Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…
Andrade, A. Chitra; Kumaraiah, V.; Mishra, H.; Chatterji, S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan
Transsexualism is a rare disorder, and there is little literature available on its treatment. A case is presented of transsexualism with homosexual orientation in a 24 year old male. Since the disorder appeared to have behavioral antecedents, it was treated with a behavior therapy package comprising relaxation, aversion therapy with aversion relief, modelling, hypnosis, orgasmic reconditioning, behavioral counselling and sex education. Therapy resulted in normalization of gender identity, but...
Black, J L; Bruce, B K
Through refinements from research and judicious combination with other therapies, behavior therapy has become increasingly relevant in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. After outlining the four models that serve as a framework for behavior therapy (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning theory, and cognitive behavior modification), the authors provide an update for clinicians on developments in the behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. Most advances have been made in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including definition of variables for successful use of exposure to phobic stimuli in the treatment of phobic disorders and the use of flooding for post-traumatic stress disorder. By becoming better acquainted with cognitive and behavioral therapies, clinicians may be able to offer their patients more effective treatment options. PMID:2680882
Gulay Oguz; Aytul Karabekiroglu; Birsen Kocamanoglu; Mehmet Zihni Sungur
Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in ...
Full Text Available Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in physical activity, and behavior contracts. As part of the obesity treatment, combining cognitive-behavioral treatments with lifestyle changes such as increase in physical activity increases effectiveness of the treatment and ensures durability of the achieved weight loss. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 133-144
Swenson, Charles R; Choi-Kain, Lois W
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) are two approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While DBT has the most empirical support, MBT has a small but significant evidence base. Dialectical behavior therapy synthesizes behaviorism, mindfulness, and dialectics, while MBT is conceptually anchored in psychoanalysis, attachment theory, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychopathology. While coming from strikingly different orientations, DBT and MBT therapists share more interventions and stances than one might suppose. The central purported active ingredient of MBT is the capacity to mentalize, which is crucial for the formation of secure attachment, and this ability is thought to be weak and unstable in individuals with borderline personality disorder. This article explores the question of whether or not mentalizing is already present in DBT practice, whether it would be compatible with DBT conceptually and practically, and whether a focus on mentalizing would be of use to the DBT therapists and their patients. PMID:26160623
... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...
Selim PİSTOF; Esat SANLI
Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides ...
Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott
Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270
The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...
... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26
Rizvi, Shireen L.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…
An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases. PMID
Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT
Ana Moreno Coutiño
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review mindfulness, which is a so-called third generation cognitive behavioral therapy (TGT. Contributions of these specific therapies are appreciated in their techniques, which have as therapeutic principle abandoning the battle against the symptoms and redirecting life instead. TGT have recently begun to be studied in major universities around the world, and have been successfully used in various clinical settings, as well as in various Western countries. This kind of therapy has also been evaluated in Latin America, but its introduction in the clinical and academic fields has been slower, perhaps because the general principles of mindfulness have not yet been sufficiently widespread. This paper summarizes the basis of TGT, describes its therapeutic approach, exposes the links between the main Buddhist precepts and mindfulness, and summarizes the current status of its research in the world.
Jubbin J Jacob; Rajesh Isaac
Obesity is a major public health problem and is implicated in the rising prevalence of cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in India. Management of an obese patient includes therapeutic lifestyle changes of increasing physical activity and reducing calorie intake. This combination can result in about a 10% loss of initial body weight. To reinforce this intervention, behavioral therapy needs to be incorporated into the overall intervention under the belief that obesity is a result of m...
Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new “enhanced” version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the “transdiagnostic” theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...
Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the thera...
Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient. PMID:26065131
Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared to those without BED. Furthermore, depressive symptomatology may increase the patient's vulnerability to binge eating as well as to relapse after treatment. Grazing is defined as eating small amounts of food continuously. BED in the pre-bariatric patient can manifest as 'grazing' about 2 years post-bariatric surgery. Treatment should be directed at eating behavior, associated psychopathology, weight and psychiatric symptoms. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on changing the patient's erroneous ways of thinking about themselves, the world and how others perceive them. This includes a focus on normalizing food intake as well as challenging dysfunctional thinking, identifying feelings, and developing non-food coping skills. It increases a sense of control and therefore helps the patient adhere to behavior change strategy, as well as improving mood and reducing associated psychopathology. Interpersonal therapy is based on the relationship between negative mood low self-esteem traumatic life events, interpersonal functioning and the patient's eating behavior. The rationale being that eating represents maladaptive coping with underlying difficulties. While psychotherapy either CBT or IPT leads to decrease in disordered eating behaviors and improved psychiatric symptoms, it has little effect on weight hence; its benefit is optimal when used in conjunction with bariatric surgery. PMID:16418545
Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.
Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in…
Full Text Available Urinary and rectal sphincter incontinence is a frequently encountered symptom in mentally retarded children and those with learning disabilities. In addition to the fact incontinence is a very disagreeable problem, on the wide it is of more importance in Islamic societies, as to be “Clean” during religious practices is mandatory. Regarding the fact that 25-50% of mentally retarded children are unable to control urine and feces elimination, families and institutions in charge of these children face much inconvenience. This article discusses the teaching programs and methods of behavioral therapy of the affected patients.
Glasofer, Deborah R; Devlin, Michael J
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a first-line psychotherapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). This article outlines three specific interventions--introducing and using the CBT model of BN, self-monitoring of eating and related experiences, and psychoeducation regarding various aspects of BN--representative of CBT overall but unique in their application to individuals with BN. The theoretical basis and supporting research relevant to each technique are highlighted. Clinical vignettes are provided to illustrate how these interventions might be integrated into the psychotherapy. PMID:24295463
Williams, David A
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a formal therapeutic approach that encourages selfmanagement of illnesses in accordance with the BioPsychoSocial model. CBT is composed of numerous skills grounded in known principles of behavioral and cognitive change. Each skill is designed to influence one of the facets associated with the perception of pain (i.e., sensory factors, emotional factors, or cognitive factors). Across the various Central Sensitivity Syndromes (CSS), CBT is thought to be beneficial to at least a portion of individuals afflicted. This paper provides a description of CBT, some recommendations for integrating CBT into clinical practice, and a brief review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT with various forms of CSS. PMID:26717953
Cooper, K; Martyn-St James, M.; Kaltenthaler, E.; Dickinson, K; Cantrell, A.; Wylie, K.; Frodhsam, L.; Hood, C
Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behav...
