Sample records for belarus

  1. Belarus,A Rising Economy

    Liu Xinwen; Yang Wei


    @@ The Republic of Belarus is situated in the heart of Europe,in the East the Republic borders the Russian Federation,in the South the Ukraine,in the Wst Poland,and in the North Lithuania and Latvia.Belarus is the gateway between Asia and Europe,bearing strategic importance.In recent years,Belarus has experienced rapid economic growth.

  2. WIN Belarus report 2007

    No reactors in operation (1962 first research reactor started and in 1998 decommissioned). Research reactors or institutes: 2 critical zero power assemblies in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Researcher - Sosny /National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (JIPNR). Other applications of nuclear technology: Production of isotopes, Facility for gamma-irradiation of different products, Neutron generator for different purposes, Electron accelerators for investigations and technology. Planned reactors: NPP construction is planned in 2018 (two reactors). Current energy policy in few sentences: Belarus has only 12-15% own energy resources. The most power is generated on the thermal power plant using natural gas from Russia. Research and development on using wood, wind, sun, hydrogen. The NPP construction is planned in 2018. Some trend in opinion of general public: Studying of public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. Our people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO2 discharge and oxygen preservation in the atmosphere, what is probably one of the reasons of negative attitude to NPP (1/3 responses). Positive attitude to NPP is 1/3 responses too. One of the reason of public distrust to nuclear power is the absence of knowledge about the conditions for radioactive waste storage and therefore the population is inclined to exaggerate the radiation danger of waste for the environment. The political opposition opposes the NPP construction. They suggest the sun and wind energy. Members in

  3. More from Belarus


    @@ On January 20th,2008,the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus celebrated the 16th anniversary of the establishment of their foreign diplomatic relationship.China was one of the first countries who recognized Belarus' independence,after which the development of Sino-Belarusian relations has enjoyed precedence in both countries' diplomatic strategic policies.From January 1995 to now,frequent top level visits have promoted cooperation,and more than 50 cooperative agreements have been reached covering all aspects of life.

  4. Teleteaching in Belarus.

    Sevast'Yanenko, Victor G.


    Describes the first efforts at teleteaching in Belarus at the Belorussian Polytechnic Academy that will be used for secondary and higher education. Topics discussed include convincing the government of the importance of distance education programs offered to national development, economic constraints, and Internet electronic mail goals. (LRW)

  5. Belarus: Moving Forward Together

    The 45th anniversary of INIS provides an opportunity for Member States to look back on significant events. Belarus was among the founding members of the system and the 45th anniversary of INIS also marks 45 years of this country’s participation. In 1992, Belarus began to work independently after a change in the political situation. As a result, the activity of the Belarus INIS Centre increased significantly. Within this time frame, about 6000 inputs were contributed and more than 100 copies of NCL were provided. Currently, Belarus submits about 300 inputs per year to INIS. This quantity reflects the activity of our scientists in the fields corresponding to the scope of INIS. In our country, interest in nuclear technologies is defined by two main factors – the severe consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the acute shortage of energy resources. Therefore, the main focuses of nuclear research are the behavior of ecosystems in conditions of radioactive contamination, and the impact of low dose radiation on living organisms, nuclear medicine, nuclear energy, radiation protection and radiation safety

  6. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  7. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  8. Belarus : Transport Sector Policy Note

    World Bank


    The transport sector is an important economic sector in Belarus, contributing 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008 and 6.6 percent in 2009. Belarus has been a net exporter of practically all modes of transport services. The country serves as a transit transport corridor between the European Union (EU) and Russia and potentially between the EU and Asia; thus, the strategic ge...

  9. Belarus: health system review.

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei


    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success. PMID:24334702

  10. ADS National Programmes: Belarus

    The Belarus activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the investigations performed at the subcritical facility YALINA. Yalina is a zero power subcritical facility to study neutronics of ADS and the transmutation reaction rates. The first assembly YALINA-T was put into operation in 2000. YALINA-T is a multiplying system (kmax<0.98), located inside a graphite reflector of parallelepiped configuration that is arranged of high purity reactor graphite blocks. The core of the assembly is of parallelepiped configuration too and consists of bare polyethylene subassemblies where fuel rods of EK-10 type (UO2 of 10% enrichment by U235) are located. At the core center a neutron producing Pb target is located that reminds fuel subassembly by shape and size. Graphite reflector is covered from outside by Cd. At the distances R=50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm from the core center three experimental channels (D=25 mm) are situated for location of samples of radioactive targets and various detectors for measurement of neutron flux density functionals. For the same purpose two axial channels (D=25 mm) are located in graphite reflector at the distances 250 mm and 358 mm; by Z=H/2 one more radial channel (D=25 mm) is located. YALINA-B core is arranged of rectangular parallelepipeds too. The fast (booster) zone consists of lead subassemblies, the thermal one of polyethylene subassemblies. Central part of the booster zone, containing highly enriched (90%) metallic uranium fuel and Pb target is encased into a separate stainless steel frame. The absorber zone is located at the outer boundary of the booster zone. It consists of inner layer of rods with metallic natural uranium fixed in lead blocks, as in the previous cases, and of an outer layer of rods filled by boron carbide powder, B4C. Boron carbide rods are located in the same lattice as the uranium fuel pins in the booster zone with pin pitch 16.00 mm. This absorber zone enables fast neutrons to

  11. A Common Currency for Belarus and Russia?

    Vassili Prokopenko; Etibar Jafarov; Anne Marie Gulde


    This paper discusses costs, benefits, and implementation challenges of a possible currency union between Belarus and Russia. It shows that Belarus and Russia are economically closely linked but nevertheless do not fulfill all "optimal currency area" criteria, especially the macroeconomic symmetry condition. Furthermore, we argue that the different speeds of economic liberalization over the past decade have resulted in different economic structures, with Belarus still dependent on monetary fin...

  12. Republic of Belarus; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the causes of the high inflation in Belarus. It estimates the contribution of two factors: (1) exchange rate pass-through and (2) administrative price increases. Residual inflation is used as a gauge for inflation caused directly by demand pressures and inflation expectations. It is found that the administrative price increases are a key driver of inflation, even ahead of demand pressures, which also explain a large share of inflation. Although exchange rat...

  13. Fiscal Projections for Pension System of Belarus

    World Bank


    This note attempts to describe the pension system in Belarus including its fiscal performance, redistributive aspects benefit levels and benefit eligibility conditions. The note also discusses the challenging demographic environment which Belarus pension system is expected to face in the future and explores alternative paths that the system could take in this environment. Some reform scena...

  14. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations


    .... 2461 note); Pub. L. 110-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 548 Belarus Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign... Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Belarus Sanctions Regulations in the Code of...

  15. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei


    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  16. Belarus activity in ADS field

    Conclusions: • The YALINA facility is a unique installation which was designed as a zero power model of real ADS. • It is intended to study neutronics and kinetics of the sub-critical reactors driven by external neutron sources. • The successful operation of this facility is a scientific contribution from the Republic of Belarus, as well as the international team from EC and USA. • The experimental data are used to benchmark and validate methods and computer codes for designing and licensing ADS

  17. Belarus Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2013 - June 2014)

    World Bank Group


    The Country Opinion Survey for FY2013 in Belarus assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Belarus perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Belarus on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Belarus; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Belarus; 3) overall impressions of the W...

  18. Belarus, A Chinese Fort in Europe

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ "In recent years,we've found increasing interest from Chinese investors in the Belarus economy.Please let China know,Belarus is always ready to be a true friend to China.We have built a fort in Europe for China,"the President of Belarus,Alexander Lukashenko told Zhou Xiaochuan,President of the Bank of China,during his visit to the capital of Minsk,on January 8th,he expressed his high praise and firm confidence in the development of Sino-Belarusian relations.

  19. Die Parlamentswahlen und das Referendum in Belarus'

    Ott, Alexander


    Von allen europäischen Staaten sind in Belarus das Streben nach Selbständigkeit und die nationale Volksidentität am wenigsten ausgeprägt. Die früher 'sowjetischste' aller Sowjetrepubliken befindet sich in einer tiefen Identitätskrise. Im Unterschied zu Rußland und der Ukraine hat Belarus keine Antikommunismus- und Souveränitätswelle erlebt. Der Transformationsprozeß hat in der Republik noch nicht begonnen. Die Dominanz Rußlands, seiner Kultur, Sprache und Wirtschaft ist in Belarus allgegenwär...

  20. Visits from Croatia and Belarus


    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  1. Social mood in Belarus: Hope dies first

    Andrei Vardamatski


    The dynamics of the social mood in Belarus over the past four years suggests that after the shock in 2011, Belarusians generally lowered their social expectations and partly reconciled with the upcoming hardships.

  2. Belarus and China: from Trade to Investments


    @@ Trade cooperation between Belarus and China: does distance matter? The diplomatic relations between Belarus and China have been developing stably and successfully ever since the moment of their establishing (January 1992).The leaders of the two states have always treated these relations with great attention,responsibility,and care.The relationship has been boosted as a result of the visit of President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko to China in December 2005,during which Alexander Lukashenko and President of China Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration.In that document,the sides pledged they would do their utmost to boost mutual trade and work out new cooperation models.It was during that top-level meeting that President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko first voiced the trade goal which was to reach,by 2010,the trade turnover to the tune of 2 billion USD.

  3. Competitiveness of Belarus in world markets

    Rybalka, Dzmitry


    This master thesis introduces the new approach to the measurement of Belarus'competitiveness. The topicality of this research is connected with absence of Belarus in the studies of the World Economic Forum and Institute for the Management Development. The author established the following goals while running the research: to analyze the existing concepts of national competitiveness, to define the essential factors of competitiveness, to examine such tool for measurement of national competitive...

  4. Prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    Full text: Belarus relates to the countries with limited organic fuel resources. So, the share of own fuel resources is about 15% from the total energy consumption. Therefore, Belarus is forced to buy fuel-energy resources, mainly in Russia. Natural gas (∼68%) and oil (18%) are prevailing in the structure of fuel-energy resources consumption in Belarus. At present Russia supplies gas to Belarus by the price of 30 USD/1000 m3 that is lower then European prices. However, and under these conditions the share of fuel-energy resources reaches 60% in the volume of Belarus import and is about 2 bill. USD, what is commensurable with the value of an annual state budget of Belarus. Prices for gas will be sufficiently risen in Russia for the nearest future. So, according to the assessments of Russian specialists a wholesale price for natural gas will be risen by a factor of 3.7 in Russia by 2005 in comparison with 2001 what makes Belarus production ultimately non-competitive in the world market. Recently Belarus has been observing the growth of economic indicators, and this progress has to be substantiated with an appropriate energy park. Further development of the national economy calls for a sustainable power industry free of the impact of the changing economic situation in the fuel market. The necessity is to lower a level of dependence of the Republic on the imports of fuel and electric power. Electric energy plays a special role in the energy supply system in the Republic. The forecasted energy consumption will be about 55 bill. kW·h in Belarus by 2015. At present the demands of the Republic in electric energy are satisfied by 70-80% due to generation at own power electric plants operating mainly on import fuel, and by 20-30% due to electric energy import generated at Smolensk (Russia) and Ignalina (Lithuania) NPPs. But the share of electric energy import from Russia will be decreased by 2015 in connection with the forecasted growth of its internal demands. Ignalina

  5. Belarus Attaches Great Importance to Trade Cooperation with China

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian


    @@ Belarus is an important trade partner of China.In January, a Belarus trade delegation, headed by Uldimir N. Bobrov, President of the Belarus Chamber of Commerce, visited China, and signed a series of agreements for economic and trade cooperation with CCPIT. When interviewed by China's Foreign Trade, he stressed that Belarus was ready to strengthen its commitment to comprehensive cooperation with China in many spheres.

  6. Renewable energy in Belarus: status and prospects

    Apart from Potassium Chloride and peat, Belarus lacks significant mineral and fuel resources including natural gas, oil and coal. At the same time it has significantly energy intensive economy. Development of renewable energy resources opens up for a double solution, improving of energy independence and reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Currently, only about 6% of electricity produced in Belarus comes from renewable energy sources. It is planning to increase this quantity up to 9% by 2035. The following first pilot projects has been already put into practice: hydro 17 MW, wind 1.5 MW and biogas 0.5 MW. In the framework of the Belarus -EU international technical assistance project “Green Economy in Belarus” it is planning to construct wind power plant near Novogrudok and about 20 smaller green projects. Key words: renewable, potential, pilot projects, regulations, technical assistance

  7. Perspective use geothermal resources in Belarus

    Geothermal studies, as dictated by the further study of the geological structure of the territory of Belarus, the geodynamics of the Earth's interior, in the light of the continuing rise in prices for imported hydrocarbons; search for alternative renewable clean energy. (authors)

  8. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  9. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna


    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  10. Centers of practical radiological culture in Belarus

    Technical visit to Belarus within the activities of NERIS Platform (European Platform of readiness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery) was organized by the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants in Trnava (VUJE, a.s.) and Research Institute of Radiology in Gomel. It was carried out from 1 to 6 June 2013, with partial financial support from the European Commission. Program of this visit is presented. (author)

  11. Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

    World Bank


    This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision....

  12. Belarus: Ready for More Advanced Trade Cooperation with China

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong


    @@ Belarus was one of the 15 member countries of the former Soviet Union. It has achieved independence since 1991. Belarus is situated in the center of Europe and the main drag of the Europe-Asia Continental Bridge. It takes the leading position in many economic indicators in the CIS.


    Ioffe Grigory


    The author considers the crisis in Ukraine from geopolitical angle while concentrating on the role of Belarus in it. He comes to conclusion that Belarus`s ability to benefit from the crisis nearby while simultaneously working to bring this crisis to an end deserves greater scrutiny and international recognition.

  14. Safeguards system in the Republic of Belarus

    At the time of signing of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1993), the Republic of Belarus did not have any state system of nuclear material accountancy and control. Accounting for and control were performed by departmental systems which did not involve computer data processing, generation of reports, independent measurements, data coding, etc. They were no able to perform accounting for and control in real time. In this paper the existing system of nuclear material accounting for and control is briefly discussed as well as system of physical protection of nuclear materials, export/import measures and measures to combat illicit trafficking. (author)

  15. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  16. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    Belarus are located at the Academic Scientific and Technical Center 'Sosny'. Modern system of physical protection was started to operate in October 1996. Without going into details, the system of physical protection makes it possible to maintain automatic control of access to the most sensitive zones and the facility as a whole, automatic detection and testing of all components, automatic generation of alarm signal in case of an incident and taping of video signal. During operation and maintenance of the system we have encountered some difficulties like the absence of national producers of necessary spare parts and expensive prices of such parts with foreign producers, the necessity of adaptation of some system components to local climatic conditions, etc. Export/import control and prevention of non-authorized use of nuclear materials - The Law of the Republic of Belarus On Exports Control came into force in January 1998. This law defines the legal bases for activities of state bodies, legal and natural persons of the Republic of Belarus in the field of export control and regulates relations arising in connection with the movement of objects subject to export control across the customs border of the Republic of Belarus and their subsequent use. The objects subject to export control include such items 'as goods, technologies and services connected with nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear materials which can be used for production of nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive systems' as well as 'dual purpose commodities'. Information support of the export/import control system is provided by ORACLE-controlled computer data bases. This system includes the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Customs Committee, the Academy of Sciences and other agencies. The Republic of Belarus became a member of the Nuclear Supplies Group in 2000. According to the decrees of the Council of Ministers 675 dated June 1997, licensing and state supervision of activities involving use and

  17. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Zhukova, Ekatherina


    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  18. Nuclear installations in Belarus: Implications of political and technical issues

    The report deals with some aspects of past and present supervisory activities at nuclear installations in Belarus. It briefly describes an existing supervisory system for nuclear installations in the Republic of Belarus, its legislative basis and functions of the supervisory body. Consideration is given to further development and improvement of the supervision in such fields as revision and elaboration of normative documents on nuclear safety, training of inspectors, co-operation with other governmental bodies while examining the nuclear option in the Republic of Belarus. (author)

  19. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.


