm from the atomizer (cm3/s was calculated for all the combinations of those variables. Evaporation rate increased with higher flow rate and bell speed but no statistically significant effects were obtained for variable shaping air on interactions between parameters.
We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)
Inclusive radiative B meson decays at Belle
Improved measurement of inclusive radiative B meson decays We report a fully inclusive measurement of the flavor changing neutral current decay B → Xs γ in the energy range 1.7 GeV ≤ Ecms γ ≤ 2.8 GeV, covering 97 % of the total spectrum, where c.m.s. is the center of mass system. Using 605 fb-1 of data we obtain measurements of the partial branching fraction and first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum for lower energy thresholds including and above 1.7 GeV. Improved Measurement of the Electroweak Penguin Process B → Xsl+l-. We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the electroweak penguin process B → Xsl+l-, where l is an electron or a muon and Xs is a hadronic system containing an s-quark. The Xs hadronic system is reconstructed with one K± or K0s and up to four pions, where at most one pion can be neutral. The measurement is based on a data sample four times larger than used in the previous analysis, accumulated at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric-energy collider. (author)
Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements
Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.
Hogerton, John
1964-01-01
This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.
Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program
Henry, Zachary S.
1995-06-01
Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.
Charm CP violation and mixing at Belle
We present charm CP violation and mixing measurements at Belle. They are the first observation of D0 − D-bar 0 mixing in e+e− collisions from D0 → K+π− decays, the most precise mixing and indirect CP violation parameters from D0 → K0Sπ+π− decays, and the timeintegrated CP asymmetries in D0 → π0π0 and D0 → K0Sπ0 decays. Our mixing measurement in D0 → K+π− decays excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at the 5.1 standard deviation level. The mixing parameters x = (0.56 ± 0.19+0.03+0.06−0.09−0.09)%, y = (0.30 ± 0.15+0.04+0.03−0.05−0.06)% and indirect CP violation parameters |q/p| = (0.90+0.16+0.05+0.06−0.15−0.04−0.05)%, arg(q/p) = (−6 ± 11 ± 3+3−4)° measured from D0 → K0Sπ+π− decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries AD0→π0π0CP = (−0.03 ± 0.64 ± 0.10)% and AD0→K0Sπ0CP = (−0.21 ± 0.16 ± 0.07)% are the most precisemeasurements to date. Our measurements here are consistent with predictions of the standard model
Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions
Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne
2010-05-01
The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close
Generating Bell states in invariant stratification spin networks
In this paper, we study the generation of Bell states between distant vertices in a permanently coupled quantum spin network, interacting via invariant stratification graphs. To begin with we establish a class of upper bounds over the achievable entanglement between the reference site and various vertices. We observe that the maximum of these upper bounds is one e-bit. We conclude that the reference site can generate a Bell state with a vertex if the corresponding upper bound of the vertex is one e-bit. Thus for generation of a Bell state this upper bound must be saturated. Taking this into account, we obtain the characteristic constraint of the proper graphs. We introduce a special class of antipodal invariant stratification graphs, which is called reflective, whereas the antipode vertex obeys the characteristic constraint. We also show that the antipodal association scheme graphs are reflective so Bell states can be generated between the antipodal vertices. Moreover, we observe that in such graphs the proper Hamiltonian that enables the creation of a Bell state is the Heisenberg interaction between vertex pairs
Correlates of degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy
Hsieh Ru-Lan
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the still unknown factors correlating with the degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy. Methods This retrospective chart review study of newly diagnosed cases of Bell's palsy was conducted over a three-year period. Information on age, sex, day of onset, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and electroneurographic test results were collected. The electroneurographic quotient (amplitude of compound muscle action potential on the affected side divided by that on the healthy side and expressed in percent was used as an index of nerve involvement, with lower quotient indicating more severe disease. Results Data were collected on 563 patients. The mean electroneurographic quotient varied inversely with age (p vs. 40.3%; p = 0.002. There was no correlation between the degree of nerve involvement and sex, season of onset, hypertension, or diabetes. Conclusion The degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy correlates positively with age and negatively with corticosteroid use.