Addington, Jean; Marshall, Catherine; French, Paul
There is a strong impetus in the psychosis research field to develop interventions that aim to prevent the onset of psychotic disorders. Over the past 15 years there has been a tremendous development in the work aimed at understanding the pre-psychotic period. More recently there has been a focus on developing and testing treatments both pharmacological and psychological that could potentially prevent or delay the onset of psychosis. One of the psychological treatments that has received the most attention is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Relatively few trials have been completed and this paper reviews the existing trials. Implications of these trials for the treatment of this early phase as well as for designing future studies are discussed. PMID:22239588
Gillen, Mark C.
Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is still one of the most important treatment modalities in social anxiety disorder with a high level of evidence. However, some patients do not fully benefit from these therapies and this fact leads to ongoing search for new approaches. This paper reviews use of cognitive behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder studies and discusses related updated concepts. The frequent use of computer-assisted therapy for most of recent studies was found noteworthy. Recent studies regarding social anxiety disorder focused on concepts such as attention bias, biased information processing, attention training, judgment biases, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapies and social mishap exposure. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy seemed to be a good option for people who were unable to access face to face treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 229-243
The article presents the discussion about cognitive-behavioral therapy in social rehabilitation. The process of psychological changing is very complicated, especially if it is associated with the socially maladjusted. There are many arguments for using cognitive-behavioral therapy in social rehabilitation process. Below are some of them: this kind of therapy doesn’t take o lot of time, the rules are simple and clear for the patients, the patients can feel changes quite quickly. The cognitive-...
During the 1970s, vitamins and vitamin therapy became household words. Vitamin therapy, better known as "orthomolecular psychiatry," is both appealing and very popular. The question that must be asked is: Does this popularity and appeal validate this form of therapy? This paper presents findings from various sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. The following categories are examined: learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. PMID:2963502
Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…
Papadomarkaki, E; Portinou, S
The present study constitutes a brief literature overview, in which the term of clinical perfectionism, its etiopathology, its assessment and its relation to psychopathology, as well as the therapeutic interventions based on the Cognitive Behavioral Model are discussed. According to Frost, perfectionism is associated with one's desire to achieve the greatest degree of performance and it is accompanied by an extremely strict evaluation of that particular performance. The relationship with oneself as well as the relationship with others are both characterised by high standards and demands which tend to exhaust one individual and dramatically toughen the development of proximity with the others. Perfectionism, as a personality trait, presents functional and dysfunctional elements for a person. Dysfunctional, clinical perfectionism -a term recently coined by researchers- has been linked to a number of disorders, such as social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders -anorexia and bulimia nervosa- depression and personality disorders. From a perfectionist's point of view, perfection exists and its attaintment is feasible. The existence of a particularly high and often unrealistic goal can lead the person to severe disappointment when this specific goal is not finally reached. A person with functional perfectionism is possible to set another, more achievable, goal next time, while a person with clinical perfectionism will interpret this failure as a sign of personal inadequacy and will either make another attempt to reach the same goal or will abandon the effort altogether. A sense of weakness and subsequent negative automatic thoughts are the aftermath of both the first and the second choice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on the realisation that clinical perfectionism is undesirable, on the dispute of negative automatic thoughts and on the replacement of unfunctional cognitive schemas with other, more functional ones. In the therapeutic process
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt
Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20057003
Full Text Available The article presents the discussion about cognitive-behavioral therapy in social rehabilitation. The process of psychological changing is very complicated, especially if it is associated with the socially maladjusted. There are many arguments for using cognitive-behavioral therapy in social rehabilitation process. Below are some of them: this kind of therapy doesn’t take o lot of time, the rules are simple and clear for the patients, the patients can feel changes quite quickly. The cognitive-behavioral therapy is one of the factors which can help the minors adapt to being again a member of the society. This kind of therapy is the most effective way of working with underage criminals.
Aim: The study researched into ways of extending snoezelen therapy to the ward and the effect it will have on elderly persons with dementia with challenging behaviors in Kustaankartano elderly care center. There was one research question projected for the study that is : • What are the effects of snoezelen therapy on elderly persons suffering from dementia with challenging behaviors? Method: Literature review with deductive content analysis was used for the study. Articles were collect...
Dethier, M; Blairy, S; Poirrier, R
Today, insomnia is predominantly treated by pharmacotherapy. Yet, cognitive-behavioral therapy has better long-term outcomes. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of this short-term psychotherapeutic treatment. It combines methods of sleep restriction and stimulus control, the learning of relaxation techniques, advices on sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy techniques applied to cognitions that overwhelm insomniac moments. PMID:27295894
Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.
Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…
Rosen, James C.; And Others
Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)
Fresco, David M.
For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Even though there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper which sought to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering. PMID:23611067
Full Text Available As is valid for each psychotherapy method, the factors such as whether the therapy is appropriate and sufficient, whether the client is ready to therapy, duration and frequency of the therapy shall determine the success of the treatment also for clients whom are treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, while considering these factors, the concept of resistance should not be ignored. The aim of this article is to understand the underlying causes of the resistance for cognitive-behavioral therapy and to make suggestions on how to manage it. In this context, motivational interviewing techniques will also be explained in detail. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 94-101
Wang, Feng; Feng, Ting-Yi; Yang, Shilin; Preter, Maurice; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Ping
Dementia, which can be induced by diverse factors, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the decline of cognitive function. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include depression, agitation, and aggression. Dementia causes a heavy burden on patients and their caregivers. Patients with BPSD should be assessed comprehensively by practitioners and offered appropriate non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Nonpharmacologic therapy has been recommended as the basal treatment for BPSD; however, pharmacologic therapy is required under many situations. Medications, including antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, sedative and hypnotic agents, mood stabilizers, cholinesterase inhibitors, and amantadine, are extensively used in clinical practice. We have reviewed the progression of pharmacologic therapy for BPSD. PMID:26644152
Manjula, M.; Kumariah, V.; Prasadarao, P. S. D. V.; Raguram, R.