    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  20. On a Grave Symbol from Northwest Belarus

    Andrei Prokhorov


    Full Text Available The article focuses on an interpretation of a funeral symbol found onthe gravestones in Northwest Belarus – an engraved image of a pole with a semicircle at its top. The gravestones are connected to the archaeological culture of stone tombs of Yotvingian origin. Possibly, this symbol has been given a wider perspective in the world of late paganism of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its neighboring territories. This symbol represents an idea of ‘the world axis’, and its main mythological meaning has been to create a communication between the souls of the dead and the upper celestial world which has been imagined as ‘the celestial mountain’.

  1. Decontamination in the Republic of Belarus

    To continue the decontamination work in the Republic of Belarus, which was carried out by the military troops, the state specialized enterprises were formed in Gomel and Mogilev in 1991. The organization and regulations were developed inside the country: instructions, rules, radiological and hygienic criteria and norms. The enterprises concentrated on decontamination of the most socially significant facilities: kindergartens, schools, medical institutions and industrial enterprises. During 9 years Gomel State Specialized Enterprise 'Polessje' decontaminated 130 kindergartens, schools and hospitals. The total decontaminated area was 450 000 m2. The ventilation systems and equipment at 27 industrial enterprises in Gomel were decontaminated. The practical decontamination methods for areas, buildings, roofs, industrial equipment, ventilation systems were developed and tested. The special rules for handling wastes contaminated with Cs were elaborated. The paper analyzes and sums up the acquired experience which is important for implementation of rehabilitation programs and improvement of decontamination methods. (author)

  2. Childhood thyroid cancer. Comparison of Japan and Belarus

    The high incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus is suspected to be due to radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. To clarify the clinical and histological characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, we therefore compared these patients to a radiation non-exposed control series in Japan. In Belarus, 26 thyroid cancers in subjects aged 15 or younger were diagnosed among 25,000 screened between 1991 and 1995 by Chernobyl-Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. The clinical and morphologic features of these 26 cases were compared to 37 childhood thyroid cancers in Japan diagnosed between 1962 and 1995. The age distribution at operation in Belarus showed a peak at 10 years old, with a subsequent fall in numbers. In contrast, the age distribution at operation in Japan showed a smooth increase between the ages of 8 and 14. The mean tumor diameter was smaller in Belarus than that in Japan (1.4±0.7 vs. 4.1±1.7 cm, P<0.001). The sex ratio, regional lymph node metastasis, extension to surrounding tissues or lung metastasis did not differ significantly. Histologically, all cases in Belarus were papillary and in Japan 33 cases were papillary and 4 cases were follicular carcinomas. Among papillary carcinomas, the frequency of a solid growth pattern, a criteria for classifying a tumor as poorly differentiated, was higher in Belarus than that in Japan (61.5 vs. 18.2%, P<0.001). The difference between the features of childhood thyroid cancer in Japan and Belarus may be due to the difference in the process of carcinogenesis, but more direct evidence and further analysis by molecular epidemiology are needed in Belarussian cases. (author)

  3. Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

    BOBROVA, Anastacia; SHAKHOTSKA, Liudmila


    The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Leb...


    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev


    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  5. Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity



    The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of “national identity” the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author’s view, both...

  6. Challenges and opportunities to launch nuclear power programme in Belarus

    Full text: Republic of Belarus, as a part of the former Soviet Union, having highly energy-intensive economy and few indigenous fuel and energy resources has been initially oriented towards nuclear power. Four nuclear power plants with total capacity of about 12 GW have been constructed near the borders of the Republic. In Belarus the constructing of nuclear CHP not far from Minsk and the planning of NPP construction in Vitebsk region have been begun. The Chernobyl NPP accident has stopped this Program. On the other side the Republic of Belarus has been suffered from the Chernobyl accident most of all other countries including Russia and the Ukraine. About a quarter of its territory and population had turned out in the radioactively contaminated zone. The attitude of a considerable part of the Belarus population towards the nuclear energy is aggravated with the consequences of this accident. Nevertheless recently the political decision about nuclear power development has been accepted again. It is decided to construct two units with total capacity about 2000 MW. The commissioning of the first unit is planning in 2016, the second- in 2018. The necessity of nuclear power development has been grounded in Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus which was approved by the President of the Republic of Belarus in 2005 and in new version in 2007. The Programme of Preparatory Works for the construction of NPP has been accepted by the Government and is under implementation. Among another works in frameworks of the this Program it should be mentioned the following: - site selections for nuclear facilities; - assessment of human resource needs and availability; - preparation for bid specification development; - studying of nuclear technologies available and suitable for domestic application; - developing of the Program of education and training of personal for future NPP, regulatory body and other governmental authorities, research and design institutes. The Law

  7. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  8. The Sociological Dimension of the System of Art Education in Belarus

    Skorokhodov, V. P.


    Art education in Belarus is based on two fundamental state documents, the "Law on Education in the Republic of Belarus" and the "Law on Culture in the Republic of Belarus," which spell out the prospects of the development of art education in a unity of goals, tasks, and paths of implementation. The system of art education in the Republic includes…

  9. The radiation monitoring on the territory of Belarus

    On the territory of the Republic of Belarus works the points network of radiation-ecological monitoring of environmental objects by the special programs. According to the article 40 of the Low of the Republic of Belarus 'About law regime of the territory exposed to a radioactive pollution following the accident on the Chernobyl NPP' the Committee for Hydrometeorology of the MES of RB accomplishes a total estimation of radiation situation on the territory of the Republic [radiation monitoring] and a methodical guidance. (author)

  10. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  11. Trade policy of Belarus in the CIS region: specific model or country specific trade policy for a small open economy

    Sergey Mazol


    The working paper critically examines trade policy of Belarus in 2006-2010 in the context of national, regional and international trends of economic activity. The paper analyses basic features of import substitution industrialization relevant for Belarus. There are summarized basic trends of Belarus’ trade, the level of country and commodity diversification of Belarus’ export and import, and the main risks and opportunities for the trade policy of Belarus. The analysis covers period of 20...

  12. Geomorphological risk analysis in the Republic of Belarus

    Romanenko, Vlad; Kurlovich, Dzmitry


    Romanenko V. GIS-Mapping and Assessment of Geomorphological Risk in Belarus / V. Romanenko, D. Kurlovich // The geomorphology of natural hazards: mapping, analysis and prevention. Abstract book. 17th Joint Geomorphological Meeting, Liege (Belgium). 1-3 July 2014. – Liege. – P. 116.

  13. The gender wage gap in the Republic of Belarus

    Pastore Francesco; Verashchagina Alina


    The project will provide an evidence on the size of gender wage gap in Belarus and on the extent to which such gap is due to discrimination, which is of interest for policy makers, dealing with wage distribution in the country

  14. Hypertension management in primary care in Belarus and The Netherlands.

    Schellevis, F.G.; Rusovich, V.; Egorov, K.N.; Podpalov, V.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.


    Both in Belarus and in the Netherlands, guidelines on the management of hypertension in primary care have been developed, including recommendations about detection, treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are meant to harmonize actual practice management of hypertension of improve the quality of c

  15. A Visit to Kindergarten No. 490 in Minsk, Belarus.

    Good, Linda A.

    Although opportunities for sharing information about early childhood education increased with the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991, knowledge about how young children are cared for and educated in countries of the former Soviet Union remains limited. This report presents observations of a kindergarten class in Minsk, Belarus conducted…

  16. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian


    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  17. Legal aspects of radiation therapy in Republic of Belarus

    The reasons that lead to harm to patients during radiotherapy considered. Some examples of radiation damage presented. The types of liability for harm to the patient used in the Republic of Belarus described. The recommendations to ensure legal protection for medical and technical personnel suggested

  18. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus territories: Dynamics and modern state

    The analysis of radioactive pollution of territory of Republic of Belarus is presented. The grouping of administrative areas on degree of pollution of farmlands Cs 137 and Sr 90 is executed. Depending on relative density of the polluted earths as a part of farmlands it is allocated four groups of areas - with weak, average, strong and very strong degree of pollution. (author)

  19. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus

    The Director General has received a communication dated 27 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of Belarus to the Agency and, as requested therein, the text of a statement by the Governor for Belarus is attached hereto, for the information of Member States

  20. Comparing development sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine with special respect to rural areas

    Manteuffel Szoege, Henryk


    A comparison of environmental sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine using the Environmental Sustainability Index calculated by the Centre for Environmental Law and Policy of Yale University shows a significant advantage of Belarus over Poland and Ukraine while a slight advantage of Poland over Ukraine. Belarus with ESI score of 52.8 points ranked 47, Ukraine with 44.7 points ranked 108 while Poland with 45.0 points ranked 102 among the 146 classified countries of the world. The state ...

  1. Detection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA in mosquitoes from Belarus.

    Șuleșco, Tatiana; Volkova, Tatiana; Yashkova, Svetlana; Tomazatos, Alexandru; von Thien, Heidrun; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert


    During the last two decades, Belarus faces an increase of human cases of Dirofilaria (Nematoda, Spirurida, Onchocercidae) infections. However, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. Here, we present results using temperature data from Belarus and show that the annual number of human Dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (Spearman's rho = 0.49, p Belarus, suggesting a high probability of autochthonous Dirofilaria transmission in the country. PMID:27169723

  2. The model of statistical forecast of storm wind and heavy rainfalls at the territory of Belarus

    Perekhodtseva, E.


    The results of the development of automated forecast methods of storm wind at the territory of the Republic of Belarus based on the hydrodynamic-statistical model are submitted at this paper. The international collaboration between Hydrometcenter of Russia- and Hydrometcenter of the Republic of Belarus began ten years ago. Now the forecasts of storm wind with the earliness 12-24-36-48h send by the help of operative technology to Hydrometcenter of Belarus two times a day from Hydrometcenter of...

  3. Technologies for restoration of environment contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    The state of work on creation of technologies for clean-up of the territories of Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is considered in the report. It is pointed out, that the technologies for decontamination of pre-school medical and prophylactical institutions, schools, zones for recreation, industrial and agricultural objects are used in Belarus. On the whole, the strategy of changing the residence of population and supervision over the radiological situation is carried out in the Republic. Clean-up of contaminated soils of large territories is not realized in the Republic on industrial scale. Presently, the methods have been developed for radiation forecast and determination of advisable extent of decontamination. The description of worked out technologies for decontamination, waste management and disposal is given. The need in development of industrial methods for the soil clean-up is shown. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  4. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  5. Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy

    Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)


    A. V. Galygo


    Full Text Available The results of joint activities of the BelGIM and the Institute of Physics of the NAS of Belarus on the construction and modernization of state standards of the physical units in optical radiometry, as well as the high accuracy measurement facilities for test the energy, temporal, spatial, spectral and polarization characteristics of laser equipments and calibration of devices for measuring the energy characteristics of laser radiation are presented.


    Mezhevich Nikolay Maratovich


    The author examines the development of Belarus after the presidential elections of October 2015. He argues that the Belarusian economic model, as currently exists, can only survive if Russia continues to offer support. Given the country’s historical and cultural background, in the medium term, the demand for reform can be satisfied based on a scenario alternative to the catastrophic one adopted by Belarus’s southern neighbor.

  8. Institutional aspects of development of forestry complex in Belarus

    Kashtelyan Taisiya


    Full Text Available The author grounds the necessity of institutional transformation of the forestry complex. The factors for the development of the market of wood raw material are analyzed, the place and the role of state practice for its regulation are indicated. The author describes the role of root prices as factors of socio-economic development of forestry of Belarus. Auspicious conditions for innovative development of the forestry complex are suggested.

  9. Dynamics of smoking prevalence and tobacco products market in Belarus

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, Belarus ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and then adopted several governmental documents aimed to decrease the population tobacco use. The aim of the paper is to review available data to estimate trends of smoking prevalence and tobacco market in Belarus and to evaluate impact of policies implemented since 2005 on population tobacco use.METHODS: The explorative study was conducted including online search of data on tobacco use and tobacco market and estimation of the revealed indicators dynamics by year.RESULTS: Surveys conducted by the National Statistical Committee and by the Institute of Sociology provide rather different levels of smoking rates, especially in women. However, both groups of surveys indicate that in 1995-2011 smoking prevalence in men and women had the opposite trends: an increase among women and a decrease among men. Both groups of surveys also indicate that for the adult population in general the current smoking rates were increasing in early 2000s and decreasing in late 2000s, having returned by the end of the decade to the rates observed at its beginning. However, the sales of cigarettes increased by 59% in 2005-2010 and continued to grow in 2011.DISCUSSION: The differences of smoking prevalence indicators of various survey agencies are caused by differences in sampling, interviewing procedure, questionnaires and other methodological features. The tobacco control policies introduced since 2005 resulted in a decrease of total population smoking prevalence by about 5% in 2006-2010. For further tobacco use decline, all tobacco control policies should be implemented in line with the FCTC provisions and guidelines. The steep increase of cigarette sales in Belarus in 2005-2010 cannot be explained by tobacco use increase within the country. A probable cause of sales increase is smuggling of large amounts of Belarus-produced cigarettes to other countries.

  10. Measuring language attitudes. The case of Trasianka in Belarus

    Sender, Natallia


    Full Text Available In contemporary Belarus there are currently two languages being predominantly used: Russian and Belarusian. Besides dialects and other varieties there is to be found a variety called Trasianka, which is widespread throughout the country. Trasianka can be considered as a variety built of elements from other varieties in Belarus, but mainly from Russian and Belarusian. Originally the term Trasianka stems from agriculture describing a 'mixed fodder of poor quality'. Language attitudes towards this variety have hardly been examined thus far. In a recent study based on the matched-guise technique, 227 Belarusian adolescents listened to and evaluated a female speaker reading the same text in Russian, Belarusian and Trasianka. When the speaker used Trasianka, she was given low ratings by test participants in matters of socio-structural issues such as profession and education. Regarding competence, the test participants assumed that the Trasianka speaker was less qualified, as shown by answers to a question on competencies in foreign languages. Finally, the test participants were more reluctant to accept the Trasianka speaker as a neighbor. With this responsiveness, they performed a bigger social distance. By these findings, there is ample reason to conclude that there are negative attitudes existing amongst today's population in Belarus regarding speakers of Trasianka.