Bell's Inequality, Random Sequence, and Quantum Key Distribution
Hwang, W Y
2005-01-01
At first glance Ekert 91 quantum key distribution protocol can be secure even if legitimate users adopt whatever devices for the protocol as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, it is not the case if they ignore non-detection events because Eve can make use of detection-loophole, as Larrson showed. What we show is that even when the legitimate users take into account non-detection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the manufacturer design the QKD system appropriately. A loophole utilized here is that of `free-choice' (or `real randomness'). We show how (local) quantum key distribution devices with pseudo-random sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality. We briefly discuss a debate on Bell's inequality violation that is involved with a question on randomness.
Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-01-01
Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a $d$-dimensional bipartite system ($d\\geq 2$) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for $d$-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension (e.g., $d\\geq 1000$). Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of extremely high dimensionality with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. Our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of $d>4000$. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite system...
Testing Bell inequalities with circuit QEDs by joint spectral measurements
Yuan, Hao; Huang, J S; Wang, X H; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We propose a feasible approach to test Bell's inequality with the experimentally-demonstrated circuit QED system, consisting of two well-separated superconducting charge qubits (SCQs) dispersively coupled to a common one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). Our proposal is based on the joint spectral measurements of the two SCQs, i.e., their quantum states in the computational basis $\\{|kl>,\\,k,l=0,1\\}$ can be measured by detecting the transmission spectra of the driven TLR: each peak marks one of the computational basis and its relative height corresponds to the probability superposed. With these joint spectral measurements, the generated Bell states of the two SCQs can be robustly confirmed without the standard tomographic technique. Furthermore, the statistical nonlocal-correlations between these two distant qubits can be directly read out by the joint spectral measurements, and consequently the Bell's inequality can be tested by sequentially measuring the relevant correlations related to the sui...
MCP-PMT development for Belle-II TOP counter
Inami, K.
We have developed a multiple-anode square-shape MCP-PMT for the Belle-II Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) counter. This detector is a hybrid cherenkov ring imaging and timing detector for particle identification in the barrel region of the upgraded detector. The Belle-II experiment will operate at high event rates and needs to withstand the correspondingly high background environment. MCP-PMT's have demonstrated excellent single photon timing resolution. However, the lifetime of photocathode is a known issue. Recently, we successfully improved the lifetime of a square-shape MCP-PMT by a factor of about 10, which is adequate for estimates of the nominal Belle-II background rates in the TOP counter. We have also developed a new MCP-PMT with Hamamatsu photonics, that adopts a super bialkali photocathode. Currently a peak quantum effciency of 28% for 400 nm photons has been achieved.
Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality
Situ, Haozhen
2016-01-01
Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.
Belle II early physics program of bottomonium spectroscopy
Ye, Hua
2016-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK "$B$ factory" facility in Tsukuba, Japan. Phase 1 commissioning of the main ring of SuperKEKB has started in February 2016 and first physics data will be recorded in 2017 during the so-called Phase 2 commissioning, when the partial Belle II detector will be operated still without its vertex detector. In 2018, the full Belle II detector will be rolled in and physics run will start. In this proceeding, a possible physics program for this early data run at different center-of-mass energies is described, in particular at the $\\Upsilon(3S)$ and $\\Upsilon(6S)$ resonances, amongst other energy points.
On the Debossing, Annealing and Mounting of Bells
PERRIN, R.; SWALLOWE, G. M.; CHARNLEY, T.; MARSHALL, C.
1999-10-01
Changes in the frequencies of the musical partials of various types of bells following debossing dismounting/mounting and annealing/quench annealing are reported. Debossing, dismounting and quench annealing lead to frequency drops, while mounting gives rises. Annealing can lead to frequency increases or decreases depending upon the maximum temperature employed and the initial residual stress. Qualitative explanations of these phenomena are given in terms of changes in crown stiffness, internal stress and alloy phase structure. These are supported by the results of X-ray diffraction measurements. Although the effects are all small they can be large enough to be detected by a reasonably musical car. This, together with the fact that the effects cannot be controlled, gives a plausible explanation of why modern bellfounders use vertical lathes for tuning, even with small carillon bells, and do not anneal bells when trying to control warble.
Belle II SVD ladder assembly procedure and electrical qualification
Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, Varghese; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2016-07-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric e+e- collider in Japan will operate at a luminosity approximately 50 times larger than its predecessor (Belle). At its heart lies a six-layer vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is time-dependent CP violation asymmetry, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision three dimensional coordinate measurements of the jigs used in assembly as well as of the final SVD modules.
Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208
Revealing Bell's Nonlocality for Unstable Systems in High Energy Physics
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Ake; Moskal, Pawel
2011-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson--antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated "dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, a...