Background: Comprehensive cognitive behavior therapies have been proved to be more effective than behavioral interventions. However, the efficacy of CBT is not studied in the Indian context and also, the amount of change brought about by CBT is not known. Aims: This study aims to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) in the treatment of panic disorder. Our specific objectives were to assess the effectiveness of CBI in reducing symptom severity as well as cognitions r...
Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M.
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables…
Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam
Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…
Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.
Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...
Full Text Available Background. Essential palatal tremor is a disorder of unknown etiology involving involuntary movement of the uvula and soft palate. Treatment attempts including drugs or surgery have been conducted to cease the rhythmical movement. Case Report. A 55-year-old female visited our department complaining of a sudden, noticeable, intermittent, and rhythmical clicking noise in her throat for five years. Oral examination revealed rhythmical contractions of the soft palate with clicking at the frequency of 120 per min. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain performed after consulting with the department of neuropathic internal medicine showed no abnormalities. Thus, essential palatal tremor was diagnosed. The symptoms improved with cognitive behavioral therapy without drugs or surgical treatments. The patient is now able to stop the rhythmical movement voluntarily. Discussion. Cognitive behavioral therapy might be suitable as first-line therapy for essential palatal tremor because the therapy is noninvasive.
Hayes, Steven C.
The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social…
Kathryn A Roecklein
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although light therapy is effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD and other mood disorders, only 53-79% of individuals with SAD meet remission criteria after light therapy. Perhaps more importantly, only 12-41% of individuals with SAD continue to use the treatment even after a previous winter of successful treatment. METHOD: Participants completed surveys regarding (1 social, cognitive, and behavioral variables used to evaluate treatment adherence for other health-related issues, expectations and credibility of light therapy, (2 a depression symptoms scale, and (3 self-reported light therapy use. RESULTS: Individuals age 18 or older responded (n = 40, all reporting having been diagnosed with a mood disorder for which light therapy is indicated. Social support and self-efficacy scores were predictive of light therapy use (p's<.05. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that testing social support and self-efficacy in a diagnosed patient population may identify factors related to the decision to use light therapy. Treatments that impact social support and self-efficacy may improve treatment response to light therapy in SAD.
Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L
The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments. PMID:8263219
Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.
This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…
Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.
Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.
Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.
Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…
Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…
Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence
The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…
Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail
This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…
O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch
Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…
Bharwani, Govind; Parikh, Pratik J; Lawhorne, Larry W; VanVlymen, Eric; Bharwani, Meena
Person-centered, nonpharmacological interventions for managing Alzheimer's/dementia-related behavioral disturbances have received significant attention. However, such interventions are quite often of a single type limiting their benefits. We develop a comprehensive nonpharmacological intervention, the Behavior-Based Ergonomic Therapy (BBET), which consists of multiple therapies. This low-cost, 24/7 program uses learning, personality, and behavioral profiles and cognitive function of each resident to develop a set of individualized therapies. These therapies are made available through an accessible resource library of music and video items, games and puzzles, and memory props to provide comfort or stimulation depending on an individual resident's assessment. The quantitative and qualitative benefits of the BBET were evaluated at the dementia care unit in a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in west central Ohio. The 6-month pilot study reduced falls by 32.5% and markedly reduced agitation through increased resident engagement. PMID:22517891
Robert S. Hanley
Full Text Available Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of combining behavioral therapy, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistension for treating painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with PBS/IC were prospectively enrolled in a pilot multimodal behavioral, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment protocol. Behavioral modification included diet recommendations, fluid restriction to 64 oz. /day, progressive timed voiding and Kegel exercises. Oral pharmacologic therapy consisted of daily doses of macrodantin 100 mg, hydroxyzine 10-20 mg and urised 4 tablets. Patients underwent endoscopic bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia at least 2 weeks after protocol enrollment. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments were continued after the hydrodistention. O'Leary-Sant questionnaire scores were recorded before starting the protocol, after pharmacologic/behavioral therapy, 2 months post-hydrodistension, and at scheduled follow-up. Results: Eighteen patients (72% completed the pilot multimodal treatment protocol and were followed for a mean of 10.2 months. All patients were female with a median age of 36.3 years and had mean bladder capacity under anesthesia of 836 milliliters. Mean O'Leary-Sant symptom index scores for baseline symptoms, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistension and during follow up were 12.5, 8.6, 7.0, and 6.7 (p < 0.05. Mean O'Leary-Sant problem index scores for baseline, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistention and during follow up were 12.7, 8.9, 6.7, and 7.7 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our pilot multimodal protocol of behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistention demonstrated a significant progressive improvement in PBS/IC quality of life scores, compared to a pre-treatment baseline. These results should be validated in a larger, placebo controlled trial.
Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.
Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…
Vandana J Rathod
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy is effective in children with ADHD. But data are lacking to prove efficacy of sensory integration therapy in treating the children with ADHD. Method: This multi-center experimental study was done at three physiotherapy colleges in India. 60 patients with ADHD are included in the study. They are randomly assigned into three different groups. Group A: 20 (subjects receiving sensory integration therapy, group B: 20 (subjects receiving cognitive behavior therapy and group C: 20 (subjects receiving sensory integration therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. The outcome measure used is Conner’s Teacher Rating Scale before and after six months of intervention. Result: There was a significant decrease in scores of Conner’s Teacher Rating Scale (p<0.001 in children with ADHD who received sensory integration therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy alone and combined therapies of Sensory Integration Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Conclusion: Combined therapies of Sensory Integration Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy are effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD as assed by Conner’s Teacher Rating Scale.