  11. Communication of 3 December 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    The document reproduces the text of a press release received by the Secretariat on 4 December 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Belarus about the withdrawal of the last inter-continental ballistic missile from Belarus

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Under Section 402 (c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus


    ...)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...) of the Trade Act of 1974—Republic of Belarus Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to... with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. You are...

  13. Some legal issues of the transplantation in the Republic of Belarus

    Шецко, А.


    The principal normative legal act, which regulates the transplantation on the territory of Belarus is the Law of the Republic of Belarus “On the transplantation of human organs and tissues” 2007. The author examines the presumption of consent and offers some measures to improve the regulation of taking out organs and tissues from a cadaveric donor.

  14. Belarus – European Union: A new agenda on the back ground of the Ukrainian crisis

    Dzianis Melyantsou


    For the first time in many years the relations between Belarus and the EU developed according to a scenario which included talks on visa liberalization and consultations on modernization. An intense diplomatic communication continued. Having become a platform for negotiations to resolve the Ukrainian crisis Belarus significantly improved its international image and relations with the EU.

  15. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children

  16. Tritium in atmospheric precipitations and water systems of Belarus

    Experimental and literature data concerning analysis of tritium in atmospheric precipitation and natural waters of Belarus including the lakes near the Ignalina NPP are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that the maximum of the curve 'amount of the samples - their activity' is shifted to the higher activity in the period 1994-2000 in comparison with 1980-1989. This increasing of the concentration of tritium in water can not be explained definitely by the Chernobyl accident. Consumption of drinking water with maximum registered tritium concentration in natural waters (10 Bq/l) will produce accumulation of dose equal 1,3·10-3 of public permissible dose limit (authors)

  17. Managed trade of customs Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia



    This paper explores the trade effect of developing intra-block cooperation of three countries, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, during the formation of customs unions. The Customs Union (further CU) and Common Economic Space between these countries are the base for the creation of a Eurasian Economic Union (further EEU). Reactions of policy-makers and analysts have ranged from describing the plan as a pipedream to the next real thing. In this context, in the lead-up to the creation of EEU, for...

  18. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations


    Баканова, A. A.


    In this article we seek to advance the discussion of foreign policy orientations by focusing on their particular implications for Ukraine, that form part of the Slavic world and belong to many of its institutional structures but which at the same time are part of the European Union’s new ’neighbourhood’ and have made a formal commitment to a ’Euro-Atlantic’ future. This article showed the evolution of foreign policy orientation of Ukraine compared with Belarus and Russia, first of all questio...

  20. Die EU und die 'Neuen Nachbarn' Ukraine und Belarus

    Timmermann, Heinz


    Mit der Osterweiterung erhält die EU im Mai 2004 zunächst zwei 'Neue Nachbarn': die Ukraine und Belarus. Vor diesem Hintergrund präsentierte die EU im März 2003 ein Strategiepapier »Größeres Europa/Nachbarschaft«, in dem sie eine stufenweise Verdichtung der Beziehungen vorschlägt, nach Ländern differenziert und abhängig von der jeweiligen Verwirklichung innerer Reformen. Gemeinsam erarbeitete, projektbezogene Aktionspläne sollen den Rahmen füllen; die Tür zur EU-Mitgliedschaft bleibt halboffe...

  1. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  2. Country report - Belarus: Brief description of feasibility study results

    In Belarus, the interdepartmental commission acts as the NEPIO, headed by the First Deputy Prime Minister and reporting to the Prime Minister. Members of the interdepartmental commission are from all relevant ministries participating in the NPP programme. The interdepartmental commission meets monthly to discuss the issues related to the NPP programme and reviews the works performed by each organization. The interdepartmental commission follows up on the actions from previous meetings. The roles and responsibilities of each ministry or organization are defined in government documents. The interdepartmental commission is fully charged and authorized to prepare and oversee the execution of the national NPP programme. Each ministry involved in the NPP programme is responsible for its own budget, offices, equipment and reference material. Special decisions provide for the budget, financing and funding. Before the general contract and loan agreement were signed, Belarus already had an effective project management system and budget to start preparatory work. The production and transportation infrastructure required for NPP construction was done. In the Byelorussian case, the high level authority to which the interdepartmental commission reports, the full participation by relevant ministries, and the frequency of its meetings can facilitate the swift resolution of any issues, and can be a model of good practice for other newcomers

  3. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in Belarus

    The perceptions of a considerable part of the population of Belarus concerning the possibility of construction of a NPP have formed through the prism of this catastrophe and are often based on incorrect representation of the degree of radiation risk from the Chernobyl accident as well as from operation of a future NPP. In this connection, a specific necessity is radioecological education of the population and management bodies of Belarus. Radioecological literacy of all sectors of society is a guarantee of adequate perception of real radiation risk, which will permit effective solution of the problems of rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and provide answers to the questions related to development of nuclear power engineering. Thus, correct understanding by the public of radioecological risk is not just a guarantee of support for the idea of development of nuclear power engineering, but first is a basis for adequate understanding of the consequences of catastrophe and formation of corresponding models for behavior in conditions of radioactive contamination of the environment

  5. On the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Simon György Jr.


    Full Text Available The article gives a general overview of the process of forming a customs union among three Soviet successor states - Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Following some theoretical considerations, the author outlines the evolution of the idea of customs union within the CIS. Thereafter, he analyses the economic situation in its member states, with particular emphasis on their structural problems, economic efficiency and trade characteristics. He comes to the conclusion that the foregoing results have not helped diversify the economic structure of its participants and lessen their import dependence. Moreover, the declining level of intra-trade does not bode well for the future of this organization, while the situation is further complicated by the negative impact of the present global crisis and increasing geopolitical rivalry in the region.

  6. Health status and follow-up of the liquidators in Belarus

    This paper presents information on the organization of the follow-up of Chernobyl liquidators in Belarus. The characteristics of the liquidators cohort and results of preliminary analyses of their health status, including cancer incidence and general morbidity, are presented

  7. Analysis of the post-Chernobyl sanitation of the population of the Republic of Belarus

    One studied and analyzed the status of the health of the population of Belarus' after emergency on Chernobyl' nuclear power station on the basis of the literary sources. The recommendation on the healthy way of life was made. (authors)

  8. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  9. Organization of radiation monitoring in Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    There in the network of the stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Presently, the exposure dose rate of gamma-radiation is measured every day at 57 stations. The information enters the Center of Radiation Control and Monitoring of Environment of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology. At 26 stations, located at the whole territory of the Republic, the level of the radioactive depositions from the surface layer of the atmosphere is measured every day. The content of radioactive aerosols in air is measured every day in six cities of Belarus. The continuous control over contamination of the surface water and bottom depositions is carried out at five main rivers of the Republic, following at the contaminated territory: Dnepr, Sozh, Iput and Besed. Monthly control over the content of radionuclides in surface water is carried out: the samples of water are taken with simultaneous measurement of flow rates, the samples of the surface water are analyzed for content of total b-activity, caesium-137 and strontium-90. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico-geographical conditions. The results of the control of radionuclides in different media (air, water,soil) are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology is carrying out the control in the zones of the effect of nuclear power plants, located at the territories of the neighbouring states. (authors)

  10. Distributions of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for 137Cs and 210Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of 137Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). “Hot spots” were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of 137Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of 137Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the 210Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of 210Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from 210Pb and 137Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high 137Cs exposure in the latter country. -- Highlights: ► Belarus moss was used as a biological indicator of 137Cs and 210Pb. ► Comparison with concentration of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss from Slovakia. ► Moss samples reflect the original distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Belarus. ► Regular decrease of the annual average activity of 137Cs in surface air in Slovakia. ► Median concentration of 210Pb in moss from Belarus is 2.3 times lower than in Slovakia


    Ponuzhdaev, Dmitry


    The article reflects the activities of the workers 'and peasants' militia to combat prostitution in the first half of the 20-ies of XX-th century. Through the analysis of scientific papers, publications and data historians of archival sources are specified functions worker-peasant militia of Belarus in this activity, as well as attempts to periodization of the activities of the militia to combat prostitution оn the territory of Belarus during the New Economic Policy.

  12. Development of approach and preparation of initial information for feasibility investigations of the introduction of nuclear power in Belarus

    The experience in using the MACRO, DEMAND and BALANCE Modules of ENPEP in the conduct of energy planning studies in the Republic of Belarus is described in this paper. The work was done in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project BYE/0/003 ''Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Belarus Using ENPEP''. The paper presents results of the work undertaken by the members of the Belarus team for this project. (author). 18 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Communication received on 25 April 1995 from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    On 25 April 1995, the Director General received a letter from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency submitting the official notification of the signing of Belarus of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. At the request of the Resident Representative, the text of the attached notification is circulated for the information of Member States

  14. Down syndrome time-clustering in January 1987 in Belarus: link with the Chernobyl accident? : Down syndrome after Chernobyl

    Zatsepin, Ivan; VERGER, Pierre; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Gagnière, Bertrand; Tirmarche, Margot; Khmel, Rostislav; Babicheva, Irina; Lazjuk, Gennady


    International audience The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) exposed a large part of the Belarus population to ionizing radiation. We analyzed the time trends of Down syndrome (DS) in Belarus to evaluate whether either brief exposure at high dose rates during the plume passage or continuous exposure at low doses and dose rates of the residents of contaminated areas had any detectable impact on DS prevalence at birth. DS data came from the Belarus National Registry of Congenital Malformat...

  15. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions

  16. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  17. Belarus: Achieving safety at radon type waste disposal facilities

    The Ekores facility was commissioned in 1964 in the vicinity of Minsk, a city with a population of approximately 2 million, and was intended for LILW storage/disposal. The site comprises 2 older (historic) concrete lined trenches, each 4 m deep, and 2 subsurface reinforced second generation concrete vaults, each 3 m deep, filled with solid waste. The 2 trenches and one of the vaults are closed and the operating vault is 75% full. There are also four 'old' borehole repositories (so-called 'wells') with S shaped loading channels for 'free' disposal of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRSs). In July 2003, free SSRSs in wells were immobilized into a lead matrix in situ, using the technology developed by RADON. Taking into account that the Ekores site had no waste segregation or waste processing procedure, no equipment for unloading containers with SSRS, no premises or facilities for the decontamination of vehicles and equipment, and no monitoring boreholes, the necessity of upgrading the facility was recognized immediately after a new regulatory regime had been established in Belarus. A national project for reconstruction of the Ekores facility was launched in late 1997. The project covered (a) upgrading of the existing structures (garage, decontamination unit, fence), (b) construction of 3 new structures (building for SSRS disposal, building for waste predisposal treatment, vault for solid waste disposal) and (c) introduction of more advanced technologies for the safe handling of solid and liquid LILW. The IAEA supported this national activity by providing Ekores staff with the relevant training, expertise and equipment support. IAEA support contributed greatly to the evaluation of potential hazards posed by the Ekores site. Advanced strategy for reconstruction of the Ekores facility is discussed including strategy for managing solid radioactive waste, strategy for management of spent radioactive sources and modernized borehole repositories for retrievable SSRS

  18. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Savva M. Mikheev


    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  19. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus

    As a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP almost the forth part of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been contaminated with radioactive elements, near two billion people continue to live at this territory. An enormous economic damage to the republic has been caused, what affects all the population. The situation in considerable extent is complicated because of the heavy energy crisis in Belarus. One of the main reason of the crisis is practically complete absence of fuel resources in Belarus. These circumstances caused the return of the idea to create atomic power engineering in Belarus. Coincidence in time of the events mentioned above has created the situation when public opinion up to the recent time was negative in respect to construction of a NPP in spite of availability of strong factors in favour of that. The reason is evident - Chernobyl NPP accident. Activity related to public acceptance of nuclear power in Belarus has specific features, since the people suffered from nuclear power directly. That circumstance has required the development of nonstandard approach, composing both advertisement of positive features and merits of NPP and radioecological education of practically all population of the republic to satisfy the measures on radiation protection and overcoming the consequences of catastrophe


    V. Sakovich


    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  1. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...


    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, April 24, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-14039 Filed 6-7-12; 8:45 am... the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22...

  2. Communication of 3 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 3 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the IAEA, including a statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus on the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan

  3. The system of accounting and control of nuclear materials in Belarus

    The creation and development trends of the state system of accounting and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in the Republic of Belarus are described. The existing system of nuclear material accountancy and control is briefly outlined as well as its components: legal basis, requirements for departmental systems of accounting and control, running of inspections, preparation and submission of accounting documents, and criteria for nuclear material accountancy. Further development lines of the SSAC are considered: refinement of information processing procedures and reduction of information submission time, intensification of international co-operation, improvement of measuring systems, strengthening of the legal and normative base. Systems of accounting and control have been created in Belarus in parallel with the establishing of the state supervision of safety in uses of nuclear energy. In accordance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty, all nuclear materials under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Belarus have been placed under the IAEA safeguards. (author)

  4. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources in Belarus

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials is a multidimensional safety and security issue. Situated in a high-risk trafficking area, Belarus considers the task of combating illicit trafficking essential to ensure state security, public health and environmental protection. There have been a series of activities underway in Belarus to prevent, intercept and respond to it. At the international level the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in close co-operation with World Customs Organization and Interpol plays an important role in a number of bilateral and multilateral activities aimed at stopping illicit trafficking. Belarus has always been a strong supporter of these activities, being conscious of the fact that illicit trafficking is fraught with both proliferation implications and public exposure potential. (author)

  5. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal

  6. Public acceptance of prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    The issue of constructing a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus is far from being new. The Republic was oriented to development of nuclear power industry by the Energy Programme adopted in the former USSR. In 1983 the construction of the Minsk Nuclear Heat and Power Plant (NHPP) with a projected output of 2 million kW was initiated, the construction of a NPP with an output of 6 million KW was planned. The Chernobyl accident however shut down all on-going projects in nuclear power engineering. After the collapse of the interconnected power system that united the republics of the former USSR, Belarus found itself in the energy crisis. The nuclear industry is thus considered to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy problems, which are nowadays intensively discussed through mass media. One of the major arguments spoke out by nuclear power opponents is the Chernobyl syndrome, which is incident to a significant portion of the population. The sociological monitoring of the public opinion is carried out for revealing the attitude of the population to the suggested ways of overcoming the energy crisis and the prospects of developing the nuclear power industry. During the period of 1995-1998 three sociological studies were accomplished. The first sociological study showed that 40.9% of population supported the NPP construction, 39 % were against and 19.2% could not answer. In the second study the poll covered general public and 'experts', representatives of scientific community, educationalists, managers of various levels etc. The result confirmed a growing support of construction NPP by the population. The third sociological study was conducted autumn 1998 which polled both mass media professionals and general public. Among the respondents 67.5% revealed their stiff and rather bellicose attitude to possible construction of NPP. While among the population only every third respondent can be related to the convinced opponents of the NPP construction and among the


    A. K. Dubovik


    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  8. Developing strategy of public-private partnership in Belarus innovative development

    G.A. Yasheva


    Full Text Available The article considers theoretic-methodological basis of the public-private partnership in innovation sphere, including value of public-private partnership for economic development, the concept of public-private partnership in innovation sphere, its specific characteristics, motivation of participation in the partnership of public and private sectors. The main directions of public-private partnerships strategy in Belarus, as well as mechanisms of public-private partnership, including financial and organizational ones are developed in order to modernize the economy of Belarus and transfer to the innovation way of development.