The Belle II Experiment and SuperKEKB Upgrade
,
2015-01-01
The Belle II / SuperKEKB experiment is an $e^+e^-$ collider running at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance energy to produce B meson pairs. As an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment, it will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $\\sim 40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. Now the upgrade of the sub-detector systems is on going in KEK. The physics programs have a wide range of areas, including searches for direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter. In this proceedings, we will review the current upgrade status of Belle II and SuperKEKB and introduce some physics opportunities at this facility.
Numerical analysis of an axial-flow pump with different bell mouths
Based on the FVM (Finite Volume Method), standard turbulent model used to close the RANS (Reynolds Average Navier- Stokes Equations) equations and scalable wall function, was adopted to treat the flow near wall, and the flow pattern in the bell mouth of a certain axial-flow pump was simulated. The results show that there were some vortexes and spiral flows in the bell mouth if we used a traditional bell mouth which was also used in mixed-flow pump. By optimizing the structure of the bell mouth, the simulated results showed that the flow pattern in the bell mouth was better than a traditional bell mouth, there were no vortexes or spiral flows in the bell mouth, and the performance of the pump was also better than before. Based on the numerical simulation, the new structure of the bell mouth was proposed to be used practical engineering
Hadronic b {yields} c decays at Belle
Joshi, Nikhil Jayant [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research - TIFR, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)
2010-07-01
We present a measurement of the unitarity triangle angle {phi}{sub 3} using Dalitz plot analysis of three-body neutral D decays from the B{sup +} {yields} D{sup (*)}K{sup (*)+} process. The results are based on a large sample of B anti-B pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The decay B {yields} D{sup (*)} K{sup (*)} (D = D{sup 0} or anti-D{sup 0}) includes the b {yields} u transition and plays a crucial role in the measurement of the CP-violating angle {phi}{sub 3}. We present the result of a study of the decay B {yields} D{sup (*)} K{sup (*)} where the D meson is reconstructed from K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}. We also report improved measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} {pi}{sup -} and anti-B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} K{sup -}. Based on these results, we determine the ratio between the amplitudes of the doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)+} {pi}{sup -} and the Cabibbo favored decay B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} {pi}{sup +}. We studied the three-body baryonic B{sup +} decays, B{sup +} {yields} p anti-{lambda} D{sup (*)0}. The branching fractions as well as the differential branching fractions as a function of the mass of the p anti-{lambda} system are presented. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the generalized factorization approach. We present a study of the exclusive decays B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} K{sup 0}{sub S} {pi}{sup +} and B{sup -} to D{sub s}{sup +} K{sup -}K{sup -}. We use the D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {phi} {pi}{sup -}, anti-K{sup *}(892)0 K{sup -} and K{sup 0}{sub S} K{sup -} decay modes for D{sub s} reconstruction. (author)
Unambiguous atomic Bell measurement assisted by multiphoton states
Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot
2016-05-01
We propose and theoretically investigate an unambiguous Bell measurement of atomic qubits assisted by multiphoton states. The atoms interact resonantly with the electromagnetic field inside two spatially separated optical cavities in a Ramsey-type interaction sequence. The qubit states are postselected by measuring the photonic states inside the resonators. We show that if one is able to project the photonic field onto two coherent states on opposite sites of phase space, an unambiguous Bell measurement can be implemented. Thus, our proposal may provide a core element for future components of quantum information technology such as a quantum repeater based on coherent multiphoton states, atomic qubits and matter-field interaction.
Two-setting Bell inequalities for many qubits
We present a family of Bell inequalities involving only two measurement settings of each party for N>2 qubits. Our inequalities include all the standard ones with fewer than N qubits and thus give a natural generalization. It is shown that all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states violate the inequalities maximally, with an amount that grows exponentially as 2(N-2)/2. The inequalities are also violated by some states that do satisfy all the standard Bell inequalities. Remarkably, our results yield in an efficient and simple way an implementation of nonlocality tests of many qubits favorably within reach of the well-established technology of linear optics
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
Treasures inside the bell hidden order in chance
Puente, Carlos E
2003-01-01
Generalized versions of the central limit theorem that lead to Gaussian distributions over one and higher dimensions, via arbitrary iterations of simple mappings, have recently been discovered by the author of this publication and his collaborators. Treasures Inside the Bell: Hidden Order in Chance reveals how these new constructions result in infinite exotic kaleidoscopic decompositions of two-dimensional circular bells in terms of beautiful deterministic patterns possessing arbitrary n-fold symmetries. These are patterns that, while reminding us of the infinite structure previously found in
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Structural Investigation on Bell Inequalities of High Dimensions
Lee, S W; Lee, J; Cheong, Yong Wook; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo
2005-01-01
We present the generalized Bell inequality for high-dimensional systems and reformulate it in order to compare with Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) inequality. It is shown that the maximal entanglement leads to the maximal violation of our Bell inequality, whereas a non-maximally entangled state maximally violates CGLMP inequality. In addition, it is shown that both types have the equivalent structure with respect to the joint probabilities, but they have the different correlation weights of measurement outcomes. We remark that the correlation weights plays a crucial role in determining the violation conditions and tightness conditions.
Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell experiments with postselection
Sciarrino, F; Cabello, A; Mataloni, P
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that the violation of a Bell inequality by postselected events cannot be used for loophole-free tests of quantum nonlocality. We show that this is not the case if the postselection is performed locally and without communication between the observers. This permits the adoption of certain setups of locally selected entanglement, which are simpler and more efficient, for long-distance free-space Bell tests. For these setups, we investigate which is the minimum detection efficiency for loophole-free experiments.
Cost of exactly simulating a Bell pair using classical communication
The paper G. Brassard, R. Cleve, and A. Tapp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1874 (1999) begins thus: 'Bell's celebrated theorem shows that certain scenarios involving bipartite quantum measurements result in correlations that are impossible to simulate with a classical system if the measurement events are spacelike separated. If the measurement events are timelike separated, then classical simulation is possible, at the expense of some communication. Our goal is to quantify the required amount of communication.' In this note we tighten the bounds on the amount of communication required to simulate a von Neumann measurement on a Bell pair
A paradigm of fragile Earth in Priestley's bell jar
Martin, Daniel; Thompson, Andrew; Stewart, Iain; Gilbert,Edward; Hope, Katrina; Kawai, Grace; Griffiths, Alistair
2012-01-01
Background Photosynthesis maintains aerobic life on Earth, and Joseph Priestly first demonstrated this in his eighteenth-century bell jar experiments using mice and mint plants. In order to demonstrate the fragility of life on Earth, Priestley's experiment was recreated using a human subject placed within a modern-day bell jar. Methods A single male subject was placed within a sealed, oxygen-depleted enclosure (12.4% oxygen), which contained 274 C3 and C4 plants for a total of 48 h. A combina...
Bell's Nonlocality Can be Tested through Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun
2015-01-01
Quantum nonlocality has recently been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Experimentally Bell's nonlocality is usually tested by quantum violation of the Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality in the two-qubit system. Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type of nonlocality, also due this reason Bell-test experiments have encountered both the locality loophole and the detection loophole for a very long...
Mônica Alcantara de Oliveira Santos
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Embora a paralisia de Bell seja o tipo mais frequente de paralisia facial periférica,sua causa ainda é objeto de inúmeros questionamentos. A reativação do vírus varicela zoster tem sido considerada uma das principais causas da paralisia de Bell, porém, os poucos trabalhos que estudam a prevalência do VVZ como agente etiológico da PB são japoneses, o que determina características geográficas e populacionais bastante díspares de nossa população. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a frequência do vírus varicela zoster em saliva de indivíduos com PB, pela técnica de PCR. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 171 pacientes com PFP, sendo 120 pacientes portadores de paralisia de Bell, com até uma semana de evolução, sem uso prévio de drogas antivirais. O grupo controle foi composto de 20 adultos sadios. Nestes indivíduos foram coletadas três amostras de saliva em semanas consecutivas, para pesquisa de DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: O vírus varicela zoster foi encontrado em amostras de saliva de dois pacientes com paralisia de Bell (1,7%. Nenhum vírus foi identificado no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Foi verificada frequência de 1,7% para vírus varicela zoster em amostras de saliva de pacientes com paralisia de Bell, pela técnica de PCR.Although Bell's palsy is the major cause of acute peripheral facial palsy, its pathogenesis remains unknown. Reactivation of the varicella zoster virus has been implicated as one of the main causes of Bell's palsy, however, studies which investigate the varicella zoster virus reactivation in Bell's palsy patients are mostly Japanese and, therefore, personal and geographic characteristics are quite different from our population. AIMS: To determine varicella zoster virus frequency in saliva samples from patients with Bell's palsy, using PCR. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred seventy one patients with acute peripheral facial palsy were prospectively enrolled in this study. One hundred twenty
Experimental possibilities of IGR reactor for the researches on the nuclear reactor safety
The IGR reactor (National nuclear centre of the Republic of Kazakstan, Kurchatov) with high technical and neutron-physical properties has wide experimental possibilities for the dynamic studies. On this reactor possible curried out two general types of regimes. First regime is a 'flare', non-regular neutron impulse of power of bell form. In this regime the maximum flux density of thermal neutrons. Second regime is a 'impulse', regulated on the given regime (law) power impulse. Profile of power change in this regime has sections of linear ascent and fall, sections of stationary power. IGR reactor has pneumatic hydraulic stand, provided accumulation in the ramps of high pressure. Experimental volume of the reactor are composites central and lateral channels, which are passed through active zone of height equal to 1400 mm. The above mentioned possibilities of IGR reactor are provided unique conditions for studies in the field of nuclear reactor safety
The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy
Yun Jeong-hun
2000-07-01
Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.
