The Kingdom of Belgium which borders on the nations of France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Federal Republic of Germany, is one of the smallest European countries and is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. The branches of its government are the executive (with a king, a prime minister, and a Council of Ministers), the legislative (a bicameral Parliament and various regional and cultural assemblies), and the judicial (a Court of Cassation modelled on the French system). 30% of Belgium's gross national product comes from machinery, iron and steel, coal, textiles, chemicals, and glass. During the 80 year period which preceded WWI, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran the country during their attack on France in 1914. Some of the worst battles of that war were fought in Belgium. Again in 1940, Belgium was occupied by the Germans. There was a government-in-exile in London; however the King remained in Belgium during the war. The course of Belgian politics was determined largely by the division of the Belgian people into 2 major language groups--the Dutch speakers and French speakers. Regional and language rivalries are taken into account in all important national decisions. The 3 major political parties representing the main ideological tendencies are the Socialists, the Socialist Christians, and the Liberals. Belgium is one of the most open economies in the world and is a densely populated, highly industrialized country in the midst of a highly industrialized region. An economic austerity program was instituted at the beginning of this decade which included devaluation of the Belgian franc, reduction of government expenditures, a partial price freeze, etc. Improvements have been seen as a result of this program. Although US investment has declined in recent years, total US direct investment is estimated at $5.28 billion and there are 899 US companies currently operating in Belgium. As a
This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Belgium for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes
To maintain and further develop the high quality of nuclear engineering education, a network of five Belgian universities and Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) were created in 2001 with the title of 'Belgium Nuclear Higher Education Network BNEN'. Public authorities, regulators and industries supported this initiative due to the need of well educated and trained nuclear manpower. It introduced a new programme of higher education under the name of 60 ECTS programme 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To join this new master's programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. This programme aims to deliver a considerable number of highly qualified engineers for the safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants, not only in Belgium, but worldwide as well. The BNEN consortium organizes several courses for a significant number of foreign students under the ENEN project. This creates good international exposure for European students. The master's programme is a demanding programme whereby students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics; fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. As a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest in the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory
Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Belgium.
In the energy sector Belgium is 90% dependent on imports. This was clearly felt by the electricity generating economy when the share of hydrocarbons in the energy resources used for electricity generation increased to more than 85% in 1973 as a consequence of rising electricity consumption. Although Belgium had been early to start employing nuclear power for peaceful purposes, only little use had initially been made of this possibility. After the first oil price crisis the Belgian electricity utilities turned more attention to nuclear power. To this day, seven nuclear power plants have been started up, and Belgian utilities hold a fifty percent share in a French nuclear power plant, while the French EdF holds fifty percent in one Belgian nuclear generating unit. The Belgian nuclear power plants, which were built mostly by Belgian industries, have an excellent operating record. Their availabilities are considerably above the worldwide average and they contributed some 60% to the electricity production in Belgium in 1985. Thanks to nuclear power, the cumulative percentage shares of heating oil and gas in electricity production were reduced to well over 15%, compared to 1973, thus meeting the objectives of using nuclear power, i.e., to save foreign exchange and become self-sufficient in supplying the country's needs. The use of nuclear power allowed the Belgian utilities to reduce the price per kilowatthour of electricity and, in this way, remain competitive with other countries. The introduction of nuclear power continues to have a stabilizing influence on electricity generating costs. In the light of the forecast future development of consumption it is regarded as probable that another nuclear power plant of 1390 MWe will have to be built and commissioned before the year 2000. (orig.)
The development of family policy in Belgium since the end of World War I is described. Three periods are identified. The original objectives were to provide a basic income level for all families and to promote fertility. After World War II, measures were introduced to foster the physical and psychological health of the family, including the protection of women's rights. More recent policy trends have concentrated on family income and providing services at the family rather than the institutional level. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12280764
The inventory of geological potentialities for the utilization of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Belgium reveals the lower Cretaceous limestone as an interesting reservoir. This formation, karstic and fractured, is very pervious. The geometry, hydrodynamism, chemistry and water temperature of this formation have been determined for 2 different regions: the Hainaut and the ''Campine anversoise''. In the Hainaut, the first stage, namely urban heating is now under progress; the two other stages are greenhouse heating and sludge heating before biomethanisation. A utilization in series has been planned. In the Campine region, the first well of a demonstration doublet has just been drilled. It will be used for building and greenhouse heating. Another shallower reservoir, situated in a porous chalk formation, is also fairly interesting for an energetic application (swimming-pools, heat pumps heating and biomass).
Why do some negotiations end in agreement and some do not? Are there lessons that can be learned from studying negotiations that did not end in agreement? In this paper, I examine the history of 19th century Belgium and the events that led up to the negotiations over its future in 1830, which ended without agreement. The Kingdom of the Netherlands which consisted of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern Netherlands was formed at the Vienna Congress in 1815 with a specific purpose of serving as a b...
On 15 November, Robert Cailliau received the distinction of Commandeur de l'Ordre de Léopold from Belgium, his home country, for his pioneering work in developing the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau worked closely with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web.
Boets, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Lock, Koen; Adriaens, Tim; Aelterman, Bart; Mertens, Joost; Goethals, Peter
Biological invasions of aquatic macroinvertebrates are gaining interest because of their potential for significant ecological and socio-economic impacts (positive and negative). In the present study, an inventory was made of the alien macroinvertebrates occurring in Flanders (northern Belgium) based on extensive existing collections of biological samples and supplemented with our additional sampling programs. Fresh and brackish waters as well as the Belgian coastal harbours, situated at the i...
Maeyaert, Stijn; Judo, Frank; Vandeburie, Aurelien; Lindemans, Dirk
The Government Procurement Review brings together contributions from procurement lawyers across five continents and provides real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.This publication brings together even wider geographic coverage than the first edition, now covering six continents and 24 national chapters (including the EU chapter) and providing real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.
Knijf, de G.; Anselin, A.; Goffart, P.
Trends in dragonfly occurrence in Belgium (Odonata) The group ‘Gomphus’ collected 65 000 records of 69 species of Odonata, more or less equally scattered over Belgium. The best-investigated areas are the northern part and some river valleys in the south. Most hot spots can be found in the northeaste
Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.
Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure
In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request. PMID:27348823
This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty
This article brings various recent trends together to provide a view of the natural gas activities in Belgium. Belgium has a strategic position as an important nodal point in the North-Western European gas grids. This is illustrated by the high interconnection rate with adjacent networks. Gas volumes are attracted for international transit from border point to border point and to supply the national market. Natural gas represents more than a quarter of Belgium's energy mix and is completely dependent on foreign gas supplies. The Belgian gas market and transmission grid are broken down for H-gas (high calorific value, average of 11,630 kWh/m3(n)) and for L-gas (low calorific value, average of 9,769 kWh/m3(n)). This article is intended to disclose some statistics in order to contribute to the understanding and benchmarking of Belgium's gas flows, gas consumption, supply diversification and import capacity. (authors)
Marcello M. Estevão
Regional labor market discrepancies have been widening in Belgium in the last two decades and are more evident within particular demographic groups. These developments can largely be accounted for by worse matching of people to jobs in the high-unemployment provinces. Using a structural VAR, it is also shown that labor mar- ket dynamics in Belgium produce a strong attenuating effect on employment growth, in contrast to the United States where initial labor demand shocks are expanded in the lo...
M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.
Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)
Belgium at present operates seven commercial nuclear units (all of the PWR type) distributed over two sites (Tihange and Doel), with a total output of 5600 MW. Until now, the spent fuel of the three oldest units was reprocessed in the Cogema facility at La Hague, in France. The spent fuel of the remaining units is currently stored in the pools of the units. For economic and political reasons, it has been decided to postpone reprocessing of the major part of the fuel. As the existing pools were filling up, it was necessary to provide interim storage facilities. BELGATOM has performed a technical and economic study in order to define the most appropriate solutions. Specific Belgian conditions had to be taken into account for the selection of the solution. The main considerations are the high population density and the relatively high risk of an aircraft crash. Site conditions are such that different solutions were selected at each site. All possibilities were considered and a comparative study was carried out. After the technical and economic study, the choice was made of dry storage in metallic dual purpose casks at the Doel site and of wet storage in pools at the Tihange site. The paper describes the facilities at both sites as well as their design bases. Also addressed are the licensing approach (including the qualification programme) and environmental aspects. Finally, the Belgian approach for further storage is discussed. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab
Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient. PMID:24427846
Wyard, Coraline; Fettweis, Xavier
This presentation deals with the set-up of the regional climate model MAR over Belgium. It also presents the performances of MAR to simulate the present-day climate following three reanalysis used as forcing of the model (ERA-Interim, ERA-20C and NCEP/NCAR-v1).
Nazé, Yaël; Fantaine, Sébastien
This paper presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest in and knowledge of astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people's interest, main information source and…
The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)
In 2002, Belgium became the second country to legalise euthanasia after the Netherlands. Three biannual reports have been published by the Federal Control and Evaluation Commission, the body which monitors the application of the law. This article explores how the Belgian law works and what is known about Belgian euthanasia practice both before and since legalisation. PMID:19544922
Within the Belgian energy policy the knowledge on hydrogen was rather limited. To resolve this a project was started titled 'Development of Tools to Evaluate the Potential of Sustainable Hydrogen in Belgium' on behalf of Belgian Science Policy Office. It intends to be the first step in a scientific assessment of hydrogen in the Belgian context. The results of the project can be summarized as follows: - databases with international knowledge and experiences on hydrogen - hydrogen module within MARKAL-TIMES, illustrated by a scenario calculation - initial technology assessment on hydrogen, focussed on the scenario - translation of the progress in foreign legislation and licence procedures on hydrogen - definition of relevant policy issues concerning hydrogen. The conclusions of this study are shown in this presentation. The presentation starts showing the actual situation in Belgium around hydrogen and fuel cells. (authors)
Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle
Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...
National Bank of Belgium
Twice a year, in June and December, the National Bank of Belgium publishes the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. The current projections cover the years 2005 and 2006. These projections make up the national component of the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem ; the ECB publishes the aggregated results of this exercise for the euro area economy in its Monthly Bulletin. At the current juncture, the inter...
National Bank of Belgium
Twice a year, in June and December, the National Bank of Belgium publishes the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. The current projections are an update of the projections for 2004 and 2005 published last June. These projections make up the national component of the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem; the ECB publishes the aggregated results of this exercise for the euro area economy. At the current jun...
National Bank of Belgium
In light of an increased transparency, the National Bank of Belgium has decided to publish twice a year, in June and December, the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. These projections represent the national part from the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem, for which the ECB publishes the aggregated results for the euro area economy. At the current juncture, the recovery of the world leading economies i...