Hoellen, B; Laux, J
Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a relatively new psychotherapeutic approach, the theoretical antecedents actually date back two thousand years, to the period of the hellenistic philosophers. The Stoic Epictetus is often acknowledged as the main philosophical father of CBT and especially of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Beck and Ellis frequently noted that they have drawn upon the writings of the ancient philosophers in developing their psychotherapeutic techniques. This paper reviews some implications of hellenistic philosophy for CBT. We like to show that the teachings of the ancient 'healer of souls' are remarkably consistent with the current theoretical framework and techniques of CBT. PMID:3073604
Trinidad, Antolin C
Would-be learners of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be hampered by learning traps that impede effective acquisition of the skills necessary to provide this type of therapy to clients. Among these pitfalls are the possibility of isolation, therapeutic fanaticism, lack of seriousness, therapeutic drift, and thinking CBT is antipsychodynamic or antipsychoanalytic. The author advocates immersion learning of CBT, arguing that theoretical learning must be supplemented by supervision and active use of the method in one's patients. Presented are two case vignettes demonstrating therapeutic drift and therapeutic fanaticism to highlight potential therapeutic impasses that may ensue from these pitfalls. PMID:18251384
Drass, Jessica Masino
Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…
Schafer, D S
This study examined the extent to which private practice physical therapy firms focused on specific environmental sectors in the process of making business decisions. Furthermore, the relationship between scanning behavior and both entrepreneurship level (high, middle, low) and direct-access status (complete, partial, none) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 450 randomly selected private practice decision makers (eg, owners, chief executive officers) from throughout the United States. Data were gathered using a mailed, structured questionnaire. Physical therapy private practices were found to differentially attend to environmental sectors with the customer sector ranked the highest followed, in descending order, by the technological, regulatory, socio-cultural-political, competitive, and economic sectors. In addition, firms in the high-level entrepreneurship group scanned the technological and marketing (customer, competitive) environments to a significantly greater degree than did the middle- and low-level groups. Direct-access status had no effect on scanning behavior. PMID:2034711
Jaycox, Lisa H; Zoellner, Lori; Foa, Edna B
In recent years, new data have appeared, further suggesting the utility of cognitive-behavioral interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault. In this article, we present a model of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for PTSD in rape survivors. Emotional-processing theory, which proposes mechanisms that underlie the development of disturbances following rape, is reviewed. A CBT-based therapy (Prolonged Exposure) is presented that entails education about common reactions to trauma, relaxation training, imaginal reliving of the rape memory, exposure to trauma reminders, and cognitive restructuring. Current research regarding the use of prolonged exposure is discussed. The case example of a young female rape survivor is described in detail, and her prior substance dependence and intense shame are highlighted. The therapy was successful in reducing the client's symptoms of PTSD, as well as her depressive symptoms, and these gains were maintained at a one-year follow-up assessment. PMID:12115713
Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A
The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care. PMID:26111421
Lerman, Dorothea C; Sansbury, Tesa; Hovanetz, Alyson; Wolever, Erin; Garcia, Amber; O'Brien, Erin; Adedipe, Hellen
It has become increasingly common for parents of children with autism to supplement behavior analytic interventions with therapies that have not yet been subjected to adequate scientific scrutiny. When caregivers elect to use unproven therapies despite advice to the contrary, practitioners should employ the methods of applied behavior analysis to experimentally evaluate the outcomes. Controlled evaluations of unproven therapies can be challenging, however, particularly when ongoing behavioral...
Benson, Lisa Ann
Treatments for GAD are less efficacious than those for other anxiety disorders, and individuals in relationships characterized by distress are less likely to respond to standard GAD treatments, which suggest dyadic treatment of GAD may be beneficial to individuals in distressed relationships. This dissertation presents and conducts preliminary tests of an acceptance- and mindfulness-based dyadic treatment for GAD based on the principles of Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT). This di...
The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroim...
Pigeon, Wilfred R.
Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that occurs frequently in its acute form and at a rate of approximately 10% in its chronic form. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) may be employed for chronic insomnia as well as for insomnia in the context of other conditions such as chronic pain conditions. In such cases, some simple adaptations to standard CBT for insomnia are useful. This article reviews the ...
Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E.; Reese, Hannah E.; Siev, Jedidiah; SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Piacentini, John C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Wilhelm, Sabine
Tourette’s disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to i...
Naoki Yoshinaga; Akiko Nosaki; Yuta Hayashi; Hiroki Tanoue; Eiji Shimizu; Hiroko Kunikata; Yoshie Okada; Yuko Shiraishi
Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) wer...
Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substance abuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher...
Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.
Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...
Jun, Hyung Jin; Park, Moo Kyun
Tinnitus is defined as auditory perception without external sound. There is currently no cure for tinnitus. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus treatment that addresses the affected individual's reaction to tinnitus. It aims not to eliminate auditory perception as sound but to reduce or correct one's negative response to tinnitus. CBT identifies negative automatic thought and then evaluates its validity with the patient. It also aims to change negative automatic thought to more p...
Based primarily on studies that employ Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction of conditioned fear has been found to be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. This led to the discovery that an NMDA partial agonist, D-cycloserine, could facilitate fear extinction when given systemically or locally into the amygdala. Because many forms of cognitive behavioral therapy depend on fear extinction, this led to the successful use of D-cycloseri...
Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail
This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. At posttreatment, BDD a...
Didem Behice ÖZTOP; Emel KARAKAYA
Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents....
Reddy R; Sharma M.; Shivashankar N
The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopt...
Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good thera...
Turner, Judith A.; And Others
Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…
Self–Esteem enuresis children‟s are lower than normal children‟s (Hagglof, 1998; Thunis 2001; Unalacak, 2004; Ng dan Wong, 2004). Dryden (2006), believes the relationships between self-esteem and irational thinking can used rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). The research is aimed to know the effectiveness of emotive rational behavior therapy (REBT) to increase the self-esteem of enuresis children. REBT is the cognitive and behavioral therapy which assumes that human‟s cognition, emo...
Comparing the efficacy of combined Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy in reducing dysfunctional attitudes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Abdollah omidi; Abolfazl Mohammadi; Fatemeh Zargar; Goodarz Akkasheh
Background and Aim: Major depressive disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder having frequent relapse. One of the aspects of the pathology of depression is dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes in individuals. Cognitive - behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most widely used treatment in the active phase of the disorder and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a new treatment in the prevention of recurrence of major depressive disorder. The present study aimed at comparing the eff...