Scheme for deterministic Bell-state-measurement-free quantum teleportation
Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2004-01-01
A deterministic teleportation scheme for unknown atomic states is proposed in cavity QED. The Bell state measurement is not needed in the teleportation process, and the success probability can reach 1.0. In addition, the current scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and thermal field.
Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation
We present different algorithms for mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best-known algorithms. Better algorithms can be derived that are tuned for specific initial states. These algorithms are based on a characterization of the group of all locally realizable permutations of the 4n possible tensor products of n Bell states
FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II
Muenchow, David; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liu, Ming; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)
2011-07-01
Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a design luminosity of 8.10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. At Belle II the estimated event rate is {<=}30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be {<=}7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.
Philosophical motivations of Bell's theorem and the experimenter's problem
The question suggested by the Bell theorem of whether natural phenomena or systems possess intrinsic properties independent of their observers is considered, that is, whether objective systems, objects, exist. It is assumed that they do and the consequences are examined and possible tests of this assumption are examined
"The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.
Smith, J. David
1995-01-01
The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…
FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II
Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e+e- collider with a design luminosity of 8.1035cm-2s-1. At Belle II the estimated event rate is ≤30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be ≤7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.
On superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories
The meaning of superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories (i.e., quantum theories with particle trajectories) is different from that in orthodox quantum theory. More precisely, there are two concepts of superselection rule, a weak and a strong one. Weak superselection rules exist both in orthodox quantum theory and in Bohm-Bell theories and represent the conventional understanding of superselection rules. We introduce the concept of strong superselection rule, which does not exist in orthodox quantum theory. It relies on the clear ontology of Bohm-Bell theories and is a sharper and, in the Bohm-Bell context, more fundamental notion. A strong superselection rule for the observable G asserts that one can replace every state vector by a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G without changing the particle trajectories or their probabilities. A weak superselection rule asserts that every state vector is empirically indistinguishable from a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G. We establish conditions on G for both kinds of superselection. For comparison, we also consider both kinds of superselection in theories of spontaneous wavefunction collapse
Belle II public and private cloud management in VMDIRAC system.
Grzymkowski, Rafa; Hara, Takanori; Belle computing Group, II
2015-12-01
The role of cloud computing technology in the distributed computing for HEP experiments grows rapidly. Some experiments (Atlas, BES-III, LHCb) already exploit private and public cloud resources for the data processing. Future experiments such as Belle II or upgraded LHC experiments will largely rely on the availability of cloud resources and therefore their computing models have to be adjusted to the specific features of cloud environment, in particular to the on-demand computing paradigm. Belle II experiment at SuperKEKB will start physics run in 2017. Belle II computing requirements are challenging. The data size at the level of hundred PB is expected after several years of operation, around 2020. The baseline solution selected for distributed processing is the DIRAC system. DIRAC can handle variety of computing resources including Grids, Clouds and independent clusters. Cloud resources can be connected by VMDIRAC module through public interfaces. In particular the mechanism of dynamic activation of new virtual machines with reserved job slots for new tasks in case of an increasing demand for computing resources is introduced. This work is focused on VMDIRAC interaction with public (Amazon EC2) and private (CC1) cloud. The solution applied by Belle II experiment and the experience from Monte Carlo production campaigns will be presented. Updated computation costs for different use cases will be shown.