National Bank of Belgium
Since the publication of the previous forecasts in June 2008, the economic outlook has deteriorated very rapidly, both at global level and for Belgium. The financial tensions which emerged in mid 2007 turned into a serious crisis, and the contagion effects on the real economy proliferated, halting the growth of activity in the advanced economies and causing an abrupt fall in commodity prices. The slowdown in activity which began in mid 2007 as a result of weakening external demand was slightl...
Storms, Hannelore; Marquet, Kristel; Claes, Neree
Objectives: Digitally sharing information enables improved communication, consequently increasing accuracy of a medication overview, resulting in reduced medication errors . The aim of this study is to evaluate implementation of an electronic medication overview, particularly its accessibility and usability. Methods: In Belgium a project called “Vitalink” was implemented. Main objective of this project was to improve the exchange of health information between healthcare profession...
Steven Simoens; Kristien De Bruyn; Marc Bogaert; Gert Laekeman
Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian dru...
Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin
Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686
In Belgium, the power utilities have to draw up periodically, for the Belgium Government, a national equipment plan so as to substantiate the investments planned for the ten year period that follows the publication of the plan. The justification of this plan is mainly based on the cost of the kilowatt-hour produced by the different types of power units. The most recently published plan covers the period 1988-1998. The three power generation means considered in Belgium for comparison are nuclear, coal and gas. Taking into account the official calculation criteria (discount rate of 8.6% and book-keeping life of 20 years), nuclear generation is clearly situated between the low and high hypotheses for gas, while coal is more costly. By using more realistic values of the book-keeping life, nuclear and gas are at the same level. Nuclear power generation can be an economic option for base load generation, especially if gas prices go up. This may be the case in the coming years, since 'a dash for gas' is currently being experienced and since the nuclear fuel costs are lower than the conservative price level adopted in the equipment plant in 1988. Despite the advantages of nuclear energy (economic advantages as a result of price stability, ecological advantages with respect to the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide production, political advantages in terms of energy independence, and industrial advantages in terms of benefits to the domestic economy), it can only be developed in a favourable context if it is accepted by the citizens. This is the reason why the utilities are waiting for a national political consensus before introducing officially new nuclear plants in their planning proposals. (author). 7 figs, 4 tabs
The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of payment cards use on the amount of money in circulation in Belgium. In all developed countries the amout of notes and coins has decreased over the past years. Such tendency can be attributed to a slow, but continuous process of substitution of cash by other means of payment for everyday transactions. If the substitution was first due to a widespread used of cheques, more recently this was intensified by cards' diffusion. This claim is supporte...
The present Belgian nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is based on experience cumulated since the early eighties. This paper describes the organisation, actuation process, the emergency planning zones and the applicable intervention guidance levels. The role of AVN as on-site inspector, nuclear emergency adviser and emergency assessor is explained as well as its human and technical resources. Finally the paper presents briefly the experience feedback on emergency exercises and training in Belgium as well as AVN's views on some debatable topics. (author)
Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.
For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.
This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public ac
N. Thijs (Nick); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)
textabstractCurrent analysis of the public administration’s dysfunctions in Belgium bears remarkable resemblance to the analyses made by numerous authors and commissions in the past 150 years. In this article, we provide an overview of the major administrative reform initiatives in Belgium between 1
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the regional labor markets for Belgium. The paper examines labor market performance, and argues that a number of factorsâ€”poor worker-job matching, a compressed wage structure, and low geographical mobilityâ€”contribute to economic disparities. The paper describes the divergences in local labor markets, and offers potential explanations for them, including an analysis of variations in the relationship between regional unemployment rates and regional vacanc...
Full Text Available For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space.
Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.. Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km for summer (winter for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.
Segers, A; Chartier, D; Filosof, F; Osteaux, M
Feminism in Belgium is characterized by its openness and its flexibility. The feminist movement is characterized by; 1) the existence of groups which think about the theory of feminism, encompassing the entire sphere of action of women and concerning itself with private matters and politics; and 2) the existence of action groups which specialize in certain areas. Health has become a matter of great concern for these groups, and one reason for this is the urgent need to put a stop to the scandal of illicit abortion, and the family planning situation in Belgium. It was not until 1973 that information on contraceptive use was permitted. Illicit abortions are still performed, and only women from well-to-do backgrounds have access to "tourist abortion" and can have abortions in England and Holland. The legislative text states that abortion remains an offense against the family and until 1983 the law only allowed certain therapeutic abortions. The women who join the feminist movement are usually professional middle-class women and those of the left and extreme left. These women helped to establish the Groupe d'Action des Centres Extra-Hospitaliers Praiquant des Avortements, an organization of non-hosppital centers that provide abortion services and which provide women with full information on contraception, emphasizing that the decision must be made by the woman herself. Good medial and psychological conditions are provided as well as postabortion care. At present there are 15 centers in Brussels and Wallonia and 2 Flemish centers have recently opened. The centers use a system of payment by the hour or on the basis of fixed fees. The feminist movement has also helped to open up the medical profession to women, opened up hospital services sensitive to feminist ideas, and fought resistence to change among the medical hierarchy, that remains predominantly male. PMID:12178363
The historical review and oversight of Belgium activities in applications of nuclear technologies has been presented. Especially attention have been paid on industrial applications as sterilization of surgical tools, medical supplies, drugs, food; radiation induced polymerization and composite materials production; nondestructive testing and application of sealed sources in industry. The detailed review has been done on nuclear medicine development in Belgium covering the range of therapeutic applications as well as diagnostic techniques
The Belgian nuclear phase-out law imposes closing down in the 2015–2025 period seven nuclear power plants (NPPs) producing more than 50% of the domestic electricity. This creates an urgent problem in the country because of the absence of well-defined capacity-replacement plans. Though a safety-of-supply provision in the law allows for a delayed phase-out, hopes for a technically acceptable schedule have reduced after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. In this article policy investigations are made with system dynamics. A significant finding from such modelling is that, in contrast to common expectations, a too early nuclear phase-out will not serve the deployment of renewable energy sources and rational use of energy. It is indeed found to primarily benefit to fossil fuel, creating unwanted drawbacks regarding safety of supply, dependency on foreign suppliers, price volatility, and increased use of non-renewable and CO2-emitting fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Belgium decided to close nuclear plants between 2015 and 2025 to promote renewables. • Hopes for a technically acceptable schedule reduced after the Fukushima disaster. • The Belgian electricity system has been modelled with system dynamics (SD). • SD shows that nuclear plants will be mainly replaced by fossil-fuel plants. • SD shows that it is better for renewables to delay shutdowns or to replace plants
It is not foreseen by the Belgian operator to dispose radioactive sealed sources in Near Surface Disposal Facility. The adaptation of the generic safety assessment in order to take in account the presence of sealed sources has been made. The level of concern in the context of the long term safety of a near surface disposal is assessed. On the base of the Belgium exemption level and the extrapolation for the disused sources the range of values above which sources could be considered as to have a significant radiological impact is determined. The number of significant medical sources after 300 years is estimated to be 294. For long term safety after 300 years it is obtained the reduction by a factor 10 of the number of sources, when only three radionuclides 241Am, 137Cs and 226Ra should be taken into account for the long term safety (only α and γemitters). The Belgian Near Surface Disposal Concept is presented. Long Term Safety Assessment including assumptions, generic concept, classification, scenarios (Human intrusion scenario) is presented. It is concluded that high actives of long-lived radionuclides sources should be avoided in a near surface disposal facility regarding the human intrusion scenario. If sources are still foreseen, activity limits should be specified together with requirements on their management. Specific limits could be derived from safety or security scenario. Attempts to distribute other sources in each module of the disposal and to set out the monoliths containing sources away from the intruder possible access could be made. Stylised human intrusion scenarios including sources should be developed by discussions with the safety authority. Scenario addressing the Operational phase should include the presence of sources
The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)
The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years. (Author)
In Belgium, the licenses for operation of the nuclear power plants granted by Royal Decree do not specify a fixed lifetime. The oldest plants, Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1, have been operational since 1975. The 2003 law regarding the exit from nuclear power limits the operation of nuclear power plants to 40 years. However, in October 2009, the Belgian government declared that they intended to make it legally possible for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1 to operate until 2025, which would mean a total lifetime of 50 years (this statement was confirmed by the Belgian government in June 2012, only for the Tihange 1 plant). The Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) published in 2009 a strategic note regarding the requirements of long-term operation for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1. Electrabel GDF SUEZ started its LTO programme in order to respond to these requirements. The LTO programme consisted of the following areas of concern, identified in the FANC strategic note: − Preconditions for long-term operation considering the IAEA expectations; − Ageing management; − Design re-evaluation; − Knowledge, competence and behaviour management. The note also stated that the long-term operation of the plants should be evaluated within the framework of the fourth ten-yearly PSR, based upon IAEA NS-G-2.10. As such a license renewal was not required for LTO and the LTO approval will be integrated in the approval process of the 4th PSR. In its strategic note, the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control explicitly states that the AMP has to be in conformity with the USNRC 10CFR54 and IAEA SRS 57
BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here
The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of
Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert
Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to
Bodson, Bernard; Pamart, M.; Daoust, Serge; Janssens, M.; Falisse, André
Take-all of wheat caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici (Ggt) is known world-wide as a major yield-limiting factor. In Belgium, the Take-all disease is not very well known. A take-all survey has been set up in 1999 in Belgium in collaboration between the Agricultural University of Gembloux and Monsanto where goals were to quantify the disease in the main cereal areas and to study the main factors influencing take-all development.
Schallier, R.; Van Roy, W
Although the waters of Belgium only form a minor part of the North Sea, they contain some of the busiest shipping routes in the world with the Dover Strait and some of the biggest European ports in the immediate vicinity. It is therefore recognized as a key maritime risk area, also in terms of ship-source oil pollution. This chapter first discusses the significant, stepwise decrease of illegal oil discharges from ships in and around the waters of Belgium based on national aerial surveillance ...
Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete; Meier, Michella; Huisman, Annemiek; Pirkis, Jane E
Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....
... Value: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, 64 FR 15476 (March 31, 1999), as amended by... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping... administrative review on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium.\\1\\ This review covers...
E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)
textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental in
Becht, M.C.; Chapelle, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This paper analyses the control of Belgian listed companies. The analysis reveals that control of listed companies in Belgium is highly concentrated. Business groups, holding companies, and voting pacts, play an important role in bringing about this concentration. The main characteristics of the Bel
Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard
This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…
Collaboration of JINR with research centres and universities in Belgium embraces various aspects of nuclear, elementary particle and solid-state physics. Involved in the co-operation with JINR scientists are Belgian colleagues from UIA (Antwerp), ISIPC, ULB, VUB (Brussels), IRMM (Geel) RUG (Gent), KUL (Leuven) IBAA (Louvain-la-Neuve) and the University of Mons.
Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.
Mulder, J; M. Druant
The article discusses developments over the past two decades in regard to working time and alternative forms of employment, placing the trends seen in Belgium in an international perspective. It also examines whether the Belgian regulations on this subject are stricter than those in the other EU-15 countries. For the Belgian working population, the usual working time averaged 37 hours per week in 2004, whereas in 1983 it was a little over 40 hours. There are wide variations within the EU-15. ...