This paper describes the current state of behavioural, cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical treatments of anorexia nervosa and the underlying theoretical models. Purely behavioural treatment methods have been evaluated in a number of single case studies. Although effective in terms of increasing body weight, these methods are obsolete in view of their unpleasant side-effects. Cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical therapies are much more appropriate for these patients given their complex symptomatology and frequently ambivalent attitude to treatment. However, so far evaluations of these treatments are rare. The reasons for this are discussed. PMID:9411461
Pilecki, Brian; Thoma, Nathan; McKay, Dean
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major paradigms in the mental health care field. The present article reviews broad similarities and differences between each tradition while acknowledging that such generalizations may overlook heterogeneity within each. However, it is believed that a comparison between CBT and PDT is beneficial in dispelling myths about each tradition, fostering dialogue, encouraging further scholarship and research. While not an exhaustive account, this article will examine how CBT and PDT differ in how they view several topics such as the unconscious, the therapeutic alliance, the role of homework, symptom reduction, and therapeutic heuristics. Commentary is also offered on how research may be more effectively and collaboratively integrated with clinical work from both traditions. Future directions for partnership and improving mental health treatments are also discussed. PMID:26301762
Lerman, Dorothea C; Sansbury, Tesa; Hovanetz, Alyson; Wolever, Erin; Garcia, Amber; O'Brien, Erin; Adedipe, Hellen
It has become increasingly common for parents of children with autism to supplement behavior analytic interventions with therapies that have not yet been subjected to adequate scientific scrutiny. When caregivers elect to use unproven therapies despite advice to the contrary, practitioners should employ the methods of applied behavior analysis to experimentally evaluate the outcomes. Controlled evaluations of unproven therapies can be challenging, however, particularly when ongoing behavioral services are supplemented with biomedical interventions. This paper describes the methods and results of a behavior analytic evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an unproven intervention that has been growing in popularity over the past several years. Three young children with autism participated. No benefits of the therapy were evident beyond those obtained through the behavioral intervention alone. Considerations for conducting this type of research are highlighted, along with suggestions for practitioners. PMID:22477688
Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists. PMID:26554473
赵山明; 能昌华; 吴汉荣
To get formed of the status of research and application of the domestic behavior therapy and its development trend, the time distribution and the subject distribution were bibliometricallly analyzed of the literature on behavior therapy from 1981 to 2000 in the CBMdisc. Our results showed that the number of literature of behavior therapy has been increasing in exponential manner over the past 20 years; the behavior modification, the biofeedback and the cognitive therapy are extensively used in China. In clinical practice, the behavior modification and the biofeedback have been applied in all departments of medical institutions, especially for treating the cardiovascular and the neurological conditions. The cognitive therapy has been employed mainly for the treatment of mental disorders (or dysphrenia), the aversive therapy mainly for material withdrawal, and the systematic desensitization for phobia. There was no report found on the clinical use of meditation. It is concluded that the study and application in behavior therapy in China is currently developing very fast.
Jun-Sang Yu; Chun-Bae Kim; Ki-Kyong Kim; Ji-Eun Lee; Min-Young Kim
Objectives: In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide bac...
Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.
Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…
Claudi L.H. Bockting
Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.
E.J. de Bruin; S.M. Bögels; F.J. Oort; A.M. Meijer
Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-t
Servet Kacar Basaran
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94
Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L
address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health. PMID:17308138
Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroimaging technologies of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The neuroscientific investigations of basic CBT hypotheses have shown that (i functional and non-functional behavior and experiences may be learned through lifelong learning, due to brain neuroplasticity that continues across the entire lifespan; (ii cognitive activity contributes to dysfunctional behavior and emotional experience through focusing, selective perception, memory and recall, and characteristic cognitive distortion; on a neurobiological level, there is a relationship between top-down and bottom-up regulation of unpleasant emotional states; and (iii cognitive activity may be changed, as shown by therapeutic success achieved by metacognitive and mindfulness techniques, which also have their neurobiological correlates in the changes occurring in the cortical and subcortical structures and endocrine and immune systems. The empirical research also shows that neurobiological changes occur after CBT in patients with arachnophobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Calugi, Simona
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN), based on Beck's cognitive theory, was developed in a "generic" form in the early eighties. In recent years, however, improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in maintaining eating disorder psychopathology has led to the development of a "specific" form of CBT, termed CBT-E (E = enhanced), designed to treat all forms of eating disorders, including AN, from outpatient to inpatient settings. Although more studies are required to assess the relative effectiveness of CBT-E with respect to other available treatments, the data indicate that in outpatient settings it is both viable and promising for adults and adolescents with AN. Encouraging results are also emerging from inpatient CBT-E, particularly in adolescents, and clinical services offering CBT-E at different levels of care are now offered in several countries around the world. However, CBT-E requires dissemination in order to become widely available to patients. PMID:26689208
McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506
Knoerl, Robert; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Weisberg, James
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to treat chronic pain; however, more information is needed about what are the most efficacious dose and delivery methods. The aims of this review were to determine (a) which CBT doses, delivery methods, strategies, and follow-up periods have been explored in recent intervention studies of individuals with chronic pain and (b) whether the outcomes described in the selected studies were consistent with recommendations by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials. The CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2009 to 2015 testing CBT for adults with chronic pain. Thirty-five studies were included in this review. Results revealed that CBT reduced pain intensity in 43% of trials, the efficacy of online and in-person formats were comparable, and military veterans and individuals with cancer-related chronic pain were understudied. PMID:26604219
Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J
Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; [Formula: see text]) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; [Formula: see text]). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers. PMID:26244485
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia
Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…
Külz, AnneKatrin; Barton, Barbara; Voderholzer, Ulrich
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure is the state of the art and most efficient treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder and recommended as treatment of 1st choice according to guidelines. Therapies of the third wave, such as mindfulness based approaches (ACT, MBCT), metacognitive therapy, CBASP or schema therapy, have become more popular over past few years. A small number of studies that investigated some of these therapies show promising results. However, due to the small number of available studies, small sample sizes and methodologic limitations (only a few available RCTs) the evidence of these therapies is insufficient. Above all no study compared these alternative therapies with the well-proven CBT and exposure. Therefore, therapies of the third wave should only be used as add-on therapies to CBT and exposure if individually needed in the treatment of OCD. Future research is absolutely needed. PMID:27035439
Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.
Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…
Agras, W. Stewart; And Others
Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)
Reddy, R P; Sharma, M P; Shivashankar, N
The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI), Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Assertiveness Scale (AS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL). Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. PMID:21799560
Emine Gül Kapçı
Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains
Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage, substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI, Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI, Beck′s Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE, Assertiveness Scale (AS, Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL. Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…
Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise
The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…
Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D
Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials tha
Jones, Karyn Dayle
Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…
Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.
The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…
Brabban, Alison; Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas
Antipsychotic medications, while effective, often leave patients with ongoing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Guidelines recommend using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with this group. Clearly, mental health professionals require training and supervision to deliver CBT-based interventions. This study tested which antipsychotic-resistant patients were most likely to respond to brief CBT delivered by psychiatric nurses. Staff were trained over 10 consecutive days with ongoing weekly supervision. Training for carers in the basic principles of CBT was also provided. This article represents the secondary analyses of completer data from a previously published randomized controlled trial (Turkington D, Kingdon D, Turner T. Effectiveness of a brief cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention in the treatment of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:523-527) (n = 354) to determine whether a number of a priori variables were predictive of a good outcome with CBT and treatment as usual. Logistic regression was employed to determine whether any of these variables were able to predict a 25% or greater improvement in overall symptoms and insight. In the CBT group only, female gender was found to strongly predict a reduction in overall symptoms (P = .004, odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33, 4.30) and increase in insight (P = .04, OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.03, 3.29). In addition, for individuals with delusions, a lower level of conviction in these beliefs was associated with a good response to brief CBT (P = .02, OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51, 0.95). Women with schizophrenia and patients with a low level of conviction in their delusions are most likely to respond to brief CBT and should be offered this routinely alongside antipsychotic medications and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:19571248
Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred
Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice. PMID:25684611
Servet Kacar Basaran; Serap Tekinsav Sutcu
This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February) have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met ...
Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda
No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984
Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer
Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia. PMID:17004208
Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin
Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962
Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine
Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535
Wilks, Chelsey R; Korslund, Kathryn E; Harned, Melanie S; Linehan, Marsha M
Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have a significant degree of functional impairment across a range of social and occupational spheres including difficulty finding and maintaining satisfying employment, housing, or relationships. Understanding what factors are associated with functional impairment will enable treatment providers to move those diagnosed with BPD beyond symptomatic recovery and toward a life worth living. This paper investigated the trajectories and predictors of functional outcomes for suicidal women with BPD (N = 99) during a treatment outcome study of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Results revealed that participants had statistical and clinical improvements in functioning. Individuals with high emotion dysregulation displayed poorer psychosocial functioning at the subsequent assessment period and slower rates of change, which was also seen in reverse for one psychosocial functioning variable. Skills use was not related to individual trajectories in functioning. This study highlights the relationship of emotion dysregulation to functioning within a sample of suicidal women with BPD as well as the importance researching multiple domains in functioning. PMID:26764586
Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. PMID:27423167
Schaal, David W.
This article presents an introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation," by Edward Taub and his colleagues (Taub, 2012). Based on extensive experimentation with animal models of peripheral nerve injury, Taub and colleagues have created an approach to overcoming…
MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…
Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…
Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina
Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions...
Francisco J., Ruiz
Controversy remains about the empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its presumably different characteristics relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The current study aims to shed some light in this respect by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have empirically compared ACT versus CBT. Sixteen studies comparing differential outcomes (N= 954) of ACT versus CBT in diverse problems were identified following several s...
Niles, AN; Burklund, LJ; Arch, JJ; Lieberman, MD; Saxbe, D; Craske, MG
Objective: To assess the relationship between session-by-session mediators and treatment outcomes in traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for social anxiety disorder. Method: Session-by-session changes in negative cognitions (a theorized mediator of CBT) and experiential avoidance (a theorized mediator of ACT) were assessed in 50 adult outpatients randomized to CBT (n = 25) or ACT (n = 25) for DSM-IV social anxiety disorder. Results: Multi...
Vandana J. Rathod; Vyoma Shah; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Poongundran Paranthaman; Soundararajan P
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy is effective in children with ADHD. But data are lacking to prove efficacy of sensory integration therapy in treating the children with ADHD. Method: This multi-center experimental study was done at three physiotherapy colleges in India. 60 patients with ADHD are included in the study. They are randomly assigned into three different groups. Group A: 20 (subj...
Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review
This study attempted to compare the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs. those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. It was hypothesized that preadolescents who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among subjects in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Twelve music therapy sessions were conducted over a 4-month period with three different groups of subjects (n = 16), with two groups participating in active music therapy and the other receiving passive music therapy. Results indicate that subjects improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in subjects was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of serf-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Discussion of results also includes recommendations for chousing one music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of subjects. PMID:10519828
Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed. PMID:26301761
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107
Garner, David M.; Davis, Ron
Outlines a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating bulimia, focusing on the client's eating behavior, physical condition, and dysfunctional attitudes responsible for deficiencies in self-concept. (Author/ABB)
Goldstein, Tina R.; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris
Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP).
Conclusions: Consequently the cognitive behavior therapy causes to decrease the anxiety with enduring effect at first normal vaginal delivery. Therefore, this treatment is proposed to reduce the anxiety of first delivery women.
Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.
Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.
Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I
Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing
Khalsa, Manjit K.; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Sat Bir S. Khalsa
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with Kundalini Yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the program. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post compariso...
Kameoka, Satomi; Yagi, Junko; Arai, Yoko; Nosaka, Sachiko; Saito, Azusa; Miyake, Wakako; Takada, Saeko; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Asano, Yasuko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Asukai, Nozomu
Background Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy is used to treat children who have experienced traumatic events and suffer from trauma-related disorders. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled studies. However, most of these studies have been performed in the United States, with few studies conducted in Asian countries. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy in children who have experienced trauma...