  9. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.


    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  10. Plutonium, americium and other actinides on Belarus territory: source, levels, risks

    For Belarus it was showed that in result of falling during nuclear trials happened contamination of upper soil layer by transuranium elements with medium level of contamination for 239,240Pu 53±17 Bq/m2. After Chernobyl accident this characteristic equal 1.1· Bq/m2 on the south of Belarus. In result accident it was revealed 17 actinides. For Chernobyl falling was determined big contents of 241Pu that will lead to maximum value of 241Am in 2059, which will be more in 2,5 times than 239,240Pu

  11. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    Sikorin, S.N.; Polazau, S.A.; Hryharovich, T.K. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research ' Sosny' , Academik Krasin Street, Minsk (Belarus); Bolshinsky, I. [Idaho National Laboratory, N. Fremont Avenue Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Thomas, J.E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States)


    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  12. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  13. The Belarus Business Environment as Assessed by the Management of Leading Finnish Companies Operating in the Country

    Liuhto K.


    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  14. Comprehensive rehabilitation of post-oncologic children in Belarus

    Full text: The incidence of child disability resulting from malignant tumors has been constantly high at fourth place, characterized by considerable severity and duration. The high degree and length of disability induced by oncological diseases in children subsequently lead to the formation of high, sometimes lifelong, social disadaptation. At the same time the recent improvements in effectiveness of treatment of malignant tumors in children have contributed to a significant improvement (over 70%) in the long-term survival rate among children, which is clearly linked with the introduction of modern treatment methods. According to data of the Childhood cancer subregistry of Belarus, a total of 6,485 cases of malignant tumors were registered in children aged 0-19 years over the period 1986 through 2005, of which 4,288 were alive as of January 1, 2006. The above data are indicative of the need for a comprehensive medical, psychological, professional and overall social rehabilitation of children who have been treated for oncological diseases. Development of a program of comprehensive rehabilitation for such children should be inherently linked with the existing principles of rehabilitation. An early startup and complex character of the rehabilitation process are particularly critical to the success. An early startup of medical, social, psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation measures helps prevent the establishment of a disability-minded personality, which, in case of positive treatment, leads to social deficiency of the child, enduring into the adulthood. The child's personality is formed under the pressure of oncologically-induce fears, excessive care by the relatives, preferential treatment, etc. which highly impacts on his/her abilities to be a full-fledged and rightful member of the society, thereby thwarting the medical outcomes. Therefore, rehabilitation of children who have survived oncological diseases should not be limited to their functional disorders

  15. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...


    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel...

  16. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...


    ... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  17. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...


    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  18. Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: A Case Study of Belarus

    Pastore, Francesco; Verashchagina, Alina


    The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian…

  19. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    Bekus, Nelly


    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  20. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.


    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  1. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Sokolova, G. N.


    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  2. Molecular characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from Gomel region, Belarus

    Tapalski, D.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hasman, Henrik;


    infection outside hospitals in the Gomel region of Belarus. Thirty-one isolates were highly similar according to PFGE and MLVA typing, were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to ceftiofur, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-5) gene. These results indicate that a common source may have been responsible for...

  3. Beyond the Limits of the European Higher Education Area: The Case of Belarus

    Gille-Belova, Olga


    All European Union (EU) member states and many former post-Soviet countries joined the Bologna Process without major obstacles during the 2000s and today belong to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The only European country which was refused membership in the EHEA was Belarus, whose demand was rejected in 2012. The case study of this…

  4. Regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Belarus: Lessons learnt and a way ahead

    The paper deals with assessment of the effectiveness of regulatory infrastructures for radiation safety in the Republic of Belarus. It identifies weaknesses and provides recommendations for improvement based, in part, on the findings of an IAEA Peer Review Mission carried out on October. (author)

  5. Here we go again: the january 2007 transit crisis between russia and Belarus

    In January 2007 Russia interrupted oil deliveries in the Druzhba (Friendship) pipeline due to a transit dispute with Belarus. Although the issue was resolved quickly and existing commercial and strategic stockpiles proved adequate, the episode had the potential to develop into a serious energy security crisis. The crux of the problem was the allocation of rents generated by Russia's oil export tax system. Because of the customs union between the two countries, this created an artificially high profitability for re- exports of oil products from Belarus. Although Belarus is generally regarded as a political ally of Russia and certainly lacks the western orientation of Ukraine's orange revolution, the accumulating transit and rent sharing revenues became sufficient to trigger a forceful action from Russia. The main significance of the Belarus episode is that it highlighted the energy security risks associated with excessive reliance of a single pipeline system. It also dispelled any hope that the January 2006 Ukraine gas crisis was a once off event. Consequently both Russia and the importing regions are expected to raise their priorities in diversifying transit routes and sources. (author)

  6. Variability of Adh, Gpdh and Sod loci in natural drosophila populations in radioactive regions in Belarus

    Genetic structure of natural drosophila populations in various regions of Belarus was analyzed by the allele frequency of Adh, Gpdh and Sod loci. Higher heterozygosity values as high S-allele frequency of superoxide dismutase were observed in populations in high radiation regions

  7. Prevention of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials (Belarus Customs) [videorecording

    With continuing technical assistance from the IAEA, Belarus begins to introduce an effective radiation control system at its borders, and a centralized information network. The video shows one road and one railway checkpoint, and the tools for the detection of ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in Mogilev region [Belarus

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the present level of radioactive situation and contamination of areas of agricultural companies with radiocesium at in Mogilev region. There were suggested methodical approaches on organizing the use of the lands in such a way as to get the minimum content of radionuclides in the manufactured products

  9. How much do tariffs matter? Evidence from the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Asel Isakova; Zsoka Koczan; Alexander Plekhanov


    This paper looks at how the formation of a customs union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia and associated changes in import schedules affected the structure of imports of the three member countries. The results suggest that the benefits of the new tariff policy to member countries are limited at best. Larger benefits could come from a gradual removal of non-tariff barriers.

  10. Belarus Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing Public Services in Times of Austerity

    World Bank


    This report is the second volume of the programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) in Belarus. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance requested that the Bank provide sequenced and targeted advice on the fiscal reform options across priority areas of the budget. Responding to this request, a programmatic PER was agreed upon. The first volume was delivered in November 2011 and focused on providin...

  11. Dynamics of radionuclide contamination of Belarus during the active stage of accident

    The scientific substantiation and the retrospective analysis of radiation situation on the territory of Re-public of Belarus up 26 April to 5 May 1986 on the basis of results of measurement of iodine-131,129; cesium-137 in environmental objects is represented in present report. (Authors)

  12. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  13. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Mandrik O


    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  14. Customs control over the transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus

    1. As it is shown in the name the main purpose of this Paper is to describe system of customs control over transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus, clarifying herewith influence of global situation on the creation of this system and noting technical needs of Customs Administration of Belarus in its activities aimed at strengthening the control system. 2. The Republic of Belarus has not the enterprises of atomic-industrial complex and does not produce radioactive and nuclear materials, so, control over them is largely connected with their transit through frontiers of Belarus and its territory. It is necessary to note, that the frontier of Belarus with the Ukraine, Poland and Baltic States is an external frontier of a Custom Union between Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. On the territory of the last three states are concentrated extraction and production of radioactive and nuclear materials, part of which can be transported by the shortest way to the European countries through the territory and frontiers of the Republic of Belarus. 3. The significant part of the republic territory suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe. In a number of the polluted regions of Belarus there were created the zones of >, the residing on them is prohibited by legislation. On those territories there were created numerous burial grounds for the conditionally radioactive and low radioactive wastes. In this connection, there is also a danger of illegal importation of various radioactive wastes from contiguous countries to these zones and burial them there. On the other hand, there are known the numerous cases of exportation of various materials, subjects, food from the polluted zones even out of Belarus. 4. Taking into account the aforesaid the Customs Administration of the Republic of Belarus as well as other public authorities, clearly recognizes the necessity of organization of an effective radiation control on

  15. “Bringing Back the Essential Meaning of the Theatre”: Harold Pinter and the Belarus Free Theatre

    Andrea Peghinelli


    Full Text Available The Belarus Free Theatre was founded in 2005 by Belarusian playwright and journalist Nikolai Khalezin and theatre producer Natalia Koliada. It is a dissident company which opposes the totalitarian regime of Lukashenko; therefore, in Belarus it must work underground. In 2005 the Belarus Free Theatre invited Tom Stoppard to Minsk. During his visit he warmly suggested that they stage Pinter’s plays: “It seems to me it’s yours.” After working on Pinter’s plays, they eventually came up with an original production: Being Harold Pinter. In my essay I delineate how, in Being Harold Pinter, Pinter’s works are shown under the reinvigorating new light of an urgent political theatre. I also discuss how the Belarus Free Theatre found a symbolic, essential and critical artistic language by which, “they are bringing back the essence meaning of the theatre,” as Pinter remarked.

  16. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-


    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  17. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6


    B. M. Khrоustalev; V. N. Romaniuk; V. A. Sednin; A. A. Bobich; D. B. Muslina; T. V. Bubyr


    Considers the current key energy problem – the rational and efficient use of energy resources, and the possibility of its solution, based on the concept of intensive energy conservation. As a result, the way of primary energy consumption reduction in Belarus is provided. The initial situation in the frame of program of further improvement of energy consumption until 2030 is estimated. It is shown, that for Belarus the first place in energy saving measures takes the efficiency improvement of n...

  19. Reconstruction of 131I radioactive contamination dynamics in belarus due to Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    The calculations of 131I radioactive contamination in the 3 most contaminated regions of Belarus are carried out using the Lagrangian-Eulerian atmospheric transport LEDI model. Verification of the obtained results is made on the base of 131I activity measurements in soil of 534 settlements in Belarus during the initial period of the accident. The input of radionuclides wet deposition processes due to rains and fogs has been evaluated in the period of radioactivity releases from the Chornobyl NPP.

  20. Iodine-131 distribution on the territory of the Republic of Belarus during the first period of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    To reconstruct space distribution of iodine-131 on the territory of Belarus we used the following data: (i) contents of iodine-131 in soil measured by gamma spectrometry method in May-July, 1986; (ii) contents of iodine-131 in samples of radioactive atmospheric fall-outs measured by gamma spectrometry method in May, 1986; (iii) daily measurements of exposure dose power levels on the territory of Belarus obtained in April-July, 1986; (iv) results of aerial gamma radiation mapping, obtained in May, 1986; (v) daily measurements of radioactive contamination of milk on the territory of Belarus obtained in May-July, 1986; (vi) measurements of iodine-131 content in links of biological chain 'soil-grass-milk' sampled from 15 reference farms; (vii) maps of specific activity of natural hayfields grass on the territory of Belarus (for every district) obtained on June 2 and 5, on July 3, 1986. Dose commitments on thyroid gland caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2.5 months after the accident. Local irradiation of this organ was stipulated by high accumulation factor of iodine isotopes in thyroid gland that caused increasing of malignant thyroid tumors incidences, including children, on all over the territory of Belarus. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland tumor incidences among children on the territory of Belarus map shows that the more level of iodine contamination the more malignant thyroid gland tumor incidence

  1. Forecast and retrospective estimations of the Chernobyl gamma background on the Belarus territory

    Forecast and retrospective estimations of a time dependence of an gamma-radiation exposition doze rate on the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are detected. The decrease of the exposition dose rate in different reference points of Belarus is experimentally investigated. The points are chosen from reasons of stability to erosion processes and to anthropogenal activity. The decrease of exposition dose rate after Chernobyl accident is described by the piecewise exponential dependences with different parameters for three temporary intervals: first three month - strong decrease, following four year - smooth exponential decrease and subsequent period - relative stabilization of the exposition dose rate. These dependencies permit to execute retrospective and forecast estimation of the exposition dose rate. 15 refs., 2 figs

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  3. Improvement in Quality of Initial Fuel Usage in Power System of Republic of Belarus

    B. Khroustalev


    Full Text Available The paper considers a potential, energy and economic efficiency of joint activities of enterprises of the Ministry of Energy sector and enterprises of the material sector of the economic complex of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of the methodology for intensive energy saving. Such calculated values as annual savings of natural gas in Belarus – up to 1 million tons of fuel equivalent, release investment for the Ministry of Energy – up to 1 billion USD, range for changes in electricity generation during a day - up to 1 GW with a specific consumption of fuel equivalent – 160 g/(kWh have been determined while taking thermal technology of asphalt concrete mixture production and regulation of electricity generation as an example. Fuel saving system and investment return create preconditions for realization of the project by private investors.


    A. V. Bolshakova


    The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of...

  5. Sanitation of children from the ecologically unfavourable zones of the Republic of Belarus

    An assessment of the effectiveness of the sanitation of 186 children living permanently in unfavourable environmental conditions is given. 128 children from that group were treated on lake Baikal, 18 - in Italy, and 40 - in Belarus. The treatment on lake Baikal turned out to be more effective than that in Italy. It contributed to improving of endocrine glands functioning and of the immune system indices, to reducing the radioactivity doze accumulated in the organism. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Report of the Chernobyl state committee of the Republic of Belarus

    The report of Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus contents the results of investigation of Chernobyl accident consequences in several fields of human existence, namely: the environment contamination control especially with long-lived radionuclides, the medical consequences for people and protective measures proposals, agroradiological investigations. To improve the effectiveness of measures designed to combat the consequences of the accident and to create safe living conditions for people the State Programme up to 2000 has been worked out

  7. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs


    Borishpolets, Ksenia; Chernyavsky, Stanislav


    On 1 January, 2012, the official opening of the Common Economic Space (CES) of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, which moved customs control to the outer border of the Customs Union (CU) in July 2011, launched a qualitatively new stage in integration development in the post-Soviet expanse. The objective conditions for consolidating economic cooperation among the three countries have long emerged, the technical work, in the best interests of all the partners concerned, has been carried out, and...

  9. Language and Identity in Transforming Borderlands (Case of North-West Belarus

    Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh


    Full Text Available The North-West region of Belarus as an ethno-cultural bordering area demonstrates the tendency towards linguistic homogeneity with the sustainability of the identities of its communities. On the basis of a constructivistic approach the models of the identification process in the region are grounded. In the framework of these models the opportunities of interpretation of the present-day linguistic structure and specificity of linguistic processes are revealed. 