History of Belle and some of its lesser known highlights
Olsen, Stephen Lars
2016-01-01
I report on the early history of Belle, which was almost entirely focused on testing the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism for $CP$ violation that predicted large matter-antimatter asymmetries in certain $B$ meson decay modes. Results reported by both BaBar and Belle in the summer of 2001 verified the Kobayashi Maskawa idea and led to their Nobel prizes in 2008. In addition to studies of CP violation, Belle (and BaBar) reported a large number of important results on a wide variety of other subjects, many of which that had nothing to do with B mesons. In this talk I cover three (of many) subjects where Belle measurements have had a significant impact on specific sub-fields of hadron physics but are not generally well know. These include: the discovery of an anomalously large cross sections for double charmonium production in continuum e+e- annihilation; sensitive probes of the structure of the low-mass scalar mesons; and first measurements of the Collins spin fragmentation function.
Correspondence Between Bell Bases and Oriented Links in Knot Theory
QIAN ShangWu; GU ZhiYu
2002-01-01
From the comparison of correlation tensor in the theory of quantum network, the Alexander relation matrix in the theory of knot crystals and the identical inversion relations under the action of Pauli matrices, we show that there is a one to one correspondence between four Bell bases and four oriented links of the linkage 41 in knot theory.
A Measurement of "g" Using Alexander's Diving Bell
Quiroga, M.; Martinez, S.; Otranto, S.
2010-01-01
This paper describes a very simple exercise using an inverted test tube pushed straight down into a column of water to determine the free-fall acceleration "g". The exercise employs the ideal gas law and only involves the measurement of the displacement of the bottom of the "diving bell" and the water level inside the tube with respect to the…
Bell Beaker Culture lithic industry workshop in Moravia
Šebela, Lubomír; Škrdla, Petr
Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 2014. s. 12-12. ISBN N. [Archéologie et Gobelets /16./. 01.05.2014-03.05.2014, Bratislava - Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Moravia * Eneolithic * Bell Beaker culture * workshop * Stránská skála Hill Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Quantum Communication between N partners and Bell's inequalities
Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2001-01-01
We consider a family of quantum communication protocols involving $N$ partners. We demonstrate the existence of a link between the security of these protocols against individual attacks by the eavesdropper, and the violation of some Bell's inequalities, generalizing the link that was noticed some years ago for two-partners quantum cryptography. The arguments are independent of the local hidden variable debate.
Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2012-01-01
John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT an
Rehabilitation of Bells' palsy from a multi-team perspective.
Hultcrantz, Malou
2016-04-01
Conclusions Defectively healed facial paralysis causes difficulties to talk and eat, involuntary spasms (synkinesis), and cosmetic deformities which can give rise both to severe psychological and physical trauma. A team consisting of Ear-Nose-Throat specialists, Plastic surgeons and Physiotherapists can offer better care, treatment and outcome for patients suffering from Bells' palsy. Objectives Patients suffering from Bells' palsy from all ENT hospitals in Sweden and the University Hospital in Helsinki has been included. Methods Results have been drawn and statistically processed for different outcomes from a prospective, double blind cross over study. Results from a pilot surgical study and therapeutic results from physiotherapy studies have been included. Ideas concerning different kinds of surgery will be reviewed and the role of physiotherapy discussed. Results According to common results, treatment with Prednisolone enhances the recovery rate and should, if possible, be used early in the course. Sunnybrook grading at 1 month after onset most accurately predicts non-recovery at 12 months in Bells' palsy and a risk factor curve will be presented in order to predict outcome and selection of patients for undergoing facial surgery. This report is focusing on how to handle patients with Bells' palsy from a multi-rehabilitation team point of view, and what will be recommended to provide these patients with the best clinical and surgical help. PMID:26634395
Bell inequality and the locality loophole: Active versus passive switches
Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
1999-01-01
All experimental tests of the violation of Bell's inequality suffer from some loopholes. We show that the locality loophole is not independent of the detection loophole: in experiments using low efficient detectors, the locality loophole can be closed equivalently using active or passive switches.
Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism
Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Quantum-mechanical predictions for certain experiments violate the Bell inequality while a local realist theory cannot, and this shows that a local realist theory cannot give those quantum-mechanical predictions. However, because of unexpected circumstances or ‘loopholes’ in available experiment tests, local realist theories can reproduce the data from these experiments. This paper reviews such loopholes, what effect they have on Bell inequality tests, and how to avoid them in experiment. Avoiding all these simultaneously in one experiment, usually called a ‘loophole-free’ or ‘definitive’ Bell test, remains an open task, but is very important for technological tasks such as device-independent security of quantum cryptography, and ultimately for our understanding of the world. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review article)
Education as a Practice of Freedom: Reflections on bell hooks
Specia, Akello; Osman, Ahmed A.