Isa Okajima; Shun Nakajima; Moeko Ochi; Yuichi Inoue
The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...
Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton
This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The l...
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Faw Stambaugh, Leyla; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.
The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and outcome (drug use, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms in both conditions) at post and 6-month follow-up. There were no alliance effects in CBT....
This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be appli...
Nergis LAPSEKİLİ; Ak, Mehmet
Introduction: The implementation of effective treatment depends on thorough understanding of disorder and its presentation. Treatment strategies must depend on the individual formulation of the patient. In this paper an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD) patient treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) methods is presented. It is discussed that in the therapy, formulation is an ongoing dynamic process and necessarily required for the effectiveness of therapy. Case: Y.B. was...
Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.
There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and techniual differences between so-called second (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third “wave” (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavior therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the practitioners of these types of approaches. The current study examined possible differences in the characteristics of second wave (n=55) and third wave cognitive...
Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane
Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…
Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray
Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…
Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.
Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…
Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post
Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.
Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001) with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…
Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…
Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.
Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…
Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans
Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…
Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…
Koons, Cedar R.
Standard, outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) includes the provision of intersession telephone contact between the therapist and the client to reduce suicidal crisis behaviors, enhance skills generalization, and reduce alienation and conflict in the therapeutic relationship. Therapists providing telephone consultation need the help of…
Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…
Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.
The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…
McEvoy, Christopher; And Others
The report documents the theoretical basis and application of massage therapy, with six students who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (SIB), in two studies. The first study investigated the relationship between physical and/or emotional stress and self-abusive behavior in five severely mentally impaired students. Subjects received two to three…
Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon
The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…
Smeets, Kirsten C; Leeijen, Anouk A M; van der Molen, Mariët J; Scheepers, Floor E; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
Maladaptive aggression in adolescents is an increasing public health concern. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is one of the most common and promising treatments of aggression. However, there is a lack of information on predictors of treatment response regarding CBT. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed examining the role of predictors on treatment response of CBT. Twenty-five studies were evaluated (including 2,302 participants; 1,580 boys and 722 girls), and retrieved through searches on PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Effect sizes were calculated for studies that met inclusion criteria. Study population differences and specific CBT characteristics were examined for their explanatory power. There was substantial variation across studies in design and outcome variables. The meta-analysis showed a medium treatment effect for CBT to reduce aggression (Cohen'd = 0.50). No predictors of treatment response were found in the meta-analysis. Only two studies did examine whether proactive versus reactive aggression could be a moderator of treatment outcome, and no effect was found of this subtyping of aggression. These study results suggest that CBT is effective in reducing maladaptive aggression. Furthermore, treatment setting and duration did not seem to influence treatment effect, which shows the need for development of more cost-effective and less-invasive interventions. More research is needed on moderators of outcome of CBT, including proactive versus reactive aggression. This requires better standardization of design, predictors, and outcome measures across studies. PMID:25138144
Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.
Field, Tiffany; And Others
Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…
A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888
Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline
Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…
The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 1...
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;
OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....
McGrane, Ian R.; Leung, Jonathan G.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle...
Tariot, P N; Ryan, J M; Porsteinsson, A P; Loy, R; Schneider, L S
Behavioral signs and symptoms in dementia are common, morbid, classifiable, and treatable. The current state-of-the-art approach is to evaluate carefully for social or environmental causes, intercurrent medical conditions, or other triggers of the behavior and attempt to deal with those directly. When these conservative steps fail, there may be a role for medication. A rational approach typically hinges on matching the most dominant behavioral target symptoms to the most relevant medication class, the key information of which is summarized. PMID:11375140
Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina
Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642
Luzia Flavia Coelho
Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.
S. Olga Guriz
Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression.
Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral t...
Foa, Edna B.
Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use...
Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Settipani, Cara A.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cummings, Colleen M.; KENDALL, Philip C.
CBT represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. The numerous intervention strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerabili...
Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…
Driessen, E.; Van, H.L.; Don, F.J.; Peen, J.; Kool, S.; Westra, D.; Hendriksen, M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Cuijpers, P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dekker, J.J.H.
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of psychodynamic therapies for depression remains open to debate because of a paucity of high-quality studies. The authors compared the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy with that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), hypothesizing nonsignificant differences and the noninferi
According to popular opinions therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy is not equally important as techniques. It is often assumed that cognitive therapists view relationship with a patient only as a prerequisite to change, that this relationship doesn't lead to change by itself and that they overlook important emotions between patient and therapist. Contrary to these opinions some streams of CBT to a large extent make use of therapeutic relationship. In this paper the Schema ...
According to popular opinions therapeutic relationship doesn't play a significant role in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore it is frequently assumed that cognitive therapist doesn't pay attention to processes taking place during the session, focuses solely on a realization of an earlier planned protocol and convinces patient to rational thinking minimizing the role of emotions. Contrary to this beliefs CBT therapists often focus on a therapeutic relationship and use it in a process of...
Afshari, Afrooz; Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ahmady, Mozhgan Kar; Amiri, Shole
Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT) is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Materials and Methods: This...
Morin, Charles M.; And Others
Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
Carich, Mark S.; Stone, Mark H.
Presents a method for examining the Targeted Dysfunctional Behavior (TDB) cycle to help therapists and clients identify many possibilities for bringing about change, especially in the beginning of treatment. Theoretical rationale, stages of the cycle, and model are described with examples. The TDB cycle is outlined. (Author/EMK)
Keat, Donald B.
The purpose of the case study was to report how a therapist can adapt a variety of behavioral techniques (both classical and operant conditioning) to meet the needs of emotionally disturbed elementary school aged children in one-to-one relationships. (Atuhor)
Hofmann, Stefan G; Wu, Jade Q; Boettcher, Hannah
The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B.
A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and disc...
Lumley, Mark A.
I comment on the well-designed trial by Alda and colleagues reported in a recent issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy which demonstrated some benefits of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for fibromyalgia (FM). CBT in this and other studies provides statistically significant but rather modest benefits for FM. This may be because CBT does not directly address the high rates of victimization, post-traumatic stress disorder, and emotional avoidance experienced by a substantial number of pati...
