Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity
无
2000-01-01
The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.
Bearing Behaviors of Stiffened Deep Cement Mixed Pile
WU Mai; ZHAO Xin
2006-01-01
A series of investigations were conducted to study the bearing capacity and load transfer mechanism of stiffened deep cement mixed (SDCM) pile.Laboratory tests including six specimens were conducted to investigate the frictional resistance between the concrete core and the cementsoil.Two model piles and twenty-four full-scale piles were tested to examine the bearing behavior of single pile.Laboratory and model tests results indicate that the cohesive strength is large enough to ensure the interaction between core pile and the outer cement-soil.The full-scale test results show that the SDCM piles exhibit similar bearing behavior to bored and cast-in-place concrete piles.In general, with the rational composite structure the SDCM piles can transmit the applied load effectively, and due to the addition of the stiffer core, the SDCM piles possess high bearing capacity.Based on the findings of these experimental investigations and theoretical analysis, a practical design method is developed to predict the vertical bearing capacity of SDCM pile.
The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles
Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.
2004-01-01
In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay, a...
Bearing Capacity of Mixed Pile with Stiffness Core
YUE Jianwei; JIANG Xinliang; LING Guangrong
2006-01-01
To study load transfer mechanism and bearing capacity of a mixed pile with stiffness core (MPSC), which is formed by inserting a precast reinforced concrete pile (PRCP), in-situ tests involving MPSCs with different lengths, diameters, water cement ratios and PRCPs, cement mixed piles, and drilling hole piles, were carried out.Limit bearing capacities, load-settlement curves and stress distribution of MPSCs and mixed piles were obtained.The load transfer between cement soil and PRCP was analyzed by finite element method (FEM).Test results and FEM analysis show that an MPSC has fully utilized the big friction from a cement mixed pile and the high compressive strength from a PRCP which transfers outer top load into the inner cement soil, and that inserting a PRCP into a mixed pile changes the stress distribution of a mixed pile and improves frictional resistance between a mixed pile and soil.The length and the section area on PRCP of an MPSC both have an optimum value.Adopting MPSC is effective in improving the bearing capacity of soft soil ground.
Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles
Wang Duanduan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.
Zhao Feng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.
Ding, Xuanming; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ping; Cheng, Ke
2016-02-01
This paper aims to present a theoretical method to study the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups. The interactions between group piles result in different bearing performance of both a single pile and pile groups. Considering the pile group effect and the skin friction from both outer and inner soils, an analytical solution is developed to calculate the settlement and axial force in large-diameter pipe pile groups. The analytical solution was verified by centrifuge and field testing results. An extensive parametric analysis was performed to study the bearing performance of the pipe pile groups. The results reveal that the axial forces in group piles are not the same. The larger the distance from central pile, the larger the axial force. The axial force in the central pile is the smallest, while that in corner piles is the largest. The axial force on the top of the corner piles decreases while that in the central pile increases with increasing of pile spacing and decreasing of pile length. The axial force in side piles varies little with the variations of pile spacing, pile length, and shear modulus of the soil and is approximately equal to the average load shared by one pile. For a pile group, the larger the pile length is, the larger the influence radius is. As a result, the pile group effect is more apparent for a larger pile length. The settlement of pile groups decreases with increasing of the pile number in the group and the shear modulus of the underlying soil.
Zhao Feng
2015-01-01
The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base pos...
Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground
Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu
2008-11-01
Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.
Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles
Wang Duanduan; Wang Longfei; Zhang Lipeng
2015-01-01
Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capac...
Regressive approach for predicting bearing capacity of bored piles from cone penetration test data
Iyad S. Alkroosh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, the least square support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm was applied to predicting the bearing capacity of bored piles embedded in sand and mixed soils. Pile geometry and cone penetration test (CPT results were used as input variables for prediction of pile bearing capacity. The data used were collected from the existing literature and consisted of 50 case records. The application of LSSVM was carried out by dividing the data into three sets: a training set for learning the problem and obtaining a relationship between input variables and pile bearing capacity, and testing and validation sets for evaluation of the predictive and generalization ability of the obtained relationship. The predictions of pile bearing capacity by LSSVM were evaluated by comparing with experimental data and with those by traditional CPT-based methods and the gene expression programming (GEP model. It was found that the LSSVM performs well with coefficient of determination, mean, and standard deviation equivalent to 0.99, 1.03, and 0.08, respectively, for the testing set, and 1, 1.04, and 0.11, respectively, for the validation set. The low values of the calculated mean squared error and mean absolute error indicated that the LSSVM was accurate in predicting the pile bearing capacity. The results of comparison also showed that the proposed algorithm predicted the pile bearing capacity more accurately than the traditional methods including the GEP model.
Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics of a New Pile Group Foundation for an Offshore Wind Turbine
Ruiqing Lang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect.
Study on load-bearing characteristics of a new pile group foundation for an offshore wind turbine.
Lang, Ruiqing; Liu, Run; Lian, Jijian; Ding, Hongyan
2014-01-01
Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect. PMID:25250375
胡文韬; 夏唐代; 张智卿
2013-01-01
The influence of initial strain state on the dynamic response of an end bearing pile embedded in isotropic saturated soil is investigated through the linearized theory of small elastic perturbation superposed on largely stressed bodies. The governing equations for soil, based on Biot’s poroelasticity theory, are derived in the cylindrical coordinates, and the pile is modeled by using the one-dimensional elastic theory. The analytical solutions of pile impedance, frequency response of both twist angle and time history of velocity response are obtained by using of separation of variables technique. Finally, a parametric study of the influence of initial strains on the torsional impedance, twist angle, and velocity response at the top of the pile is carried out.
任佳佳; 钱永梅; 尹新生
2012-01-01
通过研究挤扩多盘桩的现有抗拔承载力计算方法，提出利用传统模式来计算挤扩多盘桩的抗拔承载力的不足之处，并根据挤扩多盘桩在竖向拔力作用下的土体的破坏特征和桩的受力机理，提出最新的挤扩多盘桩抗拔承载力的计算模式，为该型桩的设计应用提供可靠的理论依据。%By studying the existing calculation method of pulled out of the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under- reamed pile, this article put forward deficiencies of the traditional mode to calculate the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile, and according to the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile under vertical pull force the characteristics of the soil destruction and working mechanism of pile, put forward the newest calculation method of pulled out of the bearing capacity of the push-extend multi-under-reamed pile, the reliable theory basis will influence the application of the expansion multiple disk pile.
Numerical simulation of bearing capacity of the bored pile in soft rock%软岩钻孔灌注桩承载力的数值模拟
高长岭; 李荣峰; 柴建峰
2012-01-01
如何确定软岩地区钻孔灌注桩的承载力是一个复杂而又亟待解决的问题.本文以南京长江三桥软岩钻孔灌注桩为例,利用数值模拟法(FLAC3D模拟分析),模拟南京长江三桥软岩钻孔灌注桩逐级加载后的受力性状,根据得到的桩周土岩的应力场、位移场及破坏区的分布和扩展,确定软岩钻孔灌注桩的极限承载力.将数值模拟结果和自平衡测试结果进行比较,笔者发现两者吻合较好.%A method for determining the bearing capacity of bored piles in soft rock areas has been a complex problem that should be solved urgently. Taking the bored piles in soft rock of the third bridge over the Yangtze River in Nanjing as an example and using the numerical simulation method (FLAC3D simulation analysis), this paper simulated the force behavior of the bored piles in soft rock of the third bridge over the Yangtze River in Nanjing in the case of step stress test. Based on stress field, displacement field and the distribution and expansion of the failure zone obtained in the soil and rock around the pile, the authors determined the ultimate bearing capacity of the bored pile in soft rock. A comparison with the numerical simulation results and the self-balanced load test results shows that the numerical simulation result agrees well with the self-balanced load test result.
非饱和土中端承桩水平振动特性研究%Horizontal vibration of an end-bearing pile in unsaturated soil
章敏; 王星华; 冯国瑞
2015-01-01
针对非饱和土中桩的水平稳态振动问题，采用三相多孔介质波动方程，考虑固、液、气三相材料间的惯性和黏性耦合效应以及基质吸力的影响，通过Helmholtz矢量分解及分离变量法解耦波动方程，并将基桩等效为能描述其剪切变形和转动惯性效应的铁摩辛柯（Timoshenko）梁模型，采用Novak三维连续介质模型对非饱和土中端承桩的稳态水平振动进行了理论推导，获得了桩顶水平频域响应解析解，讨论了饱和度对土层和桩顶阻抗的影响以及桩身位移、内力沿深度的分布规律。结果表明，随着土体饱和度的升高，土层复阻抗和桩顶动力阻抗增大，桩身位移和内力则相应地减小；饱和度，包括渗透系数在内的影响仅在土体接近准饱和时才得以发挥；频率较低时，短桩拥有较大的刚度因子。桩长越长，阻抗因子越大，而共振频率越低。当长径比超过10时，桩顶阻抗不再随长径比的增加而改变。%Up to now horizontal vibration response of a single pile in unsaturated soil is analyzed theoretically. The unsaturated soil surrounding pile is described by three-phase poro-elastic theory, which takes into account the viscous and inertial coupling between solid skeleton and pore fluids as well as the matrix suction, while the pile embedded in unsaturated soil is end bearing and treated as a Timoshenko beam model to describe the shear deformation and rotational inertia effects. The Helmholtz decomposition and variable separation method are firstly adopted to decouple the governing equations of the unsaturated soil. And then a rigorous mathematical formulation of the pile-head frequency–response function is deduced by virtue of the three-dimensional continuum model proposed by Novak and the compatibility between the pile and soil. The influences of degree of saturation on the impedances of pile and soil together with the distribution of
Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering
吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭
2002-01-01
Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.
杨胜慧
2013-01-01
The cast-in-place piles foundation is adopted in the Caohe aqueduct body. There is 0.5 meter of the piles foun-dation entering into the weak weathered rock, the bearing capacity of the piles foundation is calculated according to point bearing pile . The static load test is adopted to check the the bearing capacity of the cast-in-place pile foundation, the test results show that the bearing capacity of pile foundation in Caohe aqueduct meet the design requirements.%漕河渡槽槽身段采用灌注桩基础，桩基进入弱风化岩石0.5m，按纯端承桩计算桩基承载力。采用桩基静载试验检测桩基承载力，试验结果表明，漕河渡槽桩基承载力达到设计要求。
张麒蛰; 卓卫东; 范立础
2013-01-01
In order to obtain the axial bearing capacity of a batter pile , the calculation formula for the axially bearing capacity of a batter pile was deduced based on the non-uniform distribution char-acteristics of the friction resistance around the batter pile shaft and the mechanism of pile -soil deformation compatibility .The results calculated by the proposed formula and the method given by the design code of pile were compared to explore the influence of the factors , such as pile inclina-tion, diameter, length and utmost friction resistance around pile shaft , on axial bearing capacity. The calculated results showed that the value of the pile axially bearing capacity calculated by the proposed formula decreased with the increase of pile inclination .For different pile diameters , the pile axially bearing capacity was 7%smaller than that calculated by the code's formula.The shorter of the pile length or the lesser of the utmost friction resistance of the pile was , the smaller bearing capacity calculated by the code's formula was than the values calculated by the proposed formula . Finally , with the increase of the pile length or utmost friction resistance , the value of bearing capaci-ty calculated by this proposed formula was greater than the value calculated by the code's formula. The proposed formula also takes into account of the influence of pile inclination and the mechanism of pile-soil deformation compatibility .It can be a reference to calculate axial bearing capacity of bat-ter piles.%为进一步研究斜桩轴向承载力计算方法，基于斜桩的桩周摩阻力不均匀分布的特性和桩-土受力变形协调的原则，推导了斜桩轴向承载力计算公式，通过对比本文公式与规范公式的计算结果，揭示了桩身倾角、桩径、桩长和桩侧极限摩阻力等因素对斜桩轴向容许承载力的影响规律。结果表明：鉴于规范公式未考虑斜桩桩身倾角对承载力的影响，本文公式计算得
Settlement and bearingcapacity of long pile
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich; Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich; Trinh Tuan Viet; Luzin Ivan Nikolaevich
2015-01-01
When a long pile is interacting with the soil, the combined force applied to the pile head is distributed among the side face and the pile toe inhomogeneously. The toe gets not more than 30 % from the general force, which doesn’t let using the reserves of the bearing capacity of relatively firm soil under the fifth pile. Account for the depth of the pile toe and the dead load of the soil allows increasing the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile toe and decrease the pile settlement in ...
Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement
Van der Stoel, A.E.C.
2001-01-01
The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguarding the piles of the foundation against possible damage resulting from underground construction activities in the vicinity). A full-scale test, of which the general set-up and consistency check ar...
预应力管桩承载力抗拔系数试验分析%Test and Analysis of Prestressed Pipe Pile Bearing Capacity Pull-out Coefficient
陈捷; 周同和; 王会龙
2015-01-01
通过两组8台现场静载荷试验的成果分析和已有试验成果的比较，研究了采用静压和锤击施工的预应力管桩（采用PHC）在黏土与粉土中的承载力抗拔系数。结果表明，受到桩端阻力与桩侧阻力相互作用的影响，桩端位于承载力较高的砂层时，预应力管桩承载力抗拔系数较小，桩端位于桩端阻力较小的黏土层时，预应力管桩承载力抗拔系数较大。土层抗拔系数受长径比影响较大，长径比大的桩，上部土层抗拔系数可能较大；长径比较小时，下部土层抗拔系数可能较大。研究成果可供建筑抗浮工程优化设计作为参考。%By the analysis of two groups of eight field static load test results and the comparison of existing test results,we studied the bearing capacity uplift coefficient of PHC Piles whose construction adopts hydrostatic pressure and hammering in clay and silt. The results show that bearing capacity of pile resistance coefficient is little when the bearing capacity of pile tip into the higher sand layer,the bearing capacity of pile resistance coefficient is larger when we put the pile end into the clay layer of smaller pile side resistance due to the influence of pile end resistance of pile side resistance. The aspect ratio has a great influence on the bearing capacity uplift coefficient of soil layer. When the aspect ratio is larger,the bearing capacity uplift coefficient of soil upper layer is greater than the pile of little aspect ratio;the bearing capacity uplift coefficient of soil lower layer may be greater than the upper soil layer when the pile has small aspect ratio;The research results can be used for reference by the building anti-floating engineering optimization design.
周佳锦; 王奎华; 龚晓南; 张日红; 严天龙; 许远荣
2014-01-01
The static drill rooted nodular pile is a new type of composite pile foundation which consists of precast nodular pile and the cemented soil along the pile shaft. This kind of composite pile has a good bearing capacity, and the mud pollution will largely be reduced in its construction process. A group of experiments were conducted to provide a comparison between this composite pile and the bored pile. The axial force of the nodular pile was measured by the strain gauges attached on the pile shaft to analyze the distribution of the axial force and the skin friction along the shaft; and then a three-dimensional model was built by using the ABAQUS finite element program to investigate the load transfer mechanism of this composite pile in detail. The results of the field tests and ABAQUS simulation showed that:the bearing capacity of the static drill rooted nodular pile is better than that of the bored pile in soft soil area. The settlement of the composite pile is controlled by the precast pile, and the deformation of the precast pile and the cemented soil can be considered as deformation compatibility. The nodes on the nodular pile play an important role during the load transfer process;and the skin friction of the static drill rooted nodular pile is about 1.05-1.10 times of the skin friction of the bored pile in the same soil layer.%静钻根植竹节桩是由预应力竹节桩和桩周水泥土构成的一种新型组合桩基，该新型桩不仅承载性能较好，而且可以大量减少桩基施工过程中所产生的泥浆污染。通过静钻根植竹节桩和钻孔灌注桩的静荷载对比试验及埋设在竹节桩桩身上的应变计对桩身轴力进行测量，分析了静钻根植竹节桩桩身的轴力分布情况以及侧摩阻力的分布，用有限元软件ABAQUS对静钻根植竹节桩进行三维建模计算，详细地分析这种新型组合桩的荷载传递机制。结合现场试验与模拟计算可以得到：在软土地区，静
Axially Loaded Behavior of Driven PC Piles
Hsu, Shih-Tsung
2010-05-01
To obtain a fair load-settlement curve of a driven pile, and to evaluate the ultimate pile capacity more accurately, a numerical model was created to simulate the ground movements during a pile being driven. After the procedure, the axially loaded behaviors of the piles in silty sand were analyzed. The numerical results are compared with those results by full scale pile load tests. It was found, although the loads added on the tested piles are different from those by the numerical analyses which applied displacement increments on piles, the load-settlement behaviors of piles calculated from the numerical model were close to those measured from field tests before the piles stressed to peak. Total load, shaft friction, and point bearing do not reach peak values at the same pile settlement; furthermore, the point bearing slowly increases all the while, with no peak. However, the point bearing only contributes 10˜20% of ultimate pile capacity. No matter which relative density of silty sand, pile diameter, and pile length increased, ultimate pile capacity increased as well.
厚层沉渣嵌岩桩承载性状研究%Research on bearing behavior of rock-socketed piles in thick sediments
2013-01-01
In situ core-drilling tests and static loading tests are carried out on rock-socketed pile. The test results show that when using the impact pore-forming construction and the upper part is a weakly cemented soil, pile bottom sediment thickness is generally larger, which is much thicker than the specified value by the foundation code. When the load reached a certain value, sudden and large subsidence is observed, because the end resistance does not take effect due to the existence of a thick layer of sediments. The test results indicate that the current design method of rock-socketed pile which considering both of the end and side resistance is not appropriate when impact pore-forming construction is used and there is weakly cemented soil around the pile. The bearing capacity of single rock-socketed pile should be determined by side resistance in soil and the socketed segment in rock. Numerical analysis is carried out on the distribution of side resistance of the rock-socketed segment and deformation and load carrying capacity of the pile. Under a given applied load, smaller settlement is observed when socketed thickness and rock strength is greater. With the increase of the applied load on pile top, settlement difference caused by the variation of socketed thickness and rock strength increases. The distribution of side resistance of the socketed segment along the vertical direction shows a double-peak saddle shape. When the socketed thickness and rock strength are smaller, the lower peak is higher than the upper peak. When the socketed thickness and rock strength are larger, the lower peak is lower than the upper peak. Under a given applied load on the pile top, smaller socketed thickness would result in larger settlement and side resistance. Due to the thick layer of sediment, the axial force of the rock-socketed segment of the pile gradually decreases from the applied load on pile top to zero along vertical direction, the smaller the socketed thichness, the
卢明; 王齐仁
2012-01-01
Low strain reflected wave method was widely used in the pile foundation quality evaluation . In order to overcome the limitations of analysis of shallow defect end - bearing piles rely on the characteristics of the elastic wave . From the angle of the vibration test and analysis, the modal testing theory ( MTA) was introducted, the frequency domain response theory model was built, that of various shallow End - bearing piles, the characteristics and laws of modal response were analysised in the piles head motivate, the theoretical basis was provided that of piles testing and defect judgment.%低应变反射波法已广泛应用于桩基质量评价,为了克服单纯依靠弹性波渡动学特性来分析浅层缺陷端承桩的局限,从振动测试与分析的角度,引入模态试验分析理论(MTA),建立了浅部各种缺陷端承桩的频率域响应理论模型,分析了浅部各种缺陷端承桩在桩头激励下的模态响应特征和规律,为工程桩检测和缺陷判断提供理论依据.