  10. The Outcome of Directed Lending in Belarus: Mitigating Recession or Dampening Long-Run Growth?

    Kruk Dzmitry; Haiduk Kiryl


    This study analyzes the effects of directed lending upon total factor productivity and GDP growth in Belarus over the period of 2000–2012. In theory, directed lending can enhance physical capital accumulation and make the access to credit easier, but empirical studies often show that it leads to unproductive hoarding of capital and financing of lower-yielding projects. This study seeks to explore which of these effects has dominated in the Belarusian economy during a last decade. We find that...

  11. Belarus-Rußland: Divergenzen über den Charakter des gemeinsamen 'Unionsstaates'

    Timmermann, Heinz


    Ende 1998 hatten die Präsidenten Lukaschenko und Jelzin beschlossen, bis Mitte 1999 einen Vertragsentwurf auszuarbeiten, der die Union Belarus-Rußland zu einem vertraglich fixierten Unionsstaat ausbauen sollte. Aufgrund von prinzipiellen Divergenzen über dessen Charakter und Ziele mußten die Termine jedoch wiederholt verschoben werden, und es ist fraglich, ob es in naher Zukunft überhaupt zu engeren vertraglichen Vereinbarungen kommen wird. Politisch wehrt sich Moskau gegen das Minsker Bestre...

  12. Obsolete Pesticides (POPs) in the Republic of Belarus: Inventory, Monitoring and Environmental Impact Assessment

    Sazonova, Volha; Kuzmin, Saveli; Babko, Alexej


    The Republic of Belarus has significant stockpiles of obsolete pesticides created during 1970th and 1980th. Pesticides are placed both in aboveground warehouses and underground storages. Underground storages do not prevent leakage of pesticides into environment, first of all groundwater. Investigations carried out by Belarusian Scientific & Research Center Ecology revealed presence of pesticides in groundwater near all existing underground storages and even up to...

  13. Methodology and results of the pioneering to choice localities for NPP on the territories of Belarus

    On the base of investigations and pioneering works two favorite areas and six competitive ones for NPP in the east part of Belarus were chosen. The competitive areas answer the requirements of safety placement for NPP with power before 4000 MW by the seismologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, aerometeorologic and other terms. On totality of natural, demographic and ecological properties the Krasnopolyanskaya area in the Bykhov region is priority for NPP


    V. N. Romaniuk; A. A. Bobich


    The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known ...

  15. WP 96 - An overview of women's work and employment in Belarus

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Williams, M. J.; Nuria Ramos Martin


    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Belarus on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and...


    M. M. Oleshkevich; A. S. Rudenia


    The paper investigates technical and economic indices (specific capital inputs, construction period, pay-off period, possible economically substantiated generation of electric power) of electric power plants using renewable energy sources under climatic conditions ofBelarus. The indices have been compared with the data of nuclear power engineering. The most efficient directions are wind and biomass power engineering. In accordance with its technical and economic and ecological indices the bio...

  17. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

  18. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  19. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  20. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  1. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.


    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  2. Development of System Regulating and Support for Nuclear Security in Belarus

    A safeguards strengthening in Belarus is realized as complex for measures of legal authorities building, advance staff education and international cooperation. The main scope of complex coordinated activities is to provide the sustainable development of national regulatory system and support for current and future challenges in a more globalized world to assure relevant safeguards measures and implements, to get the sustainable international and regional cooperation. Collected and implemented information and knowledge, analytical thinking of involved specialists will improve cooperation between IAEA and States to optimize technical support and experience exchange. Some authorities are responsible in regulating and oversighting for nuclear security in Belarus. The main challenge of national system development is realization the conception of effective coordination. The nuclear regulatory authority (the Ministry for Emergency Situations/ Gosatomnadzor) has the responsibility either to build up own technical capabilities for detailed review and assessment of processes and activities of the NPP operator or to make sure that a technical support organization equipped with sufficient knowledge and structural capabilities is involved in assessment and analysis of processes at all phases of the NPP use. There is developed the conception for creation of analytical and technical support laboratory including both stationary and mobile equipment and techniques for nuclear security prevention and control measures and arrangements. It is actually the realization of conception the Joint Center for Nuclear Security Competence in Belarus for national and cooperational purposes. The implementation of strengthening plans and put-up arrangements will lead to integrated regulatory activities in order to allow practical optimization of the resources to get benefits from exchange of experience and issues from safety analysis and oversighting as synergy effect. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  4. The restoration of radioactive-contaminated territories of Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    After Chernobyl catastrophes the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of a environment and prognosis it of restoring. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of a exposure gamma-ray dose in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The numerical prognosis shows, that the restoring of this magnitude lakes before catastrophe is possible to expect approximately in 65 years. The map of contamination of Belarus by Cs-137 was constructed about use Geo Information System based of results of monitoring, which are introduced in an automated data bank. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs-137 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of dynamics of squares of contamination more than 37 kBq/sq.m for period 1986 - 2046 shows: The square of initial contamination (1986) by Cs-137 more than 37 kBq/sq.m was equaled 23,7 %; In 30 years (2016) squares of contamination will make approximately 16 %, i.e. will decrease in 1,5 on a comparison 1986; In 60 years (2046) squares of contamination will make approximately 10 %, i.e. will decrease in 2,4 on a comparison 1986. The prognosis of space distribution of activity Am-241 in Belarus shows, that the high levels of contamination will be in 30-km to a zone Chernobyl NPP and on around territories, where the population lives. Maximum volumes the activity of Am-241 will achieve to 2060 and will exceed activity of Pu-238,239,240 approximately in 2 times

  5. Dynamics of state of Belarus children health living under ecologically unfavorable conditions

    The outcomes of a cohort prospective complex clinico-laboratory examination of children living on the Republic of Belarus territories varying by their radiation levels and ecologic characteristics were analyzed. The morbidity relative risk was determined to be higher in those children. The data stratification by the time factor confirmed that the risk remained permanent in various age groups. The studies fulfilled allowed to suppose that the children's endoecologic status worsening was one of the major causes of the children morbidity increase for it led to changes in the cellular membranes structural and functional state of the systems and organs activity regulation neurohumoral mechanisms violation resulting in development of ecologic disadaptation syndrome (authors)

  6. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m2). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where 137Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m2. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in the process of rehabilitation of living

  7. Study of temperature regime in Belarus according to the COSMO model simulations

    Partasenok, Irina; Geyer, Beate; Groisman, Pavel; Melnik, Victor


    Long-term time series of meteorological and hydrological observations for the 1900-2012 period provide information about climatic fluctuations in Belarus. In particular, significant transformation of the temperature regime in Belarus has been observed only since 1970s, and since 1989 the rate of these changes has increased. We used simulations of the COSMO model in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM or CCLM) for detailed assessment of climatic transformations in Belarus. CCLM is a non-hydrostatic regional climate model developed from the Local Model (LM) of the German Meteorological Service by the CLM-community. The Model output (produced at the Institute of Coastal Research of HZG; the coastDatII dataset) gives a consistent and homogeneous database used for assessment of weather statistics and climate changes for the 1948 - 2012 period with spatial grid size of 0.22° in rotated coordinates. NCEP1 global reanalysis was used in simulations as forcing and boundary conditions. The observed gridded data (E-Obs v10.0; surface air temperature and precipitation) were used for verification of the model performance. We calculated mean seasonal temperature over Belarus for the 1955-2012 and 1981-2012 periods of significant transformation of the Belorussian climate. The calculations showed differences in the coastDatII and E-Obs varied within the ±0.6 to 2oC range depending on the season. We found the largest deviations in winter (by 1.7 to 2.0oC). In spring the differences were within the 0.8 to1.0oC range, in summer within the 0.6-0.8oC range and in autumn they were about 1.0 to 1.3oC. For both periods, annual mean regional values differ by 0.9oC. In the annual cycle, the E-Obs values were higher than coastDatII temperatures except the summer season, when the CCLM-derived temperatures exceed the observations. Comparison of seasonal temperature ranges shows a lesser amplitude in CCLM than in E-Obs. Estimates of annual temperature trends for the 1955-2012 period according to the E

  8. Rußland-Belarus : Die Zweier-Union im Zeichen von Konzeptions- und Interessendivergenzen

    Timmermann, Heinz


    Ende Dezember 1998 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten Jelzin und Lukaschenko in Moskau eine 'Erklärung über die weitere Vereinigung von Belarus und Rußland'. Den Kern des Dokuments bildet die Absicht, den Prozeß des Zusammenschlusses beider Länder zu einem Unionsstaat mit supranationalen Organen voranzutreiben, allerdings unter prinzipieller Wahrung der nationalen Souveränität der Partner. Angestrebt wird die Schaffung gleicher Rahmenbedingungen für die Wirtschaft, nicht zuletzt als Voraussetzun...

  9. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    Lawvere Silvana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  10. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)


    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  11. Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident

    Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors

  12. Energy policy of the former Soviet Union republics by the example of Belarus and Azerbaijan

    There was a centralized energy supply policy of the former Soviet republics before the collapse of the USSR. After that these republics became independent states, the situation changed dramatically. Now each country has become forced to conduct its own energy policies. Some countries like Belarus were without significant domestic fuel and energy resources, others such as Azerbaijan, became the exporters of energy resources. Both categories of states set themselves first of all two main objectives: economic growth and energy security. Key words: energy policy, energy security, energy efficiency, diversity of supply


    Liu, W.Y.


    Full Text Available This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ cooperation.

  14. Dynamics of radioactive pollution of atmospheric air on the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    The dynamics of atmospheric air radioactive pollution on the territory of Belarus in the first period (April-May 1986) after the catastrophe on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant has been considered. Dynamics of gamma-radiation exposure dose rate in several towns of the Republic for the period 1986-1993 has been presented. Average monthly values of total beta activity in near earth layer of the atmosphere in Brest, Gomel, Mozyr, Minsk, Mogilev for the period 1987-1989 have been given. The atmospheric air pollution by caesium-137 and strontium-90 in Mozyr, Gomel and Mogilev have also been shown. (author)

  15. Gametogenesis of pikes (Esox lucius L.) in condition of radioactive contamination of water reservoirs of Belarus

    The results of histological analysis of pike oocytes (Esox lucius L.) from a radioactive contaminated water reservoirs of Belarus part of Chernobyl zone are described. The oocyte degenerative alterations (irregular cell shape, change of oocyte envelope structure) in the investigated fish from the water reservoirs with different level of radioactive contamination (Perstok and Smerzhov lakes) were identified. Some slight breaches in growth and development of gonad's cells were revealed in pikes from river Pripyat' aquatic system with relatively low level of radioactive contamination in places of fishing. It was concluded that the revealed morphology functional changes in gonads of fish were connected with the level of radioactive contamination of environment

  16. Genetic monitoring of natural drosophila populations in radiation contaminated regions of Belarus

    The genetic monitoring of natural Drosophila melanogaster populations inhabiting regions of Belarus with different levels of contamination after the reactor accidents at the Chernobylsk NPP (Vetka and Svetilovichi villages) as compared with populations from the Berezinsky biosphere reserve (the control area) is carried out. The dominant and recessive lethal mutations levels and the genetic structure of populations are analyzed for frequencies of F- and S-alleles of alcohol dehydrogenase,glycerinophosphate dehydrogenase and superoxidase dismutase loci. Populations inhabiting contamination regions demonstrate higher frequency of lethal mutations and higher heterozygosity than those from the control area. The nonspecific adaptation of Drosophila populations from contaminated villages of the Gomel region is reveled


    P. G. Nikitenko


    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 


    Elena ACULAI


    Full Text Available The SME sector covers economic operators that substantially differ by many parameters: size of enterprises, types of activity, etc., including entrepreneurs’ characteristics – their ethnic, gender, age and other peculiarities. The specificity of different groups of enterprises and entrepreneurs is important both for attracting attention of the society to their problems and for the elaboration of business regulation policy on local, national and international levels. The purpose of the paper is investigation of characteristics of female entrepreneurship in some countries with transition economy – Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus. In particular, possibilities of women–entrepreneurs to access different types of resources are presented, peculiarities of women’s character that influence the entrepreneurial activity are elucidated, need of governmental assistance to women that initiate and develop own business is examined. Common characteristics and some peculiarities in the female business development in the three countries are outlined. The investigation is based on results of questionings and interviews with women – owners and managers of enterprises, first of all, SMEs, from Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  19. Concept and problems on modernization of existing points for radioactive waste disposal in Belarus

    At present Belarus has no operating nuclear power plants (NPP) on its territory, the works with fissile materials carried out at the available nuclear and physical benches have been stopped. But not long ago a research reactor IRT-M with the capacity of 5000 kw was under operation from 1962 to 1986 at the Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, now reorganized (located in Sosny settlement, 10 kilometers from Minsk-city), and a prototype of a small-sized mobile NPP with electric capacity of 630 kw was tested in 1985-1987, as well as a whole complex of nuclear and technical benches were into service, such as large-scale reactor loop plants for testing fuel elements and critical assemblies. About 1000 industrial, medical, scientific and research institutions use radioactive materials and the devices containing them in Belarus. Annually about 8000 kg of RAW and 6000 units of the spent sources of ionizing radiation (SIR) are generated by these enterprises which are to be obligatory disposed. Annual disposal of such RAW and SIR constitutes 10-50 tons with activity of 1-5).103 Ci. The paper presents the recommendations on extraction, reprocessing and conditioning of radioactive waste from the existing storages when PDWD reconstruction which have been developed with using the created computer database on the stored RAW

  20. Optimal electricity generation system expansion and nuclear power option in Belarus

    After having declared independence, the Republic of Belarus was forced to import 90% of fuel consumed and 25% of electricity. The deficit of peak electric capacity reached 40%. The imported fuel covers the last years because the drop in the production reduced the energy consumption in the Republic but not the needs of the energy sector. Annual payments for imported fuel and electricity are equal to the sum of an annual state budget of Belarus (about 1.5 billion USD) and current debts were not lower 300 million. Comparative analysis of the different scenarios of the electricity generation system expansion showed that an optimum way for electricity generation is installation of the combine cycle units and construction nuclear power plants. The results of the study also showed that the option based on replacement of deficit of the electricity generation by the way of the construction combine cycle units with capacities 450 MW turned out to be the best solution among non nuclear options. (author)

  1. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on a rural population in Belarus

    In a recent research endeavour under programme ECP9 (transfer of radionuclides to animals, their comparative importance under different agricultural system and appropriate countermeasures) three distinct sites in the Republics of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus were selected for detailed radioecological study. The objective of this investigation was to identify the sources of radiocesium and radiostrontium intake to a specific segment of the population, i.e. subsistence farmers residing in areas where high contamination levels persist after the Chernobyl accident. The results was obtained from the District of Bragin in Belarus. Contamination levels in foodstuffs produced in the selected site were assessed by means of two approaches using a geographical modelling approach of estimating contamination levels in food products through deposition information and transfer parameters, and via direct measurements of activity levels in foodstuffs from private households. This information was combined with food consumption rates derived from dietary surveys on the population of the area in order to calculate radiocesium and radiostrontium intake. The results were then compared to data from whole body activity measurements

  2. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  3. Updating Variants Pertaining to Small Capacity Power-and-Heat Supply Sources in the Republic of Belarus

    A. V. Sednin


    Full Text Available Thermal power stations of small capacity in the Belarus power system are sources of heat supply in the heat supply systems of some cities or urban districts with 100% electric power generation using heat consumption. Presently it is necessary to find optimum technical solutions concerning their reconstruction.