Garay, Cristian Javier; Korman, Guido Pablo; Keegan, Eduardo Gustavo
The paper presents the reasons that led to the incorporation of mindfulness as part of a cognitive therapy approach to the prevention of relapse of recurrent depressive disorders. It describes the context in which models focused on the contents of cognition gave way to models focused on cognitive processes. We highlight the problems encountered by the standard cognitive model when trying to account for the cognitive vulnerability of individuals who, having experienced a depressive episode, are in remission. We briefly describe the theoretical foundations of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and its therapeutic approach. PMID:26323114
Wagner, Rudolph Friedrich; Reinecker, Hans
Scientific theories that are concerned with experience and behavior of human beings always include anthropological core assumptions. This applies in particular to psychotherapeutic theories. These anthropological core assumptions (i.e., concepts of mankind) affect techniques that are derived from these theories but they also have a great influence on acceptance and spreading of psychotherapeutic methods. This article examines the concept of mankind in cognitive-behavior therapy. In this connection two highly differing conceptions of the human being are identified: the early behavioristic black-box model and the conception of the human being as an actively performing subject ("man the scientist") in the framework of the self-management approach and in cognitive therapy. The image problem of today's behavior therapy, the lack of application of efficient methods of behavior therapy and problems in finding a professional identity as a behavior therapist can be seen as stemming from the differing concepts of mankind. To solve these problems we propose: an integrative concept of mankind, an increased emphasis of a cooperative therapist-patient relationship, and the taking into account of unconscious processes. PMID:12961823
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.
This case series describes the development of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention for older adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion acceptance behavior therapy (EABT) is based on a model that emphasizes the role of anorexic symptoms in facilitating avoidance of emotions. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with psychotherapeutic techniques designed to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and...
Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth
This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n=185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the CBCL Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquenc...
Siebern, Allison T; Rachel Manber
Allison T Siebern, Rachel ManberSleep Medicine Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Psychological, behavioral, and biological factors are implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia as a disorder, although the etiology of insomnia remains under investigation, as it is still not fully understood. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is a treatment for insomnia that is grounde...
Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has been adapted to make it suitable for all forms of eating disorder—thereby making it “transdiagnostic” in its scope— and treatment procedures have be...
Chen, Eunice Y; Segal, Kay; Weissman, Jessica; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; GALLOP, ROBERT; Linehan, Marsha M.; Bohus, Martin; Lynch, Thomas R.
Objective Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is associated with excessive self-control. This iterative case series describes the augmentation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for outpatient adult AN with skills addressing emotional and behavioral overcontrol. An overly controlled style is theorized to develop from the transaction between an individual with heightened threat sensitivity and reduced reward sensitivity, interacting with an environment reinforcing overcontrol and punishing imperfecti...
Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.
The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-lan...
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
Full Text Available According to popular opinions therapeutic relationship doesn't play a significant role in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore it is frequently assumed that cognitive therapist doesn't pay attention to processes taking place during the session, focuses solely on a realization of an earlier planned protocol and convinces patient to rational thinking minimizing the role of emotions. Contrary to this beliefs CBT therapists often focus on a therapeutic relationship and use it in a process of treatment. This applies especially to personality disorders. The aim of this paper is to present a therapy falling into the third wave of CBT – dialectical behavior therapy of Marsha Linehan (dialectical behavior therapy – DBT – emphasizing unappreciated and curing aspects of a relationship between patient and therapist. DBT therapist discusses with a patient important matters in their relationship, is responsive and flexible during the session and concentrates on a work with emotions of a patient. In this paper are discussed: the theoretic model of a borderline personality disorder according to DBT, basic assumptions of therapy, contingency management, methods of limits setting, possible difficulties of a therapist and ways of dealing with them.
Riccardo Dalle Grave
Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crew behavioral health and performance are of high importance, especially for long duration exploration missions. Early detection of stress and effective options...
Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew
The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…
Scheeres, Korine; Wensing, Michel; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Objective: This study evaluated the success of implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a representative clinical practice setting and compared the patient outcomes with those of previously published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for CFS. Method: The implementation interventions were the…
Bazelmans, Ellen; Prins, Judith; Bleijenberg, Gijs
In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), facilitating, initiating, and perpetuating factors are distinguished. Although somatic factors might have initiated symptoms in CFS, they do not explain the persistence of fatigue. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for CFS focuses on factors that perpetuate and prolong symptoms. Recently it has been shown that,…
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.
Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…
Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit
The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...
S.M. Bögels; P. Wijts; F.J. Oort; S.J.M. Sallaerts
Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted o
Roosen, M.A.; Safer, D.; Adler, S.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DIVE for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters rece
Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott
There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
Forand, Nicholas R.; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to…
Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…
Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie
Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…
Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.
Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.
This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…
Hodge, David R.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…
Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca
Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…
Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried
Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…
Sudak, Donna M.
In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…
Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.
Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…
Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Brown, Elissa J.
Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for families with children aged 5 to 15 years who have been affected by verbal and physical aggression in the family. AF-CBT was designed to address risks for exposure to emotional and physical aggression as well as common clinical consequences of…
Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian
We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…
Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul
Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.
Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…
Choate, Laura H.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…
Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James
Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…
Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report…
Francisco Lotufo Neto
Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.
Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena
This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…
Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der
Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the re
Burns, David D.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Demonstrated that therapeutic empathy had moderate-to-large causal effect on recovery from depression among 185 patients treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Homework compliance had separate effect on clinical recovery, over and above effect of therapeutic empathy. Patients of novice therapists improved significantly less than did patients…
Burns, David D.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Factor analysis of Self-Help Inventory from 307 outpatients receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for affective disorders revealed 3 factors that assessed frequency of active coping strategies use when depressed, helpfulness of strategies, and willingness to learn new strategies. Frequency and Helpfulness scales were not correlated with patient…
Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.
Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…
Menzies, Ross G.; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; St Clare, Tamsen; Block, Susan
Purpose: The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the rate of social phobia among adults who stutter, (b) study the effects of speech restructuring treatment on social anxiety, and (c) study the effects on anxiety and stuttering of a cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) package for social anxiety. Method: Thirty-two adults with chronic…
Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.
Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…