Grouted jetted precast concrete sheet piles: Method, experiments, and applications
Xu, GH; Yue, ZQ; Liu, DF; He, FR
2006-01-01
This paper introduces an innovative technology - grouted jetted precast concrete piling - that increases the efficiency of piling operations in coastal regions. The technology includes the following steps: (i) casting concrete piles factory-designed especially for jetting and grouting; (ii) jetting to drive the concrete piles with a crane on a floating ship or platform into soil; and (iii) grouting to enhance the sheet pile connections and to increase the pile bearing capacity. This technolog...
施卫力; 杨成斌
2015-01-01
Mechanical‐connection bamboo joint pile has been used in different soil conditions and showed significant effect . In this paper , we carried out contrast test analysis of the mechanical connection bamboo pile with the conventional pipe pile in different soil vertical ultimate bearing capacity and anti pulling capacity .. T he results show that the bearing capacity of composite pile mechanical connection in different soil conditions is obviously higher than that of the conventional pipe .%机械连接竹节桩已在不同土质工程中得到应用且效果显著。本文将机械连接竹节桩与传统管桩在不同土质中的竖向极限承载力和抗拔承载力分别进行了对比性试验分析。结果表明，在不同土质情况下机械连接竹节桩的承载力比传统管桩有明显的提高。
周儒夏; 龚维明; 杨乐; 柏平
2012-01-01
Model tests were designed to investigate the bearing capacity properties of composite steel pipe pile foundations in sandy soil.Results indicated that：To a single pile composite foundation,the load was totally carried by ground under the cap before sealing piles.Then,after sealing,the pile started to work and the pile-soil load share ratios were between 73.5%~92% before reaching ultimate bearing capacity.As vertical load increased continually to the capacity limit,the ratio reduced obviously.To a composite foundation with 8 steel pipe piles was tested,the attenuation gradient of axial load was larger in the middle and lower parts rather than the upper part during axial load transfer.The rates of the corner piles were biggest,then the side piles.The side frictional resistances developed gradually from the top to the bottom and the maximum value reached at the distance of 1.55 m below the top.At every load step,the resistances of the corner piles were greater than that of side piles.Moreover,the ultimate bearing capacity of the steel pipe pile composite foundation was significantly higher than that of the high-rise cap pile group foundation.%为了研究砂性土中钢管桩复合基础的承载特性,设计了模型桩系列试验。结果表明：对于单桩复合基础,封桩前阶段的荷载全部直接由承台底砂土承担,封桩后阶段桩体达到极限承载力之前,桩体分担的荷载占荷载增量的73.5%～92%,当桩的承载能力达到极限后,随着荷载的继续增加,桩分担的荷载比例较之前衰减明显,而土体分担的荷载比例增加。钢管桩八桩复合基础中,桩身轴力在桩身上部的衰减梯度明显小于中下部,角桩衰减速率最大,边桩次之;桩身摩阻力自上而下逐渐发挥,桩顶以下1.55 m处摩阻力达到最大;每级荷载作用下,角桩的侧阻力大于边桩。钢管桩群桩复合基础的竖向承载力远大于相对应的高承台群桩承载力。
Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology
Krasiński Adam
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model.
无
2005-01-01
The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?
Optimization Mathematical Model of Pile Forces for Offshore Piled Breasting Dolphins
周锡礽; 王东芹; 王晖; 朱福明
2004-01-01
An optimization mathematical model of the pile forces for piled breasting dolphins in the open sea under various loading conditions is presented. The optimum layout with the well distributed pile forces and the least number of piles is achieved by the multiplier penalty function method. Several engineering cases have been calculated and compared with the result of the conventional design method. It is shown that the number of piles can be reduced at least by 10% ～ 20%and the piles' bearing state is improved greatly.
Settlement and bearingcapacity of long pile
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich
2015-05-01
Full Text Available When a long pile is interacting with the soil, the combined force applied to the pile head is distributed among the side face and the pile toe inhomogeneously. The toe gets not more than 30 % from the general force, which doesn’t let using the reserves of the bearing capacity of relatively firm soil under the fifth pile. Account for the depth of the pile toe and the dead load of the soil allows increasing the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile toe and decrease the pile settlement in general. For the quantitative estimation of these factors it is necessary to solve the task on the interaction of the rigid long pile with the surrounding soil, which includes under the pile toe, which is absolutely rigid round stamp.The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of the settlement of a circular foundation with the due account for its depth, basing on the development of P. Mindlin’s studies as well as the interactions between a long rigid pile and surrounding soils, including under pile toe.It is proposed to compare the estimated value of stresses under the heel of pile with the initial critical load for the round foundation to check the condition that the estinated value is less than the intial critical one.
Analysis of the Effect of Pile Skin Resistance Verses Pile Diameter Based on Experimental Research
S. M. Marandi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In spite of the many recent advances in pile design and execution methods, the quantitative effects of grouted pile skin resistance and form on subsequent pile behavior remains an area for research. There are many parameters involved in the analysis of the bearing capacity of piles and descriptive method theory of the loading effect for each parameter is very complex. Many of these parameters are interrelated and investigation of the relationships leads to complex equations, which cannot be easily solved. The only reliable solution is to study the influence of each parameter by experimental model tests in equipped laboratories. This research presents the results of static compression tests on two model groups of pipe and grouted pile shafts (35mm, 50mm and 60 mm in diameters and 900 mm in length installed into beds of Yazd siliceous sand (located in southeast Iran. The findings of the experimental research were to the average ultimate loads at failure for grouted piles were approximately 12% higher than for the pipe piles. The pile skin resistance is an effective factor on pile bearing capacity, the load transfer response appears to be more plastic with increasing pile diameter in siliceous sand and the skin resistance of the pile was not linearly proportional to the pile diameter and varied with increase in pile diameter.
单桩竖向抗拔承载力离心模型试验研究%Centrifugal Model Test on the Vertical Uplift Bearing Capacity of Single Pile
任国峰; 徐光明; 顾行文
2012-01-01
To assist the design of pile foundation of an offshore wind farm, centrifuge modeling is performed to determine the uplift bearing capacity of single ultra-long steel pipe-pile of large diameter by which the wind turbine foundation is constituted. Curve of load versus displacement ( Q-S curve) deducted from the results of centrifuge model test are compared with that from prototype uplift capacity test. The effect of loading manner and loading rate on the ultimate uplift bearing capacity is discussed. It is shown by comparison that the value of ultimate uplift bearing capacity of single pile from centrifuge test is greater than that obtained from prototype test. As higher rate usually mobilizes higher strength, a higher loading rate in the centrifuge model test is regarded as the cause of the difference between two test results.%结合某海上风电场桩基工程中的大直径超长钢管桩抗拔承载力研究,利用离心模拟技术,初步推求得出荷载-位移的关系曲线(即Q-S曲线),并与现场抗拔试验成果得出的Q-S曲线进行了比较,分析两者加载方式和加载速率的不同对Q-S曲线的影响.结果发现,上拔力的加载速率较快,求得的单桩抗拔极限承载力偏高.
Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different d...
袁伟; 闫澍旺; 赵亮
2011-01-01
The soil around pile foundation in the wharf will suffer from strength reduction under the cycle wave loading conditions, which would further influence the vertical bearing capacity of the pile foundation. Through the indoor dynamic biaxial GDS to simulate' the cycle wave loading and apply these loads to the soil sample of Tianjin port, the strength reduction laws of soil under the dynamic cycle loads in different depths are obtained. Next, with the help of ABAQUS, combining the working loads with cycle wave loading on the pile foundation, the distribution laws of soil dynamic stress around the pile are analyzed. After synthesizing the dynamic biaxial test, the final results are obtained, which show the soil suffered from strength reduction spreads to the depth up to 5 m, the maximum strength reduction rate nearby soil can reach 85.3 % and the vertical bearing capacity of wharf pile foundation reduction rate is 5.73 % .%码头桩基在波浪循环荷载的长期作用下,桩周一定范围的土体会出现强度弱化,进而会一定程度的影响基桩竖向承载力.该文首先通过室内GDS动态三轴仪对天津港码头地基土样作用模拟的波浪循环荷载,研究不同深度土体受到不同幅值的循环动应力荷载作用后其强度的折减规律.然后通过ABAQUS有限元软件计算模拟码头桩基在上部既有结构相互作用的同时,桩身上部受波浪循环荷载,桩周土动应力的分布规律.结合室内动三轴试验结果,计算得到该码头桩基在波浪循环荷载作用下桩周土体弱化的影响深度约为5m,桩周土体的强度折减率最大达到85.3％,码头桩基竖向承载力的折减率为5.73％.
灌注桩钢筋笼长度对承载力的影响%The bearing capacity of pile length of reinforcing cage of inlfuence
王东; 马青龙; 王德庆
2015-01-01
The uplift pile for foundation under pulling force is a common practice of engineering. In some deep underground engineering, the bored piles can provide higher pull-out force, reinforced concrete pile and the soil is a good way to combine, make the uplift capacity of pile with good performance. But in actual project, the contractor to save costs, fail to execute the works in accordance with the drawings, to reduce the length of reinforcing cage, brings to the engineering quality hidden trouble.%抗拔桩来承担基础承受的上拔力是工程界常见的做法.在一些较深的地下工程中,钻孔灌注桩能提供较高的抗拔力,钢筋混凝土桩身与土层可以很好地结合 ,使这种桩具有良好的抗拔性能.但在实际工程中,施工方为节约成本,未能按照图纸施工,减少钢筋笼的长度,给工程质量带来隐患.
Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology
Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz
2015-09-01
Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.
This paper describes the mineralogy of a phyllosilicate/uraninite/galena-bearing vein located within the hydrothermal alteration halo associated with the Bangombe reactor. Phyllosilicates within the vein include a trioctahedral Al-Mg-Fe chlorite (ripidolite), Al-rich clay (kaolinite and/or donbassite) and illite. Textural relations obtained by backscattered-electron imaging suggest that ripidolite crystallized first among the sheet silicates. Uraninite is spatially associated with ripidolite and probably precipitated at a later time. While energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggest that the uranium phase is predominantly uraninite, coffinite or other phases may also be present
Modelling Pile Installation Effects: A Numerical Approach
Engin, H.K.
2013-01-01
One of the most traditional methods for supporting structures resting on soft soils is the use of piles. They generally work by transferring the loads to deeper soil layers, which can provide sufficient bearing capacity when mobilised. This type of foundations has been commonly used throughout the w
Hsu, Shu-Wei
2010-01-01
We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.
Method Cement Post-grouting to Increase the Load Capacity for Bored Pile
Van Loc Nguyen
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Drilled shafts foundations are used as an indispensable solution for long span bridges in Vietnam. In order to increase the bearing capacity, aside from the increasing of the pile length and diameter, an interested way now is treatment of pile bases after concrete placement. This study is aimed at investigating the defect at the bottom of the bored pile from the sonic test. The injection of hight pressure of cement grout to the shaft and tip of the defected bored pile was conducted to increase the bearing capacity of pile. The bearing capacity of defected bored pile is calculated by the TCXD-205:1998 an finite element mothod. After post-grouting technique done, the soil investigation tests have been carried out to define the properties of treated soils. The analytic mothod, finite element method an load test also have been applied to determine the bearing capacity of treated bored pile. The results show that the post-grouting to the shaft and tip of pile can increase two times of bearing capacity of defected bored pile and about 20% compared to the normal bored pile.
The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 1014 n/cm2/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author)
Wang, W. C.; Lin, D. G.
2015-12-01
This study investigates the bearing capacities and mechanical behaviors of pile foundation installed on the seabed of wind farm near Chang-Hua coast of western Taiwan for the supporting structure of offshore wind turbine. A series of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of pile foundation subjected to various types of combined loading were carried out using Plaix-3D finite element program to investigate the interactive behaviors between soil and pile. In the numerical modeling, pile diameter, pile length and pile spacing were selected as design parameters to inspect their effects on the bearing capacities and deformation behaviors of the pile foundation. For a specific design parameter combination, one can obtain the corresponding loading-displacement curve, various ultimate bearing capacities, V-H (Vertical-Horizontal combined loading) ultimate bearing capacity envelope, and p-ycurve of pile foundation. Numerical results indicate that: (1) Large displacement and plastic points at ultimate state mostly distribute and concentrate in the topsoil of seabed and around pile head. (2) The soil resistance on the soil-pile interface is ascending with the increases of depth, pile diameter and pile length. (3) The vertical and horizontal bearing capacities of pile group increase significantly with the increase of pile diameter. (4) The vertical and bending moment capacities of pile group increase greatly with the increase of pile length whereas the horizontal capacity is almost insensitive to pile length. (5) The bending moment of pile is highly influenced by the pile spacing. (6) For different design parameters, the shape of ultimate bearing capacity envelopes of pile group on V-H plane is similar while the envelopes will expand as the design parameters increase. For different loading levels of bending moment, the envelopes on V-H plane will contract gradually as the bending moment loading increasing.
BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE
Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor
2010-01-01
A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...
Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments
Van Eekelen, S.J.M.
2015-01-01
A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce
Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures
The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)
Experimental study on DX pile performance in frozen soils under lateral loading
XiaoBing Liu; LiHong Chen; ZhongYang Yu; JianXiao Hu; Wen Peng
2013-01-01
Experiments about working mechanism and mechanical characteristics of the DX model pile foundation under lateral dynamic and static loading were conducted by using a model system of the dynamic frozen soil-pile interaction. The horizontal displacement-force relationship of the pile head and bending moment distribution along the body in frozen soils of different temperatures were discussed. According to test results, both the horizontal displacement-force relationship of the DX pile head and bending moment distribution of the DX pile body are smaller than that of equal-diameter piles under same lateral loads. The piles with different plate positions show different displacements and bending moments. This phenomenon is mainly related to the soil temperature and bearing plates locations. Thus, dynamic response analysis of the pile foundation should be taken into account.
Pile Instrumentation Using Retrievable Sensors
Faisal H. Ali; Bujang B.K. Huat; Lee S. Kai
2008-01-01
Strain gauges are normally used to monitor the shortening or compression of pile during static pile load test. For concrete spun pile, the technique used either by incorporating high temperature-resistant strain gauges into the heat-cured production process of the spun piles or by installing an instrumented steel pipe into the hollow core of the spun piles followed by cement grout infilling. The former is extremely unpopular due to high cost of these gauges and the uncertainty over their abil...
Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model
Guodong Deng; Jiasheng Zhang; Wenbing Wu; Xiong Shi; Fei Meng
2014-01-01
By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solu...
Acoustic emission characteristics of subsoil subjected to vertical pile loading in sand
Mao, Wuwei; Aoyama, Shogo; Goto, Shigeru; Towhata, Ikuo
2015-08-01
The response of the subsoil subjected to pile loading is crucial to clarify the bearing mechanism of pile foundations. This study presents a novel acoustic emission (AE) method to monitor the subsoil behavior in a model pile testing system. The AE testing aims to capture the "micro-noises" released from sand grain dislocation and crushing around the pile shaft during penetration. The correlations between the pile settlement and the AE characteristics including count, amplitude and energy are revealed and discussed, highlighting that the ground density and the shear zone formed during pile penetration mainly affect the AE behavior. The results also suggest that the yielding of ground can be determined based on the development of the AE activity. The technique shows promise as an in-situ methodology for monitoring of subsoil behavior during the process of pile loading.
Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model
Guodong Deng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solution of velocity response in time domain are derived by means of Laplace transform technique and separation of variables technique. Based on the obtained solutions, the influence of parameters of pile end soil on the dynamic response is studied in detail for different designing parameters of pile. Lastly, the fictitious soil-pile model and other pile end soil supporting models are compared. It is shown that the dynamic response obtained by the fictitious soil-pile model is among the dynamic responses obtained by other existing models if there are appropriate material parameters and thickness of pile end soil for the fictitious soil-pile model.
Method Cement Post-grouting to Increase the Load Capacity for Bored Pile
Loc Nguyen; Lei Nie; Min Zhang
2013-01-01
Drilled shafts foundations are used as an indispensable solution for long span bridges in Vietnam. In order to increase the bearing capacity, aside from the increasing of the pile length and diameter, an interested way now is treatment of pile bases after concrete placement. This study is aimed at investigating the defect at the bottom of the bored pile from the sonic test. The injection of hight pressure of cement grout to the shaft and tip of the defected bored pile was conducted to increas...
Theoretical study on setup of expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction
齐昌广; 刘干斌; 王艳; 邓岳保
2015-01-01
When an expanded-base pile is installed into ground, the cavity expansion associated with penetration of the enlarged pile base is followed by cavity contraction along the smaller-diameter pile shaft. In order to account for the influence of cavity contraction on the change of bearing capacity of expanded-base pile, a theoretical calculation methodology, predicting the setup of expanded-base pile, was established by employing the cavity contraction theory to estimate the shaft resistance of expanded-base pile, and horizontal consolidation theory to predict the dissipation of excess pore pressure. Finally, the numerical solutions for the setup of expanded-base pile were obtained. The parametric study about the influence of cavity contraction on setup of expanded-base pile was carried out, while a field test was introduced. The parametric study shows that the decrements in radial pressure and the maximum pore water pressure after considering cavity contraction are increased as the expanded ratio (base diameter/shaft diameter) and rigidity index of soil are raised. The comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the calculated results of ultimate bearing capacity for expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction agree well with the measured values; however, the computations ignoring cavity contraction are 2.5−3.0 times the measured values.