  4. Updating Variants Pertaining to Small Capacity Power-and-Heat Supply Sources in the Republic of Belarus

    A. V. Sednin; M. L. Bogdanovich


    Thermal power stations of small capacity in the Belarus power system are sources of heat supply in the heat supply systems of some cities or urban districts with 100% electric power generation using heat consumption. Presently it is necessary to find optimum technical solutions concerning their reconstruction.

  5. Primary care reform in Central and Eastern Europe: can Belarus be taken as the control group in international comparison?

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Rousovich, V.S.; Schellevis, F.G.; Egorov, K.


    Background: Health care reform proceeds differently in Belarus. The country has not followed trends visible in most other countries. Financing and provision of health care is still in the hands of the state. Health insurance funds are unknown, private practices are rare and operating outside the sys

  6. Communication of 18 June 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    The following documents received on 18 June 1996 from the Resident Representative of Belarus are reproduced here: the 'Appeal to States Members of the United Nations on the tenth anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant' signed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the 'Resolution of the European Parliament on the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident'

  7. Collection of regulations, methodical, administrative documents of the Republic of Belarus in field of radiation monitoring and protection. 4. ed.

    The collection contents regulations, methodical, administrative documents of the Republic of Belarus in field of radiation monitoring and protection which need for authority bodies, checking bodies, specialists of radiation monitoring and control - lows, government regulations, standards of contamination levels for food, agriculture and medical raw materials, peat and wood, hygienic rules and standards of sample preparation

  8. The analysis of the emergency preparedness categories to a radiation emergency on radiation facilities in the Republic of Belarus

    The activities which can lead to the nuclear or radiological emergencies in the territory of the Belarus has been considered. The activities have been break up into the five emergency preparedness categories that were suggested in accordance with the nuclear or radiological emergency consequences. (authors)

  9. 25 years after Chernobyl NPP accident: experience and trends of radioactive contaminated soils rehabilitation in Belarus - 59242

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the developed and applied soil decontamination measures and methods in Belarus after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It is considered the possibility of using of organo-mineral amendments based on natural raw materials (sapropel) and industrial wastes (hydrolyzed lignin, clay-salt slimes) for rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated soils. (author)

  10. Soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone

    In the paper results of soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone are presented. It is shown that more than 70% of the Belarusian territory of 30-km NPP zone occupies soils in which mobility Cs 137 is low or moderated. (authors)

  11. The results of population neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism reflect the effect of iodine prophylaxes in Belarus

    N B Gusina


    Full Text Available Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and before the introduction of neonatal screening programs it was one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. CH has the incidence of about 1:3000 newborns in different populations. In Belarus the population neonatal screening for CH has been performing since 1991. By the beginning of 2010 1320580 newborns were screened, and 201 cases of CH were diagnosed. The frequency of CH was estimated as 1:6570. The most common cause of CH in Belarus is thyroid hypoplasia. Neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level is a sensitive marker of iodine deficiency, so the neonatal screening results can be used for monitoring the population iodine prophylaxes programs. In 90-th, the primary positive rate in neonatal screening for CH was 0.65–5.2% for different regions of Belarus with cut-off level of 25 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L was noticed in 50% of screened newborns. In the 21-th century the number of primary positives diminished to 0.01–0.02% with cut-off level of 15 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L is noticed in 8.9% of screened newborns. The results of population neonatal screening for CH reflect the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxes programs run in Belarus in the 21-th century.

  12. Mission Report on the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR), 18-29 June 2012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. Counterpart: Ministry of Energy

    In a letter dated 23 November 2011, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Organizations in Vienna requested the IAEA to carry out an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission (INIR). The Republic of Belarus (hereafter Belarus) also provided their self-evaluation report (in Russian and English) entitled: Report on the Assessment of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus. After preparatory activities, the INIR mission was conducted from 18 to 29 June 2012 in Minsk and represents an evaluation of the development status of the infrastructure issues described in the Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). The methodology for the evaluation is described in Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-3.2). Given the status of Belarus's programme, the mission covered conditions for both Phases 1 and 2. Belarus began its preparations for nuclear power in the 1980s but stopped after the Chernobyl accident. In July 2006, after strategic energy planning activities, Belarus decided to again consider the possibility of introducing nuclear power into the national energy mix. Subsequently on September 17, 2007, The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus was approved by the Decree No. 433 of the President and included a plan to commission two nuclear power units with total power capacity of 2000 MWe by 2020. The Resolution of the Security Council of Belarus in 2008 approved the construction. The Law on the Use of Atomic Energy in Belarus was adopted on July 30, 2008 and provides the legal basis for safe nuclear power development. In 2009, the Master Plan of Key Organizational Measures for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant was adopted. The mission team concluded that the Government of Belarus has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to

  13. Dynamics of cytogenetic injuries in natural populations of bank vole in the Republic of Belarus

    The frequencies of different types of mutation as well as radionuclide content in bank vole populations in regions of Belarus with various densities of radiocontamination were studied. There were approximately 12-18 generations of animals over the period 1986-1991. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of animals in the most contaminated stations (90 and 1524 kBq.m-2 for 137Cs) remained at high level during this period. The frequencies of genomic mutations (polyploid cells) gradually rose until 1991. Since the radiation load on vole populations was reduced by 1991, it can be stated that there is higher sensitivity of the hereditary apparatus of somatic cells of subsequent animal generations in comparison with ones prior to the Chernobyl fallout. In other words, there is no genetic adaptation to the mutagenic effect of low level radioisotope radiation for the whole investigation period in natural populations of bank vole. (Author)

  14. The radioecological monitoring of the fishes in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e

    It was conducted radioecological monitoring of some fish species in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e with different level of radioactive contamination. The content of cesium 134 and 137 exceeded permissible level in muscle of perch and roach from the Chernobyl NPP 30 km area in 2-4 times. The fishes from the lake Perstok was characterized by high content of cesium radionuclides in organs and tissues, it was higher than in the control in 17-40 times for tench, in 25-30 times for crucian and in 30-50 times for pike. It was revealed the disorder of gametogenesis in studied female fishes. Germinative cells of male fishes were more resistant in comparison with oocytes. Fertility of perches in the lake Perstok was less than the one in the river Pripyat', that was possible to be connected with degenerative changes in fish germinative cells

  15. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  16. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    Partasenok, Irina S.; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Chekan, Grigoriy S.; Melnik, Viktor I.


    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers.

  17. Knowledge of the inhabitants of Belarus on the radiation and power problems

    The anonymous questionnaire of the inhabitants living in various regions of Belarus and having different age and level of education ha been done. The poll has been carried out aiming at definition of a general radiation erudition, as well as revealing the knowledge of the population about the effect of power stations (nuclear and thermal) on the environment and the health of a human being. The analysis of answers shows that people have a rather vague idea in the sphere considered. The analysis of the questionnaires shows that women are informed worse than men about the problems on radiation subjects. The investigation carried out has shown what problems on nuclear power (and radiation safety) should be given the more serious consideration when working with population, especially with women's audience, in order to raise the level of accepting nuclear power as the necessary source of energy. (author)

  18. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  19. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  20. BRCA mutations in women from Belarus exposed to radiation from Chernobyl compared to controls

    Full text: There are several reports of studies that suggest a causal association between exposure to ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, there has been a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after radiation exposure, especially among those who were exposed as young children and living in the areas with the greatest contamination. One early report found that women exposed to radiation from Chernobyl had a slight, but significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer. No other data are reported about additional risks for the development of breast cancer in this population. With funding from a NIH R03 grant application and the Child Health International Foundation, we are investigating the molecular epidemiology of breast cancer in Belarusian women exposed at ages < 40 years to high radiation doses from the Chernobyl accident compared to controls for the common Eastern European BRCA 1/2 mutations. As occurred 20+ years after exposure of Japanese women exposed to radiation fallout from atomic bombs in 1945, we expect to find a sustained increase in breast cancer for the coming decade and longer. We accomplished nearly all of the following objectives in the evaluation of Belarusian women with breast cancer and controls who were exposed to sustained high doses of ionizing radiation in 1986. When our US collaborators visited the Republic of Belarus, they (a) met with Belarusian consultants, co-investigators, other health care professionals and administrators and developed a formal collaboration to study breast cancer, BRCA mutations and radiation exposure; (b) recruited Belarusian cancer epidemiologists, Chernobyl radiation dosimetrists, and cancer registry/database management personnel; (c) began a collaboration with the Director of Breast Cancer Surgery for the Republic of Belarus and met several breast cancer specialists in surgery and oncology under his direction; and (d) met medical directors

  1. The neuro-muscular system in fresh-water furcocercaria from Belarus. I Schistosomatidae.

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S


    The neuro-muscular system (NMS) in cercariae of the family Schistosomatidae from Belarus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The specimens of Bilharziella polonica were compared with Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia franki. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors and nerves were investigated. No indications of structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR, FMRF-IR neuronal elements and the general distribution of sensory receptors were noticed between cercariae of Trichobilharzia spp. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies is 16. In cercaria B. polonica, the tail musculature is weaker than in Trichobilharzia spp. A detailed schematic picture of the NMS in the tail of Trichobilharzia spp. cercaria is given. The function of NMS elements in the tail is discussed. PMID:21614541

  2. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    Full text: On the 26th of April 1986 an accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP took place. The accident became known to the whole world as a Chernobyl catastrophe. By its scale, by complexity of global problems stipulated by the accident, by long-term consequences it is the largest and the gravest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy application. After Chernobyl catastrophe the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of an environment and prognosis in future. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of an exposure gamma-rates in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The results of monitoring show, that exposure gamma-rates decreases in a result of processes of natural radioactive decay and vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. The results of monitoring of exposure gamma-rates allow to make the prognosis and to calculate a year, when exposure gamma-rates will be equal to levels before the catastrophe on ChNPP. The numerical prognosis shows, that in Bragin town exposure gamma-rates will be equal to level before the catastrophe on ChNPP approximately after 65 years, in Slavgorod and Chechersk towns - after 23-24 years. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs- 37 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of the evolution of area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986 - 2046 shows: - In 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will be approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease with a factor 1,5 in comparison with 1986; - In 60 years (2046) contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. will decrease with a factor 2

  3. External gamma-dose rates delivered from the Chernobyl fallout in Belarus

    The γ-dose rates in air were measured in time at various reference sites which had different environmental characteristics. It appears that the dose rate had fallen off from its peak value and more or less stabilized by the end of 1990. The model presented describes this behaviour and fits the experimental data well. All the study sites are subdivided into four groups according to the dose-decrease time constants which range between 2.9 and 7.1 years. Causes of such different temporal decreases at various sites are discussed. Dose commitment conversion factors were computed which allow estimation of external dose commitments at every site for various time periods. The findings may be applicable to other sites in Belarus with similar climate and landscape characteristics

  4. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers. (paper)

  5. Radiation situation on the territory of the republic of belarus in post-Chernobyl period

    The analysis of radioactive pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus is presented. Dynamics and the forecast of radiation conditions in the settlements in zones of radioactive pollution is given. Change of average annual effective doses of irradiation of the inhabitants living on the territory of radioactive pollution is analysed. The grouping of administrative areas according to degree of pollution of farmlands 137Cs and 90Sr is conducted. Depending on relative density of the polluted lands as a part of farmlands four groups of areas are allocated – with weak, average, strong and very strong degree of pollution. Dynamics of agricultural production with the maintenance above permitted standard of radionuclide pollution is presented. (authors)

  6. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of 137Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down's syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author)

  7. Safety aspects related to the radioactively contaminated forest areas in Belarus

    Doses currently received in Belarus through various pathways related to the contamination of forests are evaluated through calculations. A major pathway is, as expected, generally found to be the external radiation from a contaminated forest floor. Also other pathways may in some cases be highly significant. Generally, it is found that the dose contributions to people spending time in the contaminated forest or consuming forest products are highest, whereas for instance doses received from domestic use of fire-wood are found to be negligible. Recommendations for storage of waste from combustion plants fired with radioactive forest material are also given, together with an estimate of the specific activity of the waste to be disposed of

  8. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  9. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons


    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of C. diphtheriae strains during different phases of the diphtheria epidemic in Belarus

    Grimont Patrick AD


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. Methods The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996–2005 was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. Results The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996–2000, was "replaced" by the mitis biotype during 2001–2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996 to 5.8% (2005. Changes in the distribution of the epidemic ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija were also observed. During 2001–2005 the proportion of the Sankt-Peterburg ribotype decreased from 24.3% to 2.3%, in contrast to the Rossija ribotype, that increased from 25.1% to 49.1%. The circulation of other toxigenic ribotypes (Otchakov, Lyon, Bangladesh, which were prevalent during the period of high diphtheria incidence, also decreased. But at the same time, the proportion of non-toxigenic strains with the Cluj and Rossija ribotypes dramatically increased and accounted for 49.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusion The decrease in morbidity correlated with the dramatic decrease in the isolation of the gravis biotype and Sankt Peterburg ribotype, and the prevalence of the Rossija ribotype along with other rare ribotypes associated with non-toxigenic strains (Cluj and Rossija, in particular.

  11. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  12. On the long-term evaluation of post-Chernobyl dose burdens in Korma county (Belarus)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 the development of environmental contamination and population doses was investigated by several national and international institutions. In 1991 a German three-year measuring campaign was started. The results concerning the ingestion dose by in-vivo monitoring had shown that the international annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a had only been exceeded in less than 2% of all 317,000 measured cases. In following years the expected downward trend of mean annual doses did not occur and internal doses did not continue to decrease or even increased. Therefore, several small follow-up studies were initiated in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. One of these studies is the Korma Project in Belarus, where two municipalities in Korma county were selected for further investigations: Vornovka, a purely agricultural municipality with the villages of Vornovka and Vissokoe, and Volincy, an agricultural and forestal municipality with the inhabited villages of Volincy, Kljapin and Kljapinskaja-Buda. The ground contamination of these two areas was between 300 kBq/m2 and 630 kBq/m2 in 1991. In contrast to Vornovka the municipality of Volincy is surrounded by a contaminated forest area and isolated from the main part of Korma county by a highly contaminated evacuation zone along the river Sosch. First results were envisaged in May 2000. The study was finished last year and the results of these measurements are presented here. They are representative for smaller villages where people provide their families with locally produced food, which is in these higher contaminated districts more common than elsewhere. Today prevention measures including food restrictions installed shortly after the accident are increasingly ignored due to the poor economic situation

  13. Development of infrastructure for epidemiological studies in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 raised worldwide concern about the health effects of the radiation fallout. International collaborations were established between scientist; to investigate the long-term consequences of the accident. However, lack of knowledge abut the mechanisms of data collection and the quality of basic epidemiological tools, such as mortality and cancer incidence, has been recognized as a major limitation for the conduct of epidemiological investigations according to international standards in the Newly Independent States (NIS). In the framework of a collaboration which aims to develop and implement epidemiological infrastructure in Belarus, the Russian Federation and he Ukraine, a survey on cancer registration techniques was conducted. A system of compulsory reporting of all new cases of cancer was introduced in 1953 throughout hie former Soviet Union for health planning purposes. This cancer registration system, however, was developed entirely independent from similar activities in other parts of hie World. In each of the countries surveyed, a nationwide network of regional dispensary-based cancer registries exists. Cancer registration in the NIS relies on passive reporting from hospital and laboratory sources. Death certificates are searched actively. Whereas: in Belarus and the Ukraine computerized cancer registration has been developed in recent years, cancer registration in most areas of the Russian Federation is still a manual operation. Although computerization was identified as the major objective in all tree countries, further efforts are required to assess the completeness and the quality of the information collected. The introduction of internationally recognized classifications wold considerably improve the comparability with registries in other parts of the World. In addition to preparing annual statistics for health planning purposes, cancer registries should consider reporting cancer incidence for research purposes following


    V. N. Romaniuk


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  15. Analysis of Engineering Pricing System in Belarus%白俄罗斯工程造价体系解析

    李锐娟; 王玉平; 田京精


    对白俄罗斯工程计价体系和局部预算作详细介绍。在此基础上,以明斯克国际机场飞行区工程为实例进行预算体系说明,旨在为中国建筑企业开拓白俄罗斯市场提供技术支持。%The paper introduces Belarus engineering cost system and engineering quota in details. On this basis, illustrates the budget system of airfield area of Minsk International Airport,in order to provide technical support for Chinese constructors to explore Belarus construction market.

  16. Radioecological problems of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the ways of their solution

    The data on the scale of contamination of Belarus with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident are given. The overall contaminated areas with radiation density of caesium-137 exceeding 3.7 * 10-circumflex 4 Bq/ amount to 46,5 thousands of square kilometers. It is shown, that in 1993 the radioactivity at the territory of Belarus accounts for more than 3.7 * 10-circumflex 16 Bq. The paper presents the characteristics of the main contributors to the radiological situation. The characterization of the patterns of contamination of soil, water systems, forests is considered. The paper gives the organizing structure of control over the processes of elimination of the post-effects of the Chernobyl accident. The need for urgent development of the project for changing the contaminated territories into ecologically safe system is indicated. The suggestions on organizing the International Safety System against accidents at potentially hazardous industrial enterprises are given. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Estimation and forecast of the radiation situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl NNP catastrophe

    During 10 years after the accident et the ChNPP the large amounts of the date on the content of radionuclides in the soil have been collected, using the network of the radiation monitoring stations. In the after-accident period, the aerial photography of the territory of Belarus has been done, all populated areas have been investigated, including the agricultural and forest areas. The information has been processed with use of the geoinformation RECASS system of construction of maps of distribution of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes on the territory of the Republic. The maps of the distribution of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes on the territory of Belarus after the accident have been presented. (author)


    K. P. Kozel


    Full Text Available There are definite criteria that help to classify individual entrepreneurs and organizations as small and medium business categories. Definition of an economic management subject as a small enterprise and an individual entrepreneur provides possibilities to obtain tax privileges and other preferences in some countries.The paper considers peculiar features of criteria that allow to define an economic management subject as a small and medium business in Belarus, Russia and Poland. Comparison has been carried out according to such criteria as average manpower, type of economic activity, annual turnover, purpose of the activity and founder staff.The comparative analysis has made it possible to reveal similar features and significant differences between criteria used for definition of small entrepreneurship in the above-mentioned countries. Corresponding conclusions in respect of Belarus are made in the paper. The paper also contains evaluation of application of some criteria in our country.

  19. Geoecological features of Belarus lakes – the habitats of relict species Isoëtes lacustris L.

    Vlasov, Boris


    In Belarus 16 habitats of relict species lake quillwort (Isoëtes lacustris L.) are registered. Lakes were studied in the period from 1972 to 2011. Populations of Isoëtes lacustris L. in the lakes differ with morphology of plants, abundance, frequency of occurrence, partial projected foliage cover. Development of populations of the spe-cies is limited by morphometric characteristics of lake hollow, hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters of the environment. Evaluation of lake quillwort tole...

  20. Small doses of ionizing radiation and possible genetic consequences for the residents of the Republic of Belarus

    In the Republic of Belarus National Genetic Monitoring for Congenital Malformations and Regional Monitoring for the Anomalies Found in Embryos and Fetuses showed an increased anomaly frequency in embryos and fetuses. The increase correlated with Cs-137 contamination density, but no linear dependence on collective and average individual doses for the individuals of reproductive age has been found. No direct teratogenic effect of Chernobyl accident has been revealed, but the effect through mutations in gamets is possible. (author)

  1. Forming of the system of the financial providing of innovative development of economy of Republic of Belarus

    E.A. Mjatnikova


    Full Text Available The major condition of efficiency of realization of innovative projects and programs is their financial maintenance. In article the analysis of use of various sources of financing and the state preferences is carried out by working out and realization of innovative projects and programs. Assumptions on formation of uniform system of financial maintenance of innovative development of economy of Belarus are stated.

  2. Vegetation pattern and sedimentation changes in the context of the Lateglacial climatic events: Case study of Staroje Lake (Eastern Belarus)

    Zernitskaya, Valentina; Vlasov, Boris


    ABSTRACT A lake sediment core collected from the Staroje Lake, southeastern Belarus, reveals significant changes of the terrestrial and limnic environmental during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene in the periglacial zone of the Late Weichselian Glaciation. The combination of lithological (loss-on-ignition), palaeobotanical (pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, diatoms) and isotopic (d18O, d13C, 14C) proxy parameters was applied for the reconstruction of the vegetation pattern and...

  3. The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukraine, historical and cultural values of the Republic of Belarus

    Мартиненко, Ігор


    The article discusses the features of the right of ownership of cultural heritage monuments and other cultural values. A comparative analysis of the legislation of the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine, the rules governing the ownership and protection of cultural heritage. Proposals for improving the legislation of the two countries. The results can be used in legislative activities in the educational process. English abstract   I. Martynenka The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukra...

  4. Trade impact of non-tariff trade costs. An Assessment of the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Mkrtchyan Arevik


    The recently established Eurasian Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan has generated considerable research interest. Using a rich panel data, this paper analyses the impact of the common external tariff and changes in non-tariff trade barriers on bilateral trade patterns. Tariff increases have expected negative impact on the trade ows. The Customs Union abolished the customs controls between the members in two stages. This allows to estimate the effect of border elimination which i...

  5. The thyroid dose assessments of Belarus population by iodine 131 after the Chernobyl accident derived with method of radioecological modeling

    During the Chernobyl accident large activities of iodine were released (more than 1850 GBq). The most important radioiodine isotope was I-131, its deposition varied from from 0.2 to 37 MBq/m2 in five from six Belarus districts. Therefore, in the first few months, the thyroid was the most exposed organ. The correct information on a large group people needs for the thyroid dose estimation and risk assessment. The radioecological model was applied to estimate age-dependence thyroid doses for the Belarus population. The average thyroid doses were calculated for 0-18 age group and adults for 23 thousand 325 settlements of all Belarus areas and Gomel and Minsk cities. The maximum values of thyroid dose were estimated for the inhabitants of the Gomel area and city. The average thyroid dose for the Mogilev area is similar to Brest area. In the Mogilev area, there was predominantly wet deposition leading to a relatively higher initial contamination of the plant, whereas in the Brest area, the deposition was mixed. The estimates for Grodno and Minsk areas are very similar. The lowest thyroid doses were derived for Vitebsk area with the lowest level of depositions (author)

  6. High treason. The activity of The Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius in 1930 – 1935

    Sergiusz Łukasiewicz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to attempt to explain the activities of the Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius during the first half of the thirties of the twentieth century. The author's aim is to show the organisation, theory and practice of this illegal party. Furthermore, the intention is to present the activities of Vilnius police towards communist sympathizers and activists. Founded in 1923 in Vilnius, the Communist Party of Western Belarus was a branch of The Communist Party of Poland. This organization like the polish communist party was illegal. Its aim was to combat the Polish state and to perform electioneering for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Although the name of the party could indicate a desire for independence of Belarus, in practice it was for the removal of the north eastern provinces of the Second Republic of Poland to the USSR. CPWB activity had a special dimension in Vilnius. As the region's largest city and former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnus was home for many nations, religions and cultures. Moreover, Vilnius was the most important field for communist action . Given the number of inhabitants, industrialized multi-ethnic character, communists had the opportunity to develop wide subversive and conspiratorial work. In addition, the city was the great centre of production and distribution of communist publications, which allowed the spread of propaganda in both its administrative boundaries and in the Vilnius Voivodeship.

  7. Impact of 1986 Chernobyl accidental radioactive release on biomass supply for industrial use in central western Belarus

    The 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine had caused considerable radioactive fallouts throughout much of Belarus. It has been estimated that more than 20 % of Belarus would still remain contaminated with radionuclides 30 years after the NPP accident. Residual Cs-137 radionuclide is considered to be the most important. The physical half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Relatively high level of Cs-137 was identified to have been deposited in the top soil of several areas in the western region of Grodno oblast, during the first decade after the NPP accident. The mobility of Cs-137 in the soil is similar to that of K. In the 2004 survey data released by the United Nations, Cs-137 in the top soil of most of Belarus appeared to have dissipated largely into the natural cycle, including physical decay, high water solubility, and transference from the soil into the growing biomass (e.g., annual grain crops) which is exported from the affected region. The accumulation of Cs-137 in wood residues could be very problematic. Unlike annual cereal crops, trees are harvested typically in ~80-year cycles. Repeated exposure of workers to fugitive Cs-137 in wood wastes could pose a significant health hazard

  8. Strategy for the restoration of rural settlements in Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Problems and experience

    The experience of the protective actions taken in Belarus in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident can provide useful insights for specialists who are considering strategies for restoring areas contaminated with radionuclides. Data on the protective actions performed in Belarus after this accident are presented briefly, and the efficiency assessment used for the resettlement of certain categories of population is discussed, The levels allowed by the state for radioactive contamination in food and the averted doses are reviewed. The current number of contaminated settlements and their population are given. Particulars concerning the nature of the doses and the differences in their formation for the urban and rural populations are examined. Existing criteria for decision making, radiological and non-radiological factors which affect the decision making processes are explained. The experience in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident shows that the decision making process for remediation actions must consider both radiological and non-radiological factors. Moreover, as the annual dose tends to approach established limits over time, non-radiological factors start to play a more important role in the decision making process. (author)

  9. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    Bibikova, Tatiana


    In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive

  10. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus


    A. V. Bolshakova


    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of a centralized accounting system for service personnel by an example of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.Normative for financial personnel strength of the supposed unified financial centre which is involved in accounting recordings on salary and other payments has been calculated on the basis of inter-branch standards. While taking as an example a conventional organization “B” with staff strength which is equal to the strength of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus the possible efficiency in introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel has been determined in the paper. According to represented calculations reduction of financial personnel dealing with accounting recordings on salary and other payments in the whole organization “B” can constitute up to 60 persons with more than 200 branches which are carrying out independent payment accounting for personnel concerned.Dependence of strength normative on number of financial bodies, percentage of personnel receiving payments through a unified financial centre and concentration of financial and economic document circulation has been determined in the paper. It has been pointed out that it is not sufficient to determine quantitative indices in order to ensure an objective reflection of the efficiency of possible introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel in the Armed Forces. In order to obtain complete information it is

  12. Autoantibodies in children with alopecia areata from various radioecological areas of Belarus

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring form of hair loss in humans. The most widely held belief is that AA is an autoimmune disease. After Chernobyl accident there has been an increase in autoimmunity pathology in Belarus including AA. The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of autoantibodies in children with AA from various radioecological areas of Belarus. 87 patients (mean age - 10.3 +- 0.4) with AA were included in this study. 250 healthy children of the same age were studied as a control. Hair follicle antibodies (AB-HF) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Autoantibodies to thyroidperoxidase (AB-TPO) and thyroglobuline (AB-TG) were measured by radioimmunoassay using Medipan diagnostic kits. Autoantibodies to DNA were detected by immunopresipitation assay. We divided all children with AA on three groups: 1 - 14 children from noncontaminated area; 2 - 39 children from radio contaminated region and 3- patients from Minsk-city. The frequency of positive AB-TG in patients from group 2 (12%) was significantly higher in comparison to group 1 and 3 (0%). The proportion of children positive for both AB-TPO and AB-TG also was higher in group from contaminated area (8% vs 0%, 0%, p<0.001). There was significant difference in the incidence of AB-DNA between children from Minsk-city and children from non contaminated area (18.5% vs 0%, p<0.05). The frequency of positive both AB-TPO and AB-DNA in group 2 (6.9%) was almost the same as in the group 3 (7.1%). The prevalence of non-specific for AA autoantibodies was significantly higher in patients from radio contaminated area than in children from non contaminated region (44.9% vs 9%, p<0,001). The prevalence of specific hair follicle autoantibodies was significantly higher in children from contaminated region than patients from non contaminated area (50% vs 18%, p<0.05). Positive levels of were found in 36% of patients from Minsk-city. The increase of frequency specific and non-specific autoantibodies in children

  13. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  14. Mortality studies in children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the district of Gomel, Belarus

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the district of Gomel in Belarus has become the most contaminated area within the former USSR. A comparative pilot study conducted by the authros to establish the mortality in that district during the 1984-1992 period has not yet revealed any elevated mortality among children aged 0 to <15 years for the period after the accident. Diseases of the respiratory system and congential anomalies were found to be the principal causes of death in this age group (ICD9: classes VIII and XIV). Owing to the low number of children born during the study period and the concomitant small number of deaths from neoplasms, a clear analysis of changes in the structure of mortality from neoplasma (ICD9: class II) has not yet been possible. The birth rate in the Gomel district where the highest radiation exposure was experienced has dropped: There was an obvious decrease suring 1987, i.e. during the year which immediately followed that of the accident, to rise again in 1992 to levels comparable to those of other study areas. (orig.)