Becht, M.C.; Chapelle, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This paper analyses the control of Belgian listed companies. The analysis reveals that control of listed companies in Belgium is highly concentrated. Business groups, holding companies, and voting pacts, play an important role in bringing about this concentration. The main characteristics of the Belgian corporate ownership and equity market can be summarised as follows : (i) few - merely 140 - Belgian companies are listed on the Brussels stock exchange, (ii) there is a high degree of ownershi...
Dufrêne, Marc; Legendre, P
The available potential ecological factors have been scored in the form of presence/absence in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) squares in Belgium. A correspondence analysis shows a strong underlying gradient in the data set which induces an extraordinary horseshoe effect. This gradient follows closely the altitude component. Applying the k-means clustering method on UTM squares produced geographically compact groups which are largely hierarchically nested. This indicates strong regional t...
This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (suppl...
Nijs, Wouter; Van Regemorter, Denise
This report examines possible post-Kyoto options for Belgium. Climate change is coming up again at the top of the policy agenda with the decision of the European Commission to reduce its GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. The analysis is done with the MARKAL/TIMES model, a partial equilibrium model for the energy system. It is a technico-economic model, which assembles in a simple but economic consistent way technological information (conversion-efficiency, investment- and variable costs, emission...
Scauflaire, Jonathan; Mahieu, Olivier; Paternostre, Laurent; Louvieaux, Julien; Foucart, Guy; Renard, Fabien; Munaut, Françoise; 12th European Fusarium Seminar
Fusariosis is one of the most important problems encountered in maize crops in Belgium and it is responsible for significant losses (up to 30%) in both grain yield and quality. More than 7% of the world cultures are destroyed by fusariosis (Hoffmann and Schmutterer 1999 ; Papst et al., 2005). Fusariosis is in fact the result of simultaneous contaminations by several Fusarium species, mostly F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. Other species are also detected at low frequenc...
Ysebaert, Y; Detry, Olivier; Mikhalski, D; Verfaillie, G.; D. Van Raemdonck
Euthanasia is banned in almost countries of the world, although in 2002 Belgium legalized it for adults under strict conditions (in a similar way after The Netherlands in 2001. The patient must be in a medically futile condition, of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. If the person is not in the terminal phase of his illness, the 2 doctors must consult with a third doctor...
Billiet, Jaak; De Witte, Hans
Two aspects of research on racism in Flanders (Belgium) are discussed in this article based on results from large-scale surveys between 1991 and 2003. The first relates to the (negative) attitudes of the majority toward foreigners (everyday racism). The second relates to the vote for an extreme right-wing political party that emphasizes anti-immigrant viewpoints in its political program and propaganda (political racism). Our main research question is how both forms of racism are related. Firs...
Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska
This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...
Following considerable debate, the practice of euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002, thereby making Belgium one of the few places in the world where this practice is legal. In 2014 the law was amended for the first time. The 2014 amendment makes euthanasia legally possible for all minors who repeatedly and voluntarily request euthanasia and who are judged to possess "capacity of discernment" (regardless of their biological age), as well as fulfil a number of other criteria of due care. This extension of the 2002 euthanasia law generated a lot of national and international debate and has been applauded by many and heavily criticized by others. This evolution is clearly of interest to end-of-life debates in the entire world. This paper will therefore describe how this amendment came to get passed using official documents from Belgium's Senate and Chamber of Representatives where this amendment was discussed and subsequently passed. Next, some of the most commonly given arguments in favour of the law are identified, as well as the arguments most often voiced against the amendment. All these arguments will be expanded upon and it will be examined whether they hold up to ethical scrutiny. Analysing the official documents and identifying the most commonly voiced arguments gives valuable insight into how Belgium came to amend its euthanasia law and why it did so in 2014. It also becomes clear that although the current amendment is often seen as far-reaching, more radical ideas were proposed during the drafting of the law. Also, in analysing those arguments in favour of the amendment and those against, it is clear that the validity of some of these is questionable. PMID:26842904
Scauflaire, Jonathan; Lienard, Charlotte; Gourgue, Mélanie; Foucart, Guy; Mary, Michael; Renard, Fabien; Callebaut, Alfons; Legrève, Anne; Munaut, Françoise; EFS12
Numerous Fusarium species are important mycotoxin-producing pathogens affecting maize in Belgium. Crop quality is often reduced by Fusarium rot diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations can pose a serious problem for animal health. As several of these mycotoxins are integrated into European legislation, field monitoring and accurate identification of the Fusarium species remain important tasks, allowing relevant preventive or curative measures. Impacts of environmental factors, cultural practice...
Collart, F; de Timary, P; Dom, G; Dor, B D; Duprez, D; Lengelé, J-P; Matthys, F; Peuskens, H; Rehm, J; Stärkel, P
Excessive alcohol intake is one of the leading causes of premature death in Europe and particularly in Belgium. Belgian people are consuming more alcohol per year than the European average. It is well established that excessive alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of the development of hypertension (HTN). Two million adults in Belgium suffer from HTN and this number will increase to three million by 2025. Less than 50% of Belgian people treated for HTN are well-controlled. Alcohol reduction in patients with HTN can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After reviewing the epidemiology of HTN and alcohol disorders in Belgium, this paper will focus on the rationale for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. It will also describe the barriers to alcohol screening, and what could be the benefits of alcohol screening for our healthcare system. The authors believe that early identification through alcohol screening and brief intervention in general practice can help to improve the management of patients with HTN, to reach the targets of the WHO Global Action Plan, i.e., a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases. They are also convinced that this would allow achieving major healthcare savings. PMID:26135944
From the 7th July, 2010 until 14th July, 2010, a heat wave dominated the weather in Belgium. Three major storm situations occurred during this period and all three caused severe damage. In this paper, we discuss the last storm case of 14th July. That day, a quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) crossed parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands and caused very important wind damages and at least 2 people were killed. Most of the damage was caused by straight-line wind but at least one tornado was observed over the north of the Netherlands. This complex was induced in a very favorable synoptic configuration for severe weather and also the timing of the storm was favorable. In the frame of the Supercell project at the RMI, a damage survey was made of one of the most affected regions, which yielded useful information about the origin of the losses. Careful examination of the radar imagery revealed some connections between internal mesovortices and tracks of enhanced damage. As far as known, this paper is the first description of a derecho in Belgium. It is also the first time a connection is shown between some mesovortices and several damage tracks over the country. During the evolution of the QLCS, several examples of successive vortices were found in front of the system. Several of the vortices were accompanied by a tornado or a funnel cloud and the damage was typically concentrated along elongated tracks.
Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick
The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.
Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V
Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless
Domínguez Tejo, H.M.
A study on beach cleaning in Belgium was conducted from a social and biological perspective, to confront the lack of information regarding the two methods used: manual and mechanical beach cleaning. Through direct participation in the pilot project on manual beach cleaning of the municipality of Koksijde, during summer 2004, around 42 kg of man-made waste/km/month were estimated during July and September, and 87 kg during August. An average 1.5h/km was needed for two persons to manually clean...
Tondeur, François; CINELLI GIORGIA; Dehandschutter, Boris
Indoor radon data from Southern Belgium are organised in 35 geological units (GUs), most of which are homogeneous with respect to the radon risk. The percentage of cases above the reference level (400 Bq m−3; 300 Bq m−3 in the future) is calculated for these GUs from the observations and from the log-normal distribution fitted to the data. Affected areas are defined as areas with more than 1 % of houses above the reference level. In the north of the region, the old Palaeozoic basement is gene...
Nobels, F; Scheen, A J
We briefly present the modes of functioning of Diabetes Convention Centres in Belgium. In those hospital centres, patients with both type 1 or type 2 diabetes, treated by at least two insulin injections per day, benefit of an intensive educational programme by a multidisciplinary team and receive free of charge material for home blood glucose monitoring, in order to optimize diabetes management. The collaboration between convention centres and general practitioners should be reinforced (share-care), especially to improve the management of type 2 diabetic patients, who are increasingly treated with various insulin regimens. PMID:16035339
V. Baugnet; Wuyts, Gunther
Share issues are a significant source of finance for non-financial corporations in Belgium. Between 1995 and 2005, they represented around 32 p.c. of the cumulative new liabilities of non-financial corporations. Share issues are therefore the second most important source of finance, the first being non-bank credit, which accounts for 51 p.c. of the total. Share issues are a much more important source of funding than bank credit and issues of fixed-income securities. Unquoted shares represent ...
The main objective of this paper is to present new empirical elements to the debate on sources of wage differentials. We investigate issues specifically related to the role of employer’s characteristics in the wage setting process. Findings show that combined industry effects explain almost no share of the gender wage gap in Belgium. Our results also suggest that a substantial part of the gender wage gap is due to women’s segregation in less profitable firms. Finally, our results show that re...
Eeckhout, Bart; Paternotte, David
How is it that a small country such as Belgium, with its reputation of relative conservatism, has jumped to the forefront of LGBT-friendly nations when it comes to the extension of rights to, and implementation of government policies for, its LGBT population? The analysis offered here focuses on a combination of six causes: the impact of wider secularization processes; the political history and culture of the country; the organization of especially the Flemish LGBT movement and reasons for its political effectiveness; mainstream social trends in national scapegoating hierarchies; the overall media environment; and the window of opportunity opened by the political landslide of 1999. PMID:21902492
Embo, M; Valcke, M
Workplace learning plays a crucial role in midwifery education. Twelve midwifery schools in Flanders (Belgium) implemented a new competency framework and aimed at implementing a more standardized and evidence-based method to learn and assess competencies, as well as to guide continuous competency development in practice. This paper describes the introduction of 'Embo's continuous workplace learning model', a holistic and competency-based method that integrates all workplace learning components. Available research evidence helps concluding the learning model is a feasible approach to organize workplace learning in such a way that continuous professional competency development is achieved. PMID:26747208
The I.R.E. decided in 1975 on the construction of an industrial-scale irradiation plant. Construction started in 1977 and the plant was operational in October 1978. Two cobalt-60 irradiators were built. GAMMIR II, having a maximum source strength of 0.5 MCi, allowed the necessary experience in food irradiation technology to be gained generally and especially in plant engineering, safety precautions and the training of operating personnel. In this paper, the technological and economic feasibility of radiation processing in Belgium is discussed in terms of the following: regulatory status, commercial application of food irradiation, reduction of microbial counts in dry ingredients, and elimination of salmonellae. (Namekawa, K.)
Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin
There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038
This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way
We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium...: Scope of the Order The product covered by this order is certain stainless steel plate in...
... review concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777 and 75 FR 30434). On May 5, 2011, Commerce published notice in the Federal Register of the final results of... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review AGENCY: United...
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full... review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium... June 2, 2010, the Department initiated the second sunset review of the CVD order on stainless...
... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea,...
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium. See Antidumping or... FR 23236 (May 3, 2010). On May 28, 2010, we received a request for revocation of this order from...
... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...
... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate... steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...
Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland
The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…
... Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, Italy and South Africa, 64 FR 25288 (May 11, 1999... Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, and South Africa, 68 FR 11524 (March 11, 2003... FR 25666 (May 5, 2011). \\2\\ See ArcelorMittal Stainless Belgium N.V. v. United States, Court No....
... Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21... From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 11520 (March 11... Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 20114 (April 24, 2003)....
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Planning human resources for health (HRH is a complex process for policy-makers and, as a result, many countries worldwide swing from surplus to shortage. In-depth case studies can help appraising the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented. This paper has two objectives: to identify the key challenges in HRH planning in Belgium and to formulate recommendations for an effective HRH planning, on the basis of the Belgian case study and lessons drawn from an international benchmarking. Case description In Belgium, a numerus clausus set up in 1997 and effective in 2004, aims to limit the total number of physicians working in the curative sector. The assumption of a positive relationship between physician densities and health care utilization was a major argument in favor of medical supply restrictions. This new regulation did not improve recurrent challenges such as specialty imbalances, with uncovered needs particularly among general practitioners, and geographical maldistribution. New difficulties also emerged. In particular, limiting national training of HRH turned out to be ineffective within the open European workforce market. The lack of integration of policies affecting HRH was noteworthy. We described in the paper what strategies were developed to address those challenges in Belgium and in neighboring countries. Discussion and evaluation Planning the medical workforce involves determining the numbers, mix, and distribution of health providers that will be required at some identified future point in time. To succeed in their task, health policy planners have to take a broader perspective on the healthcare system. Focusing on numbers is too restrictive and adopting innovative policies learned from benchmarking without integration and coordination is unfruitful. Evolving towards a strategic planning is essential to control the effects of the complex factors impacting on human resources. This evolution requires
Peeters, Hans; Tavernier, Wouter De
The precarious financial situation of many elderly women in developed countries is well established. Nevertheless, in-depth insight into the persistent vulnerability of this group remains largely absent. In this article, we demonstrate how a specific focus on the interaction between work history......, family history and pension regulations can provide greater insight into the mechanisms that produce poverty among elderly women in Belgium. To that end, we make use of register data on some 9,000 women aged 65-71. Data on the poverty risk of these women is linked to career and family data, spanning over...... 45 years. We find that pension policy can indeed account for the higher poverty risk of some groups of elderly women (e.g. divorcees) as compared to others (e.g. widows). Similarly, pension policy can, to a large extent, directly or indirectly explain how previous lifecourse events, such as marital...
Belgium has five major urban areas or conurbations with a total population of 2 million people, representing 20% of the total population. Using data from three nationwide monitoring networks, the past and present sulphur dioxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide and ozone situation in the conurbations of Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Gent and Liege are summarised and analysed over a period of 15 to 25 years. Major conclusions are marked downward trends in the ambient levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead in all five conurbations reducing the present levels under all legal national and European limit values, and bringing them in general, beneath the guidelines values for the protection of human health recommended by the World Health Organisation. For ozone the trend over the past 10 to 15 years has been stationary. Ozone guideline values, as well as recommended threshold values are still frequently violated. (Author)
Measurements of uranium series disequilibrium in groundwaters derived from sand layers above and below the Boom Clay formation in North East Belgium, are analysed in terms of uranium, thorium and radium isotopic geochemistries, water types, and their mixing in the regional groundwater systems. Most sampled waters are mixtures of younger shallow groundwaters from horizons above the Boom Clay lens and older waters from horizons below the lens, at depths greater than 500m. No true old water end-members have been sampled. The longest residence times of the sampled waters are found to be not much in excess of 104y. More detailed modelling is required in conjunction with groundwater hydraulic pressure and flow direction data to establish detailed mixing patterns. In a second parallel study the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios were measured in large groundwater samples, from the Underground Research Laboratory at Pinawa, Canada. (author)
Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig;
. Conclusion: The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one...... of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such...... that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Statistical analyses were...
On the 25. august 2008, the operator of the institute of radioelements in belgium has informed the federal agency of nuclear control of an abnormal release of iodine 131 by the chimney of the building to environment. This release occurred following a transfer of liquid effluents between tanks. This release lasts several days and the activity released has been estimated to 45 Giga-becquerels. The incident was classified at the level 3 on the INES scale. The production of radioelements was stopped and the consumption of fruits and vegetables from gardens as well as the rainwater was forbidden at five kilometers at the north-east of the installation. On the 30. august analysis were made on grass and milk but no detection of iodine 131 appears. (N.C.)
Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel
Full Text Available The otter has become an endangered species in Belgium on the extinction. Probably nothing can be done to save the last otters, because water pollution, habitat destruction and disturbance are still rife. All future efforts will concentrate on the re-establishment of a healthy otter population, although this will take a very long time. Plans are made for an ecologically orientated approach to water management and first steps are set to create so called 'otter reserves'. All activities are co-ordinated by the 'Otteroverleggroep' (OOG: a commission in which national and regional authorities, organisations and specialists are represented. In the near future they will take charge of funds to support projects on the protection of otter habitats.
An overview of the NORM issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 Mton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with cassiterite (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with NORM, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating NORM sludges. Finally, ample remains from past NORM practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a coltan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)
An overview of the Norm issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of Offender/Nitras, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in F landers, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 M ton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with careerist (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with Norm, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating Norm sludges. Finally, ample remains from past Norm practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a col tan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)
The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2007. In addition to these figures, a declaration on MOX fuel in Belgium was under cover of the Note Verbale
The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 15 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. A declaration concerning the nuclear policy situation in Belgium was also enclosed with the note verbale
... Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark... established in growing media. Currently, Bromeliad plants of the genera Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania... INFORMATION CONTACT. In the pest risk analysis, titled ``Importation of Aechmea, Cryptanthus,...
Nelde, Peter H.
Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)
In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established
Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)
In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally
Bilsen Johan; Onwuteaka-Philipsen Bregje D; Cohen Joachim; Van Wesemael Yanna; Deliens Luc
Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Eutha...
Pasmans, Frank; Muijsers, Mariska; Maes, Sofie; Van Rooij, Pascale; Brutyn, Melanie; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An
Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contributes to amphibian declines worldwide. Recently, the fungus has shown to be widely distributed in Belgium and the Netherlands, although no clinical cases of the disease have been diagnosed yet. This case report describes the first case of mortality due to chytridiomycosis in Belgium in a wild population of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans). The presence of clinical chytridiomycosis, combined with the relatively hig...
Belgium and Bosnia can be understood as 'divided house' states, which contain proportionally similar groups with opposing views regarding whether the states should be more unitary or more decentralized. The Belgian example demonstrates that even where groups disagree on state structure, a mixture of various forms of group autonomy may facilitate stability and compromise within the state. Belgium addresses this dilemma in two ways: 1) non-territorial autonomous unites in the form of linguistic...
Rimé, Bernard; Bouchat, Pierre; Klein, Olivier; Licata, Laurent
Collective memory theories propose that groups' remembrances of their past depend upon their current social situation. In Belgium, a significant proportion of Dutch-speakers share a collective memory of past victimisation by French-speakers and fight for an ever-larger autonomy of their region. Yet, as the respective economic, political and social situations of the linguistic regions of Belgium recently evolved with a reversal of fortunes, the current experience of younger Dutch-speakers does...
De Groof, Arnaud; Hecq, Walter; Coninx, Ingrid; Bachus, Kris; Dewals, Benjamin; Pirotton, Michel; El Kahloun, Mohsine; Meire, Patrick; De Smet, Lieven; De Sutter, Renaat
Climate change is a hot topic in the media. There is the alarming message that climate change will strongly affect life on earth. But what consequences may be expected in Belgium? In cooperation with research partners from other Belgian universities, HIVA analysed the already-experienced and the expected impacts of climate change in Belgium. The research approach is interdisciplinairy, given that economic as well as social and ecological consequences have been taken into account. This stud...
The concept of a teacher competence in the works of national and foreign scholars has been investigated in the article. The author describes the standards for English teachers in Belgium that is considered to be an inalienable element of the European education. The qualified training of the teachers is denoted as pedagogical, didactic and methodical knowledge mastering and obtaining research and practical skills. In Belgium vocational education in general and teacher training in particular ar...
Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center; Bervoets, L.; Hoff, P.; Voets, J.; Campenhout, K. van; Blust, R. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology
Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials for more than 30 years. Due to their massive use, PBDEs have become ubiquitously present in aquatic organisms and it was recently evidenced that their levels seem to increase rapidly. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in biota from freshwater compared to similar marine species. This is probably due to a higher pollution load found near point pollution sources that are almost exclusively inland located. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) fulfil the requirements of a good biomonitoring organism for freshwater ecosystems: they are easy to collect and to handle, are available in sufficient numbers, have a relative long lifespan, are sedentary and resistant to various types of pollution without suffering a too high mortality and have a high filtration rate which favours the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. Fish species are another suitable tool for the biomonitoring of organic contaminants. The occurrence of PBDEs in fish species from Europe has already received some attention, but the amount of data is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of PBDEs in zebra mussels and several representative freshwater fish species (eel, carp and gibel carp) at different sites in Flanders, Belgium. In parallel, other organohalogenated contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also measured and their relationship with PBDEs was investigated.
Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)
Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J; Janssen, C; Van Langenhove, H
Since the 1980s, environmental engineering education has been a rapidly growing discipline in many universities. This paper discusses the history, the current status and the near future of environmental engineering education at Ghent University. This university, with about 50% of the Flemish university environmental engineering students, can be considered as representative for the situation in Flanders, Belgium. In contrast to many other universities, environmental engineering education at Ghent University does not have its historical roots in civil engineering, but has been developed from the curricula organized by the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. As part of a reorganisation of the education and research activities at this faculty, a curriculum leading to the degree of "bio-engineer in environmental technology" was established in 1991. This curriculum covers a 5-year study and is constructed around 8 main components. Exchange of students with other European universities, e.g. within the Socrates framework, has become a prominent aspect of student life and education. This paper also briefly describes the employment opportunities of graduated bio-engineers in environmental technology. Finally, the current implementation of the bachelor's-master's structure, leading to a "master of science in environmental technology" degree is summarized. PMID:15193102
As a result of a judicial decision, a licensed discharge line for very low level radioactive liquid wastewater to the river Molse Nete in Belgium had to be removed from the gardens of seven properties within a time schedule of one year. The pipeline was constructed in 1956 by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) and transferred the wastes a distance of about 10 km from the Belgoprocess Site 2 to the river Molse Nete. It is an asbestos cement pipeline with a wall thickness of 13 mm and an inner diameter of 20 cm. Individual pipe sections have a length of about 5 m and are interconnected by sleeves. The section to be removed was situated on average about 1 m (maximum 1.6 m) below ground level. Access was hampered by the various structures (for example summer houses and garages) that had since been built in the area. A new steel discharge pipe was installed to ensure the continuity of the discharge authorization
Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G
Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers. PMID:12425106
Full Text Available The present article aims to define what tobacco control is both in Europe and around the world. The situation of tobacco control in Belgium will be compared to other European countries using the tobacco control scale (TCS. If countries demonstrating a high TCS score have lower tobacco smoking prevalence than countries with a low TCS, it is not known whether the decrease in smoking prevalence over several years is well correlated with the increase in TCS score in each country during the same period. Moreover the article will raise the question of how far research will continue control into controlling the use of tobacco. The remaining 20% of smokers in the best tobacco control scale countries who are still smoking are not similar to the 20% that are now ex-smokers. Indeed we are now facing the "hard core smokers", who show great resistance to policy measures and be considered as ill individuals requiring specialised care rather than individuals with bad habits. The future tobacco control scale should place more importance on the quality of care and the implication of European countries providing improved access to this form of care and validated forms of treatment of this chronic, difficult to treat disease.
In Belgium, a specific plant life management project, named ''Continuous Operation of Belgian NPPs'' is currently developing. Its final objective is to centralize all safety and economic aspects of plant life management in order to determine, for each NPP unit, the optimal actions required to maintain their safe and reliable operation. As the lifetime of safety-related active components is permanently controlled by the current maintenance programs, the project focuses only on passive safety-related components and on non-safety components important for the availability of the plants. These structures and components were evaluated and compared on the basis of a set of weighted criteria in order to measure their criticality and to identify those which must be considered in the project. The selection and the ranking of those components is based on the KBM TM methodology (Knowledge Based Maintenance). This methodology facilitates the collection, formalization and exchange of know-how and gives immediate results thanks to a sequential and systematic step by step analysis. (author)
Two dominant species of Willow (Salix triandra) and Reed(Phragmites australis) along the Schelde estuary (in Belgium) wereselected in this research. The pigments of higher plant was used asbiomarkers, the decomposition process of the two species werestudied after they fall into the Schelde estuary. After statisticalanalysis (Spearman rank order correlation, p<0.05), the results hasshown the decomposition dynamics pattern of the pigments, and thewillow showed different pattern in comparing with the reed, eg.Chlorophyll-a decomposition dynamics for willow is: y1 = 12196x2 -175895x + 1E + 06 + k, R2 = 0.5706 while for reed is: y2 = -37878x2+ 229782x + 734282 + k, R2 = 0.9065. The precise time of the leaflitter spent in the water was also calculated as were less than 24days, 24-37 days, longer than 37 days (willow) and less than 24days, longer than 24 days (reed), the leaf litter fate of the two -Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciencesdominant species in the Schelde estuary was also compared.
Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water
Devogelaer, D.; Gusbin, D. [Federal Planning Bureau FPB, Brussels (Belgium); Duerinck, J.; Nijs, W. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Marenne, Y.; Orsini, M; Pairon, M. [Institute for Consultancy and Studies in Sustainable Development ICEDD, Namur (Belgium)
In this report, different long-term evolutions of the Belgian future energy system are drafted, analysed and evaluated. All evolutions are designed to meet the requirement of a 100% renewable based national energy system by 2050. For this purpose, a baseline is developed which depicts an energy system without the stringent renewables' requirement. Next, different trajectories are sketched that lead up to a 100% renewable coverage in 2050. The trajectories show that it is feasible to combine economic growth and comfort with far going deployment of renewable energy sources, provided a number of key options and effective policies and measures are being implemented. These options were deducted from several discussions with stakeholders via an open dialogue process, as well as with national experts, and finally, were presented to the Steering committee. The analysis leads to the undeniable observation that drastic changes in a multitude of areas throughout society are required to obtain the desired level of renewable energy penetration in 2050, but also that such a transition can be realised through various sectoral, technology and inter-temporal choices. In other words, this study describes a vast number of different trajectories leading to a 100% renewable energy system in Belgium in the long term, as well as their socio-economic impacts.
Full Text Available Photocatalytic concrete constitutes a promising technique to reduce a number of air contaminants such as NOx and VOC’s, especially at sites with a high level of pollution: highly trafficked canyon streets, road tunnels, the urban environment, etc. Ideally, the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, is introduced in the top layer of the concrete pavement for best results. In addition, the combination of TiO2 with cement-based products offers some synergistic advantages, as the reaction products can be adsorbed at the surface and subsequently be washed away by rain. A first application has been studied by the Belgian Road Research Center (BRRC on the side roads of a main entrance axis in Antwerp with the installation of 10.000 m² of photocatalytic concrete paving blocks. For now however, the translation of laboratory testing towards results in situ remains critical of demonstrating the effectiveness in large scale applications. Moreover, the durability of the air cleaning characteristic with time remains challenging for application in concrete roads. From this perspective, several new trial applications have been initiated in Belgium in recent years to assess the “real life” behavior, including a field site set up in the Leopold II tunnel of Brussels and the construction of new photocatalytic pavements on industrial zones in the cities of Wijnegem and Lier (province of Antwerp. This paper first gives a short overview of the photocatalytic principle applied in concrete, to continue with some main results of the laboratory research recognizing the important parameters that come into play. In addition, some of the methods and results, obtained for the existing application in Antwerp (2005 and during the implementation of the new realizations in Wijnegem and Lier (2010–2012 and in Brussels (2011–2013, will be presented.
Purpose: The homogeneity of brachytherapy treatments in Belgium was appreciated through a dummy run with two fictive patients. Materiel and Methods: All members of the Belgian Brachytherapy Board received last year a questionnaire about treatment technique, technical approach, dosimetry and treatment planning, for 2 selected clinical histories. Case 1: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral border of the mobile tongue (dimensions: 12x10x5mm). Case 2: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral side of the nose (10x12x3mm). Results: 10 members out of 14 from the Belgian Brachytherapy Board returned their questionnaire. Little variation has been observed regarding treatment technique, technical approach (H and N: hairpins or loops, skin: plastic tubes), dose (60-65 Gy), activity of Ir-192 (1-2 mCi/cm), definition of Gross Tumor Volume and dosimetry (Paris System). On the contrary, a large difference was observed in the definition of the Clinical Target Volume and the Treated Volume. Despite of this large difference, the ratio treated volume on clinical target volume was always satisfactory (1,2 for skin cancer - 2 for H and N cancer), indicating that the treatment was well adapted to the Clinical Target Volume in all but 1 instance. Variations of a factor 2 in the dose rate of irradiation were tolerated (40-80 cGy/h). Conclusion: Rigid guidelines are mostly followed by the responders concerning dose, dose prescription and implantation techniques. Large variations are encountered concerning safety margins (Clinical Target definition) and dose rate
Scalliet, P G M
Systematic clinical radiotherapy audits have been introduced in Belgium in 2011, as part of the Federal Cancer Plan. This is in compliance with article 11 of the 97/43 Council directive of Euratom states, translated into the Belgian legislation by royal decree in 2002. The principle of clinical audits has thus been part of the federal legal requirements for more than 10 years. However, its application had to wait for the development of a practical approach: what authority will audit, who will be the auditors, along which methodology, at what frequency, etc. Since 2002, the Federal College of Radiotherapy has the mission to monitor quality of radiotherapy at large. It was therefore decided after discussions with the relevant administration at the Ministry of Health and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control that the College would practically organise the audits. Early in the 2000s, the IAEA developed a manual for comprehensive audits, as a tool for quality improvement. Auditors were professionals of the domain and the audit visit took the form of a peer review. Great care was taken to assemble an audit party able to cover all aspects of clinical radiotherapy with a radiation oncologist, a medical physicist, a radiation therapist and, on demand, a quality officer. The IAEA manual contains a series of questionnaires to be prepared by the audited centre in advance (pre-audit and self-assessment), indicating what specific areas the auditors would assess. It is also a template for the auditors, ensuring that no area is left aside or forgotten during the site visit. The report, at the end of the visit, is drafted according to a specific report template, also developed by IAEA. Several members of the Belgian radiotherapy community have developed their auditor's skills by participating to the IAEA audit program; they are the core of the auditor Belgian team. PMID:26321683
Uranium occurrences and resources - To date the uranium identified in Belgium is limited to a number of occurrences and none of these have as yet proved significant from a reserve or resource viewpoint. The main uranium occurrences ares (1) In the Upper Cambrian graphite schists corresponding to the culm of Sweden small zones are found (30 - 50 cm thick) with an average of 20 ppm uranium. (2) Near Vise at the base of the Carboniferous the Visean formation is discordantly superimposed on the Permian (Frasnian) and overlain by shales and phyllites. Solution pockets at the boundary contain phosphatic lenses that contain uranium values of up to 200 ppm. Autunite and Torbernite are the main uranium minerals associated with a number of complex phosphatic minerals. Within the Chalk (Maestrichtien) of the Mons basin, that is mainly in the Ciply - St. Symphorien and Baudow district. Here is found enrichment of uranium up to 140 ppm over large areas related to phosphatic chalk. The thickness of the zone varies from a few to 20 metres. However, as the P2O5 content is not high enough for the deposits to be exploited at present for phosphate there is little possibility of the uranium being concentrated at high enough levels to be exploited for itself alone. (4) Near to Vielsalm (in the Stavelot Massif) are some thin quartz veins containing small amounts of copper and uranium minerals (Torbornite). Values of up to 70 ppm are recorded. (5) A number of low uranium values are recorded associated with phosphatic nodules and zones in the Lower Pleistocene and Tertiary
Biermans, G.; Dehandschutter, B.; Pepin, S.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC (Belgium)
In the Belgian Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, which transposed the EU Directive 96/26/EURATOM (BSS) into national legislation regarding radiation protection regulations, a list of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' (i.e. NORM industries) was defined based on the concept described in Article 40 of the Directive. These activities are subject to declaration to the Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC). The initial list was subsequently modified by a FANC decree in 2012 to reflect the increased knowledge about NORM in other industrial sectors, most of which have also been added in the recently published New Basic Safety Standards (Directive 2013/53/EURATOM). In March 2013, an additional decree was published by FANC regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by non-radioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation was fitted within the framework described above by introducing NORM residue treatment into the existing NORM industry list. It introduces generic exemption levels above which the processing or disposal of NORM residues will be considered as a 'work activity' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria are assigned to the disposal or processing facility. FANC has published technical and methodological guides for the operators of the concerned facilities and industries to facilitate the declaration process, and has recently organized a round-table gathering both NORM industries and waste processing industries to identify the needs, uncertainties and concerns regarding the regulatory control of NORM in Belgium. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)
Full Text Available Cet article présente un résumé des méthodes utilisées et des résultats obtenus au cours d'une étude de la structure de l'industrie du raffinage en Belgique, étude qui a fait l'objet d'une thèse de doctorat('. L'objectif était de déterminer, dans ses grandes lignes, l'évolution à long terme des capacités des unités de traitement en raffinerie permettant de satisfaire au moindre coût la demande belge en produits pétroliers. Différents scénarios relatifs à cette demande, ainsi que différentes hypothèses d'approvisionnement en pétroles bruts ont été analysés. L'étude s'est appuyée sur des modèles linéaires de raffinage développés à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, et dont la mise en ceuvre fait appel à des programmes générateurs de matrices et de rapports, ainsi qu'à des fichiers de données technico-économiques disponibles à l'IFP. L'existence de trois zones de raffinage géographiquement distinctes a conduit à l'utilisation de modèles multi-raffineries intégrant l'approvisionnement des principaux dépôts de distribution. This article reviews the methods used and results obtained during a survey of the structure of the refining industry in Belgium, a survey which is the subject of a doctoral dissertation (1. The aim was to determine the major guidelines of the longterm evolution of the production capacities of refinery processing installations so as to fulfill the Belgian demand for petroleum products at lowest cost. Different scénarios for this demand as well as different crude-oil supply hypotheses are analyzed. The survey is based on linear refining models developed at IFP. These models make use of matrix and report generator programs as well as technico-economic data files available at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP. The existence of three geographically distinct refining zones leads ta the multi-refinery models integrating deliveries to the main distribution depots.
Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE. Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. Results Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. Conclusion The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts
The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 8 July 2003, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Belgium, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 8 July 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States
The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 18 August 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 18 August 2004 are attached for the information of all Member States
Tom Van Caneghem
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study audit pricing and the Big4 fee premium in Belgium. While a number of studies have already explored these issues, the Belgian audit market provides an interesting setting to gain an additional insight into the pricing of audit services for many reasons (e.g. audit market concentration in Belgium is much lower than in other countries, the Belgian audit market mainly consists of non-listed firms, etc.). Design/methodology/approach – Besides the tra...
Since 1990, many countries world-wide implemented salt iodisation programs in an effort totackle iodine deficiency. It was however only during the last few years that an effort wasundertaken in order to eliminate iodine deficiency as a public health problem in Belgium. In autumn 1998, a nation-wide study among children clearly showed mild iodine deficiency inBelgium, but no action was taken before 2009. It was only in the framework of the firstNational Nutrition and Health Plan 2005-2010 that...
The objective of this publication is to analyze how the variations observed at the coffee world market price level pass on the coffee retail price in Belgium. This research takes place in the framework of a coffee value chain analysis. The formation of the coffee price cycles seems to fade these last years at world market as well as retail price in Belgium levels and since the previous months, these prices rise strongly due to the speculators interest for the commodities market. We observe th...
Dubois, E; Durieux, M; Franchimont, M M; Hermant, P
We report an unusual case in Belgium of indigenous intestinal myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax during canicular summer 2003 in a 36 year old man living in Belgium. This patient complain near its general practitioner about diarrhea and intestinal rumbles. Larvae emitted on several occasions were identified as Eristalis tenax larvae. Socio-economical status of the patient and atmospheric conditions seems to be related to this observation. Clinical evolution has been spontaneously and quickly positive. An empirical treatment with an association of metronidazole and nifuroxazide was however prescribed. PMID:15462515
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Antidumping Duty Administrative... results of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium.\\1... Review, 77 FR 32517 (June 1, 2012) (Preliminary Results). Based on our analysis of the comments...
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759, 37763 (June 30,...
van der Kant, Anne; Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Schreuder, Robert
This paper reports the results of two studies of reading comprehension of Flemish children in Belgium. In the northern part of Belgium (Flanders), Dutch is the official language. The Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders are called Flemish. Dutch is also the national language of the Netherlands. Despite both groups using Dutch, cultural…
... From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review, 75 FR 81217, 81218 (December 27, 2010... Duty Orders on Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, and South Africa, 70 FR... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). ] Within the deadline specified...
... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The preliminary results... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering...
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...
van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.
Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting
Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van
This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.
Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul
Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market
... FR 25288). On May 21, 1999, Commerce issued antidumping duty orders on imports of certain stainless steel plate from Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan (64 FR 27756). On March 11... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless...
... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils... Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236, (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2009, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b),...
This paper deals with a public debate that took place in Belgium prior to the authorization of the use a uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX) in many power plants. The document gives some details about MOX as well as about the usual procedures for such an authorization. (TEC)
The tertiary education system has been transformed from an elite-oriented system to a system providing tertiary education to a much larger share of each new generation. This re-orientation has contributed to raising education attainment in Belgium. However, in many respects the organisation of the tertiary education systems has not been changed…
Pang, Ching Lin
Agency versus victimhood In anthropology: main focus on migrants strategies, migrants life and migration project In legal studies and criminology, emphasis is on victimhood Methodology: Desk research: -academic articles -government documents -international reports, in particular the Hypocrates report on human trafficking: case study of Belgium -police files and statistics -court cases Interviews: -12 in-depth interviews with undocumented Chinese in Belgian de...
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of human diarrhea worldwide. In the present work, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to study the genotypic diversity of 145 C. jejuni isolates from 135 chicken meat preparations sampled across Belgium. Isolates were further typed by p...
De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica
). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole plate , designed and manufactured by DTU. A measurement procedure was sent...
In Belgium (Flanders), citizenship education is one of the cross-curricular achievements, but it is not scheduled as a separate school subject. Alternatively, citizenship education is integrated in diverse school subjects and particularly in the religious education classes. However, with this didactical approach, two problems arise. First,…
Official portrait of STS-45 Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout of Belgium. Frimout, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), holds LES gloves and has his left arm on launch and entry helmet (LEH). Displayed in the background are the United States flag and a space shuttle model.
Loobuyck, Patrick; Franken, Leni
This article describes the way in which religious education (RE) has been organised in Flanders and Belgium, and gives attention to the problems and challenges that arise these days. We argue that the "Schoolpact" of 1958 which implies separate RE in different religions in public schools needs a revision. Therefore, we propose an alternative…
De Keere, Kobe; Elchardus, Mark
Few studies have addressed the question how the two main linguistic groups in Belgium (French and Flemish speakers) code each other. The research reported in this article is based on a storytelling forum of 56 persons that gathered five times. The storytelling sessions yielded 91 different stories about living in a bilingual society. These were…
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed
Chiti, T.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Janssens, I. A.; Certini, G.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Sirignano, C.
The soils of adjacent first generation monospecific stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in the Campine region, Belgium, apparently developed under the same forming factors, were studied for carbon dynamics to disentangle eventual different past land uses
Hardonk, Stefan; Bosteels, Sigrid; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred
Factors contributing to parents' decision when they choose between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child were examined. The subjects were children with severe/profound hearing loss, born 1999-2001, registered in the universal neonatal hearing screening program in the Flanders region of Belgium. Qualitative data…
Grammens, Tine; Maes, Virginie; Hutse, Veronik; Laisnez, Valeska; Schirvel, Carole; Trémérie, Jean Marie; Sabbe, Martine
During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. PMID:27541858
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Parotte, Marie-Christine; Vanden velde, Christian
Hantavirus is a zoonosis transmitted by rodents responsible in Europe for Hemorrhagic fever with acute renal syndrome (called nephropathia epidemica or NE). Hantavirus epidemics were increased in the recent years in the South part of Belgium. After acute illness, the question could be about its evolution.
The revision in 1990 of the Mental Health Commitment Law in Belgium, which was initially intended to decrease the use of civil commitment, has resulted in a paradoxical increase in involuntary hospital admissions. To understand the reasons for this increase, the relative importance of the various factors involved, notably the criteria of mental illness, dangerousness and clinical treatability, is examined. PMID:7666748
Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul
This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety ...... sectors, including the building sector, cleaning houses, delivery jobs, garage business horticulture, hotels, industrial cleaning, and social work....
L. Cornips; J. Jaspers; V. de Rooij
This chapter critically analyses the labelling of youthful language use in Belgium and the Netherlands. Urban youthful speech practices have in recent years been assigned a variety of labels, some of which have gained currency among insiders as well as outsiders. Linguists have not infrequently cont
Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana
This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…
Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century,
d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Saeys, F.
Although Belgium's broadcasting history can be considered a perfect example of the overall situation in Western Europe, the country's specific cultural makeup and political shifts are also reflected in its media environment. The media system is characterized by a fairly high degree of cross-ownershi
In this paper, the impact of lifecourse family and labour market experiences on household incomes of older people in Belgium and the United Kingdom (UK) is analysed. To this end, panel data and life-history information fromthe Panel Study of Belgian Households and the British Household Panel Survey
Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex
Although Belgium is characterized by a widespread consensus that a functional proficiency in the two major national languages, Dutch and French, as well as in English is desirable, educational provision to achieve such proficiency has long been constrained by an official language policy which mandates that education must be monolingual in Dutch,…
M. van den Hurk; K. Verhoest
Although public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports Infras
Built environment is responsible for 60% of total energy consumption in European countries and 128 million BOE of primary energy in Belgium. The average energy consumption in the residential buildings of Belgium is 70% higher than the EU average and stands at 348 kW h/m2/year. Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) provides guidelines for energy performance analysis of buildings in Belgium. In this study, a holistic approach has been adopted to analyse the building stock of Liege, Belgium. This analysis is based on ‘General Socio-economic survey 2001’ and ‘Housing quality survey 2006 in Walloon region’ databases. It considers parameters such as buildings age, built-up area, type of heating system, type of fuel used, adjacency, insulation of roofs and walls and energy consumption etc. for an in depth analysis. This study concludes that about 69% of buildings which are constructed before 1945 needs serious renovation towards the improvement of roof and external wall insulation level. It then successfully identifies specific areas which need detailed study to evaluate the comfort status in the existing building stock, improvement of insulation level and its effect on heating energy consumption as well as the economic analysis on energy efficiency measurements. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency studies of building stock of Liege, Belgium. •Energy Performance Building Directive is used as reference for analysis. •Buildings age, built-up area and energy consumption data are used for analysis. •Identifies the areas to improve energy efficiency of building stock
Northwest Europe is a region in which damaging earthquakes exist. Assessing the risks of damages is useful, but this is not an easy work based on exact science.In this paper, we propose a general tool for a first level assessment of seismic risks (rapid diagnosis). General methodological aspects are presented. For a given building, the risk is represented by a volume in a multi-dimensional space. This space is defined by axes representing the main parameters that have an influence on the risk. We notably express the importance of including a parameter to consider the specific value of cultural heritage.Then we apply the proposed tool to analyze and compare methods of seismic risk assessment used in Belgium. They differ by the spatial scale of the studied area. Study cases for the whole Belgian Territory and for part of cities in Liege and Mons (Be) aim also to give some sense of the overall risk in Belgium
Deliens, L; van der Wal, G
Recently, a law on euthanasia has been adopted in both the Netherlands and Belgium. In both countries euthanasia has been legalized under strict conditions and after confirmation with a notification procedure. Although both laws are similar, the Belgian law is more extensive on the requirements of prudent practice. On the other hand, in Dutch society the norm-setting on euthanasia has been more widely developed through jurisprudence. Nevertheless, we expect that the implementation of the new law and the notification procedure in Belgium will be more difficult than in the Netherlands. In order to promote, safeguard and guarantee the quality of the euthanasia practice, the present euthanasia notification procedure in the Netherlands is supplemented with feedback to the physicians. The strict anonymous procedure in the Belgian notification procedure prevents this possibility. Therefore, Belgian physicians will not be supported by the notification procedure to improve their knowledge and skills in euthanasia. PMID:12635551
Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy
Consoil 2003 RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN ALLUVIAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS OF THE GROTE BEEK RIVER (BELGIUM) Valérie Cappuyns, Rudy Swennen and Katrien De Nil Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Fysico-chemische Geologie, Celestijnenlaan 200C, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel. +3216327297, Fax. +3216327981, e-mail: 1. Introduction Wastewater discharge from the processing of phosphate ores has contributed to pollution by heavy metals ...
Dolka, Beata; Boyen, Filip; Butaye, Patrick; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter
Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium.......Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium....
Bonte, Jochem; Casteels, Hans; Maes, Martine; De Clercq, Patrick
In 2002 the New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White was observed for the first time in the Netherlands and Belgium. The introduction of N. huttoni to our regions presumably occurred via overseas transport of apple and kiwi fruits from New Zealand. Laboratory experiments showed that both eggs and adults of N. huttoni were capable of surviving cold conditions similar to those in overseas transportation. Specimens were sampled in Belgium and the Netherlands, and a DNA sequence analysis indic...
Maes,Dirk; Gilbert, Marius; TITEUX Nicolas; Goffart,Philippe; Dennis, Roger
Aim: We evaluate differences between and the applicability of three linear predictive models to determine butterfly hotspots in Belgium for nature conservation purposes. Location: The study is carried out in Belgium for records located to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cells of 5 x 5 km. Methods: We first determine the relationship between factors correlated to butterfly diversity by means of modified t-tests and principal components analysis; subsequently, we predict hotspots using...
The IOC Committee on International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange held its Eighteenth Session (IODE-XVIII) at the Kursaal, Ostend, Belgium between 26 and 30 April 2005. The Session was attended by 59 delegates from 31 Member States, 15 representatives of organizations, programmes and projects, and 5 observers. The Session was preceded by the official inauguration on 25 April 2005, of the IOC Project for IODE, based in Ostend, Belgium which was attended by Mr. Jean Vandecasteele...
Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.
Cornips, L.; Jaspers, J.; de Rooij, V.
Introduction: Professional and common usage of language names This chapter critically analyses the labelling of youthful language use in Belgium and the Netherlands. Urban youthful speech practices have in recent years been assigned a variety of labels, some of which have gained currency among insiders as well as outsiders. Linguists have not infrequently contributed to (the success of) this labelling process through their scholarly descriptions and public communication about their work (see ...
Buyse, Kris; Fernández Pereda, Lydia; González Ruiz, Pilar
This paper describes the structure of the learner corpus “Aprescrilov” and its benefits for the didactics of SFL (Spanish as a Foreign Language) in multilingual Belgium. The learner corpus contains writing assignments by Flemish students (‘Applied Linguistics’ and ‘Linguistics and Literature’) which were written during the three first years of their studies and compiled between 2005 and 2011. The compositions were corrected using a customized version of Markin , which allows analysing in a s...
This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the social economy in Belgium. Next, the second section sketches the main features of these models in terms of legal forms, types of social missions addressed, governance dynamics and resources. In the third section, these models are then illustrated in different fields of activity both establishe...
Pelc, Isidore; Redant, Sébastien; Julliand, Sébastien; Llor, X.; Lorrot, Mathie; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Gajdos, Vincent; Angoulvant, François
textabstractBackground: Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous rehydration and seems to lead to fewer adverse events. The primary objective was to describe rehydration strategies used in cases of AGE in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in Belgium, France, The...
van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; De Vleeschouwer, François; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.
Methane emissions from peat bogs are strongly reduced by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria (methanotrophs) living in association with Sphagnum spp. Field studies and laboratory experiments have revealed that, with increasing water level and temperature, methanotrophic activity increases. To gain a better understanding of how longer term changes in methanotrophic activity are reflected in methanotroph biomarkers, a peat record (0–100 cm) from the Hautes-Fagnes (Belgium) encompassing the past ...
Peeters, Carine; Van Pottelsberghe, Bruno
The objective of this paper is to assess whether large firms' organizational competencies affect their innovation performances. About 40 organizational sub-competencies are defined and measured through an original survey questionnaire answered by 148 large firms in Belgium. The sub-competencies are grouped into seven broad organizational competencies associated with the inovation process. For each broad competence a principal component analysis is run to illustrate whether the sub-competencie...
Europe expects the housing sector to evolve towards ‘nearly zero-energy’ dwellings. Meanwhile, general terms and research, marketing and legal definitions considering such dwellings have already been introduced. Appraisal of existing definitions is now needed for further policy development. This paper examines what nearly zero-energy terms can be expected to be adopted in Belgium and the Netherlands. The research method uses an interview method based on innovation diffusion theory. The analys...
Vrebos, D.; T. Vansteenkiste; J. Staes; Willems, P; P. Meire
Urbanization and especially increases in impervious areas, in combination with the installation of wastewater treatment infrastructure, can impact the runoff from a catchment and river flows in a significant way. These effects were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. Effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions, was considered as an indicator for urbanization pressure....
In this article the main areas of conflict between the medical and the pharmaceutical professions in Belgium in the 19th century are outlined. The medical profession was dominant in the division of labour and the pharmacists were not allowed to threaten its position. However, pharmacists were also able to achieve their objectives - geographical expansion of their officially recognized monopoly and the safeguarding of the pharmacist's key role in the dispensing of drugs, including proprietary ...
de Geus, B.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vandenbulcke, G.; Int Panis, Luc; I Thomas; Aertsens, Joris; De Weerdt, Y.; Torfs, R; Meeusen, R.
Background: For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in ...
Versonnen, B.J.; Goemans, Geert; Belpaire, Claude; Janssen, C. R
As part of a large-scale monitoring program of bioaccumulating contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium), we investigated potential effects of xenoestrogens in these fish. The present paper describes the results of the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, measured in 142 eels sampled at 20 different locations, in relation to the internal pollution levels. To validate the blood VTG assays, a small number of eels (n=8) was exposed to 10 µg ethinylestradiol/l (EE2)...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN and Life End Information Forum (LEIF in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols. Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a
Owens, R.M.; Servais, T.
During the Early Palaeozoic, Belgium was located in the eastern part of the microcontinent of Avalonia, which moved from high to low latitudes during the course of the Ordovician. In the Belgian Condroz Inlier ("Bande de Sambre-et-Meuse"), Ordovician trilobites have been reported from four formations: the early Llanvirn Huy Formation, the Caradoc Sart-Bemard and Oxhe formations, and the Ashgill Fosses Formation. These assemblages are some of the easternmost occurrences of trilobites in Avalon...
Pussemier, Luc; Harcz, Peter; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Voghel, Simon; Waegeneers, Nadia; Wilmart, Olivier; Vromman, Valérie; Schmit, Jean-François; Moons, Emmanuelle; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah; Schneider, Yves Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan
Abstract A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal based products such as flour, bread, breakfast...
This paper reports on explanatory qualitative research into the illegal economy within the hotel and catering industry in Belgium. Low profitability, exacerbated by pricing pressures customers and suppliers, predispose hotel and catering entrepreneurs to attempting a variety of non-legal modes of economic survival, including involvement in a ‘black market’ (‘off the books’ trading) between providers, suppliers and some customers. There are similar arrangements for the highly fluid workforce, ...
Keune, H.; Loots, I.; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Bilau, M.; Koppen, G; Van Larebeke, N.; G. Schoeters; Nelen, V
The Centre of Expertise for Health and Environment started biomonitoring campaign at the end of 2001, in Flanders (Belgium). The main purpose of this project, funded by the Flemish government, is to investigate the relationship between environmental pollution and human health. This is done by measuring pollutants and health effects in human beings. Social scientists cooperating with the environmental and health experts proposed to include a questionnaire on risk perception related to environm...
In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste falls under the exclusive competence of the Belgian federal Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF). Contrary to the existing situation for low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of long-lived and high level waste. In this context, ONDRAF considers the public and stakeholders’ participation and engagement as essential in the formulation of an eff...
This presentation highlights the last reflections of the author on NWM in Belgium. It focuses on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management (NWM) from its ‘participatory turn’ in the late 1990s. Rather than praising (or rejecting) participation versus expert analysis, we make use of a theoretical and analytical framework in which the important dynamics for the analysis are ‘opening up’ and ‘closing down’ technological appraisals and commitments. Even though NWM agencies ...
Van Geem, Carl; Nigro, Pierre; Berlémont, Bruno
The road authorities of the primary road network of motorways and main roads in Wallonia (Belgium) determined the priorities for road maintenance from surface characteristics such as roughness, skid resistance and rutting. Recently, they added the structural health (and primarily the bearing capacity) as a criterion for pavement management. The structural health of the road sections is estimated from deflection measurements obtained with Falling Weight Deflectometer and Curviameter. This pape...
The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)
Yans, J.; Dupuis, Ch. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium); Perruchotz, A. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Geochimie des roches sedimentaires, 91 - Orsay (France)
The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)
Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Gillet, Claire; Cawoy, Valérie
Visitors to buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flowers were studied in central Belgium during 2 months (July and September) over 2 years (2001-2002). Forty-nine different insect species, belonging to 18 families, were recorded. Over both years, species from the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera were the principal visitors. Hymenoptera were mainly represented by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.; 18.5 - 51.8% of total visitors), while Diptera were represented by syrphid flies and several other f...
Summary I analyse the relationship between the geographic distribution of the government budget on the one hand and the geographic distribution of political power and government popularity on the other hand in Belgium. In a 1st chapter I find evidence that a Belgian federal electoral district receives more social spending and/or pays less income taxes with every federal minister having been elected in that district. In a 2nd chapter I present a method for calculating net fiscal transfers b...
VANCLUYSEN, Kris; VAN CRAEN, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan
This paper examines the relation between integration and perceived discrimination among persons of Moroccan and Turkish descent living in Flemish Belgium. Two opposing theories exist concerning this relationship. The assimilation theory (Gordon, 1964) posits that the more ethnic minorities are integrated into the country of residence, the less discrimination they perceive. The ethnic competition theory (Portes, Parker & Cobas, 1980) proposes the opposite: the more ethnic minorities integrate,...
Volckaert, F.A.M.J.; Kayens, G.; Schallier, R.; Jacques, T.G.
Belgium's Maritime Zone of Interest (BMZI), including the Belgian Territorial Sea, Belgian Continental Shelf, and Bonn Agreement Zone of Multilateral Responsibility, were regularly surveyed by remote-sensing aircraft for the presence of operational oil spills between 1991 and 1995. Simultaneously wind speed and direction were recorded; wave height was obtained from the literature. In total, 228 spills of various sizes, volumes and origins were analysed by means of univariate statistical analy...
Gundersen, Sigrid Louise
The aim of the present thesis is to explain the concept of strategic language management and why this field of study deserves increased attention in international business. It is argued that Language Management deserves increased attention from business managers since language management may contribute to their firms' competitive advantage. A survey among Norwegian companies in Belgium was undertaken to assess the current situation of language issues. The survey results show th...
van Kerm, Philippe
The paper presents a decomposition of income mobility indices into two basic sources: Mobility induced by a change of the income distribution shape and mobility induced by a re-ordering of individuals in the income pecking order. The decomposition procedure based on counterfactual distributions results in a decomposition that is applicable to a broad class of mobility measures. Application to income indices with data for Belgium, Western Germany and the USA indicates that reranking has been t...
Gino Chaves da Rocha; Stephanie Harter- Lailheugue; Matthieu Le Bailly; Adauto Araújo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Nicolau Maués da Serra-Freire; Françoise Bouchet
Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia ...
Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Dufrêne, Marc; Taminiau, Bernard; Colinet, Gilles; Bodson, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline
To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were conducted under specific climates on soils characterized by particular land-use histories. A very different ecological context is to be found in certain areas of Western Europe, such as central Belgium, whose loess-derived soils are among the most fertile in the world and have long been used for i...
Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C
Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. PMID:25620571
Pospiech, Audrey; Lois, Fernande; Van Dyck, Michel; Kahn, David; Kock, Marc De
The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and o...
The thesis deals with the notion of migration networks. The focal point of the study is on the functioning of networks among immigrant entrepreneurs. Indian businessmen operating in Poland and Belgium are taken as an exemplification of the analyzed process. Theoretical considerations reflect upon various theories of migration, which are relevant for the study. Based on this analysis, a holistic conceptual framework is developed, which defines three areas of research: the migration decision ma...
Guedda, Intissar; Taminiau, Bernard; Ferjani, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel; Bertrand, Sophie; Daube, Georges
Introduction: Salmonella Livingstone is one of the most common serotypes responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in Tunisia. In this study, 42 isolates of Salmonella Livingstone were analyzed. Most of these were isolated from humans (31 strains from Tunisia and 9 strains from Belgium) and 2 isolates came from food products (beef and pork). Methodology: All strains were characterized by antibiogram, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and virulotyping. This last technique was carried out by sim...
Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century, but little research on this important assemblage has been executed since. The present paper provides figures and brief descriptions of fishes from the Maastrichtian type area as an aid for field i...
Schynts, F; van der Giessen, Joke; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E.; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de
Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies in wildlife and previous reports of Trichinella larvae in this host species. In November 2004, Trichinella larvae were detected in a wild boar hunted near Mettet, Namur province (Southern Belgi...
Upper Campanian Belemnitella and Lower Maastrichtian Belemnella and Belemnitella faunas from the chalks of the Mons Basin in Belgium are described, utilizing univariate and bivariate biométrie analyses. The Upper Campanian belemnite faunas comprise six taxa of Belemnitella, including two left in open nomenclature: B. mucronata, B. woodi, B. minor I, B. minor II, B. sp. 1 and B. sp. 2. The lower Lower Maastrichtian fauna includes Belemnella (Pachybelemnella) obtusa with subordinate Belemnitell...
The paper focuses on the circumstances that explain lone mothers' dynamics of poverty in five different European settings (Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Sweden) using household panel data. My aim is to tackle the problem of poverty comparatively, dynamically, and with a gender perspective. This paper attempts to answer questions such as: "How do lone mothers experience poverty? Are poverty spells for lone mothers longer? Do poverty spells differ within different groups of lone m...
Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN) and Life End Information Forum (LEIF) in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols). Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a consultation provision could also
Vlassenroot, Sven; Brookhuis, Karel; De Mol, Johan; Marchau, Vincent; Witlox, Frank
Several trials with different types of ISA have shown that ISA can be an efficient and effective way to reduce speed and speeding. In our research we ask the question will there be acceptability of ISA by the public? Different methods and theories were used to distil the most relevant determinants that could influence acceptability. Based on these determinants a web-survey was held: 6370 individuals responded in Belgium (Flanders region) and 1158 persons in The Netherlands. In our questionnai...
Loopmans, Maarten; Dirckx, Toon
This chapter maps new forms of contentious mobilisation around neoliberal urban policies in Antwerp, Belgium. Neoliberal urban policies are confronted with the uneasy task to match local competitiveness with collective provision and so-cial cohesion. The upgrading of the built environment offers the opportunity to in-tegrate both aspirations, but simultaneously provides people with a concrete focus for mobilisation. Building on Urban Social Movement theory, we identify 5 types of urban mobili...
Roskams P; Genouw G; Neirynck J; Staelens J
The aim of this study was to determine target loads for acidification for representative forest ecosystems in Flanders (Belgium) using dynamic modelling. Target loads were calculated for 83 forest stands for which sufficient measurements were available. This dataset is considered to be representative for the Flemish forest area. It is concluded that, despite the inherent uncertainty in modelling soil acidification at a regional level, important N and S deposition reductions are needed to allo...
Many studies suggest that high salt intakes are related to high blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular diseases. In addition salt intake was found to be related with obesity, renal stones, osteoporosis and stomach cancer. Belgium, such as other European countries, is suffering from both salt intakes that are twice as high as the recommended intakes and mild iodine deficiency. No comprehensive strategy encompassing both public health problems has been developed. While specific salt red...
Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W
Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728
Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D
The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed. PMID:26084094
Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gaël; Jeroen E Sonke; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie
Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg− 1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg− 1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two ...
Belgian judges may well be among the loneliest of their peers due to Belgium’s legal framework. In an attempt to counter this unfortunate situation, we will start by outlining some contours of “judicial loneliness” in Belgium through a brief discussion of secrecy of deliberations, the wide-spread unus iudex practice, as well as a more recent phenomenon: judges who ventilate certain aspirations and/or frustrations often end up being the epicenter of fierce public polemics. Secondly, we will em...
José Miguel Barrios
Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.
Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.;
Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...... trophic niche overlap showed that, in general, niche overlap between individuals of the same species was significantly higher than overlap between individuals from different species, suggesting that the available food resources were partitioned. The total annual prey consumption by the dominant fish...
Nuclear power plant operation in Belgium is characterized by an effective utilization factor of 80.6% (which compares fairly well with world averages). It is important to analyse the reason for break-downs so as to improve operation. The paper reviews the procedures for emergency plans and considers separately the regulatory system and the internal rules. The nuclear operator is responsible for emergency plans on site while the Protection Civile (a public body) takes the necessary measures for protection of the public and the environment; a description follows of these tasks which are inter-related. (NEA)
This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.
Lust, Thibaut; Meskens, Nadine; Ahues, Mario
Having observed low success rates among first-year university students in both Belgium and France, we develop prediction models in this paper in order to identify, at the earliest possible stage, those students who are at risk of failing at the end of the academic year. We applied different data mining techniques to predict the students' academic success. We find that it is very difficult to predict success by only considering the variables related to behavior during classes, and that it is n...
J. Maes; Taillieu, A.; Damme, P.A. van; Cottenie, K.; Ollevier, F.P.
Fish and crustaceans were sampled for 1 year in the upper reaches of a temperate estuary characterized by high turbidity and a tidal range of up to 5 m. Samples were taken in the cooling-water circuit of the Doel Nuclear Power station (Zeeschelde, Belgium). Between July 1994 and June 1995, 55 fish species, two shrimp species and four crab species were recorded. The fish community was composed of 36 marine species, 16 freshwater species and three diadromous species. Shrimps, Gobiidae and Clupe...
Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul
Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market valuation of central banks. Our analysis shows that shares of these two central banks have performed poorly. We also investigate the factors affecting central bank stock returns and find that the ...
Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.
Levêque, Alain; Humblet, Claire Perrine; Lagasse, Raphaël
Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem. In this study, we chose Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) to analyse the trends during the period 1974-1994 and the relative impact of the traffic injuries death on total mortality and on total avoidable mortality in Belgium. We analysed the geographical trends over a 20-year period at the district level. The YPLL age-adjusted rates were analysed for four successive 5-year periods: 1974-1978, 1980-1984, 1985-1989, 1990-1994 and the ra...
The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)
Full Text Available Strategic partnerships in the biotechnology industry allow new technology-based firms to gain a foothold in this high-cost, high-risk industry. In this article, we examine the impact of strategic partnerships and open innovation on the success of new biotechnology firms in Belgium by developing multiple case studies of firms in regional biotechnology clusters. We find that, despite their small size and relative immaturity, new biotechnology firms are able to adopt innovative business models by providing R&D and services to larger firms and openly cooperating with them through open innovation.
Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy; Vandamme, A.; Niclaes, M
In the mining district of Plombières-La Calamine (East-Belgium), extensive Pb-Zn mining activities resulted in an important contamination of overbank sediments along the Geul river. Moreover, a huge amount of heavy metals is stored in a dredged mine pond tailing, which is located along the river. In the dredged mine pond tailing sediments, Pb-Zn minerals control the solubility of Zn, Pb and Cd. Although Pb, Zn and Cd display a lower solubility in overbank sediments compared to the mine tailin...
Local partnership approach to achieve stakeholder consensus on low-level waste disposal, with particular focus on the siting of repositories are adopted in Europe. Especially in Belgium and Slovenia, final repository site had been decided in each country. The authors investigate on these two cases on the basis of interviews with implementing organizations for final disposal, representatives of local partnerships and citizens concerned so that the problem of introducing a local partnership in Japan can be examined. Its results are used as a reference for studying measures to determine the radioactive final repository site in Japan. (author)
In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel (Belgium) researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment (linear accelerator). Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section
Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.
Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.
Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek
After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.
Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human–nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem–human/public health–urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed. (letter)
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, Jarl K; Brackenridge, Celia H; Rhind, Daniel J A; Neels, Karel; Van Den Eede, Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed with respect to their experiences with childhood psychological, physical, and sexual violence while playing sports. Being the first of its kind in the Netherlands and Belgium, our study has a sufficiently large sample taken from the general population, with a balanced gender ratio and wide variety in socio-demographic characteristics. The survey showed that 38% of all respondents reported experiences with psychological violence, 11% with physical violence, and 14% with sexual violence. Ethnic minority, lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) and disabled athletes, and those competing at the international level report significantly more experiences of interpersonal violence in sport. The results are consistent with rates obtained outside sport, underscoring the need for more research on interventions and systematic follow-ups, to minimize these negative experiences in youth sport. PMID:26516053