Theoretical study on setup of expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction
齐昌广; 刘干斌; 王艳; 邓岳保
2015-01-01
When an expanded-base pile is installed into ground, the cavity expansion associated with penetration of the enlarged pile base is followed by cavity contraction along the smaller-diameter pile shaft. In order to account for the influence of cavity contraction on the change of bearing capacity of expanded-base pile, a theoretical calculation methodology, predicting the setup of expanded-base pile, was established by employing the cavity contraction theory to estimate the shaft resistance of expanded-base pile, and horizontal consolidation theory to predict the dissipation of excess pore pressure. Finally, the numerical solutions for the setup of expanded-base pile were obtained. The parametric study about the influence of cavity contraction on setup of expanded-base pile was carried out, while a field test was introduced. The parametric study shows that the decrements in radial pressure and the maximum pore water pressure after considering cavity contraction are increased as the expanded ratio(base diameter/shaft diameter) and rigidity index of soil are raised. The comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the calculated results of ultimate bearing capacity for expanded-base pile considering cavity contraction agree well with the measured values; however, the computations ignoring cavity contraction are 2.5-3.0 times the measured values.
Pile Instrumentation Using Retrievable Sensors
Faisal H. Ali
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Strain gauges are normally used to monitor the shortening or compression of pile during static pile load test. For concrete spun pile, the technique used either by incorporating high temperature-resistant strain gauges into the heat-cured production process of the spun piles or by installing an instrumented steel pipe into the hollow core of the spun piles followed by cement grout infilling. The former is extremely unpopular due to high cost of these gauges and the uncertainty over their ability to survive the pile production and driving processes. The shortcoming of the other technique is the infilling of cement grout substantially alters the structural properties of the piles, thus rendering their load-response behaviour significantly different from that of the actual working piles. To address the difficulties of the above techniques a new method was recently developed by the authors, which uses retrieval sensors instead of strain gauges (which have to be sacrificed in every test. The method also has the ability to monitor loads and displacements at various levels along the pile shaft and toe of instrumented piles. Results of field tests show high quality, reliable and consistent data, clearly far exceeding the capability of both conventional and approximate methods of using strain gauges.
Field study of plastic tube cast-in-place concrete pile
陈永辉; 曹德洪; 王新泉; 杜海伟; 张霆
2008-01-01
The compositions, technical principles and construction equipments of a new piling method used for ground improvement plastic tube cast-in-place concrete pile were introduced. The results from static load tests on single piles with different forms of pile shoes and on their composite foundations were analyzed. The distribution patterns of axial force, shaft friction and toe resistance were studied based on the measurements taken from buried strain gauges. From the point of engineering application, the pile has merits in convenient quality control, high bearing capacity and reliable quality, showing higher reasonability, advancement and suitability than other ground improvement methods. The pile can be adopted properly to take place of ordinary ground improvement method, achieving greater economical and social benefits.
Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe
Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub
2014-09-01
The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.
THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION
SAMORODOV О. V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.
Assessment of Time Functions for Piles Driven in Clay
Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars; Sørensen, Carsten Steen
The vertical bearing capacity of piles situated in clay is studied with regard to the long-term set-up. A statistical analysis is carried out on the basis of data from numerous static loading tests. The database covers a wide range of both soil and pile properties, which ensures a general...... alternative models. In the first of these models, the rate of set-up is independent of the soil properties, whereas the second function depends on the undrained shear strength. Based on the available data, there is no statistical evidence that the magnitude of set-up depends on the properties of the soil...
Piled Embankment Design Comparison
Drusa Marián
2015-05-01
Full Text Available There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR. Today’s popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.
Piled Embankment Design Comparison
Drusa, Marián; Kais, Ladislav; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin
2015-05-01
There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR). Today's popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.
R. Ananda Kumar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields in order to keep or return to the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete RCC structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load lateral load reviews are also presented. This review paper is prepared to find out the performance of basalt fibre reinforced polymer BFRP composite retrofitted reinforced cement concrete single end bearing piles.
Miriam Gonçalves Miguel
2005-07-01
Full Text Available A cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, possui um perfil geotécnicoconstituído de uma camada superficial de solo argilo-siltoso, poroso, laterítico e muitas vezes colapsível, que se estende até a profundidade máxima de 12 metros. As estacas utilizadas em obras de pequeno a médio porte se encontram totalmente embutidas nesta camada, sofrendo a influência de seu comportamento laterítico e colapsível. Os métodos clássicos brasileiros de estimativa de capacidade de carga de estacas tornam-se conservadores, frente aos resultados reais, quando aplicados em solos lateríticos e, contra a segurança, quando aplicados em solos colapsíveis, isto é, na condição crítica ao colapso. Este trabalho avalia os coeficientes de ajuste das resistências de ponta e ao atrito lateral para esses métodos, no caso de estacas apiloadas, sendo estes coeficientes obtidos pela retro-análise de resultados de provas de carga estática à compressão, realizadas no Campo Experimental de Engenharia Geotécnica da Universidade Estadual de Londrina.The city of Londrina, Paraná, has a typical geotechnical profile defined by a superficial layer of porous silty clay with maximum depth of about 12 meters, that shows lateritic characteristics, andmany times, collapsibility. Casts in place piles are often used for small buildings in the region and are fully embedded in this soil layer. Therefore, this type of foundation is subjected to the lateritic and occasionally collapsible influence of soil. Brazilian pile bearing capacity methods may yield conservative results when applied to tropical soils, as far as the lateritic origin in concerned. On the other hand, it can be unsafe if collapsibility prevails. This paper evaluates coefficients to adjust both point and lateral resistance of cast in place small diameter piles in the situation described. The work was carried out at the Londrina State University Geotechnical Experimental Site, and back analysis from static
Determination of load-transfer parameters of single piles axially loaded
Yaich Achour N
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Modern buildings require more use of the deep foundations including piles. The good perception of the behavior of piles and the knowledge of their bearing capacity is essential for a rational use. The present work focuses on the behavior of single pile under vertical loads in clay and sand soils. Thus, an approach to semi-empirical calculations load transfer as well as finite element modeling are used in order to determine the curve loading / sag at the head of pile and deduce the calculation parameters. This study has allowed predicting the load curves piles, knowing their geometric properties and some test results of in-situ soil (CPT, PMT and SPT.
Numeric simulation analysis of load-settlement relation of pile in layer foundation
WANG You-qing
2006-01-01
Considering the level distribution of soil layers, the soils surrounding pile are simulated with level finite layer elements. Supposing that the vertical deformation of the soil elements surrounding pile varies in the form of exponent function with radial distance, and considering the nonlinear constitutive relation of stress and strain, the stiffness matrix is established. The mechanics behavior of the pile-soil interface is simulated with a nonlinear interface element. This method can truly express the behavior of the pile-soil system. The load-settlement relation Q-S curves of two big diameter prototype piles on bearing test are analyzed, and satisfying results are obtained. This method is reasonable in theory and feasible in engineering.
Polar bear use of a persistent food subsidy: insights from non-invasive genetic sampling in Alaska
Peacock, Elizabeth; Herreman, Jason
2013-01-01
Remains of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) harvested by Iñupiat whalers are deposited in bone piles along the coast of Alaska and have become persistent and reliable food sources for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The importance of bone piles to individuals and the population, the patterns of use, and the number, sex, and age of bears using these resources are poorly understood. We implemented barbed-wire hair snaring to obtain genetic identities from bears using the Point Barrow bone pile in winter 2010–11. Eighty-three percent of genotyped samples produced individual and sex identification. We identified 97 bears from 200 samples. Using genetic mark–recapture techniques, we estimated that 228 bears used the bone pile during November to February, which would represent approximately 15% of the Southern Beaufort Sea polar bear subpopulation, if all bears were from this subpopulation. We found that polar bears of all age and sex classes simultaneously used the bone pile. More males than females used the bone pile, and males predominated in February, likely because 1/3 of adult females would be denning during this period. On average, bears spent 10 days at the bone pile (median = 5 days); the probability that an individual bear remained at the bone pile from week to week was 63% for females and 45% for males. Most bears in the sample were detected visiting the bone pile once or twice. We found some evidence of matrilineal fidelity to the bone pile, but the group of animals visiting the bone pile did not differ genetically from the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation, nor did patterns of relatedness. We demonstrate that bowhead whale bone piles may be an influential food subsidy for polar bears in the Barrow region in autumn and winter for all sex and age classes.
Laboratory Model Test on Interaction of Pile-tip Soils and Pile-side Soils%灌注桩桩端与桩侧土体相互作用试验研究
王学知; 李亚东; 赵春风
2012-01-01
Based on the laboratory model experiment, according to the influence factors during the pile construction, the bearing condition of the pile-side soils and pile-tip soils is controlled by setting mire skin around the pile and asbestos at the bottom of pile. Then the influence regulation on the pile-tip bearing capacity and pile lateral friction is studied by the change of the condition of the pile-tip soils and pile-side soils respectively. By the experimental study, the commutative enhance mechanism is revealed.%基于室内模型桩试验方法,结合灌注桩施工工艺对桩侧与桩端土体造成的影响,通过在桩侧设置泥皮与在桩端铺设石棉毡的方法分别控制桩侧与桩端土体承载条件,考察桩侧土体性质变化对桩端阻力的影响规律以及桩端土体性质改变时桩侧摩阻力的变化特征,进而揭示灌注桩桩端与桩侧土体相互强化的规律.
Design of Continuous Flight Auger Pile Foundation for a Multi-Storey Apartment Building
Yatskevich, Yulia
2010-01-01
The object of this work was studying, systemizing and describing continuous flight auger (CFA) pile foundation design for a residential complex and calculating the bearing capacity of a single СFA pile on the basis of Russian Building Code. This thesis was written on the request of the YIT Lentek JSK Design Department. The information for the theoretical part was gathered from Russian Building Codes, theoretical manuals, other common available materials (including the Internet), and proje...
STUDY OF SOFT SOIL REINFORCEMENT USING HYBRID PILE-PVD
Sandyutama, Y.; L.Samang; A. M. Imran; Harianto, T.
2015-01-01
Recently due to the high demand of construction road need the construction in short period. The problem of construction on soft clay is the low bearing capacity and total as well as differential settlements. Therefore, innovation in soil improvement is needed. Soft soil improvement by geotextile and rigid piles is an interesting method to provide and economic and effective solution, which reduces settlements, construction time and cost. Full-scale tests were performed to investigate the perfo...
Viscoelastic behavior of concrete pile
丁科; 唐小弟
2008-01-01
Based on constitutive theory of viscoelasticity,the viscoelastic behaviour of concrete pile was investigated.The influence of viscosity coefficient on the stress,displacement and velocity response was discussed.With the increase of viscosity coefficient,the amplitude of stress wave decreases,and the maximum value of the stress wave shifts to deeper position of the pile.In other words,the viscosity coefficient behaves as lag effect to stress wave.
Simulation analysis for O-cell test of pile and the interaction of upper pile and lower pile
ZHENG Ying-jie; ZHANG Ke-xu; ZHANG Er-qi
2009-01-01
In this paper, the soil-pile system of O-cell test of pile is simplified as an axi-symmetrie problem.By using aggregation of quadrilateral isoparametrie elements to simulate pile and soil, setting Goodman' s elements between pile and soils, a method of numerical simulation analysis on O-cell test of pile is presented with the consideration of nonlinear mechanical behavior of soils and pile-soil interface.The method is applied to the a-nalysis of a case of O-cell test of pile.The load-displacement curves and axial force curves of upper pile and lower pile obtained from the O-cell test of pile are fitted, and parameters of the mechanical model of soils and interface are determined.Analysis results validate that the numerical simulation analysis method put forward in this paper is applicable.Furthermore, the interaction and influence of upper pile and lower pile in the O-cell test are also studied with the method.The result shows that if load box is located in a soil layer with fine me-chanical behavior, the interaction of upper pile and lower pile in O-cell test can be ignored generally.
Target reliability index for serviceability limit state of single piles
边晓亚; 郑俊杰; 徐志军; 章荣军
2015-01-01
The objective is to develop an approach for the determination of the target reliability index for serviceability limit state (SLS) of single piles. This contributes to conducting the SLS reliability-based design (RBD) of piles. Based on a two-parameter, hyperbolic curve-fitting equation describing the load−settlement relation of piles, the SLS model factor is defined. Then, taking into account the uncertainties of load−settlement model, load and bearing capacity of piles, the formula for computing the SLS reliability index (βsls) is obtained using the mean value first order second moment (MVFOSM) method. Meanwhile, the limit state function for conducting the SLS reliability analysis by the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is established. These two methods are finally applied to determine the SLS target reliability index. Herein, the limiting tolerable settlement (slt) is treated as a random variable. For illustration, four load test databases from South Africa are compiled again to conduct reliability analysis and present the recommended target reliability indices. The results indicate that the MVFOSM method overestimatesβsls compared to that computed by the MCS method. Besides, both factor of safety (FS) and slt are key factors influencingβsls, so the combination of FS andβsls is welcome to be used for the SLS reliability analysis of piles when slt is determined. For smaller slt, pile types and soils conditions have significant influence on the SLS target reliability indices; for larger slt, slt is the major factor having influence on the SLS target reliability indices. This proves that slt is the most key parameter for the determination of the SLS target reliability index.
Analysis of Interaction Factors Between Two Piles
CAO Ming; CHEN Long-zhu
2008-01-01
A rigorous analytical method is presented for calculating the interaction factor between two identical piles subjected to vertical loads. Following the technique proposed by Muki and Sternberg, the problem is decomposed into an extended soil mass and two fictitious piles characterized respectively by Young's modulus of the soil and that of the difference between the pile and soil. The unknown axial forces along fictitious piles are determined by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which imposes the compatibility condition that the axial strains of the fictitious piles are equal to those corresponding to the centroidal axes of the extended soil. The real pile forces and displacements can subequally be calculated based on the determined fictitious pile forces, and finally, the desired pile interaction factors may be obtained. Results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and portray the influence of the governing parameters on the pile interaction.
Energy piles. A fundamental energy pile; Energiepfaehle. Eine fundamentale Energiequelle
Kaiser, Holger; Beldermann, Nico [GF-Tec GmbH, Roedermark (Germany)
2013-03-01
The Maintower, the new airport in Berlin/Brandenburg, a lot of Ikea buildings, and also small office buildings or residential buildings may exchange energy with the underground by means of pile fundaments. At the correct planning and execution, energy piles are low-cost geothermal power plants which sustainable generate heating and cooling for the buildings standing on them. Even more energy can be generated safely under compliance with the groundwater protection by means of a new development of the material and the transfer.
Instrumented model pile tests on sand plugs
Haaren, L.J.C. van; Verruijt, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Kolk, H.J. [Fugro Engineers B.V., Leidschendam (Netherlands)
1995-12-31
0pen ended piles develop internal frictional resistance between the internal soil plug end the pile wall during axial loading. Current pipe pile design practice assumes that the ultimate internal skin friction is of the same order of magnitude as the outer skin friction. This paper describes a series of laboratory pile load tests on instrumented model pipe piles, designed to investigate the development of plug stresses and skin friction along the plug length during pile loading. The piles contain sand columns of various relative densities and of different heights. The soil plugs are loaded to failure under fully drained conditions. The test data indicate that internal skin friction in sand can be substantially higher than assumed in conventional design practice. This finding could lead to significant economical savings on future pipe pile foundations in sand.
Influence of vertical loads on lateral pile group response considering soil-pile-cap interactions
Hussien, Mahmoud N.; Tobita, Tetsuo; Iai, Susumu
This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation conducted to study the effect of vertical loads on lateral response of a free head and a capped pile group in sand. A coupled soil-pile system is idealized through 2D finite elements with soil models idealized by a hyperbolic type multiple shear mechanism. The analysis focuses on the five piles in the middle row of a 3x5 pile group spaced at 3.92-pile diameters. The interaction between a pile and the surrounding soil in the 3D type is idealized in the 2D analysis using soil-pile interaction springs with a hysteretic non-linear load displacement relationship. The presence of vertical loads on free head piles increases the confining pressures in the sand deposit confined by the piles but the rate of increase in those outside the group is relatively small, resulting in the difference in a balance of lateral soil pressures acting at the back of and in front of individual piles. A vertical load applied to a group pile with a uniform vertical displacement of 0.1 pile diameter decreases the lateral resistance of the leading pile (pile 1) by 10 % and increases the lateral resistance of piles 3 and 5 by 14 and 35 %, respectively. The same trend with higher percentages of increase or decrease is observed in the capped pile group case.
Analysis of pile foundations under dynamic loads
A method is presented for the analysis of pile foundations which are subjected to horizontal dynamic loads from earthquakes, airplane impact, gas explosion or other sources. The motion of the pile cap and the pile forces are computed. - The loads may be applied to the pile cap or directly to the piles (e.g. by earthquake wave motion). The soil may be stratified and is considered to be an elastic or visco-elastic medium. The piles are assumed vertical. The method makes use of an approximate fundamental solution for displacements caused by a dynamic point load in a layered visco-elastic medium. The approximation involves a discretization of the medium in the vertical direction. In horizontal directions the medium is treated by continuum theory. The soil medium supports each pile at about 10 to 20 nodes. A dynamic flexiblity matrix for the soil is derived which relates the elastic, damping and inertial forces of the soil to the displacements at each node. It includes effects of radiation damping. All piles are coupled through the soil flexibility matrix. The piles are modelled by beam elements. Transient response is computed using fast discrete Fourier transforms. The arrangement of the piles is arbitrary. However, simple and double symmetry can be accounted for by the computer program. When the pile arrangement is axisymmetric, the degrees of freedom can be reduced to only those of two piles per ring. The influence of the number of piles and the influence of the pile spacing on group stiffness and on pile forces is presented for two soil profiles. Dynamic effects on pile forces of a foundation for a reactor building are studied. They are significant when soils are soft. (orig.)
Ter-Martirosyan ZavenGrigorevich
2012-10-01
It is proven that the above properties produce a substantial impact onto the stress-strain state of soils that interact with the pile and the grid, and the impact values make it possible to assess the rigidity of the slab-pile foundation that is needed to solve the problems of the multiplicity of piles as well as the problems of distribution of the total load between the piles and the grid.
The energy spectrum containing the effects of all orders of pulse pileup is predicted for an idealized x-ray pulse-height-analysis system measuring randomly occurring events. Two simplifying assumptions used are first a fixed pulse resolution time and second that the measured energy of piled-up pulses is the algebraic sum of the energy associated with each pulse
Decommissioning of Windscale pile 1
The Windscale Piles were constructed in the late 1940's primarily for the production of plutonium in support of the British atomic weapons programme. In 1957 Pile 1 suffered a fire during the routine release of stored Wigner energy by nuclear heating. Following the fire as much material as possible was recovered, an inventory and status report prepared and the pile sealed and placed under surveillance and maintenance, the only practicable option at the time. Over the last decade in addition to general improvements in routine monitoring equipment there has been extensive investigative work carried out to better understand the damage caused by the fire and assess the options for further action. These studies concluded that the preferred option was for the Pile core to be removed, treated and packaged for intermediate storage prior to final disposal. The paper will describe the core investigations, the assessed conditions, and the options considered. It will also describe the tendering process to allow contractors to propose solutions against a cardinal point specification, the outline of the preferred solution and the progress of the work to date. (author)
杨镇生
2013-01-01
洺河渡槽通过3根试验桩的桩底压浆前后静载对比试验，测定桩底压浆对桩周侧摩阻力和端承力的增强效果，为桩底压浆提供设计计算参数和施工工艺参数。%Through the static load comparative tests before and after pile-bottom grouting of three test piles in Ming River aqueduct, determining the effect of the pile bottom grouting on pile side friction resistance and end bearing capacity, pro-viding the design calculation parameters and construction process parameters for the pile bottom grouting.
Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand
Ashraf Nazir
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.
DRIVEN POLYSTRONG REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES AND NEW DESIGN OF PILE CAPS
I. I. Bekbasarov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents constructional and technological features for manufacturing driven piles with variable strength of pile shaft. Economical efficiency of their production has been shown in the paper. The paper provides a pile cap design that ensures perception of hammer impacts with the help of lateral edges of the pile cap. Driven reinforced concrete piles which are manufactured from three shaft sections having various strength have been proposed in the paper. Material strength (concrete grade and diameter of bars and length of shaft sections are given on a case by case basis in accordance with nature and rate of stresses in piles during their driving process. Manufacturing of polystrong piles provides an opportunity to select them for a particular construction site with due account of their preservation during driving process.A pile cap has been developed that as opposed to existing analogous designs makes it possible to transmit impact efforts from a hammer to the pile through lateral surface of its head part. The pile cap provides the possibility to increase an area for perception of hammer impact efforts by the pile and in doing so it is possible significantly to reduce a damage risk and destruction of pile concrete during its driving. Application of polystrong piles and their driving with the help of new pile cap are considered as a basis for defect-free and resource-saving technology for pile foundations in the construction.
M. A. Lisnevskyi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.
Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods
Wrana Bogumił
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.
桩土共同作用原理在处理质量事故方面的应用%The Principle of Pile-soil Interaction Applied to Reinforce Pile Accident
朱奎; 徐日庆; 沈加珍
2011-01-01
某工程桩出现质量事故,根据承载力和地质情况对桩基特点进行了分析,利用桩土共同作用原理进行加固,通过土参与承载补偿桩承载力不足.在构造上将基础与桩脱开,并设置褥垫层,通过有效技术措施促使桩土变形协调,从而达到桩土共同作用的效果.工程实例表明承载力和沉降均可以满足要求.%Quality accident of pile happened, and the character of pile foundation is analyzed according to the geological condition and beadng capacity. The reinforcements which based on the principle of pile-soil interaction is adopted,soil supported load to compensate inadequate bearing capacity of pile. foundation and pile is separated in structure and cushion is applied,and the effective technical measure urge pile-soil distortion coordinate,then pile-soil interaction is achieved, furthermore,engineering project hold that foundation of bearing capacity and settlement can meet with the requirement.
Thermal Conductivity Of Rubble Piles
Luan, Jing
2015-01-01
Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure $P\\approx \\epsy\\mu$, where $\\epsy$ is the monolithic material's yield strain and $\\mu$ its rigidity. At low $P$, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, $\\kcon\\approx k(P/(\\epsy\\mu))^{1/2}$, can be orders of magnitude smaller than, $k$, the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, $\\krad=16\\ell\\sigma T^3/3$, to the total effective conductivity, $\\keff=\\kcon +\\krad$. Here $\\ell$, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of order the size of the elements and voids. An important distinction between $\\kcon$ and $\\krad$ is that the former i...
曹兆虎; 刘汉龙; 孔纲强; 周航
2015-01-01
A small-scale physical modelling method was developed to investigate the pile bearing capacity and the soil displacement around the pile using transparent soil and particle image velocimetry(PIV) technique. Transparent sand was made of baked quartz and a pore fluid with a matching refractive index. The physical modelling system consists of a loading system, a laser light, a CCD camera, an optical platform and a computer for image analyzing. A distinctive laser speckle was generated by the interaction between the laser light and transparent soil. Two laser speckle images before and after deformation were used to calculate the soil displacement field using PIV. Two pipe piles with different diameters under oblique pullout loads at angles of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° were used in tests. The load-displacement response, oblique pullout ultimate resistances and soil displacement fields were then studied. The test results show that the developed physical modelling method and transparent soil are suitable for pile-soil interaction problems. The soil displacements around the pipe piles will improve the understanding on the capacity of pipe piles under oblique pullout loads.
Uranium migration and retention during weathering of a granitic waste rock pile
Highlights: • We investigate the environmental impact of the granitic waste rock piles. • The majority of the waste rocks in the pile is barren- or overburden rock. • The main neo-formed U-bearing phases are (Ca) and (Cu) uranyl phosphates. • Under circum-neutral pH conditions they do not pose an environment threat. - Abstract: This study investigates the post-mining evolution of S-type granitic waste rocks around a former uranium mine, Vieilles Sagnes (Haute Vienne, NW Massif Central, France). This mine was operated between 1957 and 1965 in the La Crouzille former world-class uranium mining district and is representative of intra-granitic vein-type deposits. 50 years after mine closure and the construction and subsequent re-vegetation of the granitic waste rock pile, we evaluate the environmental evolution of the rock pile, including rock alteration, neo-formation of U-bearing phases during weathering, and U migration. Vertical trenches have been excavated through the rock pile down to an underlying paleo-soil, allowing the investigation of the vertical differentiation of the rock pile and its influence on water pathways, weathering processes and U migration and retention. Arenization dominantly drives liberation of U, by dissolution of uraninite inclusions in the most alterable granitic minerals (i.e. K-feldspar and biotite). Retention of U in the matrix at the base of the waste rock pile, and in the underlying paleo-soil most likely occurs by precipitation of (nano-) uranyl phosphates or a combination of co-precipitation and adsorption reactions of U onto Fe (oxy)hydroxides and/or clay minerals. Even though U-migration was observed, U is retained in stable secondary mineral phases, provided the current conditions will not be modified
Numerical Modeling of Laterally Loaded Piles
S. T. Kok; B. B.k. Huat
2008-01-01
Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and piles response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the ca...
Suro, S. M.; Bakar, I.; Sulaeman, A.
2016-07-01
Short Piled Raft is a modified piled raft foundation system, which represents combination between raft foundation and pile foundation, but the length of pile is relatively shorter. The basic concept of the Short Piled Raft foundation system considers the passive soil pressure creating a stiff condition of slab-pile system. This means that the thin concrete slab floats on the supporting soil, while the piles serve as stiffeners concrete slab and also to reduce settlement of the foundation. Slab to pile ratio of such system has been mentioned by several researchers, however the optimum pile spacing of stability performance for obtaining minimum settlement on peat haven't been clearly discussed. In this study, finite element method to simulate the stability performance related to settlement of Short Piled Raft foundation system was used. Short Piled Raft foundation system with concrete slab of 7.0 m x 7.0 m square was assumed to be built on peat with the thickness of 3.5 m. The material properties of pile and raft were constant. The outer diameter of galvanized steel pipe as pile was 0.30 m; raft thickness was considered to be constant of 0.15 m and the length of pile was 3.0 m, while the pile spacing varied from 0.50 to 3.00 m. Point load varied from 0 to 100 kN with increment of 20 kN was also considered as a static load, acted on the centre of the concrete slab. Optimization was done by comparing each numerical result of simulations, thus conclusion can easily be drawn. The optimum pile spacing was 1.00 m which produced minimum settlement of 30.11 mm under the load of 100 kN.
Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962)
We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author)
Point resistance of piles in sand
Miura, Norihiko
1983-01-01
Mechanism of point resistance of pile in sand was investigated mainly from the viewpoint of the particle-crushing of sand at the pile tip. It is shown that the work dissipated in the particle-crushing of sand is as large as 66 percent of the total work done by the external force, hence the point resistance of a pile in sand greatly depends on the particle-crushing property of the sand. It is also shown that the relationship between point resistance and vertical pressure of a pile can be predi...
Soil stress field around driven piles
Allard, Marie-Agnes
1989-01-01
The description, equipment, and results of a series of pile-driving experiments conducted in a centrifuge using a model pile driven in dry sand are presented. The work was conceived on the basis of the modelling of a soil-structure system under an artificially generated gravitational field, and motivated by the need for experimental data for a better understanding of the complex phenomena involved in the pile-soil interaction during driving. The behavior of the pile itself has been the fo...
Influence of reaction piles on test pile response in a static load test
Qian-qing ZHANG; Shu-cai LI; Zhong-miao ZHANG
2013-01-01
This work presents a new analytical method to analyze the influence of reaction piles on the test pile response in a static load test.In our method,the interactive effect between soil and pile is simulated using independent springs and the shear displacement method is adopted to analyze the influence of reaction piles on test pile response.Moreover,the influence of the sheltering effect between reaction piles and test pile on the test pile response is taken into account.Two cases are analyzed to verify the rationality and efficiency of the present method.This method can be easily extended to a nonlinear response of an influenced test pile embedded in a multilayered soil,and the validity is also demonstrated using centrifuge model tests and a computer program presented in the literature.The present analyses indicate that the proposed method will lead to an underestimation of the test pile settlement in a static load test if the influence of the presence of reaction piles on the test pile response is neglected.
In-Pile instrumentation development
A proper interpretation of data from advanced irradiations in research reactors requires the on-line monitoring of neutron fluxes, gamma dose rates, central fuel rod temperatures, fission gas release pressures, small geometry changes, etc. Our activities in this field aim at a thorough understanding of the sensors' behaviour under the irradiation conditions in order to extract reliable real-time information. The objectives of the work reported upon are On-line in-pile measurement of thermal and fast neutron fluxes and gamma heating rate and to study parasitic currents and voltages in instrumentation cables due to radiation and temperature effects
Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil
Kort, D.A.
2002-01-01
For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was
Effect of pile-cap connection on behavior of torsionally loaded pile groups
Ling-gang KONG; Li-min ZHANG
2008-01-01
To evaluate the respouses of fixed and pinned pile groups under torsiun, a method is presented to analyze the nonlinear behavior of free-standing pile groups with rigid pile caps. The method is capable of simulating the nonlinear soil response in the near field usingp-y and τ-θ curves, the far-field interactions through Mindlin's and Randolph's elastic solutions, and the coupling effect of lateral resistance on torsional resistance of the individual piles using an empirical factor. Based on comparisons of the solutions for fixedand pinned-head, 1×2, 2×2, and 3×3 pile groups subjected to torsion, it was found that pile-cap connection significantly influences the torsional capacity of pile groups and the assignment of applied torques in the pile groups. In this study, the applied torques for the pinned-head pile groups are only 44%～64% of those for the corresponding fixed-head pile groups at a twist angle of 2°. Such a difference is mainly due to the change of the lateral resistances of individual piles in the groups.
A Study of Horizontal Displacement of Laterally Loaded Piles
Aram M. Raheem
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A theoretical approach is used to analyze single pile and pile in group under lateral loading using two programs. The first one used the finite element method for single pile depending on plain strain condition while the second one used the characteristic load method for pile in group. Horizontal displacement for pile in group is measured while both horizontal displacement and shear stress for single pile are measured. A comparison between the results of horizontal displacement for both single pile and pile in group with the actual practical values are produced and shows a good agreement.
Model Tests of Pile Defect Detection
无
2001-01-01
The pile, as an important foundation style, is being used in engineering practice. Defects of different types and damages of different degrees easily occur during the process of pile construction. So,dietecting defects of the pile is very important. As so far, there are some difficult problems in pile defect detection. Based on stress wave theory, some of these typical difficult problems were studied through model tests. The analyses of the test results are carried out and some significant results of the low-strain method are obtained, when a pile has a gradually-decreasing crosssection part, the amplitude of the reflective signal originating from the defect is dependent on the decreasing value of the rate of crosssection β. No apparent signal reflected from the necking appeares on the velocity response curve when the value of β is less than about 3.5 %.
曹兆虎; 刘汉龙; 孔纲强; 周航
2015-01-01
A small-scale physical modelling method was developed to investigate the pile bearing capacity and the soil displacement around the pile using transparent soil and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Transparent sand was made of baked quartz and a pore fluid with a matching refractive index. The physical modelling system consists of a loading system, a laser light, a CCD camera, an optical platform and a computer for image analyzing. A distinctive laser speckle was generated by the interaction between the laser light and transparent soil. Two laser speckle images before and after deformation were used to calculate the soil displacement field using PIV. Two pipe piles with different diameters under oblique pullout loads at angles of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° were used in tests. The load−displacement response, oblique pullout ultimate resistances and soil displacement fields were then studied. The test results show that the developed physical modelling method and transparent soil are suitable for pile−soil interaction problems. The soil displacements around the pipe piles will improve the understanding on the capacity of pipe piles under oblique pullout loads.
A new method for testing pile by single-impact energy and P-S curve
许昭永; 段永康; 王彬; 胡毅力; 杨润海; 许峻; 赵晋明
2004-01-01
By studying the pile-formula and stress-wave methods (e.g., CASE method), the authors propose a new method fortesting piles using the single-impact energy and P-S curves. The vibration and wave figures are recorded, and thedynamic and static displacements are measured by different transducers near the top of piles when the pile is impacted by a heavy hammer or micro-rocket. By observing the transformation coefficient of driving energy (totalenergy), the consumed energy of wave motion and vibration and so on, the vertical bearing capacity for single pileis measured and calculated. Then, using the vibration wave diagram, the dynamic relation curves between the force(P) and the displacement (S) is calculated and the yield points are determined. Using the static-loading test, thedynamic results are checked and the relative constants of dynamic-static P-S curves are determined. Then the subsidence quantity corresponding to the bearing capacity is determined. Moreover, the shaped quality of the pilebody can be judged from the formation of P-S curves.
M. R. Honarvar
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Offshore platforms in seismically active areas should be designed to survive in the event of severe ground excitations with no global structural failure. The annulus between the pile and leg in jacket-type offshore platforms can be filled with cement grout as a means of reducing horizontal deflections, inhibiting corrosion and preventing local damages. This paper discusses an experimental approach which can be used to demonstrate the effect of grouting on enhanced structural performance of jackets. In this regard, the lateral load bearing behavior of grouted and un-grouted jackets are investigated experimentally with special attention to effect of grout on pile-leg interaction. Results are presented on the cyclic inelastic behavior of two scaled frame models of a representative platform which was recently installed in the Persian gulf. The objective of this effort was to improve the understanding of the behavior of jackets subjected to lateral motions and specially the effects of exact real pile-leg interaction. it should be noted that this paper addresses the exact and realistic pile-leg interaction. It is concluded that grouting can not be considered as a definite method of improving strength and structural nonlinear dynamic behavior. Although it generally increases the lateral stiffness, but some side effects and points are to be considered. In this paper, the two separate lateral load bearing mechanisms -namely portal (braced mechanism and frame bending mechanism- are distinguished and the effect of grout on each one is shown.
3D finite element analysis on pile-soil interaction of passive pile group
ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Dun-ping; ZHANG Ling; JIANG Chong
2008-01-01
The interaction between pile and soft soil of the passive pile group subjected to soil movement was analyzed with three-dimensional finite element model by using ANSYS software. The soil was assumed to be elastic-plastic complying with the Drucker-Prager yield criterion in the analysis. The large displacement of soil was considered and contact elements were used to evaluate the interaction between pile and soil. The influences of soil depth of layer and number of piles on the lateral pressure of the pile were investigated, and the lateral pressure distributions on the (2×1) pile group and on the (2×2) pile group were compared. The results show that the adjacent surcharge may result in significant lateral movement of the soft soil and cousiderable pressure on the pile. The pressure acting on the row near the surcharge is higher than that on the other row, due to the "barrier" and arching effects in pile groups. The passive load and its distribution should be taken into account in the design of the passive piles.
赵法锁; 俞剑勇; 罗丽娟; 卢全中; 胡志平
2001-01-01
以灌注桩桩土相互作用的原位试验为基础,结合西安土层结构、性质;采用有限单元法对黄土地区的砼灌注桩桩—土相互作用进行仿真模拟,研究了 桩土相互作用、荷载的传递规律、桩土相对位移与桩侧摩阻力的关系。通过桩载试验资料 对比,得出三维有限单元法的模拟结果与实测值相近,该研究进一步揭示了桩土相互作用的实质,为最优桩长的选取和单桩承载力的确定奠定了基础。%Based on the in situ test of pile-soil interaction of filling pile, combining with the properties of soils in Xi′an, and modelings pile-soil interaction of concrete filling pile in the loess area by using finite element method, the authors studied pile-soil interaction, regulari ty of load transferring, and the relation between relative displacement and lateral friction resistance of the pile. By comparing of pile load test data,it is found that the modeling result by three-dimensional finite element method is similar to that of actual measurement. Moreover, the essence of pile-soil interaction is revealed. It provides a basis for the selection of optimum pilele ngth and the definition of pile bearing capacity.
ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang
2007-01-01
Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.
Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1962-07-01
We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement
Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio
In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...
Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand
Thomassen, Kristina
The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...
Numerical Analysis of Piles in Layered Soils: A Parametric Study
Ravi Kumar Reddy C
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, numerical analysis of a pile-soil interaction problem is presented considering the parameters influencing the axial load-deformation behavior of the pile embedded in a layered soil medium. The analysis is demonstrated with parametric solutions of a pile with underlain model soil strata under the axial force. An attempt is made to ascertain the extent of influence of elastic properties of the pile, geometry of the pile, end conditions of the pile and the elastic properties of the underlain soil strata on the response of the piles under axial loads lying in a model soil layers in terms of the settlement of the pile and the internal deformation of the pile. The study revealed that the increase in modulus of elasticity of pile improves the settlement resistance of the pile, increase in the ratio of cross sectional dimensions causes decrease in the top deformations of the pile, the settlement of the pile reduced to a great extent when the cross section of the pile adopted is non circular instead of circular and increase in the elastic modulii of top and bottom layers of soil has decreased the settlement of the pile to a great extent, but elastic modulus of soil layers other than top and bottom has got negligible influence on the settlement of the pile.
Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.
1976-05-11
1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.
INTERACTION BETWEEN LONG PILES AND THE SOIL BODY AS PART OF THE SLAB-PILE FOUNDATION
Ter-Martirosyan ZavenGrigorevich; Trinh Tuan Viet
2012-01-01
The paper provides a definition of and a solution to the problems of interaction between long piles and the soil body as part of the slab-pile foundation with the due account for the interval between the piles, the length of piles and their correlations, as well as the nonlinear properties of soil identified by analytical and numerical methods through the application of Plaxis-2d software. It is proven that the above properties produce a substantial impact onto the stress-strain state of s...
Modelling the dynamic pile-soil-pile interaction in a multi-layered half-space
Hamad, Waleed; Ntotsios, Evangelos; Hunt, Hugh; Hussein, M.F.M.; Thompson, D. J.; Talbot, James
2015-01-01
Within the context of railway ground-borne vibration, the dynamic pile-soil-pile interaction remains an area that has not been sufficiently investigated. Whilest a number of researchers have scrutinised the vibration response of piled-foundations, their approaches exhibit a compromise between computation time and solution accuracy. In this paper, two models of piled-foundations in a multi-layered half-space are presented; one is an efficient semi-analytical model and another is a fully-couple...
Local Scour Around Piles Under Wave Action
陈国平; 左其华; 黄海龙
2004-01-01
The model tests are performed with regular waves, and the effect of wave height, wave period, water depth, scdiment size and pile diameter is evaluated. The shape and size of local scour around piles are studied. There are three typical scour patterns due to wave action. It is found that a relationship exists between the erosion depth and the wave number. An empirical formula of the maximum local scour is thus derived.
Seismic soil pile interaction:experimental evidence
Moccia, Flaviana
2009-01-01
The comprehension of the real behaviour of pile foundations under earthquake loading is very important, since it can significantly affect the performance of the superstructure. As a matter of fact the experience of recent earthquake has confirmed that piles can suffer extreme damage and failure under earthquake loading. The case histories from Kobe earthquake (1995) indicate that not only the inertial actions but also the kinematic ones, due to ground movements, which was overlooked in design...
Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses
The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)
Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles
A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10-3 cm/s to values approaching 10-7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10-8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table
周世良; 程烈; 沈灵; 凌霄
2013-01-01
Based on a project, we carry out a numerical analysis for the pile-soil interaction of the blind sheet-pile bank connecting structure. We also study the effect of the calculation parameters on the pile-soil interaction. When the blind sheet-pile suffers the rear earth pressure, the earth pressure among the sheet-pile passes to both sides of the barrier piles, so that it reduces the earth pressure bore by the front piles which produces the soil arching effect, and improves the bearing capacity of the bank connecting structure. It is found that the soil cohesion and the internal friction angel have greater impacts on pile-soil interaction. With the cohesion and internal friction angel increase, the load-bearing of blind piles also increases, and finally tends to a stabilized value. When the cohesive reaches to a certain value, the internal friction angel has a less impact on the pile-soil interaction. In order to make an optimal design, we must make a comprehensive consideration about not only the span of the blind pile but also the span between the blind pile and the front row pile. It can be used as a secondary factor when designing the bank connecting structure of the blind sheet pile, because the soil elastic modulus, Poisson’s ration and the coefficient of friction of the pile have small effects on the pile-soil interaction.% 结合某工程，对遮帘板桩式接岸结构桩土相互作用进行数值分析，研究了桩土相关计算参数对桩土作用的影响。由于遮帘桩的存在，在受到后方土压力时，遮帘桩桩间土压力向两侧遮帘桩传递，这样减小了前排桩承受的土压力，产生土拱效应，提高了接岸结构的承载力。土的粘聚力与内摩擦角对桩土相互作用影响较大，随着粘聚力与内摩擦角的增加，遮帘桩荷载承担比均有所增加，最后都趋于稳定值，当粘聚力达到一定值时，内摩擦角对桩土相互作用影响较小。遮帘桩间距及
Hussien, Mahmoud N.; Tobita, Tetsuo; Iai, Susumu
The non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure systems to seismic loading is parametrically studied in the frequency domain using two-dimensional (2D) finite elements (FE). The soil-pile interaction in three dimensions (3D) is idealized in the 2D type using soil-pile interaction springs with non-linear hysteretic load displacement relationships. The system under investigation comprises of a single degree of freedom structure supported by an end-bearing single pile founded in a homogenous sand layer over rigid rock. Comparisons with established results from the literature suggest that the adopted FE model reasonably captures the essential features of the seismic response of the coupled soil-pile-structure system. Numerical results demonstrate the strong influence on the effective natural period of the foundation properties. The effect of non-linear soil behavior and soil profile as well as the frequency content of excitation on both kinematic and inertial interactions is illustrated. The relative contributions of kinematic and inertial interaction to the development of dynamic pile bending are clarified.
The Effect of the Propeller Jet on Pile Groups
Kubilay Cihan
2014-01-01
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of jet propeller on the damage of berthing structures combined of armoured slope with pile groups. For this purpose, scour measurements were performed for four types berthing structures, which were armoured slope with tandem arrangements of piles for two and three piles and with side by side arrangements of piles for two and three piles. The effect of gap between piles on damage was investigated. The damage level induced by propeller jet between piles was determined. The gaps were 1, 2, 3, and 4 times the pile diameter. Three different values of Rpm (690, 820, and 950) were chosen for the tests. The diameter of circular piles is 40 mm. The slope ratio was 1/3 and the diameter of propeller was 10 cm.
Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums
In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping
Determination of pile failure mechanism under pullout test in loose sand
K. Faizi; R. Kalatehjari; R. Nazir; A. S. A. Rashid
2015-01-01
Estimating the deformation of soil around the pile contributes to reliable design of structures under pullout force. This work presents the results of a series of small-scale physical modelling tests designed to investigate the uplift resistance of piles with diameter of 5 cm and slenderness ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in loose sand. Close photogrammetric technique and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were employed to observe the failure patterns due to uplift force on piles. The results show that the shear zones curve slightly outward near the ground surface. After peak resistance, the shear strain concentrates into a pair of narrow shear bands, then a flow around mechanism is formed accompanied by a reduction in the uplift resistance. The results from the laboratory tests were verified by analytical method proposed by Chattopadhyay and PLAXIS 2D and 3D finite element method software. It is found that the depth and width of the failure surface increase with the increment of the slenderness ratio. A good agreement is observed among the measured bearing capacity and obtained failure surface of the models and the results of numerical modelling. Finally, the maximum deformation of loose and dense sand respectively with densities of 25% and 75% were compared in the stage of fully removing pile. The results shows that the deformation of the soil is related to its density, therefore it depends on its dilatancy.
Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation
朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.
Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation
朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.
The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars
2008-01-01
Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall. The pi...... piles were tested to failure in axial uplift and the load-displacement relations were recorded....
THE KINEMATIC AND INERTIAL SOIL-PILE INTERACTIONS: CENTRIFUGE MODELLING
Chenaf, Nawel; CHAZELAS, Jean-Louis
2008-01-01
International audience Piles supporting superstructures undergo with the soil two interactions during an earthquake: the kinematic interaction and the inertial interaction. The kinematic soil-pile interaction is the pile loading by the soil displacement produced by the seismic waves propagating. Inertial superstructure-pile-soil interaction results from forces due to the superstructure actuation by the kinematic interaction. These two interactions are superimposed in seismic events and the...
Application Study of Self-balanced Testing Method on Big Diameter Rock-socketed Piles
Qing-biao WANG
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Through the technological test of self-balanced testing method on big diameter rock-socketed piles of broadcasting centre building of Tai’an, this paper studies and analyzes the links of the balance position selection, the load cell production and installation, displacement sensor selection and installation, loading steps, stability conditions and determination of the bearing capacity in the process of self-balanced testing. And this paper summarizes key technology and engineering experience of self-balanced testing method of big diameter rock-socketed piles and, meanwhile, it also analyzes the difficult technical problems needed to be resolved urgently at present. Conclusion of the study has important significance to the popularization and application of self-balanced testing method and the similar projects.
王朝祥; 张超; 李洪嘉
2015-01-01
Excavation of foundation pit can inevitably cause foundation stress field changes and then lead the normal stress of pile-soil interface changes,so as to reduce the bearing capacity of uplift pile and influence the deformation of tension piles. In this essay will detect and analyze the load-carrying properties of uplift pile which at different depth in the sandy region of Shenyang through the test of in-situ pile static load pull-out at the surface and different excavation depth position,some meaningful conclusions are drawn.%基于基坑开挖不可避免地引起地基应力场变化，导致桩—土接触面法向应力发生改变，从而降低抗拔桩承载力，对抗拔桩的变形也产生影响的情况，通过地表和不同开挖深度位置进行原位桩静载荷抗拔试验，对沈阳砂土地区抗拔桩在不同深度时的承载性能进行了原位检测分析，得出了一些有意义的结论。
40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.
2010-07-01
... Professional Engineer for technical data, such as design drawings and specifications, and engineering studies... operation; (ii) Volumes of wastes you intend to store in the pile; (iii) Physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes to be stored in the unit; (iv) Potential for releases from the unit;...
Global and local scour at pile groups
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties of th...
Global and local scour at pile groups
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...
Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving
Tsouvalas, A.
2015-01-01
Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly attri
Amalia, Nadya; Asri, Asifa; Rokhmat, Mamat; Sutisna; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin
2015-01-01
Using a model for concrete piles driven into clays, we compared penetration depths between uncoated piles and piles coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The behavior of surfaces coated with TiO2 changes to superhydrophilic, enabling water molecules to penetrate inside the clay pores. The attraction suppresses or reduces the compression of water inside the clay pores. The absence of bulk pressure from water causes the pile not to bounce (backward movement after striking). Contrar...
Pile – Soil Interaction during Vibratory Sheet Pile Driving : a Full Scale Field Study
Guillement, Claire
2013-01-01
Urban construction sites require strict control of their environmental impact, which, for vibratory sheet pile driving, can include damage to nearby structures due to ground vibrations. However, the lack of knowledge concerning the generation of soil vibrations makes the prediction of ground vibration levels difficult. This MSc. thesis in particular, focuses on a crucial link in the vibration transfer chain: the sheet pile – soil interface, which is also one of the least documented. The aim o...
Genetic Effects of Pile Radiations in Rice
In attempts to utilize radiation-induced mutations for rice breeding, it is of primary interest to obtain the fundamental data of the biological effects of pile radiations. Although considerable variation of radiosensitivity was found among rice varieties, Japanese rice was comparatively more susceptible to pile radiations than foreign varieties, and tetraploids were less susceptible as compared with the diploid varieties after irradiation. From die observation of the radiation injury of F1, hybrids it was concluded that, in addition to the contribution of a gene or a gene system, the cytoplasm was related to the intervarietal difference of radiosensitivity. Sterility was more easily induced by pile radiations than X-irradiation. In the X-ray series, chlorophyll mutations on the X1-ear basis reached a maximum frequency at middle doses and decreased at higher doses. In the pile radiation series the frequency increased with increasing doses. The cause of differences of these two series seemed to be a difference of the mean size of mutated sectors between both the radiations. The increment of induced variation on quantitative characters occurred in plus and minus direction with similar frequencies after the treatment of pile radiations. However, the heritable variations did not increase in accordance with neutron flux. The amount of induced variation was more in the progenies of partially sterile X1 ear and less in those which segregated chlorophyll mutants in X2 generation. It was calculated that 1 r of X- and gamma-rays was equivalent to 1-2 x 109 thermal neutrons per cm2 for induction of chlorophyll mutations and of variation on quantitative characters. (author)
A new method of testing pile using dynamic P-S-curve made by amplitude of wave train
胡毅力; 许峻; 段永康; 许昭永; 杨润海; 赵晋明
2004-01-01
A new method of detecting the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile with high strain is discussed in this paper. A heavy hammer or a small type of rocket is used to strike the pile top and the detectors are used to record vibration graphs. An expression of higher degree of strain (deformation force) is introduced. It is testified theoretically that the displacement, velocity and acceleration cannot be obtained by simple integral acceleration and differential velocity when long displacement and high strain exist, namely when the pile phase generates a whole slip relative to the soil body. That is to say that there are non-linear relations between them. It is educed accordingly that the force P and displacement S are calculated from the amplitude of wave train and (dynamic) P-S curve is drew so as to determine the yield points. Further, a method of determining the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile is discussed. A static load test is utilized to check the result of dynamic test and determine the correlative constants of dynamic-static P(Q)-S curve.
Seismic Response Analysis of Portal Water Injection Sheet Pile
WANG Yuanbin; GUO Haiyan; ZHANG Chunhui
2007-01-01
To further the study on the newly developed portal water injection sheet pile under static loads, in this paper, by adopting the nonlinear calculation module of FEM software ANSYS, a model for the interaction between the soil and the sheet piles is set up,and the seismic response analysis for this type of space-retaining structure is performed. The effects of the embedded depth and the distance between the front pile and the back pile on the dynamic characteristics of the portal water injection sheet pile are studied.
The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil
Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad;
2013-01-01
, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness.......Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper...
The Strength of Rubble Pile Asteroids
Scheeres, D. J.; Sanchez, P.
2012-12-01
The rubble pile hypothesis for small asteroids in the Near Earth and Main Belt populations have been driven by several factors, including the observed high porosity of those bodies whose mass have been measured, the evident limitation on spin rate of asteroids larger than ~500 meters, and direct observation of the surface morphology of these bodies. Given these observations, it has been presumed that small asteroids should evolve as if they were cohesionless collections of grains. Detailed geophysical analysis of these bodies by Holsapple (Icarus 2010) show that cohesionless bodies will evolve under the addition of angular momentum by the YORP effect into more distended and, paradoxically, more slowly rotating bodies. Additional analysis in Holsapple (Icarus 2007) has shown that cohesional strength within a rubble pile could strengthen a collection of grains to the point where they could sustain rapid rotation. In our current talk we use the above as a starting point and incorporate new observations of the asteroid morphology driven by recent analysis of asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa science team and research on the mechanics of grains in the space environment (Scheeres et al. 2010). Analysis of images of Itokawa determined a measured size distribution of 1/d^3 for larger grains on asteroid Itokawa (Michikami et al., Earth Planets Space, 60, 13-20, 2008). Analysis of the sample shows the presence of micron sized dust on that asteroid's surface (Tsuchiyama et al., Science 333, 1125, 2011). Combining these observations provides a global indication of grain distribution within rubble piles. Even assuming a less steep distribution of 1/d^2 for dust grains smaller than 1 mm in size, the interior of Itokawa should still be dominated by the finest dust grains, with the mean grain size equal to ~ twice the smallest grain in the distribution. One implication of this result is that fines are present on the surface of the rubble pile Itokawa and thus should be distributed
Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction
Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George
2008-07-01
In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.
郝爱玲; 查甫生; 林志月; 崔可锐
2014-01-01
大面积的深基坑坑底往往设置密集的工程桩，深开挖导致的土体卸荷回弹作用会对这些工程桩产生强烈的影响。采用ABAQUS软件建立平面有限元分析模型，对深开挖过程中坑底群桩的受力特性进行研究，确定桩顶抬升量、桩土相对位移、桩身轴力和桩侧摩阻力的分布。最后在开挖结束时对各工程桩重新加载，根据Q-s曲线来判断其抗压承载力和抗拔承载力。结果表明，工程桩的承载力与其在基坑平面中的位置有关。%Large scale deep excavation is normally followed by construction of serried engineering piles inside the excavation zone , and unloading and rebound of soil induced by deep excavation have a great influence on those engineering piles .The mechanical characteristics of the pile groups in the bottom of foundation during the process of deep excavation were studied through building plane finite element model by ABAQUS software , and it was determined the lifting extent of pile block, pile-soil relative displacement , pile shaft force, and side friction of pile.Finally, each engineering pile was reloaded when excavation came to an end , then it was made judgments about their compressive bearing capacity and uplift bearing capacity according to the Q-s curve.The results showed that the bearing capacity of the engineering piles was related to their positions in the foundation excavation plane .
Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique
2014-01-01
This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.
Li, Qiang; Shi, Qian; Wang, Kuihua
2010-06-01
In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.
朱峰; 徐卫亚; 王环玲
2014-01-01
The pile-soil interaction under wave loads is an extremely complex and difficult issue in engineering. In this study, a physical model test is designed based on the principle of the gravity similarity to obtain time histories of wave forces of unsteady regular waves, and to measure the magnitude and the distribution of wave forces acting on the piles. A numerical model and relevant numerical methods for the pile-soil contact surface are adopted based on the principles of elastic dynamics. For a practical project, the time histories of wave forces on the piles are obtained through physical model tests. The deformations of the piles in the pile-soil interactions and the distribution of the bending moment on the piles are studied. It is shown that, with the increase of the period of wave pressures, the absolute value of the horizontal displacement of the piles increases, the embedment depth of the piles increases, and the scope of influence of soils increases. The change of the bending moment on the piles is consistent with that of its theoretical results, and the proposed numerical method can very well simulate the properties of the piles.
Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.
2005-01-01
Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of
竖向荷载下群桩-土-承台相互作用数值分析%Numerical analysis of interaction of pile group-soil-raft under vertical load
杜家庆; 杜守继; 赵丹蕾; 唐文勇
2013-01-01
Besides the interaction of the multiple stress superposition from piles shaft friction, pile bottom resistance and contact stress between low caps and soil, the clamping action makes the cap-pile-soil interaction more complicated in pile foundation with large pile diameter and small spacing. 3D finite difference program is employed to evaluate the pile-soil-cap interaction with the change of vertical load, while the pile spacing and pile diameter remain constant in the analysis procedure. Analysis is carried out to explain the interaction of cap-pile-soil from the following aspects such as the lateral friction of soil in each layer, load on the top of characteristic piles, load-settlement relationship, vertical displacement of soil between piles, etc. The results show that: the clamping action on the upper soil among piles will decrease, and the pile shaft friction in the upper part will increase when the load exceeds 117.8 MN which is slightly larger than Pu/2 (Pu means ultimate bearing capacity of piles group); the lower part of pile shaft friction shows a trend of decrease due to the influence of the multiple stress superposition, and the decrease trend in characteristic piles has different influence scope; the load, which makes settlement of piles group achieve 5% of pile diameter, can be regarded as the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of piles group, and it is reasonable; when the ratio of piles group’s settlement to pile diameter exceeds 1%, the proportion of the load carried by piles decreases because of the cap contribution.% 在大桩径、小桩距的群桩条件下，不仅有来自桩侧、桩端和承台传递的多重应力叠加，还有群桩对桩间土的夹持作用影响，桩-土-承台之间作用更加复杂。用有限差分软件模拟固定桩距、桩径，变化竖向荷载下桩-土-承台的相互作用。从各层土的侧摩阻力、不同位置桩的桩顶荷载、荷载-沉降关系、桩间土体位移等方面的计算
Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation
Poortinga, Ate; Ritsema, Coen J
2014-01-01
Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise...
Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading
Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo
.2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of...... Committee for Standardization), DNV (2004b) (Det Norske Veritas), CEN (2004) (European Committee for Standardization), ISO (2001) (International Organization for Standardization) and API (1993) (American Petroleum Institute)....
Soil Structure Interaction in Energy Piles
Chen, Diming
2016-01-01
This study focuses on developing an improved thermo-mechanical soil-structure interaction (i.e., load transfer) analysis to assess the axial strains, stresses, and displacements during thermo-mechanical loading of energy piles in different soils having different end restraint boundary conditions. This study builds on established analyses by (i) incorporating an algorithm to identify the location of the point of zero displacement (i.e., the null point) during changes in temperature, (ii) addin...
Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge
The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized
Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving
Tsouvalas, A.
2015-01-01
Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly attributed to the recent developments in the offshore wind industry. To meet the increasing demand for energy from renewable resources, a large number of offshore wind farms are planned to be constructe...
CENTRIFUGAL VIBRATION TEST OF RC PILE FOUNDATION
Higuchi, Shunichi; Tsutsumiuchi, Takahiro; Otsuka, Rinna; Ito, Koji; Ejiri, Joji
It is necessary that nonlinear responses of structures are clarified by soil-structure interaction analysis for the purpose of evaluating the seismic performances of underground structure or foundation structure. In this research, centrifuge shake table tests of reinforced concrete pile foundation installed in the liquefied ground were conducted. Then, finite element analyses for the tests were conducted to confirm an applicability of the analytical method by comparing the experimental results and analytical results.
Energy piles: site investigation and analysis
Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael
2013-01-01
Despite an increasing worldwide use of geothermal energy foundations, there is a lack of published guidelines and results from thermal response testing of such installations. In this paper the results are presented from thermal response, thermal recovery and laboratory thermal testing performed at two sites in Ireland. Some practical issues concerned with the use of thermal response testing rigs, designed for use with deep boreholes, on relatively short piles are discussed and addressed. Give...
Chichkin A. F. / Чичкин Александр Федорович
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of dynamic sounding on construction platforms with various soil conditions in comparison to the tests of piles by static loading. The authors provide the comparison of the results of tests and calculations, on the basis of which the conclusion about competitiveness of dynamic sounding is made, and used in Penza city to set trial pile length with dynamic testing and statistics sounding / Анализируются результаты динамического зондирования на площадках строительства с различными грунтовыми условиями в сопоставлении с испытаниями свай статической нагрузкой. Приводятся сравнительные результаты испытаний и расчетов, на основании чего делается вывод о конкурентоспособности способа динамического зондирования, применяемого в г. Пензе для назначения длины пробных свай, с динамическими испытаниями свай и статическим зондированием
不同运动方向两桩间桩-土-桩相互作用%PILE-SOIL-PILE INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO PILES MOVING ALONG DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
孔令刚; 樊继营; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏
2013-01-01
Both centrifuge modeling and numerical simulation are employed to investigate pile-soil-pile interaction between two adjacent piles with pile spacing of 3 times pile diameter moving in different directions. The influence of pile spacing,internal friction angle of sand,and different displacements of the leading and trailing piles on reduction factor are also analyzed based on numerical results. It is found that pile-soil-pile interaction is significant in two adjacent piles undergoing different movement directions. The reduction factor of the trail pile is not larger than that of the leading one in the investigated two cases. It is also found that reduction factors for the leading and trail piles almost linearly increase as pile spacing varies from 3 times pile diameter to 5 times and almost keep constant with internal friction angle. In addition,loading mode has certain effect on reduction factors of the two piles.%通过离心模型试验和数值模拟手段研究不同运动方向下桩间距为3倍桩径的两桩间相互作用规律，并分析桩间距、土体内摩擦角以及不同桩头位移对前、后桩折减系数的影响。通过分析表明，沿不同方向运动的两桩间存在明显的桩-土-桩相互作用，该相互作用效果与桩所在位置有明显关系，前桩的相互作用折减系数明显大于于后桩；当桩间距在3～5倍桩径范围内，前、后桩折减系数随桩间距近似线性变化；砂土内摩察角对折减系数的影响可以忽略。另外，不同加载方式对两桩的折减系数也有一定影响。
Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile
When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author)
FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS
Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.
A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)
李飞蛟
2012-01-01
淮北华松商业广场综合楼场地地深部局部岩溶发育，主楼柱距大，要求桩基承载力大，通过对桩端持力层的后注浆处理，既避开岩溶，又满足承载力、变形要求。% Karst is locally developed in the depth of the site of composite building of Huaibei Huasong commercial pla-za. The major building pillars are widely spaced and require piles to have great bearing capacity. Post-pile grouting was performed to the pile-end bearing layer, not only avoiding karst, but also meeting the demand of bearing capacity and deformation.
Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings
Fleenor, E. N., Jr.
1983-01-01
Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.
Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests
Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.
2015-09-01
In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement
LIU Run; YAN Shu-wang; LI Zhi-hua
2009-01-01
Long steel piles with large diameters have been more widely used in the field of ocean engineering.Owing to the pile with a large diameter,soil plug development during pile driving has great influences on pile driveability and beating capacity.The response of soil plug developed inside the open-ended pipe pile during the dynamic condition of pile-driving is different from the response under the static condition of loading during service.This paper addresses the former aspect.A numerical procedure for soil plng effect prediction and pile driveability analysis is proposed and described.By taking into consideration of the pile dimension effect on side and tip resistance,this approach introduces a dimensional coefficient to the conventional static equilibrium equations for the plug differential unit and proposes an improved static equity method for the plug effect prediction.At the same time,this approach introduces a simplified model by use of one-dimensional stress wave equation to simulate the interaction between soft ping and pile inner wall.The proposed approach has been applied in practical engineering analyses.Results show that the calculated plug effect and pile driveability based on the proposed approach agree well with the observed data.
Impedance function of a group of vertical piles
Impedance and transfer functions of a group of vertical piles located in any desired configuration in plan in a horizontally stratified soil layer are derived. Hysteretic and radiation damping are accounted for. The method separates the piles and the soil, introducing unknown interaction forces. The total flexibility matrix of the soil is constructed, superposing the (complex) flexibility coefficients caused by the interaction forces of a single pile only. The dependence of the impedance and transfer functions on the oscllating frequency for foundations with different numbers of piles is investigated. Pile-soil-pile interaction is shown to be very important for all modes of vibration. The procedure is used in the seismic analysis of a reactor building. (Author)
Settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation
ZHAO Ming-hua; ZHANG Ling; YANG Ming-hui
2006-01-01
The mechanism of long-short composite piled raft foundation was discussed. Assuming the relationship between shear stress and shear strain of the surrounding soil was elasto-plastic, shear displacement method was employed to establish the different explicit relational equations between the load and the displacement at the top of pile in either elastic or elasto-plastic period. Then Mylonakis & Gazetas model was introduced to simulate the interaction between two piles or between piles and soil. Considering the effect of cushion, the flexible coefficients of interaction were provided. With the addition of a relevant program, the settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation was developed which could be used to account for the interaction of piles,soil and cushion. Finally, the calculation method was used to analyze an engineering example. The calculated value of settlement is 10.2 mm, which is close to the observed value 8.8 mm.
In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Methods for Nuclear Fuels
Fox, Brandon S.
2010-01-01
Measuring nuclear fuel thermal conductivity in-pile can provide much needed data for understanding fuel performance during irradiation and yield thermophysical property data needed for simulation codes and fuel databases. The objective of this research is to develop and compare two in-pile thermal conductivity methods in a laboratory setting using surrogate fuel materials. A steady-state radial heat flow method was investigated to understand its viability as an in-pile steady-state thermal...
Influence of heave reducing piles on ground movements around excavations
McNamara, A M
2001-01-01
The research concerns the influence of piles, installed beneath deep excavations, as a means of reducing movements in the surrounding ground. The work focussed on the use of piles installed as a part of top down basement construction, a technique used in conjunction with deep excavations in urban areas. The investigations sought to explore the effectiveness of bored piles as a means of enhancing the stiffness of the soil beneath the excavation and so reducing the spread of movements to the su...
扩顶CFG桩在大型油罐地基处理中的应用%Application of Top-Extended CFG Pile to Foundation Treatment of Large Oil Tank
盛志战; 苏振兴; 陈彬; 曹建方
2013-01-01
扩顶CFG桩复合地基是在常规CFG桩复合地基基础上发展起来的一种新的地基处理形式,利用了扩顶的荷载收集效应,充分发挥桩体高承载力的优势及桩间土的承载和变形协调能力.本文简要介绍了扩顶CFG桩复合地基的作用机理及油罐地基处理的要求和特点.针对江苏某大型油罐基底为淤泥质软土的特殊情况,采用“山皮石桩+ CFG桩+桩帽+加筋垫层”的复合形式,桩帽和加筋垫层的共同作用,充分发挥桩体高承载力的优势,创造性的将山皮石桩+扩顶CFG桩的多桩型复合地基处理方式应用于大型油罐地基处理中,为大型油罐软土地基处理提供了一种新的思路.%The top-extended CFG pile composite foundation is a new foundation treatment technique based on the conventional CFG pile composite foundation. It can make full use of the "load collecting" function and high bearing capacity of top-extended piles, and the bearing capacity and the deformation compatibility of soil between piles. This paper introduces the mechanism of the top-extended CFG pile composite foundation and the requirements and characteristics of oil tank foundation treatment. According to the foundation for silt soil of a large oil tank in Jiangsu province, it can give full play to the advantages of high bearing capacity of CFG pile, using the "gravel pile + CFG pile + pile cap + reinforced cushion" compound form , as well as pile caps and reinforced cushion worked together. The gravel pile and top-extended CFG pile composite foundation is creatively applied to the foundation treatment of large oil tanks and provides new thinking for yhe soft soil foundation treatment of large oil tanks.
Foundation heat transfer analysis for buildings with thermal piles
Highlights: • A numerical transient thermal model for thermo-active foundations is developed. • Thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations are evaluated. • A simplified analysis method of thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations is developed. - Abstract: Thermal piles or thermo-active foundations utilize heat exchangers embedded within foundation footings to heat and/or cool buildings. In this paper, the impact of thermal piles on building foundation heat transfer is investigated. In particular, a simplified analysis method is developed to estimate the annual ground-coupled foundation heat transfer when buildings are equipped with thermal piles. First, a numerical analysis of the thermal performance of thermo-active building foundations is developed and used to assess the interactions between thermal piles and slab-on-grade building foundations. The impact of various design parameters and operating conditions is evaluated including foundation pile depth, building slab width, foundation insulation configuration, and soil thermal properties. Based on the results of a series of parametric analyses, a simplified analysis method is presented to assess the impact of the thermal piles on the annual heat fluxes toward or from the building foundations. A comparative evaluation of the predictions of the simplified analysis method and those obtained from the detailed numerical analysis indicated good agreement with prediction accuracy lower than 5%. Moreover, it is found that thermal piles can affect annual building foundation heat loss/gain by up to 30% depending on foundation size and insulation level
Simulation of Pile-up in the ATLAS Experiment
Marshall, Z; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
The high luminosity of the LHC results in a significant background to interesting physics events known as pile-up. ATLAS has adopted two independent methods for modeling pile-up and its effect on analyses. The first is a bottom-up approach, using a detailed simulation of the detector to recreate each component of the pile-up background. The second uses specially recorded data events to emulate it. This article reports on the experience using both of these methods, including performance considerations, for simulating pile-up in ATLAS.
Critical sizes and flux distributions in the shut down pile
An important part of the experiments carried out on the reactor G1 during a period of shut-down has consisted in determinations of critical sizes, and measurements of flux distribution by irradiations of detectors. This report deals with the following points: 1- Critical sizes of the flat pile, the long pile and the uranium-thorium pile. 2- Flux charts of the same piles, and study of an exponential experiment. 3- Determination of the slit effect. 4- Calculation of the anisotropy of the lattice. 5- Description of the experimental apparatus of the irradiation measurements. (author)
Soil-cement piles by drilling-mixing method
ZOTSENKO N.; VYNNYKOV YU.; ZOTSENKO V.
2015-01-01
Development of the drilling-mixing technology lead to the appearance of the soil-cement piles. It has all advantages of the drilling piles, but it eliminate the problem of the well walls stability. Drilling-mixing technology consist in, that machine with drilling-mixing head loosen soil; impregnated it by laitance; and mixed. Piles are perform from the excavation bottom until design depth. The movable soil-cement mixture feels wells during all the process. Pile has cylindrical form with set s...
Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids
Schultz, P. H.
2015-12-01
While chondrites are the most common meteoroids to enter our atmosphere, they represent a small fraction of recovered falls. Most stony meteorites disrupt during entry, consumed by ablation or lost by weathering; in contrast, small iron meteorites (entry at altitude; (c) no accessory meteorite falls; (d) "explosion" (not low-speed compression) crater; (e) infrasound/seismic data indicating a high-speed entry/collision; and (f) petrologic evidence for shock deformation/melting in breccias indicative of speeds >4 km/s. Although a monolithic chondrite (~ 10 m across) might allow surviving entry, most objects of this size contain multiple flaws, ensuring atmospheric disruption. Hence, an alternative "needle model" was proposed wherein a small rubble-pile object gradually re-shaped itself during entry [Schultz, 2008], a process that minimizes drag, thermal signatures of entry, and catastrophic disruption. First proposed to account for smaller than expected craters on Venus [Schultz, 1992], such a process resembles subsequent Shoemaker-Levy entry models [Boslough and Crawford, 1997] that predicted much deeper entry than standard models. Laboratory experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range simulated this process by breaking-up hypervelocity projectiles into a cloud of debris and tracking its path at near-full atmospheric pressure. The resulting cloud of fragments exhibited less deceleration than a solid sphere at the same speed. Moreover, shadowgraphs revealed constituent fragments "surfing" the pressure jump within the mach cone/column. Previous models proposed that crater-forming impacts must be >50-100 m in diameter in order to survive entry [Bland and Artemieva, 2004]. The "needle model" for the Carancas meteorite entry, however, raises questions about this lower limit for threats by rubble-pile asteroids, e.g., Itokawa. Consequently, we modeled the fate of a rubble-pile entering earth's atmosphere using GEODYN, an Eulerian code with adaptive mesh refinement
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich; Sidorov Vitaliy Valentinovich; Ter-Martirosyan Karen Zavenovich
2013-01-01
Interaction between long piles and the adjacent soil has a spatial and temporal nature. This phenomenon is based on a set of non-linear and rheological properties of soils. Distribution of lateral forces between the surface and the pile toe is heavily dependent on the above properties. The process of formation of the stress-strain state around the pile can demonstrate decaying, constant or progressive velocity depending on the rheological processes in the soil that may be accompanied by harde...
Engineering approach to modeling of piled systems
Available methods of analysis of piled systems subjected to dynamic excitation invade areas of mathematics usually beyond the reach of a practising engineer. A simple technique that avoids that conflict is proposed, at least for preliminary studies, and its application, compared with other methods, is shown to be satisfactory. A corrective factor for parameters currently used to represent transmitting boundaries is derived for a finite strip that models an infinite layer. The influence of internal damping on the dynamic stiffness of the layer and on radiation damping is analysed. (Author)
Accurate absolute measurements of v, the average number of neutrons per fission, have been made with the boron pile. The experimental method is described and results are presented of the v values obtained for the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U233, U235, Pu239 and Pu241, the spontaneous fission of Pu240 and Cf252, and the fast neutron-induced fission of U235 in the energy range 100 keV to 2.6 MeV. (author)
Lü Shu-hui; WANG Kui-hua; WU Wen-bing; C. J. LEO
2015-01-01
The dynamic response of pile in layered soil is theoretically investigated when considering the transverse inertia effect. Firstly, the fictitious soil-pile model is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction between the pile and the soil layers beneath pile toe. The dynamic interactions of adjacent soil layers along the vertical direction are simplified as distributed Voigt models. Meanwhile, the pile and fictitious soil-pile are assumed to be viscoelastic Rayleigh-Love rods, and both the radial and vertical displacement continuity conditions at the soil-pile interface are taken into consideration. On this basis, the analytical solution for dynamic response at the pile head is derived in the frequency domain and the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain is then obtained by means of the convolution theorem. Following this, the accuracy and parameter value of the hypothetical boundaries for soil-layer interfaces are discussed. Comparisons with published solution and measured data are carried out to verify the rationality of the present solution. Parametric analyses are further conducted by using the present solution to investigate the relationships between the transverse inertia effects and soil-pile parameters.
Analysis of Anti-Pulling Behaviors of Pile with Branch Plates%支盘桩抗拔承载特性分析
柯江
2013-01-01
支盘桩是一种新桩型,近年来在工程中得到比较广泛的应用,但对于支盘桩的研究多集中在受压承载特性,其抗拔承载特性的研究成果较少,在理论研究上还不够成熟,因此采用Abaqus软件,考虑了初始应力场,桩土之间的非线性接触以及土体材料的非线性,研究了支盘桩在上拔荷载作用下的承载特性,分析表明:在天然状态下土体对桩体的压力在支盘处最大,支盘桩达到抗拔极限承载力时,桩身轴力在支盘的上下出现突变,支盘下斜面以及桩底与土体产生了分离,塑性应变主要发生在支盘上的土体中；研究成果可为支盘桩的设计提供一定的理论依据.%The pile with branch plate is a new type of pile, widely used in engineering practice recently, but the study on the pile with branch plate focuses only on its compressive behaviors, there have been fewer studies on its an-ti-pulling behaviors, and the theory about this type of piles has not fully developed. Using software ABAQUS, the paper has studied the anti-pulling behaviors of pile with branch plates by considering the nonlinear contact between pile and soil, the initial stress field and the nonlinearity of soil material. The analysis shows that the soil pressure imposed on the pile was the largest at the branch plate under the natural condition, when the bearing capacity of pile with branch plates reached to the limit, the axial force of pile had mutations at the upper and lower of the branch plate, the lower slope of branch plate and soil produced a separation also between pile bottom and soil, the plastic strain occurred mainly in the upside of branch plate. The research results can provide some theoretical basis for the design of the pile with branch plate.
Shaft friction of bored piles in hard clay
The precise prediction of maximum load carrying capacity of bored piles is a complex problem because it is a function of a number of factor. These factor include method of boring, method of concreting. quality of concrete, expertise of the construction staff, the ground conditions etc. besides the pile geometry. The performance of pile load test is therefore, of paramount importance to establish the most economical design of piles especially where bored cast-in-situ piles are to be provided to support a structure. This paper describes the experience gained from four pile load test at a site in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan where a new cement plant is going to be installed. Geotechnical investigations at the side were carried out to a maximum depth of 60 m. The subsoils at the site are predominantly hard clays within the investigated depth with thin layer of gravels boulders below 40 m depth. Perched water was encountered at various horizons. Four piles of diameter varying from 660 mm to 760 mm and length ranging between 20 m and 47.5 m were subjected to axial loads. The load test data were analyzed using various state of the art techniques including intercept of two tangents, point of change of slope 6 mm net settlement (1), 90 percent and 80 percent Hansen (7), limit value Davisson (2), and Chin (3). Based on a comparison of pile capacities from these methods with the theoretical values, recommendations are made on the approach to estimate the pile capacity in hard clays. Using the pile load test result back calculations were also carried out 10 estimate the appropriate values of pile design parameter such as undrained cohesion and adhesion factor. (author)
Design Considerations for Pile Groups Supporting Marine Structures with Respect to Scour
Yasser E. Mostafa
2012-01-01
Piles supporting marine structures such as jetties, relieving platforms, quay walls and fixed offshore structures are subjected to lateral loads due to berthing and mooring forces, wind, waves, storm surges and current forces. This paper presents some factors that affect the design of pile groups supporting marine structures founded in cohesionless soils. Some main aspects that should be considered in the pile group design are addressed such as pile batter angle, pile group arrangement, pile ...
Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading
Lifeng Luan; Yunbin Liu; Ying Li
2015-01-01
Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this pap...
Investigation of Pile- Soil Interaction Subjected to Lateral Loads in Layered Soils
A. Avaei; Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; M. Aryafar
2008-01-01
To stabilize infrastructures such as tall buildings, bridges, etc., piles are used to resist lateral loads created from earth pressure, wind, waves and earthquake extensively. Pile design requires understanding of how the load is transferred from a pile to surrounding soil and vice versa. Pile properties, soil stress-strain behavior and pile-soil interaction play important roles in pile-response subjected to lateral loads. A study was carried out to investigate the effects of above-mentioned ...
Examination of graphite pile radiation conditions of industrial reactors
Radiation states of graphite piles of three industrial uranium-graphite reactors are investigated. The level, composition, distribution of the pile radioactive contamination, parameters of neutron and gamma radiations are determined. The forecast of variation of radionuclide activity in graphite in dependence on the cooling time is developed
Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile
无
2007-01-01
The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.
Visualization of soil arching in flexible piled embankments
Tuğba Eskışar
2015-10-01
Piled embankments rely on soil arching, but, when geogrid reinforcements are used, membrane action within the reinforcement contributes to load distribution. The arching of soil in unreinforced and reinforced piled embankments is evaluated in this study. A small-scale test apparatus is used to model the settlement up to 5 mm in an embankment with four pile elements. Visual inspection of the soil settlement and soil-reinforcement interaction is important to explain the mechanism of arching. In this study, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method was used as a non-destructive technique. The arching of soil between the piles was observed in the case of rigid piles and in the case of flexible piles with grid type of reinforcement. The load carrying capacity increased up to 33% in the case of geogrid reinforcement, and the differential settlement decreased around 35%, proving the efficiency of piled embankments with geogrid reinforcements. It is also shown that, using X-ray CT method and visualization techniques provides a better understanding of soil behavior in a reinforced embankment with the flexible pile foundation system.
Modeling the damming effect of pile foundations (Tomsk city)
Kuzevanov, K. I.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovsky, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.
2016-03-01
The authors have considered the impact of pile foundations on the structure of filtration flows in the conditions of urban development. Hydrodynamic simulation methods have shown that a groundwater level rise might occur due to the damming effect that can be created by pile fields in semipermeable rocks. This phenomenon can intensify anthropogenic waterlogging processes in urbanized territories.
A NIM module for efficient amplifier pile-up rejection
A NIM standard module containing four individual circuits for detecting an amplifier pile-up condition is described. Each circuit can be adjusted to match a wide range of amplifier shaping time-constants. Output with a variable delay are provided for signaling a pile-up reject to the data acquisition system
Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident
无
2001-01-01
The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich; Trinh Tuan Viet
2012-01-01
WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the sha...
曾志辉; 张和平
2012-01-01
This paper introduces a method of how to transform the problem pile into usable pile,and bear upper load with the basement bottom slab together. Practical applications show that this method offers so many good features:safe, reliable ,convenient construction and low cost.%某办公楼桩基础混凝土由于施工原因形成废桩，介绍如何利用桩土共同作用，利用原有废桩，并与原有地下室底板共同作用承担上部荷载。实践表明该方法具有安全可靠、施工方便、经济性好等特点。
The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation
Krasinski, Adam
2015-02-01
The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.
Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand
Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo
showed best agreement with the traditional design method given in the American Petroleum Institute (API) design code. When t-z curves obtained from the test results were compared to t-z curve formulations found in the literature, the Zhang formulation gave good predictions of the initial and post......This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...... friction to be analyzed at a given soil horizon while increasing the vertical effective stress in the sand. Test results obtained by this approach can be analyzed as single t-z curves and compared to predictions of unit shaft friction from current design methods for offshore foundations. The test results...
The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation
Krasinski Adam
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.
Vertical vibration of a pile in transversely isotropic multilayered soils
Ai, Zhi Yong; Liu, Chun Lin
2015-11-01
A new method for the dynamic response of a vertically loaded single pile embedded in transversely isotropic multilayered soils is proposed in this paper. The dynamic response of the pile is governed by the one-dimensional (1D) vibration theory, and that of transversely isotropic multilayered soils is achieved by using an analytical layer-element method. Then, with the aid of the displacement compatibility and the contact forces equilibrium along the pile-soil contact surface, the dynamic pile-soil interaction problem is solved efficiently. The presented solution method is proved to be correct and efficient by comparing the obtained results with other existing solutions. Selected numerical results are presented to study the influence of mass density ratio, length-radius ratio, frequency of excitation, soil anisotropy and hard soil stratum on the pile vertical impedance.
Pre-Stressed Rope Reinforced Anti-Sliding Pile
XU Jun; WANG Chenghua
2006-01-01
Pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile is a composite anti-sliding structure. It is made up of pre-stressed rope and general anti-sliding pile. It can bring traditional anti-sliding pile's retaining performance into full play, and to treat with landslide fast and economically. The difference between them is that the pre-stressed rope will transfix the whole anti-sliding pile through a prearranged pipe in this structure. The working mechanics, the design method and economic benefit are studied. The results show that the pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile can treat with the small and middle landslides or high slopes well and possess the notable advantage of technology and economic.
Optimal Design of Sheet Pile Wall Embedded in Clay
Das, Manas Ranjan; Das, Sarat Kumar
2015-09-01
Sheet pile wall is a type of flexible earth retaining structure used in waterfront offshore structures, river protection work and temporary supports in foundations and excavations. Economy is an essential part of a good engineering design and needs to be considered explicitly in obtaining an optimum section. By considering appropriate embedment depth and sheet pile section it may be possible to achieve better economy. This paper describes optimum design of both cantilever and anchored sheet pile wall penetrating clay using a simple optimization tool Microsoft Excel ® Solver. The detail methodology and its application with examples are presented for cantilever and anchored sheet piles. The effects of soil properties, depth of penetration and variation of ground water table on the optimum design are also discussed. Such a study will help professional while designing the sheet pile wall penetrating clay.
Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction for large diameter monopile foundations
Zania, Varvara
2013-01-01
of the study is to analyse the dynamic interaction of the soil and a single pile embedded in it by accounting for the geometric and stiffness properties of the pile. In doing so, a semi – analytical approach is adopted based on the fundamental solution of horizontal pile vibration by Novak and Nogami...... eigenfrequencies of the soil layer do not affect the soil – pile interaction. The decrease of the eigefrequency of the OWT depends on the aforementioned variation of the dynamic stiffness and the slenderness ratio of the monopile....... left between two restrictive frequency areas. Moreover the design of monopile foundations when subjected to combined lateral and moment loading (the latter arising from the eccentricity of the applied wind pressure) usually dictates a large diameter steel pile with small slenderness ratio. Hence, aim...
Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile
Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin
2016-05-01
In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.
Analysis on pile-soil interaction of pile-supported composite foundation%桩承式加网复合地基桩土共同作用分析
王瑞芳; 王克宇
2015-01-01
By the method of shearing displacement analysis, the interactions between single pile with cap and soil are ana-lyzed, the formula of displacement and axial force for pile with cap under uniform loading are obtained. The finite element soft-ware, ABAQUS, is used to analyze the bearing performance of single pile in three dimensions, and the results are compared with those of the analytical calculation method. The comparison shows that the settlements of roadbed surface and pile top as well as the pile axial forces calculated by the above two methods are similar. The analytical calculation result is in consonance with the measured data, which verifies the accuracy of analytical calculation method.%采用剪切位移法分析了桩承式带桩帽单桩与桩间土的相互作用,得出均布荷载下带桩帽单桩的桩身位移、轴力公式. 用ABAQUS有限元软件对带帽单桩进行三维数值分析,将数值计算结果与解析公式结果进行比较,计算表明解析公式计算出的桩身轴力、桩顶沉降、路基表面沉降和有限元计算值接近. 将现场实测数据与解析计算结果进行比较,解析计算的沉降结果和实测沉降数据较吻合,说明所提出的解析法计算公式准确性较好,对工程应用有一定的参考价值.
Small asteroids - rubble piles or boulders?
Harris, Alan W.
2013-10-01
The asteroid rotation spin barrier at ~2.2 h period among asteroids 10 km > D > 200 m doesn’t prove all such asteroids are rubble piles, and the faster rotations among smaller asteroids doesn’t require monolithic strength, either. Only a very modest strength, perhaps no more than van der Waals force, might suffice to hold regolith together on a small super-fast rotator (Sanchez & Scheeres, 2013, arXif:1306.1622v1). The problem is that for a constant or only slowly varying strength with respect to diameter, the spin barrier becomes proportional to 1/D below the size where material strength is dominant, or perhaps a bit steeper if strength increases with decreasing D. What we observe in the distribution of asteroid spins versus diameter is that below D ~ 200 m, the spin barrier goes up at least ~D-3.5, if not abruptly. Models with constant or slowly varying strength fail to fit this observation, and the abrupt transition cannot be an observational selection effect: the void in the phase space of rotations would be among the easiest rotations to observe, e.g. the one conspicuous exception, 2001 OE84 (D ~ 0.7 km, P = 0.5 h) was easily and unambiguously measured (Pravec, et al. 2002, Proc. ACM 2002, ESA SP-500, 743-745). This abrupt transition is most easily explained as a real transition in material properties of asteroids in the size range ~200 m diameter, from “rubble pile” to “boulder”, although neither term may be fully descriptive of the actual structure. Two other lines of evidence suggest that this transition in properties is real: the dip in the size-frequency distribution of NEAs is maximum at ~150 m, suggesting that a transition to stronger material structure occurs about there, and we observe, e.g., Tunguska and the recent Chelyabinsk bolide, that bodies in the tens of meters size range entering the atmosphere behave more like solid rocks than rock piles (Boslough & Crawford 2008, Int. J. Imp. Eng. 35, 1441-1448). I encourage those doing computer
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction between long piles and the adjacent soil has a spatial and temporal nature. This phenomenon is based on a set of non-linear and rheological properties of soils. Distribution of lateral forces between the surface and the pile toe is heavily dependent on the above properties. The process of formation of the stress-strain state around the pile can demonstrate decaying, constant or progressive velocity depending on the rheological processes in the soil that may be accompanied by hardening and softening processes at one and the same time. These processes may be caused by destruction and restoration of ties between clay soil particles, soil compaction and de-compaction. Predominance of the process of hardening leads to damping, while predominance of the process of softening causes progressive destruction. Description of this multi-component process depends on the rheological model of the soil. This research is based on the modified rheological model originally designed by Maxwell. The authors consider solutions to the problem of quantification of the stressstrain state of soil around the pile and their interaction. This research makes it possible to project motion patterns of long piles over the time and evaluate the limit of their long-term bearing capacity.Изложена постановка и решение задачи о взаимодействии длинной сваи с окружающим грунтом, обладающим ярко выраженными реологическими свойствами, в т.ч. вязкостью, упрочнением, разупрочнением, описываемыми модифицированной моделью Максвелла. Показывается, что в этом случае осадка сваи при действии постоянной нагрузки может развиваться с затухающей, постоянной и знако
Influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect
Zhao bo
2015-02-01
Full Text Available FLAC3d software, based on continuous theory, is used to analysis influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect. The result shows that different from single row pile, double row piles will produce soil arching effect at front pile and rear pile severally, this phenomenon is called multiple soil arching effect; the residual load of front of front row pile will increase,the soil arch zone and the soil arching effect will decrease with the continuous increase of double row pile spacing.At the same time the soil arching effect of rear pile decreases, while the soil arching effect of front pile increases and finally the soil arching effect between front pile and rear pile will be equal.
Digitalisation in atomic pile control (1962)
A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author)
Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving
Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.
2015-12-01
Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.
Remedial action for radioactive waste rock piles in China
The Chinese government has conducted remedial action for radioactive waste rock piles since 1990. The radioactive waste rocks produced in the course of geological exploration of uranium deposits are widely distributed over several hundreds of locations in more than 20 provinces in China. The following remedial actions for radioactive waste rock piles have been undertaken in China: 1. Protecting dams for stabilizing the piles have been built. A total length of about 50,000 m of these dams has been completed. 2. Soil layers have been emplaced on the radioactive waste rock piles. The focus of the action is to eliminate the radiation harmful to public health. A total area of 750,000 square meters of soil has been placed on the piles in China. 3. Radioactive waste rock piles have been vegetated. Aesthetic shaping of the landscape in the exploratory district of the uranium deposits is our expectant goal. A total area of about 560,000 square meters of vegetation has been placed on the soil covering the piles. Through these remedial actions, the environmental situation has been extensively improved in the remedial districts. The individual annual effective dose equivalent is less than 1 Sv/a. The radon emission rate is less than 20 pCi/m2.s. The gamma ray external exposure rate has been greatly reduced. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society
Three-dimensional analysis of slopes reinforced with piles
高玉峰; 叶茂; 张飞
2015-01-01
Based on the upper bound of limit analysis, the plane-strain analysis of the slopes reinforced with a row of piles to the 3D case was extended. A 3D rotational failure mechanism was adopted to yield the upper bound of the factor of safety. Parametric studies were carried out to explore the end effects of the slope failures and the effects of the pile location and diameter on the safety of the reinforced slopes. The results demonstrate that the end effects nearly have no effects on the most suitable location of the installed piles but have significant influence on the safety of the slopes. For a slope constrained to a narrow width, the slope becomes more stable owing to the contribution of the end effects. When the slope is reinforced with a row of piles in small space between piles, the effects of group piles are significant for evaluating the safety of slopes. The presented method is more appropriate for assessing the stability of slopes reinforced with piles and can be also utilized in the design of plies stabilizing the unstable slopes.
Ice bustles on quay piles : field studies and numerical simulations
Loset, S.; Marchenko, A. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)]|[Svalbard Univ. Centre, Spitsbergen (Norway)
2008-07-01
The additional gravity action created by the accumulation of ice on coastal structures and piles in cold climates may create a potential threat for the safety of the structures, particularly for mooring and fendering of floating structures and jacket-type structures. The gravity action is particularly critical in areas with changes in water level, such as large tide amplitudes. Ice bustle on piles may also increase the water line, thereby creating more horizontal action from moving ice fields. This study examined the growth and properties of ice bustles on quay piles in the Svea coal harbour, Spitsbergen during the winter and spring of 2007. Their formation was found to be related to super-cooling of piles relative to the temperature of surrounding water, when the heat conductivity of the pile material is higher than the heat conductivity of the water. Ice grows laterally from the surface of the pile at larger depths than the thickness of the surrounding level ice. The bustles are kept in place during water level changes because of the high adhesion between the ice and pile. The vertical and horizontal size of ice bustles formed on cylindrical quay steel piles in the study area was about 1.5 m with slightly downward sloping side walls. At high tide, the top surface coincided with the water level while at low tide, it was almost above the water surface. The Comsol Multiphysics 3.3a mathematical model was used to describe the formation of ice bustle around the cylindrical pile. Ice bustle growth was simulated with a constant water level while taking into consideration changes in tide and water level. This paper also described how the size of ice bustle is influenced by meteorological conditions, time and tidal amplitude. 1 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.
Analysis of static and dynamic pile-soil-jacket behaviour
Azadi, Mohammad Reza Emami
1998-12-31
In the offshore industry, recent extreme storms, severe earthquakes and subsidence of the foundation of jacket platforms have shown that new models and methods must take into account the jacket- pile-soil foundation interaction as well as the non-linear dynamic performance/loading effects. This thesis begins with a review of the state of art pile-soil interaction model, recognizing that most existing pile-soil models have been established based on large diameter pile tests on specific sites. The need for site independent and mechanistic pile-soil interaction models led to the development of new (t-z) and (p-y) disk models. These are validated using the available database from recent large diameter pile tests in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The established static disk models are applied for non-linear static analysis of the jacket-pile-soil system under extreme wave loading. Dynamic pile-soil interaction is studied and a new disk-cone model is developed for the non-linear and non-homogeneous soils. This model is applied to both surface and embedded disks in a soil layer with non-linear properties. Simplified non-linear as well as more complex analysis methods are used to study the dynamic response of the jacket platform under extreme sea and seismic loading. Ductility spectra analysis is introduced and used to study the dynamic performance of the jacket systems near collapse. Case studies are used to illustrate the effects of structural, foundation failure characteristics as well as dynamic loading effects on the overall performance of the jacket-pile-soil systems near ultimate collapse. 175 refs., 429 figs., 70 tabs.
Assessing the impact of pile driving upon fish
Hawkins, Anthony
2005-01-01
Pile driving associated with the removal and reconstruction of a jetty was monitored at a busy harbor in the North East of Scotland, adjacent to an important Atlantic salmon river. The main concern was with the impact of noise upon salmon migrating through the lower part of the river estuary. Pile driving was allowed to proceed subject to an agreed program of works to monitor sound levels and ensure least disturbance to salmon. Both percussive and vibratory pile driving took place. Sound-pres...
Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading
Lifeng Luan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this paper, the nonlinear, explicit, and finite difference program FLAC3D, which considers the mechanical behavior of soil-pile interaction, is used to establish an underconsolidated soil-pile mode. The response processes of the pile side friction force, the pile axial force, and the soil response under seismic load are also analyzed.
Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils
Asskar Janalizadeh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.
Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles
陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军
2008-01-01
The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars
This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....
20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia
Augustesen, Anders
This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a....
Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles
Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.
1975-01-01
An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.
Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response
Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte
remaining tests were used to investigate the pile - soil interaction to gain a better in-sight into the complex problem. A monotonic test series was carried out initially and then pile - soil interaction curves were deduced from these tests and compared with methodologies used today. The results indicate...... was proposed to predict the accumulation of displacement and change in secant stiffness using the observations seen in the centrifuge. With the centrifuge test observation as basis, an cyclic pile - soil interaction element was developed. The element can be used in Winkler type analysis where the soil...... of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of...
Acoustic emission diagnosis of concrete-piles damaged by earthquakes
Earthquakes often impose unexpected damage on structures. Concerning the soundness of the structure, the upper portion is easily estimated by visual observation, while the lower portion located in deep underground is difficult to be estimated. Thus there exist few effective methods to investigate underground structures. In this paper, a new inspection technique for damage evaluation of concrete-piles utilizing acoustic emission (AE) is proposed, and is verified by a series of experiments. Firstly, such basic characteristics as the attenuation and effective wave-guides for detecting AE underground, are examined through laboratory tests. Secondary, fracture tests of full-scale prefabricated concrete piles are conducted, and the characteristics of the AE are examined. Finally, actual concrete-piles attacked by the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake are investigated. Results confirm that the estimated damages by the proposed method are in good agreement with actual damaged locations. Thus, the method is very effective for the diagnosis of the concrete-piles.
Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.
1977-01-01
Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.
Passive magnetic bearing configurations
Post, Richard F.
2011-01-25
A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.
Jointless and Smoother Bridges: Behavior and Design of Piles
Frosch, Robert J; Chovichien, Voraniti; Durbin, Katrinna; Fedroff, David
2006-01-01
Integral abutment bridges have been used in the United States for decades. By eliminating expensive expansion joints, the piles supporting the end bent accommodate the total thermal movement of the bridge. Currently, integral bridges are designed based upon experience, and a rational design specification has not been developed. Furthermore, the interaction of the abutment, pile, and soil remains uncertain. A better understanding regarding the behavior of this system is needed. The objective o...
Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).
Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine [Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership; Ebberts, Blaine [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
2009-07-27
The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed
In-pile test of Qinshan PWR fuel bundle
In-pile test of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR HTHP Test loop at CIAE. The test fuel bundle was irradiated to an average burnup of 25000 Mwd/tU. The authors describe the structure of (3 x 3-2) test fuel bundle, structure of irradiation rig, fuel fabrication, irradiation conditions, power and fuel burnup. Some comments on the in-pile performance for fuel bundle, fuel rod and irradiation rig were made
Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment
Rhodes, Graham
2011-01-01
The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...
Pile groups under deep expansion: a case history
Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo; Sauter, Simon; Ramon Tarragona, Anna
2015-01-01
A viaduct in a high speed railway line experienced severe heave of its central pillars as a result of deep expansion of an anhydrite rock. Bridge pillars were founded on pile groups which experienced vertical heave displacements as well as lateral displacements and rotations. A semi-analytical solution for the response of a pile group under loading and arbitrary located soil expansion was developed integrating fundamental solutions for the elastic half-space. The procedure was first validated...
Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report
Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi
2012-01-01
Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...
Axial Non-linear Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction - Keynote
Holeyman A.; Whenham V.
2014-01-01
This keynote lecture describes recent analytical and numerical advances in the modeling of the axial nonlinear dynamic interaction between a single pile and its embedding soil. On one hand, analytical solutions are developed for assessing the nonlinear axial dynamic response of the shaft of a pile subjected to dynamic loads, and in particular to vibratory loads. Radial inhomogeneity arising from shear modulus degradation is evaluated over a range of parameters and compared with those obtained...
INTERACTION BETWEEN LONG PILES AND THE SOIL BODY EXPOSED TO NON-LINEAR DEFORMATIONS
Telichenko Valeriy Ivanovich; Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich
2012-01-01
Theoretical and numeral solutions to the problem of interaction between a long pile and the heterogeneous soil body are considered in the article. It has been discovered that the distribution of stresses between bottom and side sections of a pile depends on elastic and plastic properties of soils and the pile length-to-diameter ratio. Optimal geometric parameters of a pile can be derived by means of the optimal stress distribution between side and bottom sections of a pile. The problem of...
Axial Non-linear Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction - Keynote
Holeyman A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This keynote lecture describes recent analytical and numerical advances in the modeling of the axial nonlinear dynamic interaction between a single pile and its embedding soil. On one hand, analytical solutions are developed for assessing the nonlinear axial dynamic response of the shaft of a pile subjected to dynamic loads, and in particular to vibratory loads. Radial inhomogeneity arising from shear modulus degradation is evaluated over a range of parameters and compared with those obtained by other authors and by a numerical radial discrete model simulating the pile and soil movements from integration of the laws of motion. New approximate non linear solutions for axial pile shaft behaviour developed from general elastodynamic equations are presented and compared to existing linear solutions. The soil non linear behaviour and its ability to dissipate mechanical energy upon cyclic loading are shown to have a significant influence on the mechanical impedance provided by the surrounding soil against pile shaft movement. The limitations of over-simplified modelling of pile response are highlighted.
实现桩土共同作用的机理及若干方法%Working mechanism and some realization methods of pile-soil interaction
周峰; 林树枝
2012-01-01
通常情况下,桩、土支承刚度差异显著,相同荷载水平下两者存在变形差,因此要实现桩土共同作用,必须要消除桩土的变形差,保证桩土的变形协调。在分析桩土共同作用机理的基础上,对现有桩土共同作用的实现方法和发展趋势进行归纳与总结并将其分为三大类：补偿位移法、刚度调整法以及预加位移法。其中,补偿位移法又包括摩擦桩复合桩基与刚性桩复合地基,刚度调整法主要为笔者提出的设置调节装置的端承桩复合桩基,预加位移法主要指桩顶设置柔性材料以及桩顶预留净空复合桩基。对上述每类所包含的具体方法进行了介绍,并对各自的适用条件、优缺点进行了对比与分析。%Significant differences on supporting stiffness usually exist between piles and soils,and differential settlement is formed at the same level of loads.In order to realize pile-soil interaction,the differential settlement must be eliminated to ensure deformation compatibility of piles and soils.Based on analyzing mechanism of pile-soil interaction,existing methods and future development trend were summarized and divided into three classes： method of deformation compensation,method of rigid adjusting and method of preadditive deformation.The method of deformation compensation included friction pile composite foundation and rigid pile composite foundation.The method of rigid adjusting included end bearing pile composite foundation.The method of preadditive deformation included composite pile foundation with gap or flexible materials at pile head.These methods were introduced,and the applicable conditions,advantages and disadvantages of above methods were compared and analyzed.
S. M. Muzakkir & Harish Hirani
2015-01-01
In the present research work the need of a Maintenance Free Bearings (MFB) is established. The paper presents preliminary friction calculations to highlight the ways to achieve maintenance free bearings. The existing technologies of well established maintenance free bearings are described. The hybridization of bearing technologies to achieve low cost maintenance free bearings has been exemplified. Finally a combination of passive magnetic repulsion and hydrodynamics ha...
Tautvydas Statkus
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The displacement piles are one of the oldest type of foundation not just in Lithuania, but also all over the world. Stiff, glacial origin sands lay not far from the ground surface in Lithuania as opposed to the rest of the Western Europe, therefore this kind of foundation is carried out into practice very often in our country. For geotechnical engineers it is very hard to decide which method should be applied, when there is no local experience. Five approaches are discussed on this paper and the results of three single piles’ tests are compared. The full scale single piles’ tests were carried out at the artificial bearing stratum pit. Piles’ diameter was 330 mm. The ratio of the piles’ depth and diameter were 3.3, 4.4 and 4.8. In conclusion of this paper the recommendations are given, which should be applied in different cases using mentioned above methods.
Part 1: Experimental piles were built in three geographical locations during May-Sept. 1989. Logging residues consisted of 95% spruce and 5% pine. Height of the piles varied between 80 and 230 cm. Needles were collected by placing drawers under 40 randomely chosen piles. The drawers were emptied every two weeks during the storage period. Natural needle loss was between 18 and 32% of the total amount of needles after the first two months of storage. At the end of the storage period, 24-42% of the needles had fallen down to the drawers. At the end of the experiment the total needle fall was 95-100% in the shaken piles. According to the results of this study piles smaller than 150 cm had the most effective needle fall. Piles should be placed on open places where the air and sun heat penetrate and dry them. Needles were the most sensitive fraction to variations in precipitation compared to the other components, such as branches. Piles usually dried quickly, but they also rewet easily. This was especially true in the smaller piles. The lowest moisture content was measured at the end of June. The ash content in needles varied between 4 and 8%. 16 refs., 15 figs. Part 2: Three field experiments were equipped with no-tension humus lysimeters. Pairs of lysimeters with the same humus/field layer vegetation material were placed in pairs, one under a pile of felling residues and another in the open clear felling. Leaching of nitrogen as well as pH and electric conductivity in the leachate was followed through sampling of the leachate at regular intervals. The results from the investigation show that: * the amount of leachate was higher in lysimeters in the open clear felling, * pH in the leachate was initially lower under piles of felling residues, * the amount of nitrogen leached was higher in the open clear felling. Thus, storing of felling residues in piles during the summer season did not cause any increase in nitrogen leaching, which had been considered to be a risk
Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)
1997-04-28
Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.
Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein
2016-06-01
Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.
Strege, D.E.
1955-03-17
This report covers the examination of thirteen process tubes seven from F Pile, three from C Pile and three from D Pile. Five of the thirteen tubes were removed because they were leakers, four from F Pile and one from C Pile. One tube from F Pile and one from D Pile were removed. Reactor Section had requested the removal of two from F Pile to check for external corrosion. Two tubes, small diameter old pile annulus, were removed from C Pile under PT 105-519-E, ``Raising Permissible Outlet Water Temperatures of Certain Tubes at C Pile.`` Two tubes were removed from D Pile under PT 105-525-E, ``Effects of Water Quality on Operations.`` Visual inspection was made of the inside and outside surfaces of the tubes before and after cleaning in a cold 10 per cent nitric acid solution. Samples varying from one to four inches in length were taken from each section for metallurgical examination to determine depth of pitting, wall thickness, and spot check the 72-S cladding thickness. These determinations were made at selected points in each section on what appeared to be the area of severest attack.
Seismic Demands for Pile-Supported Wharf Structures with Batter Piles
Rouhollah Amirabadi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This study develops an optimal Probabilistic Seismic Demand Model (PSDM for pile-supported wharves whit batter plies. Four bins with twenty non-near-field ground motions and three typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States ports are used to determine an optimal PSDM by using Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA. PSDA is used to compute the relationship between Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs and earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs. An optimal PSDM should be practical, sufficient, effective and efficient-all tested through several IM-EDP pairs. It has been found that for these types of structures, the optimal model comprises a spectral IM, such as spectral acceleration and one of several EDPs. These EDPs are considered for local (moment curvature ductility factor, intermediate (displacement ductility factor and horizontal displacement of embankment and global (differential settlement between deck and behind land response quantities. The considered PSDMs are a critical component in performance-based seismic design and seismic risk assessment. Results can be used in probabilistic framework for performance-based design developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER center.
Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim
2016-04-01
We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962
Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction
无
2002-01-01
The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.
Finite Element Investigations on the Interaction between a Pile and Swelling Clay
Kaufmann, Kristine Lee; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust
This paper aims to investigate the interaction between a pile and a swelling soil modelled as a cohesive soil subjected to unloading. The investigations include analyses of the heave of the excavation level, shear stresses at the soil–pile interface and internal pile forces based on a case study of...... Little Belt Clay. The case study involves a circular concrete pile installed in clay immediately after an excavation. The influence of the swelling soil on the soil–pile interaction and the internal pile forces are analysed by solely observing the upper pile part positioned in the swelling zone. For the...... surrounding soil implies upward shear stresses at the soil–pile interface leading to tensile vertical stresses in the pile. In the current case, they exceed the tensile strength of concrete. The tensile vertical stresses peak after 35-50 years. However, the heave of the soil continues for additional 300 years...
Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction
Han, Yingcai
2002-06-01
The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strong earthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for different conditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system. The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior of buildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field, Novak’s method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNAN computer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles, including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.
刘军; 洪峰
2011-01-01
Combined with the actual construction the principle and application of post-pressure grouting technology in pile tip and pile lateral of reinforced concrete bored cast-in pilate piles are introduced.There are many factors affecting pile foundation selection for construction works.Through the cost analysis and evaluation on the pile foundation of the construction works, some economic indicators for the selection of pile foundation under the present productive force and price level are gained.Which will be beneficial to improve the cost effectiveness and rationality of selection of it.The base-grouting treatment technique of bored concrete pile can improve the bearing capacity, so the application of this kind of pile become broad useage day by day.%结合工程实例，介绍了钢筋混凝土钻孔灌注桩桩端桩侧后压浆技术的原理及应用。影响建筑工程桩基选型的因素很多，通过典型工程桩基的造价分析与评价，得出当前生产力和物价水平条件下桩基选型的若干经济指标．有助于提高建筑工程桩基选型的经济性及合理性水平。由于灌注桩后注浆处理技术可使承载力显著提高．因而这种桩基日益得到广泛应用。
Pile foundation engineering in calcareous soils%钙质砂土中的桩基础工程综述
周杨; 刘晓宇; 李世海
2013-01-01
桩基础广泛应用于钙质砂土这类高压缩性地基中。在总结钙质砂土的成因、分布特点、基本物理性质和力学特性的基础上，认为在钙质砂土地基中传统打入桩提供的承载力不能满足工程要求，并针对传统打入桩失败原因进行了分析。详细介绍了两种新型桩结构形式、施工方法、承载力特性及存在的问题，对两种新型桩进行了比较。总结了两种新型桩的优缺点，提出对新型桩形式的可能的改进方案。在总结已有研究的基础上，建议引入数值模拟方法配合试验研究的新思路。%Pile foundations are widely used in compressible soils such as calcareous sediments. Based on an introduction of the origin, distribution, basic physical properties and mechanical properties of calcareous soils, it is concluded that traditional driven piles are ineffective in calcareous soils and the reasons for it are analyzed. A review of the published literature pertaining to pile foundations in calcareous soils is summarized, and two new types of piles are described, along with their structural types, construction methods, bearing capacity characters, existing problems and comparison between them. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some improved schemes are proposed and new research approaches combing experiments with numerical simulation are suggested.
刘汉龙; 陈育民; 赵楠
2008-01-01
Pile foundation is widely used in the offshore engineering. The pile can be seriously destroyed by the soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes. The potentials of liquefaction and damages of pile foundation due to the liquefaction can be reduced by the implementation of the drainage in the liquefiable foundation. A patented pile technology, named rigidity-drain pile, was introduced. The partial section of the pile body was filled by materials with higher penetrability which forms some effective drainage channels in the pile. The principles and construction methods were presented. 3D models for both rigidity-drain pile and ordinary pile were built in FLAC3D code. The dynamic loadings were applied on the bottom of the model. According to the numerical results, in the case of the rigidity-drain pile, the water in the relevant distance range around the pile flows toward the pile drainage, the contour of the pore pressure shows a funnel form. Contrast to the ordinary pile, the rigidity-drain pile can dissipate the accumulated excess pore water, maintain effective stress and obviously reduce the possibility of surrounding soil liquefaction.
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich
2012-07-01
The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.
Field investigation of potential contamination by bitumen-coated piles
Coating piles with bitumen down to their neutral points to debond them from embedding soil is a feasible method to minimize the adverse effects of negative skin friction. Bitumen is a petroleum product composed of numerous extremely complex organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic and carcinogenic materials. To investigate the engineering behavior of bitumen-coated piles under extreme weather conditions, full-scale field tests were performed in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Instrumented piles were installed at these sites from 1989 to 1990. This paper presents the results of geoenvironmental field investigations performed at these sites to determine the spatial distribution of target PAHs in the subsurface after the piles had been installed for 2--3 1/2 yr. The findings of the investigation indicate that the subsurface contamination, if there is any, caused by the installation of bitumen-coated piles is well within acceptable limits
Prediction of pile set-up in clays and sands
Increase in pile capacity after initial driving has been well observed in clays and sands over decades. The phenomenon is referred to as pile set-up by geotechnical engineers. More economical pile design may benefit from this time-dependent increase subject to a reliable prediction. Simple empirical relations of the current capacity with the initial capacity and elapse time after driving are available in the literature with different model parameters being suggested for clays and sands, respectively. Nevertheless, appropriateness of the relations and confidence interval of the model parameters are rarely investigated and this hinders the application of these formulae. In this study, a revised single-parameter empirical relation is proposed based on the existing formulae. A comprehensive database from pile field tests data in clayey and sandy ground in the literature is compiled and Bayesian analysis is conducted on both these empirical formulae independently for clays and sands. Bayesian inference allows not only the estimation of the uncertain parameter but also the quantification of the associated uncertainty in the form of probability distribution. This study sheds lights on the confidence interval of the model parameter and it provides designers more reliable prediction of the additional capacity due to pile set-up.
WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA
无
2007-01-01
On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.
Analysis of piles in residual soil from granite considering residual loads
da Fonseca, AV; dos Santos, JA; Esteves, EC; F. Massad
2007-01-01
The paper deals with the analysis of static loading tests carried out in 3 different types of piles: bored piles with temporary casing, continuous flight auger, CFA, piles (bored and CFA piles with circular section - nominal diameter Ø600 mm) and driven piles (with square section - width 350 mm). These piles were installed in the CEFEUP/ISC2 experimental site, located in the Campus of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (Portugal), in a contact zone between the gneissic rock...