  15. An example of rehabilitation strategies for radioactive contaminated areas in Belarus

    The potential for remediation and rehabilitation of areas contaminated by radionuclides is largely based on the predictions of individual doses, the internal doses being estimated by the potential contribution of major food products. As an example, the Chechersk region in the Gomel district has been selected to represent areas where, in 1995, individual doses exceeded the national dose limit of 1 mSv/yr. For this area, the contribution of food consumption to the total dose has been estimated, and measures for its reduction are proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private dairy cows is one of the most effective measures to reduce internal 137Cs doses. It is shown that the use of herbage from a cultivated pasture with an average 137Cs contamination level of 405 kBq/m2 during five subsequent years leads to an individual accumulative averted dose from milk consumption of 0.98 mSv, which is below the given dose limit of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In this paper estimates of fluxes of mainly 137Cs and to a smaller extent of 90Sr associated with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems are given and account is also taken of the radioactivity exported from the area

  16. The implementation of RODOS in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and future perspectives

    Broad agreement has been achieved between institutes and institutions in the European Union, Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine to cooperate in the development of the RODOS system, a decision support system for general application in Eastern and Western European countries. This is being coordinated within the Joint Study Project 1 (JSP1) of the EC/CIS Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident The ultimate goal of this joint venture is the integration of an operational RODOS system into the national emergency management arrangements. To provide a standard platform for the common R and D work within JSP1, the hardware and software components of RODOS have been implemented at SPA 'Typhoon', Obninsk, IMMS CC, Kiev, and GLAVHYDROMET, Minsk. This paper summarizes the activities of the CIS institutes in generating their RODOS teams, educating and training the personnel involved and to organize cooperation with other institutes for securing access to meteorological and radiological monitoring data, national geographical information and specific expertise necessary to adapt models and data of the RODOS system to local, regional and national conditions. The problems encountered during implementation, the status of the installation of data transmission lines for the remote operation of RODOS and for information exchange with RODOS teams in other countries and the current RODOS development activities are discussed

  17. Determination of radionuclides in foods from Minsk, Belarus, from Chernobyl to the present

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been monitoring the food supply in the United States for radioactivity since 1961. This Radionuclide in Foods Program is maintained to allow the FDA to respond to any nuclear emergency that may affect the food supply. The Three Mile Island incident in 1979 was one of these. In 1986 the Chernobyl incident occurred. As a result, the FDA began extensive monitoring of imported foods, especially those from Europe. One of its sister agencies has personnel in the areas affected by the latter incident and requested that the FDA analyze selected food samples from these places. Since that time, they have requested on a periodic basis, selected food samples be analysed. One such city was Minsk in Belarus. This paper will discuss the radionuclides of interest such as iodine-131, cesium-134/137, strontium-90, ruthenium-106 and other short-lived ones. It will discuss the types of foods sampled and the methodology used in determining the concentrations found in these items. The results will be compared to the permissible levels allowed in the US. In addition it will show the lower limits of detection for each of the radionuclides of interest. (author)

  18. [Treatment results of neuroblastoma in children in the Republic of Belarus].

    Proleskovskaia, I V; Savich, T V; Mareĭko, Iu E; Savva, N N; Aleĭnikova, O V


    Our investigation was concerned with effectiveness of infantile neuroblastoma treatment in Belarus and dependence of prognosis on extent of radical surgery. The study involved 115 patients with morphologically confirmed diagnosis of primary tumor who were treated at the Center (1997-2007). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for favorable prognosis, stage I, II, III, were 1.00 and 0.94 +/- 0.04, respectively. They were significantly higher than those for intermediate (0.70 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.09) or high risk (0.32 +/- 0.08 and 0.27 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The results for radical local surgery were better: 5-year relapse-free survival--0.82 +/- 0.09 as compared with subtotal excision (0.62 +/- 0.12) and biopsy (0.5 +/- 0.25) among patients older than 12 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was followed by significant improvement: 6-year overall and relapse-free survival (stage IV) (0.5 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12, respectively) as compared those without ASCT (0.12 +/- 0.08 and 0.1 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The main cause of death after ASCT was relapse. Poor results following post-ASCT treatment of stage IV tumor should be improved by more effective detection and removal of tumor cell harvest. PMID:19514379

  19. Possibilities of wood fuel use on the territory of the Republic of Belarus

    Belarus has some experience of wood biomass use for power engineering aims. All the necessary equipment, assigned for power production, is manufactured at own enterprises. Belarus possesses great forest resources, total forests area makes up 8 676,1 thou ha. In the average as for the republic the percentage of forests volume makes up 37,7%. The greatest percent of forest scope have Gomel and Vitebsk regions (44,6% and 38,1% correspondingly). Of 118 administrative regions the forest scope above 20% have 15 regions (Rossonskij - 66,8%, Lel'chitsy - 66,5%). The forest scope less 20% is marked on the territory of 8 regions (Nesvizh - 9,6%, Berestovitsy - 14,6%, Zel'venskij - 14,8%). Wood reserves make up 1 437,9 mln. m3 on the republic's territory. The greatest wood reserves are noted on the territory of Gomel, (323,6 mln. m3 ), Minsk (286,4 mln. m3 ) and Vitebsk (272,0 mln. m3 ) regions. The least ones - Brest and Grodno regions (191, and 158,7 mln. m3 correspondingly). Reserves of coniferous sorts make up 955,9 mln. m3 , solid-leaf-bearing breeds - 532,8 mln. m3 , soft-leaf-bearing ones - 427,8 mln. m3. The Republic of Belarus fuel timber potential resources consist of: 1. Wood to be stores as: a) main use of forests; b) cuts due to forest management; c) sanitary cuts; d) other cuts. 2. Logging waste. 3. Wood sawing waste due to timber processing. Lumbering resources make up the basis of fuel potential of the Republic of Belarus in wood fuel and directly refer to fuel resources resulting from lumbering and timber processing. Main scope of forest funds to be assigned for industrial use is under the authority of Ministry of Forest Management. Amount of forest cuts waste (knots, branches, foliage, needles, stumps, roots) makes up 35% of trunk wood volume. As a calculated forest cuts of 7,2 mln. m3 in 2006 1,2-1,3 mln. m3 (0,8...0,9 ml t) may be used as a fuel. By 2015 this scope may reach 2,0-2,5 mln. m3 (1,4-1,8 ml t). Most reserves of liquid timber have district

  20. Remediation Strategy and Practice on Agricultural Land Contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr in Belarus

    This paper is intended to review existing data on the efficiency and acceptability of agricultural countermeasures for reducing of internal exposures introduced by consumption of foodstuff produced on land contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. Currently, there are strongly reduced state budget resources for mitigating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. No more than 50% of the required agricultural protective measures could be financed in the last years. There is an increased need for an optimal use of available resources. New efforts are needed to identify sustainable ways to make use of the most affected areas that reflect the radiation hazard, but also revive the economic potential for the benefit of the community. For this reason the practical complex assessment and justifying of countermeasure application in the most contaminated rural districts of Belarus are the main directions of rehabilitation activity to ensure the radiation protection of people for long term after Chernobyl accident. Countermeasures have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of harvests with low radionuclide contamination. The complex of the effective countermeasures has been worked out and implemented mostly in public sector of agriculture. However, particular attention must be given to the production of private farms of several hundred settlements, where samples of milk still contain radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr in excess relative to the established limits

  1. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  2. The retrospective estimation of radiation situation on the territory of Republic of Belarus in the first period after the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    The most complicated situation at the territory of Belarus has been observed in the first period after the accident at the ChNPP owing to the great quantity of the deposited short-lived radionuclides and the radionuclides with half-lives up to 1 year. In 26 April 1986, the radioactive isotopes, including radioactive noble gases and iodine isotopes have initially reached the height of 1.8 km and began transport with air flows in the North-West direction through the western and central areas of Belarus. The analyzis of the subsequent meteorological situation has shown, that the meteorological conditions of the movement of the radiation-contaminated air masses in 26 April to 10 May, 1986 have determined the radioactive contamination of Belarus, in the first phase with short-lived radionuclides. (author)

  3. Experience of work with population concerning the problem on state of the objects radioecologically dangerous located close by the Minsk-City, the capital of Belarus

    Belarus has no operating reactors at present. But the Chernobyl syndrome has roused the increased and morbid interest of the population for the state of nuclear and radiation dangerous objects located in the settlement Sosny being at km from Minsk-city where Academician Science and Technical Complex - Sosny. The Institute was engaged in creation of nuclear power plants with a new type of coolant. Nuclear reactors unique in Belarus were operated here, such as the research reactor IRT-M and a pilot small-sized mobile NPP which was tested. Moreover, the only point for storing radioactive waste in Belarus is situated in proximity of Sosny. In 1998 after the visit of the President of the Republic of Belarus some journalists have made statements at a non-qualification level in their transmissions by television, publications in newspapers about the fact that there are two tons of weapons plutonium and highly enriched uranium in nuclear storage facilities of ASTC Sosny. Five years ago Belarus joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Nuclear materials are stored under supervision of the IAEA from 1996. It is naturally that the presence of a large radioactive waste disposal facility (PDWD) near Minsk-city rises alarm in population. At present the project on PDWD reconstruction has been carried out. The project of PDWD reconstruction has passed through the ecological examination according to the order accepted in Belarus and has been discussed in various departments and bodies of local authorities

  4. Estimation of thyroid doses received by the population of Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    Within weeks of the Chernobyl accident, about 300000 measurements of human thyroidal 131I content were conducted in the more contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. Results of these and other measurements form the basis of thyroid-dose reconstruction for residents of Belarus. Preliminary estimates of thyroid doses have been divided into three classes. Class 1 ('measured' doses). Individual doses are estimated directly from the measured thyroidal 131I content of the person considered, plus information on life style and dietary habits. Such estimates are available for about 130000 individuals from the contaminated areas of Gomel and Mogilev Region and Minsk city. Class 2 ('passport' doses). For every settlement with a sufficient number of residents with 'measured' doses, individual thyroid-dose distributions are determined for several age groups and levels of milk consumption. This action has been called the 'passportization' of the settlement. A population of about 2.7 million people resides in the 'passportized' settlements. Class 3 ('inferred' doses). For any settlement where the number of residents with 'measured' doses is small or equal to zero, individual thyroid doses are derived from the relationship obtained between the mean adult-thyroid dose and the deposition density of 131I or 137Cs in settlements with 'passport' doses presenting characteristics similar to those of the settlement considered. This method can be applied to the remainder of the population (about 7.3 million people). An approximate estimate of the collective thyroid dose for the residents of Belarus is presented. Illustrative results of individual thyroid dose and associated uncertainty are discussed for rural settlements and urban areas

  5. Problems of perception of radiation risk as a brake of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus

    Full text: The development of nuclear industry is very important task for Belarus, for the country without own alternative sources of energy. At the same time this task is difficult for country that is one of the most suffered form Chernobyl accident. Psychological distress arising from the accident and its aftermath has had a profound impact on individual and community perception of radiation risk by population of Belarus. Although accurate information is accessible and many attempts at dissemination have made, the gloomy stereotype of Chernobyl has developed in public consciousness. At the present day misconceptions and myths about the threat of radiation persist, promoting a paralyzing fatalism among resident in questions of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus. People still lack the information they need about real radiation risk. In such situation good-quality, in time and correctly sent information can be very important in system of measures on reduction of a mental and emotional pressure, on preparation of the population for the decision of socio-economic problems. The creation of uniform information system with use of resources of a global computer network is accepted as new innovation ways of increase of the public knowledge about radiation danger. The creation of such system will allow to carry out by the most modern methods uniform information and socially-rehabilitation politics directed on formation and education of the population in the field of radiating safety and radioecology, on overcoming socially-psychological stress and radio phobia, increase of the vital activity, the formation of a safe image of the life, i.e. on overcoming of consequences of Chernobyl accident in consciousness of the people. (author)

  6. 白俄罗斯声乐研究在中国%Belarus vocal music study in China



    2013年中国与白俄罗斯两国首脑共同将两国关系提升至全面战略伙伴关系,开启了中白关系新纪元。两国间的文化交流更加稳固,白俄罗斯深厚的专业音乐教育为中国培养了一批优秀的歌唱家与声乐教育师资。我国对于白俄罗斯的声乐教育研究主要基于这些学成归国的博士、硕士学位获得者,他们在留学期间得益于语言、资料的优势,研究视角关注了身边的人和事,这对于推动中白音乐文化交流起到了重要的作用。%In 2013 China and belarus to relations between the two countries up to the heads of the two countries comprehensive strategic partnership, opens the white relations in new era. Cultural exchanges between the two countries, belarus profound professional music education for China to cultivate a batch of excellent singers and vocal music education of teachers. For belarus's vocal music education research in China is mainly based on these, Dr., master's degree gainer learn homecoming, they benefit from the advantages of language, and information during the study, the research perspectives focus on the people and things around, this to promote the white music played an important role in cultural communication.

  7. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  8. Implementation of electron and deuteron accelerators in medicine, science and industry in Belarus

    Full text: Research in the field of radiation chemistry, studying the peculiarities of interaction of ionizing irradiation with polymer materials, application of studying for production of medicinal preparations, sterilization of medical products and so on was started in Belarus in the late 60s on the basis of Co-60 source, 400 kCi and are being continued from 1993 with using linear electron accelerator installed at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute. The nominal average beam power is 10 kW with electron energy 10 MeV. The accelerators are equipped with a conveyer with the regulator velocity. The electron scheme for the conveyer's control is applied to carry boxes with the sizes of 45x75 cm2 to the electron accelerator with the velocity from 0.5 cm/s up to 5.0 cm/s. This industrial type facility allows to carry out investigations not only in the field of radiation chemistry, but also in medicine, industry and agriculture. Till today the only facility in Belarus where the radiation treatment of foodstuffs, medical herbs, sterilization of different types of medical devices, pharmaceuticals and raw materials, wound dressing, some food products are performed in a commercial scale. The Ministry of Health of the Republic has given permission for radiation treatment of the following food products: lactose, egg powder, spices, gelatin, meat of poultry, medical herbs. For radiation sterilization of medical devices and for radiation treatment of solid pharmaceuticals the dose 25 kGy was specified by the National State Authority.The project 'The Pilot-Scale Production of Hydrogel Dressings for Medical Purposes' (BYE/8/003) was approved within the framework of TC Program IAEA for 2001-2002 and was started in January. The project will be performed using electron accelerator. In the practice of radiation treatment EGS4 computer code is used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution in the boxes with the products to be irradiated. In 1998 the Institute

  9. Recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine

    The following recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine were presented: Continue annual medicals, including cardiovascular exams, on ARS survivors. Reconsider medical follow-up of persons exposed to < 1 Gy. Such follow-up programs are very unlikely to be cost-effective use funds saved to improve general health care programs, continue thyroid cancer screening for adults exposed as children, but evaluate this at intervals for cost-benefit and expected number of cases. Maintain high quality cancer registries to assist allocate public health resources and research. Monitor incidence rates of childhood leukaemia in highly exposed populations. Continue eye examinations in highly exposed populations; new information on radiation-induced cataracts at lower doses may come. Continue local registers on reproductive effects; may not be useful for research but may reassure the population. Inform local populations of the Forum results, including through health care professionals Chernobyl. Some key questions to follow-up: What will be the incidence of various cancers in highly exposed Chernobyl populations (emergency workers and resident of highly contaminated territories)? Will there be an excess risk of thyroid cancers in adults? What are the uncertainties in the estimates of thyroid doses? What is the role of radiation on the induction of cardiovascular disease? Studies should be conducted under a joint protocol with the 3 affected countries participating cooperatively. What is the effect of high doses of radiation on the immune. WHO will continue to participate in activities related to the health consequences and research. The Chernobyl Forum's goals of providing scientifically sound information and recommendations to the affected governments on how to provide more effective health care is a good model that should be used for other large accident areas

  10. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)