2015-01-01
This paper critically analyses the conceptions of bell hooks on education. It focuses on the relevance of hook's ideas to the classroom. It is a theoretical paper based on secondary data that seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in education. The paper is a reflection of hook's reaction to education as a practice of freedom, the…
Fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue using logical Bell states
Ye, Tian-Yu
2015-09-01
Two fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue protocols are proposed in this paper by employing logical Bell states as the quantum resource, which combat the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. The two proposed protocols each can accomplish the mutual identity authentication and the dialogue between two participants simultaneously and securely over one kind of collective noise channels. In each of two proposed protocols, the information transmitted through the classical channel is assumed to be eavesdroppable and modifiable. The key for choosing the measurement bases of sample logical qubits is pre-shared privately between two participants. The Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are adopted for decoding. The two participants share the initial states of message logical Bell states with resort to the direct transmission of auxiliary logical Bell states so that the information leakage problem is avoided. The impersonation attack, the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack and the Trojan horse attacks from Eve all are detectable.
Belle II Detector: status and proposed US contributions
Conference proceedings for the 2012 American Physical Society, Division of Particles and Fields (DPF2012) conference. Paper is on the US contibutions to the Belle II detector upgrade. High precision flavor physics measurements are an essential complement to the direct searches for new physics at the LHC. Such measurements will be performed using the upgraded Belle II detector and upgraded KEKB accelerator. The status of the Belle II detector and proposed role of the US Belle II collaborators are presented in this article. The B factory experiments, Belle at the KEKB collider at KEK and BaBar at the PEP II collider at SLAC, were built to measure the large mixing-induced CP violation in the B0 system predicted by the theory of Kobayashi and Maskawa. The successful confirmation of the prediction led to the Nobel Prize for both theorists. The B factories were built to answer the question Is the CKM description in the Standard Model correct? Most B factory results are in good agreement with the expectations from the Standard Model (SM) and confirm the CKM structure of quark mixing and CP violation, but some measurements show tensions with the SM prediction. The Super B factories will address the question In what way is the Standard Model wrong? Much larger datasets are needed for high-precision measurements to search for significant deviations from the SM which are expected to exist. The SuperKEKB and Belle II detector are being constructed to perform these high precision studies with a dataset 50ab-1. The SuperKEKB accelerator will operate at an instantaneous luminosity of 8 x 1035cm-2s-1, a factor of 40 times higher than the luminosity of the KEKB accelerator at the end of the Belle physics program. The increased luminosity will derive primarily from shrinking the beam size at the interaction point (nano beams) utilizing new final focus quadrapole magnets in combination with a factor of 2 increase in beam currents. To counteract the increase in the beam-beam parameter
CROWtm FIELD DEMONSTRATION WITH BELL LUMBER AND POLE
Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.; L. John Fahy
2002-03-01
In 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in-situ remediation project for the contaminated aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) site in New Brighton, Minnesota. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW{trademark}) process, which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover nonaqueous phase liquids. While reviewing the site evaluation information, it became apparent that better site characterization would enhance the outcome of the project. Additional coring indicated that the areal extent of the contaminated soils was approximately eight times greater than initially believed. Because of the uncertainties, in 1993, a pilot test was conducted that provided containment and organic recovery information that assisted in the design of the full-scale CROW process demonstration. After reviewing the cost ramifications of implementing the full-scale CROW field demonstration, Bell Pole approached Western Research Institute (WRI) with a request for a staged, sequential site remediation. Bell Pole's request for the change in the project scope was prompted by budgetary constraints. Bell Pole felt that although a longer project might be more costly, by extending the length of the project, the yearly cost burden would be more manageable. After considering several options, WRI recommended implementing a phased approach to remediate the contaminated area. Phase 1 involves a CROW process demonstration to remediate the upgradient one-third of the contaminated area, which contains the largest amount of free organic material. The Bell Pole Phase 1 CROW demonstration began in mid-1995 and was operated until January 2001. The operation of the demonstration was satisfactory, although at less than the design conditions. During the demonstration, 25,502,902 gal of hot water was injected and 83,155 gal of organics was transferred to the storage tank. During operations more than 65% of the produced
Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination
We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities